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Sample records for acid sulfur dioxide

  1. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  2. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. ); Sherwood, S.I. )

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  3. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  4. Effects of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and ferric ions on the corrosion of mild steel in concentrated sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Terrell N.; Vanorden, Naola; Schlitt, W. Joseph

    1980-08-01

    Effects of nitrate ions, nitrous acid, sulfur dioxide, and ferric ions on the corrosion of mild steel in unstirred, concentrated sulfuric acid were determined in laboratory tests. Nitrate and nitrous acid at levels up to 1000 ppm accelerate corrosion. At concentrations greater than 1000 ppm nitrate passivates the steel. Sulfur dioxide and ferric ions have no detectable influence on the corrosion. Reaction mechanisms are presented to explain the observed effects. The impact of nitrogen oxides on the storage and handling of sulfide smelter by-product acid is discussed.

  5. Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

  6. Hydrolysis of Sulfur Dioxide in Small Clusters of Sulfuric Acid: Mechanistic and Kinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Fang, Sheng; Wang, Zhixiu; Yi, Wencai; Tao, Fu-Ming; Liu, Jing-Yao

    2015-11-17

    The deposition and hydrolysis reaction of SO2 + H2O in small clusters of sulfuric acid and water are studied by theoretical calculations of the molecular clusters SO2-(H2SO4)n-(H2O)m (m = 1,2; n = 1,2). Sulfuric acid exhibits a dramatic catalytic effect on the hydrolysis reaction of SO2 as it lowers the energy barrier by over 20 kcal/mol. The reaction with monohydrated sulfuric acid (SO2 + H2O + H2SO4 - H2O) has the lowest energy barrier of 3.83 kcal/mol, in which the cluster H2SO4-(H2O)2 forms initially at the entrance channel. The energy barriers for the three hydrolysis reactions are in the order SO2 + (H2SO4)-H2O > SO2 + (H2SO4)2-H2O > SO2 + H2SO4-H2O. Furthermore, sulfurous acid is more strongly bonded to the hydrated sulfuric acid (or dimer) clusters than the corresponding reactant (monohydrated SO2). Consequently, sulfuric acid promotes the hydrolysis of SO2 both kinetically and thermodynamically. Kinetics simulations have been performed to study the importance of these reactions in the reduction of atmospheric SO2. The results will give a new insight on how the pre-existing aerosols catalyze the hydrolysis of SO2, leading to the formation and growth of new particles.

  7. Photoproduction of glyoxylic acid in model wine: Impact of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Barril, Celia; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-01-15

    Glyoxylic acid is a tartaric acid degradation product formed in model wine solutions containing iron and its production is greatly increased by exposure to UV-visible light. In this study, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature on the light-induced (⩾300nm) production of glyoxylic acid in model wine containing tartaric acid and iron was investigated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). Glyoxylic acid produced in the irradiated model wine was present in free and hydrogen sulfite adduct forms and the measured total, free and percentage free glyoxylic acid values were modeled using RSM. Sulfur dioxide significantly decreased the total amount of glyoxylic acid produced, but could not prevent its production, while caffeic acid showed no significant impact. The interaction between pH and temperature was significant, with low pH values and low temperatures giving rise to higher levels of total glyoxylic acid.

  8. Galvanic interaction between chalcopyrite and manganese dioxide in sulfuric acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantayat, B. P.; Rath, P. C.; Paramguru, R. K.; Rao, S. B.

    2000-02-01

    Dissolution of chalcopyrite and managanese dioxide minerals in the presence of each other in sulfuric acid medium was studied using compact disc electrodes of the minerals under various H2SO4 concentrations (0.05 to 0.5 M). [H+] had a positive effect on the reaction rate. Strong galvanic interaction was observed to take place between chalcopyrite and manganese dioxide, the galvanic interaction predominating over the individual dissolution (self-corrosion) rates. Evans diagrams constructed from polarization curves of the two minerals were helpful in interpreting the leaching data. The electrochemical nature of the dissolution reaction was analyzed through application of the Butler-Volmer equation and was confirmed from polarization measurements conducted with the respective mineral electrodes.

  9. Photoproduction of glyoxylic acid in model wine: Impact of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Barril, Celia; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-01-15

    Glyoxylic acid is a tartaric acid degradation product formed in model wine solutions containing iron and its production is greatly increased by exposure to UV-visible light. In this study, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature on the light-induced (⩾300nm) production of glyoxylic acid in model wine containing tartaric acid and iron was investigated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). Glyoxylic acid produced in the irradiated model wine was present in free and hydrogen sulfite adduct forms and the measured total, free and percentage free glyoxylic acid values were modeled using RSM. Sulfur dioxide significantly decreased the total amount of glyoxylic acid produced, but could not prevent its production, while caffeic acid showed no significant impact. The interaction between pH and temperature was significant, with low pH values and low temperatures giving rise to higher levels of total glyoxylic acid. PMID:27542478

  10. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  11. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOEpatents

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  12. Sulfur dioxide removal process

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, A.G.; O'Donnell, J.J.; Northup, A.H. Jr.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas stream with a buffered, aqueous thiosulfate/polythionate solution which comprises: (a) introducing sulfur dioxide-containing gas, recovered hydrogen sulfide, and a buffered, aqueous, lean thiosulfate/polythionate solution to an SO/sub 2/-gas/liquid contacting zone; (b) recovering cleaned gas and a buffered, aqueous, enriched thiosulfate/polythionate solution from the SO/sub 2/-gas/liquid contacting zone; (c) introducing the recovered, enriched solution to a regeneration zone; (d) introducing externally supplied hydrogen sulfide to the regeneration zone to react a portion of the recovered, enriched solution therein to form a slurry of elemental sulfur in a buffered, aqueous, lean thiosulfate/polythionate solution; (e) recovering unreacted excess hydrogen sulfide from the regeneration zone for use in step (a); and (f) withdrawing the slurry from the regeneration zone, separating elemental sulfur from the slurry, and recovering the buffered, aqueous, lean thiosulfate/polythionate solution for use in step (a).

  13. Effects of breathing sulfur dioxide and an acidic sulfate aerosol during exercise on selected pulmonary function measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of ambient air, acidic sulfate aerosol, sulfur dioxide, and the combination of sulfur dioxide and aerosol on selected pulmonary function measurements after 20 minutes of exercise at 75%-80% maximal heart rate in a hot (36-19/sup 0/C) and humid (70-90% RH) environment. Six male subjects between the ages 26 and 33 years with no pre-existing pulmonary or cardiovascular problems rode a stationary bicycle for 20 minutes during each exposure condition at a workload pre-set to assure that each subject would attain an average minute ventilation of 50-60 1/min (BTPS). Exposure to 2.5 ppm sulfur dioxide alone led to a significant lowering of FVC, FEV1, and FEF50. Exposure to sulfur dioxide plus aerosol led to a significant decrease of FVC. Baseline comparisons reflected a significant decline in FVC, FEV1, FEF25, FEF50, FEF75, and FEF25-75 between the pre-ambient and post-exposure. This decline suggests a residual effect of the air pollutant exposures. Significant differences were also observed between the pre-aerosol and pre-sulfur dioxide exposures for FVC, FEV1, FEF50, and FEF25-75.

  14. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  15. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  16. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  1. Effect of pH on sulfite oxidation by Thiobacillus thiooxidans cells with sulfurous acid or sulfur dioxide as a possible substrate.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T L; Suzuki, I

    1994-02-01

    The oxidation of sulfite by Thiobacillus thiooxidans was studied at various pH values with changing concentrations of potassium sulfite. The optimal pH for sulfite oxidation by cells was a function of sulfite concentrations, rising with increasing substrate concentrations, while that by the cell extracts was unaffected. The sulfite oxidation by cells was inhibited at high sulfite concentrations, particularly at low pH values. The results from kinetic studies show that the fully protonated form of sulfite, sulfurous acid or sulfur dioxide, is the form which penetrates the cells for the oxidation.

  2. Measuring global sulfur dioxide emissions with satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide affects the weather by enhancing cloud formation, and long-term shifts in emissions can change the climate by increasing the amount of solar radiation scattered back into space. Sulfur dioxide emissions are the basis for acid rain, and the gas itself can cause respiratory problems. Despite the compound's importance to climate, the difficulties associated with accurately measuring sulfur dioxide mean that rates of emissions are generally not well understood.

  3. Method for removing sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ermini, E.

    1980-12-16

    Sulfur dioxide is removed from waste gases generated in a thermoelectric plant by contacting the gases countercurrently with an aqueous alkaline solution having a ph of about 9-12 and containing both sodium hydroxide and manganic hydroxide, whereby the sulfur dioxide reacts with the sodium hydroxide to form sodium sulfite until the ph of the solution is about 6-7 and the sodium hydroxide is substantially exhausted and wherein the sulfur dioxide then reacts with the manganic hydroxide to form manganese sulfite. The resultant sodium sulfite and manganese sulfite are oxidized and transformed into sodium sulfate and manganese sulfate respectively, by the action of oxygen in the mixture, in the presence of the manganic ion and also by the direct oxidizing action of the manganic ion.

  4. Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Donald G.

    1975-01-01

    This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

  5. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  7. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  8. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  9. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  11. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  12. Cyclic process for the removal of sulfur dioxide and the recovery of sulfur from gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.L.

    1991-11-19

    This patent describes a process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from a gas containing sulfur dioxide. It comprises contacting a gas containing sulfur dioxide with an aqueous solution comprising water, ferric chloride and a salt selected from the group consisting of barium chloride and calcium chloride to form ferrous chloride, hydrochloric acid and a precipitate selected from the group consisting of barium sulfate and calcium sulfate; and treating the aqueous solution with an oxidizing agent to convert ferrous chloride to ferric chloride.

  13. Kinetics of decomposition of manganese slimes by sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhaparidze, P.I.; Kelbakiani, N.V.

    1982-02-20

    Lean manganese ores, and slimes obtained during mechanical beneficiation of Chiatura manganese ores, have been treated by the sulfite process, by saturation of suspensions with sulfur dioxide. The kinetics of saturation of the suspensions with sulfur dioxide, and transfer of manganese into solution was studied. Manganese was leached out by passing sulfur dioxide through the slime suspension. The sulfur dioxide dissolved in water to form the weakly dissociated sulfurous acid in equilibrium with its anhydrides. The leaching was conducted without access of air at room temperature. An equation for determination of the rate of sulfur dioxide adsorption by a manganese-containing slurry and for calculation of the degree of manganese extraction into solution was developed from the experimental results. The reaction order and the control regime of the processes were determined.

  14. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur...

  15. 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-amino acid derivatives as spectrophotometric reagents for sulfur dioxide. [Using sodium sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hajjaji, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for sulfur dioxide determination was explored on the basis of its complexation with TNP-amino acid derivatives forming an orange colored 1:1 complex with an increase in absorbance at 420 nm. TNP-glycine, TNP-threonine, TNP-serine and TNP-histidine (TNP-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-)) were investigated. The color development was instantaneous and the absorbance remained unchanged even after 24 h of mixing when kept in the dark. Linear calibration graphs (0-5 x 10/sup -5/M sulfite ions) were obtained at optimal reaction conditions of 7 x 10/sup -5/M TNP-amino acid and pH 8.0 phosphate buffer (0.05 M). The investigation of the effect of several diverse ions revealed an interference by sulfide and mercury ions at concentration levels of 10/sup -4/M. The standard deviation of determining 3 x 10/sup -5/M sulfite solution (10 times) was 1.474 x 10/sup -7/M. 22 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  16. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  17. Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, P.J.; Benedek, K.R.; Lunt, R.R.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-12-31

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. A small fraction of these systems produce a useable byproduct (gypsum): the remainder generate approximately 20 million tons per annum of disposable flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct, which are transported and disposed of in landfills. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate this solid waste production, transportation and disposal. All regenerable FGD systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a saleable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid SO{sub 2}. This off-gas has only a fraction of the flue gas volume, and contains no oxygen. Recovery of sulfur from this stream in a single-stage catalytic converter, avoiding a multi-stage Claus plant, could decrease the cost and accelerate the commercialization of many regenerable FGD processes. The paper describes the plan to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is based on a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide such as ceria and zirconia.

  18. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  19. An acid-stable Zn(II) complex: electrodeposition in sulfuric acid and the effect on the zinc-lead dioxide battery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao Miao; Gong, Yun; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Hui Fang; Lin, Jian Hua

    2014-12-01

    An acid-stable Zn(II) complex formulated as Zn2(HL)2(SO4)·H2O (1) and an acid-unstable complex formulated as Zn2L2·12H2O (2) were hydro(solvo)thermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 features a uninodal 6-connected 2-fold interpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) dense architecture with {4(12)·6(3)}-pcu topology, and complex 2 exhibits a 2-nodal (3, 6)-connected 3D open architecture with (4·6(2))2(4(2)·6(10)·8(3))-rtl topology. The results indicate that the stability of complex 1 in sulfuric acid is probably associated with the coordinated SO4(2-) in the quite dense structure, and complex 1 can also be synthesized via electrodeposition in sulfuric acid; it can improve the discharging characteristics of the zinc-lead dioxide battery at room temperature.

  20. Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

  1. Sulfur dioxide removal by enhanced electrostatics

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, K.; Tseng, C.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    The economic removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) still represents a significant technical challenge which could determine the use of certain types of fossil fuels for energy production. This paper will present the preliminary results of an innovative research project utilizing a low-cost wet electrostatic precipitator to remove sulfur dioxide. There are many aspects for gas removal in an electrostatic precipitator which are not currently being used. This project utilizes electron attachment of free electrons onto gas molecules and ozone generation to remove sulfur dioxide which is a typical flue gas pollutant. This research was conducted on a bench-scale, wet electrostatic precipitator. A direct-current negative discharge corona is used to generate the ozone in-situ. This ozone will be used to oxidize SO{sub 2} to form sulfuric acid, which is very soluble in water. However, it is believed that the primary removal mechanism is electron attachment of the free electrons from the corona which force the SO{sub 2} to go to equilibrium with the water and be removed from the gas stream. Forcing the equilibrium has been shown to achieve removal efficiencies of up to 70%. The bench scale unit has been designed to operate wet or dry, positive and negative for comparison purposes. The applied dc voltage is variable from 0 to 100 kV, the flow rate is a nominal 7 m{sup 3}/hr and the collecting electrode area is 0.20 m{sup 2}. Tests are conducted on a simulated flue gas stream with SO{sub 2} ranging from 0 to 4,000 ppmv. This paper presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of operating conditions on removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was found to vary with gas residence time, water flow rate, inlet concentration, applied power, and the use of corona pulsing.

  2. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain and lake acidification is described. In this demonstration, SO2 gas is generated in a large graduated cylinder and then dissolved in water droplets from a simple spray bottle. The droplets carry the acid into simulated lakes, one of which includes solid CaCO3 to mimic limestone's natural buffering capacity.

  3. Process for removing sulfur dioxide from gas

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, W.R.

    1980-06-03

    There is disclosed a process for obtaining purer sodium sulfate from a mixture of solids containing sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite. The process involves contacting an aqueous slurry of the sulfate-sulfite mixture with a sulfur dioxide-containing gas under conditions which solubilize a significant amount of the sulfite as sodium bisulfite dissolved in the liquid aqueous phase. The remaining solid phase contains sodium sulfate of greater purity than in the mixture treated with sulfur dioxide. The mixture of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite which is purified by the process may be obtained advantageously as a purge material from a process for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas stream.

  4. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  5. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  6. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  7. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  8. Dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid to oak, elm and pine leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.M. )

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the deposition of SO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} was measured to three tree species, elm, oak and pine. Earlier work has shown that these three species cover of physical types (smooth oak leaves, rough elm leaves, and needles) and chemical types (acid and alkaline leaves) The total deposition is compared to the deposition measured through the stomata. After deposition, removal by revolatilization or extraction was determined. The data is used to estimate dry deposition fluxes of SO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} to forests that can then be combined with wet fluxes to determine total atmospheric inputs. Based on these results, a preliminary estimate is made of the possible detrimental effects to forests from atomspheric inputs.

  9. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOEpatents

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  10. Absorption of sulfur dioxide from simulated flue gas by polyethyleneimine-phosphoric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Bo, Wen; Li, Hongxia; Zhang, Junjie; Song, Xiangjia; Hu, Jinshan; Liu, Ce

    2016-12-01

    Clean fuel technologies have been widely developed in current society because fuel combustion can directly bring about the emission of hazardous gasses such as SO2. Flue gas desulfurization by polyethyleneimine (PEI)-phosphoric acid solution is an efficient desulfurization method. In this research, the PEI and the additive H3PO4 were used as absorption solution. SO2 was absorbed by the system and desorbed from the loaded solution. The cycle operation was also analyzed. Some technology conditions such as the concentration of PEI, the temperature, the gas flow rate, the concentration of SO2 and the pH value were experimentally researched. With the optimized process, the absorption efficiency of this system could reach 98% and the desorption efficiency was over 60%, showing good absorption/desorption capability. With this efficient approach, the present study may open a new window for developing high-performance absorbents which can make SO2 be well desorbed from the loaded solution and better reused in the flue gas desulfurization. PMID:27082307

  11. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  12. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  13. The impact of aqueous sulfur dioxide upon the reactions and availability of hydrocyanic acid and formaldehyde on prebiotic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteford, Jamie Keith

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are important precursors of biomolecules critical to life. Individually, CH2O solutions yield sugars while HCN solutions yield nucleobases. The formation of sugars and nucleobases is inhibited in solutions containing both CH 2O and HCN, however due to the reaction of CH2O with HCN to form glycolonitrile. Since the hydrosphere of primitive Earth is thought to have contained both CH2O and HCN, it is important to limit glycolonitrile formation so these biomolecules can arise. The problem presented by glycolonitrile's formation in solutions containing both CH2O and HCN is called the Miller paradox. This study sought to address the Miller paradox by evaluating the role that sulfur dioxide (SO 2) plays in the polymerization reactions of these precursor molecules. In the aqueous phase, SO2 hydrates and dissociates to bisulfite (HSO3-) and sulfite (SO32-), both of which react with CH2O to form hydroxymethanesulfonic acid (HMSA). Because of this, SO2 should compete with HCN for CH 2O. It was hypothesized that equimolar solutions of CH2O, NaCN, and Na2SO3 would form HMSA, leaving an equivalent amount of cyanide free to polymerize to its tetramer, diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN). HMSA was measured using capillary electrophoresis (CE) while DAMN was measured using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method developed for this study. HMSA and DAMN concentrations were measured in solutions of variable CH2O, NaCN, and Na2SO 3 composition, pH, and oxygen availability. Room-temperature bicarbonate-buffered NaCN solutions at pH values near the pKa of HCN (pH˜9) polymerized rapidly, forming DAMN at concentrations near 30 muM over 8 days. The addition of equimolar CH 2O to similar NaCN solutions eliminated DAMN formation (<0.02 muM), consistent with the Miller paradox. The addition of SO2 (as Na 2SO3) to solutions containing CH2O and NaCN, however, allowed the polymerization of HCN to DAMN (1-2 muM) through the

  14. The formation of acid rain in the atmosphere, adjacent to the TTP with the joint-condensing of sulfur dioxide and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdyakov, D. V.; Gubin, V. E.; Matveeva, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    Presents the results of mathematical simulation of the condensation process of sulphur dioxide and water vapor on the condensation nuclei surface under the action of natural factors. Numerical investigations were carried out for the summer at a moderate speed of the wind. The influence of the parameter of condensation on the speed of the process of sulfuric acid drops formation in the air space was analyzed. Time ranges, sufficient for the formation of the acid rain sedimentation in the atmosphere, adjacent to the areas of thermal power station work were established. It is shown that the speed of air masses movement effects on the process of acid anthropogenic admixtures dispersion in the atmosphere. Approbation of the obtained results was carried out by checking the difference scheme conservative and solution of test problems.

  15. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  16. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  17. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  18. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  19. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  20. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  1. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  2. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  3. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  4. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  5. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  6. RETENTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE BY NYLON FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on laboratory studies, recovery efficiencies of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined for nylon filters. The nylon filters used in these experiments were found to retain SO2. A relatively uniform amount (1.7%) was recoverable from each nylon filter, independent of relative...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862...

  9. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  11. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  12. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  13. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  14. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  15. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  16. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  17. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  18. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  19. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  1. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  2. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  3. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  4. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  8. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  10. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  11. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  13. Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide Frost on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide, normally a gas at room temperatures, is known to exist on Io's surface as a frost, condensing there from the hot gases emanating from the Io volcanoes. However, the deposition patterns and relation of the frost distribution to the volcanic activity is unknown, since prior measurements lacked the spatial resolution to accurately map the surface frost.

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) obtained relatively high spatial and spectral resolution images during the C3 orbit, and the characteristic infrared absorptions of sulfur dioxide frost appearing in the spectra were used to produce the SO2 frost map shown on the right. The comparison image on the left (from 1979 Voyager measurements) shows the same view and indicates the surface brightness as seen in visible light.

    The frost map shows maximum SO2 concentration as white, lesser amounts as blue coloration, and areas with little or no SO2 as black. The resolution of this map is about 120 km (75 miles), which spans the latitude range 120 W to 270 W.

    It is interesting to compare this frost distribution with regions of volcanic activity. Volcanic hotspots identified from NIMS and SSI images occur in many of the dark - low SO2 - areas, a reasonable finding since sulfur dioxide would not condense on such hot regions. The Pele region (to the lower left), N. Colchis hot spots (upper center) and S. Volund (upper right) are good examples of hot spot areas depleted in sulfur dioxide. Much of the rest of this hemisphere of Io has varying amounts of sulfur dioxide present. The most sulfur dioxide-rich area is Colchis Regio, the white area to the right of center.

    Of particular interest is the dark area to the south of Colchis Regio. From the study of other NIMS images, it is seen that this region does not have any large, obvious hotspots. However, it is depleted in sulfur dioxide.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  14. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; van Aardenne, John; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert; Volke, April C.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina

    2011-01-02

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 - 2005. A combination of mass balance and best available inventory data was used in order to achieve the most accurate estimate possible. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties of up to 30% were found. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping.

  15. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. J.; Van Aardenne, J.; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Volke, A.; Delgado Arias, S

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5 grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  16. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Zhang, Yinzhi; Kuchta, Matthew E.; Andresen, John M.; Fauth, Dan J.

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  17. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts

  18. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  3. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur...

  4. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  5. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  7. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur...

  8. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  10. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  12. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for sulfur dioxide. The redesignation request and... redesignation to attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for sulphur dioxide for each county in... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  13. An unexpected reaction of 2-alkynylaryldiazonium tetrafluoroborate with sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Pan, Xiaolin; Chen, Chen; Yao, Liangqing; Wu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    An unexpected result from the reaction of 2-alkynylaryldiazonium tetrafluoroborate with sulfur dioxide is described. In the presence of morpholin-4-amine, this transformation catalyzed by copper(i) bromide proceeds through insertion of sulfur dioxide and intramolecular 5-endo cyclization, leading to benzo[b]thiophene 1,1-dioxides in moderate to good yields. PMID:25387522

  14. Sulfur Dioxide Measurements Near Point Sources Using Ultraviolet Spectroscopy From Aircraft During ICARTT-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melamed, M. L.; Langford, A. O.; Daniel, J. S.; Miller, H. L.; Portmann, R. W.; Schofield, R.; Solomon, S.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate measurements of sulfur dioxide are important in urban air pollution studies due to the role sulfur dioxide plays in atmospheric processes such as acid rain and particle formation. We will show slant column sulfur dioxide abundances that were derived using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique with ultraviolet spectrograph measurements taken aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during ICARTT-2004. The spectrograph has zenith and nadir fields of view allowing for measurements of the pollution plume independent of the aircraft altitude and the height and uniformity of the boundary layer. A short integration time yields a high frequency measurement in order to distinguish localized pollution plumes from surrounding air. The sulfur dioxide slant column abundances show good qualitative agreement when compared to sulfur dioxide in-situ measurements aboard the same aircraft.

  15. Sulfur Dioxide variability in the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Korablev, O.; Mahieux, A.; Wilquet, V.; Chamberlain, S.; Belayev, D.; Encrenaz, Th.; Esposito, L.; Jessup, K. L.; Lefèvre, F.; Limaye, S.; Marcq, E.; Mils, F.; Parkinson, C.; Sandor, B.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wilson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Recent observations of sulfur oxides (SO2, SO, OCS, and H2 SO4) in Venus' mesosphere have generated controversy and great interest in the scientific community. These observations revealed u nexpected spatial patterns and spatial/temporal variability that have not been satisfactorily explained by models. Particularly intriguing are the layer of enhanced gas-phase SO2 and SO in the upper mesosphere, and variability in the maximum observed SO2 a bundance and the equator -to-pole SO2 abundance gradient, seemingly on multi-year cycles, that is not uniquely linked to local time variations. Sulfur oxide chemistry on Venus is closely linked to the global-scale cloud and haze layers, which are composed primarily of concentrated sulfuric acid. Consequently, sulfur oxide observations provide important insight into the ongoing chemical evolution of Venus' atmosphere, atmospheric dynamics, and possible volcanism.

  16. Sulfur dioxide contributions to the atmosphere by volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Stoiber, R E; Jepsen, A

    1973-11-01

    The first extensive measurements by remote-sensing correlation spectrometry of the sulfur dioxide emitted by volcanic plumes indicate that on the order of 10(3) metric tons of sulfur dioxide gas enter the atmosphere daily from Central American volcanoes. Extrapolation gives a minimum estimate of the annual amount of sulfur dioxide emitted from the world's volcanoes of about 10(7) metric tons.

  17. Sensitivity of ginseng to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, J.T.A.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), was injured by exposure to 20 pphm ozone and/or 50 pphm (v/v) sulfur dioxide for 6 hr daily for 4 days. Ozone induced upper surface leaflet stippling along the veins and interveinally, and sulfur dioxide induced mild chlorosis to irregular necrotic areas. Ginseng was less sensitive to ozone and as sensitive to sulfur dioxide as 'Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and 'Bel W-3' tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

  18. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  19. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide. [Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M. )

    1992-03-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests.

  20. Sulfur dioxide removal from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.; Ginger, E.A.

    1986-11-11

    A process is described for removal of sulfur dioxide pollutant gas from gas stream which comprises contacting the gas stream with pretreated shale in the form of an aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate including from about 0.1 to about 2.0% by weight of the pretreated shale. The pretreatment of the shale comprises the heating of the shale in the presence of a gas unable to support combustion at a temperature in a range of from about 340/sup 0/C. to about 480/sup 0/C.

  1. Sulfuric acid as autocatalyst in the formation of sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Francisco, Joseph S; Anglada, Josep M

    2012-12-26

    Sulfuric acid can act as a catalyst of its own formation. We have carried out a computational investigation on the gas-phase formation of H(2)SO(4) by hydrolysis of SO(3) involving one and two water molecules, and also in the presence of sulfuric acid and its complexes with one and two water molecules. The hydrolysis of SO(3) requires the concurrence of two water molecules, one of them acting as a catalyzer, and our results predict an important catalytic effect, ranging between 3 and 11 kcal·mol(-1) when the catalytic water molecule is substituted by a sulfuric acid molecule or one of its hydrates. In these cases, the reaction products are either bare sulfuric acid dimer or sulfuric acid dimer complexed with a water molecule. There are broad implications from these new findings. The results of the present investigation show that the catalytic effect of sulfuric acid in the SO(3) hydrolysis can be important in the Earth's stratosphere, in the heterogeneous formation of sulfuric acid and in the formation of aerosols, in H(2)SO(4) formation by aircraft engines, and also in understanding the formation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere of Venus.

  2. Effects of sulfur dioxide emissions on stream chemistry in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, D.H.; Turk, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A 20-year record of water chemistry for seven headwater streams in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States is compared to estimates of local and regional sulfur dioxide emissions. Emissions from smelters comprise a significant part of sulfur dioxide emissions for the 11 states upwind of acid-sensitive watersheds in the Rocky Mountains, but smelter emissions have steadily decreased since 1970. Analysis of stream chemistry indicates conservative behavior of watershed sulfate, with atmospheric deposition as the dominant source. No relation between regional stream chemistry and smelter or regional sulfur dioxide emissions is detected. Local emissions trends, however, do appear to affect sulfate concentrations in the streams. -from Authors

  3. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  4. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  5. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  6. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  12. The Significance of the Bond Angle in Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Examined are the illustrations and descriptions of the molecular structure of sulfur dioxide found in selected chemistry textbooks. Inconsistencies and incorrect information are indicated. It is suggested that molecules other than sulfur dioxide be used as examples of molecules for which resonance is important. (CW)

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of this part may not contain more than 100 ppm of...

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of this part may not contain more than 100 ppm of...

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of this part may not contain more than 100 ppm of...

  16. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  17. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  18. Organosulfate Formation through the Heterogeneous Reaction of Sulfur Dioxide with Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Long-Chain Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Passananti, Monica; Kong, Lingdong; Shang, Jing; Dupart, Yoan; Perrier, Sébastien; Chen, Jianmin; Donaldson, D James; George, Christian

    2016-08-22

    The heterogeneous reaction between SO2 and unsaturated compounds results in the efficient production of organosulfates for several fatty acids and long-chain alkenes. The presence of an acid group, the physical state of the reactants (solid or liquid), the nature of the double bond (cis, trans, terminal), and the use of light irradiation all have an impact on the reaction rate. The reaction was investigated using different set-ups (coated flow tube, aerosol flow tube, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform cell). The reaction products were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and the impact of this reaction on organosulfate formation in the atmosphere is discussed.

  19. Organosulfate Formation through the Heterogeneous Reaction of Sulfur Dioxide with Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Long-Chain Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Passananti, Monica; Kong, Lingdong; Shang, Jing; Dupart, Yoan; Perrier, Sébastien; Chen, Jianmin; Donaldson, D James; George, Christian

    2016-08-22

    The heterogeneous reaction between SO2 and unsaturated compounds results in the efficient production of organosulfates for several fatty acids and long-chain alkenes. The presence of an acid group, the physical state of the reactants (solid or liquid), the nature of the double bond (cis, trans, terminal), and the use of light irradiation all have an impact on the reaction rate. The reaction was investigated using different set-ups (coated flow tube, aerosol flow tube, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform cell). The reaction products were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and the impact of this reaction on organosulfate formation in the atmosphere is discussed. PMID:27458109

  20. Sulfur Dioxide Capture by Heterogeneous Oxidation on Hydroxylated Manganese Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haodong; Cai, Weimin; Long, Mingce; Wang, Hairui; Wang, Zhiping; Chen, Chen; Hu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaojuan

    2016-06-01

    Here we demonstrate that sulfur dioxide (SO2) is efficiently captured via heterogeneous oxidation into sulfate on the surface of hydroxylated manganese dioxide (MnO2). Lab-scale activity tests in a fluidized bed reactor showed that the removal efficiency for a simulated flue gas containing 5000 mg·Nm(-3) SO2 could reach nearly 100% with a GHSV (gas hourly space velocity) of 10000 h(-1). The mechanism was investigated using a combination of experimental characterizations and theoretical calculations. It was found that formation of surface bound sulfate proceeds via association of SO2 with terminal hydroxyls. Both H2O and O2 are essential for the generation of reactive terminal hydroxyls, and the indirect role of O2 in heterogeneous SO2 oxidation at low temperature was also revealed. We propose that the high reactivity of terminal hydroxyls is attributed to the proper surface configuration of MnO2 to adsorb water with degenerate energies for associative and dissociative states, and maintain rapid proton dynamics. Viability analyses suggest that the desulfurization method that is based on such a direct oxidation reaction at the gas/solid interface represents a promising approach for SO2 capture. PMID:27123922

  1. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  2. Using broadband absorption spectroscopy to measure concentration of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. S.; Zhang, Y. G.; Wu, S. H.; Lou, X. T.; Zhang, Z. G.; Qin, Y. K.

    2010-09-01

    A linear relationship between concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and optical parameter (OP) is established using the Beer-Lambert law. The SO2 measuring system is set up to measure the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the wavelength range 275-315 nm. Experimental results indicate that the detection limit of the sulfur dioxide measuring system is below 0.2 ppm per meter of path length, and the measurement precision is better than ±1%. The proposed SO2 measuring method features limited interference from other gases and dust, and high stability and short response time.

  3. Avoidance responses of estuarine fish to sulfur dioxide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr; Margrey, S.L.; Graves, W.C.

    1983-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, and Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentration of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30C.

  4. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  5. Infrared detection of Criegee intermediates formed during the ozonolysis of β-pinene and their reactivity towards sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Jennifer; Carlsson, Philip T M; Hertl, Nils; Olzmann, Matthias; Pfeifle, Mark; Wolf, J Lennard; Zeuch, Thomas

    2014-01-13

    Recently, direct kinetic experiments have shown that the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide by reaction with stabilized Criegee intermediates (CIs) is an important source of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. So far, only small CIs, generated in photolysis experiments, have been directly detected. Herein, it is shown that large, stabilized CIs can be detected in the gas phase by FTIR spectroscopy during the ozonolysis of β-pinene. Their transient absorption bands between 930 and 830 cm(-1) appear only in the initial phase of the ozonolysis reaction when the scavenging of stabilized CIs by the reaction products is slow. The large CIs react with sulfur dioxide to give sulfur trioxide and nopinone with a yield exceeding 80%. Reactant consumption and product formation in time-resolved β-pinene ozonolysis experiments in the presence of sulfur dioxide have been kinetically modeled. The results suggest a fast reaction of sulfur dioxide with CIs arising from β-pinene ozonolysis.

  6. Sulfuric Acid in the Venus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine, produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

  7. A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, James C.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

  8. Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Boushey, H.

    1982-02-01

    Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that bronchospasm may develop if they pursue activities that require light exercise while breathing air containing a level of sulfur dioxide permitted by current ambient air-quality standards. The provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 require that sensitive groups in the population be protected against adverse health effects, and our data therefore indicate the need for a short-term standard for sulfur dioxide.

  9. Fructose metabolism of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum: effect of carbon dioxide on growth, and production of bacteriochlorophyll and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Christiane; Grammel, Hartmut

    2012-04-01

    During fermentative metabolism, carbon dioxide fixation plays a key role in many bacteria regarding growth and production of organic acids. The present contribution, dealing with the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, reveals not only the strong influence of ambient carbon dioxide on the fermentative break-down of fructose but also a high impact on aerobic growth with fructose as sole carbon source. Both growth rates and biomass yield increased with increasing carbon dioxide supply in chemoheterotrophic aerobic cultures. Furthermore, intracellular metabolite concentration measurements showed almost negligible concentrations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate under aerobic growth, in contrast to several metabolites of the glycolysis. In addition, we present a dual phase fed-batch process, where an aerobic growth phase is followed by an anaerobic production phase. The biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and the secretion of organic acids were both affected by the carbon dioxide supply, the pH value and by the cell density at the time of switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The formation of pigmented photosynthetic membranes and the amount of bacteriochlorophyll were inversely correlated to the secretion of succinate. Accounting the high biotechnological potential of R. rubrum, optimization of carbon dioxide supply is important because of the favored application of fructose-containing fermentable feedstock solutions in bio-industrial processes.

  10. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  11. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  12. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  13. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  14. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  15. Device for the removal of sulfur dioxide from exhaust gas by pulsed energization of free electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, A.; Clements, J.S.; Davis, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a new device using pulsed streamer corona for the removal of sulfur dioxide from humid air has been evaluated. The pulsed streamer corona produced free electrons which enhance gas-phase chemical reactions, and convert SO/sub 2/ to sulfuric acid mist. The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency was compared with that of the electron-beam flue-gas treatment process. The comparison demonstrates the advantage of the novel device.

  16. 78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Indiana state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) under...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods and procedures used for determining... sulfuric acid by the contact process by burning elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen sulfide... gas containing a total sulfur content expressed as hydrogen sulfide in excess of 350 grains...

  18. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO[sub 2]-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO[sub 2] with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO[sub 2] with H[sub 2]S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO[sub 2] reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO[sub 2] reduction planned over various CeO[sub 2]-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought Claus-alternative'' for coal-fired power plant applications.

  19. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  20. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9),...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  4. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9),...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9),...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9),...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also known as oil of vitriol,...

  14. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  15. 76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... in hydrogen peroxide to produce sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid is then titrated against aqueous... Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final..., Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or Executive Order 13045, entitled Protection of Children...

  16. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  17. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  18. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected unit during any year, the owners and operators...

  19. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected unit during any year, the owners and operators...

  20. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected unit during any year, the owners and operators...

  1. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected unit during any year, the owners and operators...

  2. Responses of Hawaiian plants to volcanic sulfur dioxide: stomatal behavior and foliar injury

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-14

    Hawaiian plants exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide showed interspecific differences in leaf injury that are related to sulfur dioxide-induced changes in stomatal conductance. Species with leaves that did not close stomata developed either chlorosis or necrosis, whereas leaves of Metrosideros collina closed stomata and showed no visual symptoms of sulfur dioxide stress.

  3. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  4. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  5. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  6. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  7. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  8. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  9. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  10. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60... paragraph (c)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in...

  11. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  12. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinjian; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Thionyl chloride is often used to convert alcohols into more reactive alkyl chloride, which can be easily converted to many compounds that are not possible from alcohols directly. One important reaction of alkyl chloride is nucleophilic substitution, which is typically conducted under basic conditions. Sulfur dioxide, the by-product from alcohol-thionyl chloride reactions, often reacts with alkyl chloride to form a sulfonyl acid impurity, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, the alkyl chloride is typically isolated to remove the by-products including sulfur dioxide. However, in our laboratory, the alkyl chloride formed from alcohol and thionyl chloride was found to be a potential mutagenic impurity, and isolation of this compound would require extensive safety measures. As a result, a flow-through process was developed, and the sulfur dioxide was purged using a combination of vacuum degassing and nitrogen gas sweeping. An analytical method that can quickly and accurately quantitate residual levels of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture is desired for in-process monitoring. We report here a simple ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry method for this measurement. This method takes advantage of the dramatic change in the UV absorbance of sulfur dioxide with respect to pH, which allows for accurate quantitation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of the strong UV-absorbing matrix. Each sample solution was prepared using 2 different diluents: 1) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% v/v hydrochloric acid, pH 1.3, and 2) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% glacial acetic acid, pH 4.0. The buffer solutions were carefully selected so that the UV absorbance of the sample matrix (excluding sulfur dioxide) at 276 nm remains constant. In the pH 1.3 buffer system, sulfur dioxide shows strong UV absorbance at 276 nm. Therefore, the UV absorbance of sample solution is the sum of sulfur dioxide and sample matrix. While in the pH 4.0 buffer system, sulfur dioxide has

  13. Radiolysis of Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate, and Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate and Its Relevance to Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report laboratory studies on the 0.8 MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4 H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4 4H2O) between 10 and 180 K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4(exp -), and SO4(exp 2-). At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that H2SO4 H2O is formed on subsequent warming. This hydrate is significantly more stable to radiolytic destruction than pure H2SO4, falling to an equilibrium relative abundance of 50% of its original value on prolonged irradiation. Unlike either pure H2SO4 or H2SO4 H2O, the loss of H2SO4 4H2O exhibits a strong temperature dependence, as the tetrahydrate is essentially unchanged at the highest irradiation temperatures and completely destroyed at the lowest ones, which we speculate is due to a combination of radiolytic destruction and amorphization. Furthermore, at the lower temperatures it is clear that irradiation causes the tetrahydrate spectrum to transition to one that closely resembles the monohydrate spectrum. Extrapolating our results to Europa s surface, we speculate that the variations in SO2 concentrations observed in the chaotic terrains are a result of radiation processing of lower hydration states of sulfuric acid and that the monohydrate will remain stable on the surface over geological times, while the tetrahydrate will remain stable in the warmer regions but be destroyed in the colder regions, unless it can be reformed by other processes, such as thermal reactions induced by diurnal cycling.

  14. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  15. Benzosulfones as photochemically activated sulfur dioxide (SO2) donors.

    PubMed

    Malwal, Satish R; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2015-02-28

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a gaseous environmental pollutant which is routinely used in industry as a preservative and antimicrobial. Recent data suggests that SO2 may have value as a therapeutic agent. However, due to its gaseous nature, localizing SO2 generation is challenging. Herein, various 1,3-dihydrobenzo[c]thiophene 2,2-dioxides (benzosulfones) were prepared as candidates for photochemically activated sulfur dioxide (SO2) generation. These compounds were found to be stable in buffer but were photolysed upon irradiation with UV light to generate SO2. Our data indicates that photolysis of benzosulfones depends on substituents, and that the presence of electron donating groups results in an enhanced yield of SO2.

  16. Sulfuric acid aerosols in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin; Toon, Owen B.; Grinspoon, David H.

    2011-08-01

    Clouds and hazes composed of sulfuric acid are observed to exist or postulated to have once existed on each of the terrestrial planets with atmospheres in our solar system. Venus today maintains a global cover of clouds composed of a sulfuric acid/water solution that extends in altitude from roughly 50 km to roughly 80 km. Terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form on stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols, and both PSCs and stratospheric aerosols play a critical role in the formation of the ozone hole. Stratospheric aerosols can modify the climate when they are enhanced following volcanic eruptions, and are a current focus for geoengineering studies. Rain is made more acidic by sulfuric acid originating from sulfur dioxide generated by industry on Earth. Analysis of the sulfur content of Martian rocks has led to the hypothesis that an early Martian atmosphere, rich in SO 2 and H 2O, could support a sulfur-infused hydrological cycle. Here we consider the plausibility of frozen sulfuric acid in the upper clouds of Venus, which could lead to lightning generation, with implications for observations by the European Space Agency's Venus Express and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Venus Climate Orbiter (also known as Akatsuki). We also present simulations of a sulfur-rich early Martian atmosphere. We find that about 40 cm/yr of precipitation having a pH of about 2.0 could fall in an early Martian atmosphere, assuming a surface temperature of 273 K, and SO 2 generation rates consistent with the formation of Tharsis. This modeled acid rain is a powerful sink for SO 2, quickly removing it and preventing it from having a significant greenhouse effect.

  17. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods and procedures used for determining... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... sulfuric acid by the contact process by burning elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods and procedures used for determining... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... sulfuric acid by the contact process by burning elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods and procedures used for determining... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... sulfuric acid by the contact process by burning elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods and procedures used for determining... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... sulfuric acid by the contact process by burning elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen...

  1. The removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Helmut

    1965-01-01

    The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated. Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory. Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature. Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation. A wet catalysis process has recently been developed. Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost. PMID:14315714

  2. Io - Longtudinal distribution of sulfur dioxide frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Lane, A. L.; Matson, D. L.; Fanale, F. P.; Nash, D. B.; Johnson, T. V.

    1980-01-01

    A longitudinal variation in the distribution of SO2 frost on Io is examined. Twenty spectra of Io (0.26 to 0.33 micrometer) are presented and a strong ultraviolet absorption is found shortward of 0.33 micrometer. The abundance of frost is greatest at orbital longitudes 72 to 137 degrees. Longitudes 250 to 323 degrees are least abundant in SO2. Comparisons are made with a Voyager color relief map, which suggest that SO2 frost is in greatest concentration in the white areas of Io and other sulfurous materials are in greatest concentration in the red areas.

  3. The biological effect of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Bao; Jin, Hong-Fang; Tang, Chao-Shu; Du, Jun-Bao

    2011-11-16

    Sulfur dioxide is considered a toxic gas in air pollution and detrimental to many organs, however, it can be generated endogenously in the cardiovascular system in vivo. Gaseous sulfur dioxide has an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing effect at low concentrations, but is endothelium-independent at high concentrations and has a negative inotropic effect on cardiac function. This vasorelaxing effect is mediated by adenosine triphosphate-sensitive calcium channels and L-type calcium channels. Under pathophysiological conditions, sulfur dioxide increases anti-inflammatory response and antioxidant capacities in pulmonary hypertensive rats. Sulfur dioxide also attenuates increased blood pressure and vascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive and hypoxic pulmonary hypertensive rats. Recent studies suggest that endogenous sulfur dioxide is also involved in the process of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and lipid metabolism. Therefore, the evidence suggests that endogenous sulfur dioxide may be a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system. The significance of sulfur dioxide on the cardiovascular system is intriguing and appealing.

  4. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  5. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  6. Resistance to injury by sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, J.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1982-08-01

    In Cucurbitaceae young leaves are resistant to injury from acute exposure to SO/sub 2/, whereas mature leaves are sensitive. After exposure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to SO/sub 2/ at injurious concentrations, illuminated leaves emit volatile sulfur, which is solely H/sub 2/S. Young leaves emit H/sub 2/S many times more rapidly than do mature leaves. Young leaves convert approximately 10% of absorbed (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 2/ to emitted (/sup 35/S)H/sub 2/S, but mature leaves convert less than 2%. These results suggest that a high capability for the reduction of SO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/S and emission of the H/sub 2/S is a part of the biochemical basis of the resistance of young leaves to SO/sub 2/.

  7. Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

  8. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  9. Sulfur dioxide: episodic injection shows evidence for active venus volcanism.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L W

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in Earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent Earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  10. Behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.; Graves, W.C.; Margrey, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg sulfite/l at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Striped bass avoided lower concentrations of sulfite than Atlantic menhaden at 15 and 20/sup 0/C. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25/sup 0/C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentrations of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30/sup 0/C. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hall, L W; Burton, D T; Graves, W C; Margrey, S L

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg sulfite/l at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Striped bass avoided lower concentrations of sulfite than Atlantic menhaden at 15 and 20 degrees C. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25 degrees C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentrations of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30 degrees C. PMID:6492212

  12. Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…

  13. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under this...

  14. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  16. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  17. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  18. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  19. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  20. Sulfur dioxide control: Sulfur dioxide from coal burning sources. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning air pollution control technology and various methods for desulfurization of coal combustion streams. Examples include fluidized bed and other combustion modifications, and the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas. Proper monitoring of the effluent to meet the established atmospheric standards is also discussed. Applications in powerplants, steam boilers, furnaces, kilns, and gas turbines are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Sulfur dioxide control: Sulfur dioxide from coal-burning sources. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning air pollution control technology and various methods for desulfurization of coal combustion streams. Examples include fluidized bed and other combustion modifications, and the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas. Proper monitoring of the effluent to meet the established atmospheric standards is also discussed. Applications in powerplants, steam boilers, furnaces, kilns, and gas turbines are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

    2001-12-01

    We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

  3. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... AGENCY Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft... and carbon dioxide, and gas cartridge uses of sulfur, and opens a public comment period on this... occur for all inorganic nitrates- nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide uses, as well as gas...

  4. Are the clouds of Venus sulfuric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that strong aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have the right refractive index and freeze at Venusian cloud temperature, explain the dryness of the Venusian stratosphere, are consistent with some features of the Venusian IR spectrum, and do not absorb in highly reflecting areas of Venus. It is also indicated that such solutions should be produced by reactions between known atmospheric constituents and most sulfur-bearing rock at the Venusian surface temperature, and require only small amounts of sulfur consistent with its cosmic abundance and with the amounts of other volatile elements present in the atmosphere. It is believed therefore that the clouds of Venus consist of sulfuric acid solutions.

  5. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emission allowance trading

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Burtraw, D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a preliminary draft of the paper to be given at the A&WMA Acid Rain Conference on January 20-22, 1997. This version was prepared for a conference on {open_quotes}Market Tools for Green Goals{close_quotes} at the Chicago Board of Trade, November 1, 1996. The conference was sponsored by the Workshop on Market-Based Approaches to Environmental Policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the Chicago Board of Trade. We are grateful to Richard Kosobud for comments on an earlier draft.

  6. Inhibition of lignifying processes by sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pfanz, H.; Oppmann, B.

    1991-05-01

    Intercellular washing fluids (IWF) from spruce needles (Picea abies L. Karst.) contain peroxidases 1-2% of total IWF protein. These apoplastic enzymes show the ability to polymerize monophenols or phenylpropanes to form lignin precursors in vitro. In the presence of potentially acidic air pollutants like NO{sub 2}, HF(20 mM of salts in solution), and in the presence of Pb-, Cd- (0.5 mM) or Al-salts (8 mM) no inhibitory effect on the polymerization reactions examined was detectable. In contrast, the anions of SO{sub 2} (sulfite and bisulfite) revealed a strong inhibition on the dimerization of ferulic and caffeic acid (Ki ca. 1 mM), and on the dehydration of syringaldazine (Ki ca. 8 {mu}M). Polymerization of coniferyl alcohol, on the other hand, seemed to be enhanced. Maier-Maercker and Koch (1986) demonstrated that the cell walls of guard cells from undamaged spruce needles are properly lignified, whereas those of damaged needles seem to be affected. It is therefore assumed that cell wall lignification, and concomitantly stomatal regulation of coniferous needles are disturbed in regions with high atmospheric SO{sub 2} pollution (e.g. Ore Mountains in CSFR).

  7. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.

    PubMed

    Raposo, R; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; Garde-Cerdán, T; Puertas, B; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Gonzalo-Diago, A; Guerrero, R F; Ortiz, V; Cantos-Villar, E

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the feasibility of two commercial products enriched in hydroxytyrosol (HT) as alternative to sulfur dioxide in Syrah red wines was evaluated. The HT enriched products came from synthesis and from olive waste. Wines treated with HT were compared with wines treated with sulfur dioxide at two winemaking stages: bottling and after 6 months of storage in bottle. Minor differences were found in enological parameters and volatile composition (esters, alcohols and acids). Significant differences were observed in color related parameters and sensory analysis. HT wines improved color parameters as well as scents and tasting at bottling. However, after 6 months of storage in bottle HT wines were more oxidized than SO2 wines. The olfactometry profile of HT wines supported sensory analysis. HT wines showed new odorant zones from both the added product and oxidation.

  8. Stabilized gravimetric standard for sulfites and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Irgum, K.

    1985-06-01

    Preparation of standards in the analysis of sulfites and sulfur dioxide can be a problem, especially if higher accuracy is needed, as the sulfite salts commonly used to prepare such standards are not available with guaranteed assays due to oxidation. They must therefore be assayed by titrimetry immediately before use. Sulfate originating from oxidation of the sulfite salt can also be troublesome if a mixed sulfite and sulfate standard is to be prepared for, i.e., ion chromatrography. Another compound that has been used as standard for tetravalent sulfur is sodium hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS). Aldehyde addition compounds are also used for stabilization of sulfur dioxide after sampling. Stability of HMS toward oxidation is good, but commercially available preparations are practical grade and must be purified before use. HMS is furthermore hygroscopic and decomposes on heating. These are drawbacks which make it far from ideal as a standard substance. In situ preparation is performed by purging a buffered formaldehyde solution with SO/sub 2/(g). Stabilities of both stock solutions and dilutions are checked. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Sulfur dioxide emissions from La Soufriere Volcano, St. Vincent, West Indies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.M.; Gallant, A.J.

    1980-08-22

    During the steady-state period of activity of La Soufriere Volcano in 1979, the mass emissions of sulfur dioxide into the troposphere amounted to a mean value of 339 +- 126 metric tons per day. This value is similar to the sulfur dioxide emissions of other Central American volcanoes but less than those measured at Mount Etna, an exceptionally strong volcanic source of sulfur dioxide.

  10. Photochemical oxidants potentiate yield losses in snap beans attributable to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Heggestad, H.E.; Bennett, J.H.

    1981-08-28

    Field-grown snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were given recurring midday exposures to sulfur dioxide in open-top field chambers containing ambient photochemical oxidants. There was a linear correlation (correlation coefficient = -.99) between increasing concentrations of sulfur dioxide and the yields of snap beans. Synergism was indicated for the mixtures of ambient ozone plus sulfur dioxide, leading to threefold greater yield losses in nonfiltered air than in charcoal-filtered air (to remove the ozone). Even the lowest sulfur dioxide dose in nonfiltered air reduced the yields of Astro, a cultivar that exhibited no visible pollutant-induced foliar injury. 16 referances, 1 figure, 1 table.

  11. The rotational spectrum of protonated sulfur dioxide, HOSO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzi, V.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; Thorwirth, S.; McCarthy, M. C.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: We report on the millimeter-wave rotational spectrum of protonated sulfur dioxide, HOSO+. Methods: Ten rotational transitions between 186 and 347 GHz have been measured to high accuracy in a negative glow discharge. Results: The present measurements improve the accuracy of the previously reported centimeter-wave spectrum by two orders of magnitude, allowing a frequency calculation of the principal transitions to about 4 km s-1 in equivalent radial velocity near 650 GHz, or one linewidth in hot cores and corinos. Conclusions: Owing to the high abundance of sulfur-bearing molecules in many galactic molecular sources, the HOSO+ ion is an excellent candidate for detection, especially in hot cores and corinos in which SO2 and several positive ions are prominent.

  12. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over

  13. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries on Mars rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Kindler, A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, Spirit and Opportunity, have been performing exciting surface exploration studies for the past six months. These two robotic missions were aimed at examining the presence of water and, thus, any evidence of life, and at understanding the geological conditions of Mars, These rovers have been successfully assisted by primary lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries during the critical entry, descent, and landing (EDL) maneuvers. These batteries were located on the petals of the lander, which, unlike in the Mars Pathfinder mission, was designed only to carry the rover. The selection of the lithium-sulfur dioxide battery system for this application was based on its high specific energy and high rate discharge capability, combined with low heat evolution, as dictated by this application. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries exhibit voltage delay, which tends to increase at low discharge temperatures, especially after extended storage at warm temperatures, In the absence of a depassivation circuit, as provided on earlier missions, e.g., Galileo, we were required to depassivate the lander primary batteries in a unique manner. The batteries were brought onto a shunt-regulated bus set at pre-selected discharge voltages, thus affecting depassivation during constant discharge voltages. Several ground tests were preformed, on cells, cell strings and battery assembly with five parallel strings, to identify optimum shunt voltages and durations of depassivation. We also examined the repassivation of lithium anodes, subsequent to depassivation. In this paper, we will describe these studies, in detail, as well as the depassivation of the lander flight batteries on both Spirit and Opportunity rover prior to the EDL sequence and their performance during landing on Mars.

  14. Stability of patulin to sulfur dioxide and to yeast fermentation.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, L F

    1977-01-01

    The affinity of patulin for sulfur dioxide (SO2) is much less than was previously reported and is of little significance at the SO2 concentrations (below 200 ppm) used in the processing of apple juice and cider. However, at concentrations of 2000 ppm SO2 and 15 ppm patulin, combination was 90% complete in 2 days. Removal of SO2 liberated only part of the patulin, which suggests that 2 mechanisms are involved: one reversible (opening the hemiacetal ring) and one irreversible (SO2 addition at the double bond). Test with 2 yeasts used in English commercial cider making confirmed that patulin is effectively removed during yeast fermentation.

  15. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  16. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  17. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

  18. High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

    2005-09-01

    A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

  19. A four-component reaction of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates, sulfur dioxide, 1,2-dibromoethane, and hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Danqing; Kuang, Yunyan; Wu, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A four-component reaction of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates, sulfur dioxide, 1,2-dibromoethane, and hydrazines under metal-free conditions is described, providing a novel and efficient approach to 2-arylsulfonyl hydrazones. This transformation proceeds smoothly via insertion of sulfur dioxide under mild conditions with good functional group tolerance. PMID:26324879

  20. Nitrogen fixation rate and chlorophyll content of the lichen Peltigera canina exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksson, E.; Pearson, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    In general, the rate of nitrogen fixation decreased when the lichen Peltigera canina (L.) Willd. was exposed to sulfur dioxide gas at levels from 0.1 to 500 ppm; at 30 ppm, however, nitrogen fixation was stimulated. The chlorophyll content decreased as the level of sulfur dioxide increased.

  1. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  2. Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production

    SciTech Connect

    Denisova, T.L.; Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Novosel'tsev, S.P.

    1987-09-01

    Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder obtained by neutralizing acid tar with a paste consisting of asphalts from deasphalting operations and slaked lime, followed by oxidation of the mixture with atmospheric air, were determined. The sulfuric acid recovered in the settling process could be burned in order to purify it of organic contaminants.

  3. Differing response of asthmatics to sulfur dioxide exposure with continuous and intermittent exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrl, H.R.; Roger, L.J.; Hazucha, M.J.; Horstman, D.H.

    1986-08-29

    Ten mild asthmatics were initially exposed in an environmental chamber (26 C, 70% RH) to clean air and 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide while performing three sets of 10 minutes treadmill exercise (ventilation = 41 1/min) and 15 minutes rest. To evaluate the effects of the pattern and duration of exercise on the response to sulfur dioxide exposure, the subjects were then exposed to the same environmental conditions, while exercising continuously for 30 minutes. Specific airways resistance (SRaw) was measured by body plethysmography prior to exposures and after each exercise. All SRaw responses with sulfur dioxide exposure were significantly different than the clean air responses. It appears that asthmatics show an attenuated response to repetitive exercise in a 1.00 ppm sulfur dioxide atmosphere and that the response to sulfur dioxide exposure develops rapidly and is maintained during 30 minutes continuous exercise.

  4. Method of recovering elemental sulfur from reactive gases containing sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, A.

    1981-12-01

    Reactive gases containing sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, e.g. reaction gases of the claus process, are passed through a catalyst stage having an inlet side and an outlet side for the gas mixture to produce elemental sulfur and water. According to the invention the gases are cooled between the inlet and discharge sides by heat-exchanger means to a temperature not less than the activation temperature for the reaction and preferably not less than the temperature at which the gases are initially introduced into the catalyst body. The heat exchanger means can be provided in gaps between catalyst beds and/or within the catalyst beds of the body of catalyst.

  5. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  6. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  7. Sulfuric acid in the Venus clouds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The extremely dry nature of the Venus upper atmosphere appears to demand the presence of an efficient desiccating agent as the chief constituent of the clouds of Venus. On the basis of polarization measures it is to be expected that this substance is present as spherical droplets, 1 to 2 microns in diameter, with a refractive index n of 1.46 plus or minus 0.02 at 3500A in the observed region of the atmosphere, with T about equal to 235 K. This substance must have ultraviolet, visible, and infrared reflection properties not inconsistent with the observed spectrum of Venus. Sulfuric acid, of about 86% by weight composition, roughly fulfills the first of these properties. The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

  8. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  9. Fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Burow, D.F.; Sharma, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Results of preliminary experiments are reported in which oil shales were treated with liquid sulfur dioxide to effect comminution. Results for samples of Green River, Antrim, and Moroccan oil shales were obtained in these preliminary experiments. Extensive fracturing, both along and across laminations, was observed with all three shales. Initial experiments were carried out at 170/sup 0/C for 3 to 5 hours; subsequent experiments indicated that the degree of fracturing was almost as extensive when milder conditions (e.g., 25/sup 0/C for 1 h) are used. The results of these experiments suggest that many of the limitations of conventional crushing and fracturing procedures are not encountered here; there are however, other limitations to be dealt with. These observations are, nevertheless, sufficiently promising to warrant further detailed investigation into the utility of comminution with liquid SO/sub 2/ for both surface and in situ processing of oil shales.

  10. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  11. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  12. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  13. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Economy, J.

    2001-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  15. Process for removal of sulfur dioxide from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, D.E.

    1982-02-02

    An improved apparatus and process are disclosed for the removal of sulfur oxides such as sulfur dioxide from waste gas streams. The process comprises scrubbing the waste gas with a circulating aqueous sodium sulfite/sodium bisulfite absorption solution at a relatively low ph followed by subjecting a portion of the circulating absorption solution to an improved multi-stage regeneration procedure wherein lime is employed to regenerate sulfite from bisulfite. The bleed from the scrubbing step which is subjected to regneration has a low ph and hence can dissolve more lime thereby increasing the lime utilization efficiency. In the regeneration procedure, a lime slurry is separated into a slurry of coarser lime particles and a second portion which contains very fine lime particles. The main regeneration is accomplished by adding the coarse lime slurry to the scrubber bleed. Due to the low ph in this reaction, not all the bisulfite is regenerated to sulfite. However, any remaining bisulfite is regenerated to sulfite in later regeneration steps by reaction with the second portion of the lime slurry in order to precipitate as much calcium as possible in the form of sulfate.

  16. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Marquardt, Allison B.

    2009-07-01

    We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m-2 a-1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m-2 a-1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  17. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs.

  18. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R.; Martinez, Andrew S.; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L.; Wingen, Lisa M.; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R.; Gerber, R. Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine–California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  19. Charles H. Winston and Confederate Sulfuric Acid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riethmiller, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Describes the invention and use of a sulfuric acid chamber by Charles Henry Winston during the Civil War. This invention helped supply munitions for the South. Winston, who was President of the Richmond Female Institute in Virginia, constructed the chamber at his farm and was granted a patent by the Confederate Patent Office in 1863. (PVD)

  20. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOEpatents

    Ludwig, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  1. Sulfur Reduction in Acid Rock Drainage Environments.

    PubMed

    Florentino, Anna P; Weijma, Jan; Stams, Alfons J M; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene

    2015-10-01

    Microbiological suitability of acidophilic sulfur reduction for metal recovery was explored by enriching sulfur reducers from acidic sediments at low pH (from 2 to 5) with hydrogen, glycerol, methanol and acetate as electron donors at 30 °C. The highest levels of sulfide in the enrichments were detected at pH 3 with hydrogen and pH 4 with acetate. Cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed dominance of the deltaproteobacterial sulfur-reducing genus Desulfurella in all the enrichments and subsequently an acidophilic strain (TR1) was isolated. Strain TR1 grew at a broad range of pH (3-7) and temperature (20-50 °C) and showed good metal tolerance (Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+)), especially for Ni(2+) and Pb(2+), with maximal tolerated concentrations of 0.09 and 0.03 mM, respectively. Different sources of sulfur were tested in the enrichments, from which biosulfur showed fastest growth (doubling time of 1.9 days), followed by colloidal, chemical and sublimated sulfur (doubling times of 2.2, 2.5, and 3.6 days, respectively). Strain TR1's physiological traits make it a good candidate to cope with low pH and high metal concentration in biotechnological processes for treatment of metal-laden acidic streams at low and moderately high temperature.

  2. A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minatsuki, Isao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Ishino, Kazuo

    The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO2 gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9m in height, 1.0m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder (slurry

  3. A Development of Ceramics Cylinder Type Sulfuric Acid Decomposer for Thermo-Chemical Iodine-Sulfur Process Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Fukui; Isao Minatsuki; Kazuo Ishino

    2006-07-01

    The hydrogen production method applying thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur process (IS process) which uses a nuclear high temperature gas cooled reactor is world widely greatly concerned from the view point of a combination as a clean method, free carbon dioxide in essence. In this process, it is essential a using ceramic material, especially SiC because a operation condition of this process is very corrosive due to a sulfuric acid atmosphere with high temperature and high pressure. In the IS process, a sulfuric acid decomposer is the key component which performs evaporating of sulfuric acid from liquid to gas and disassembling to SO{sub 2} gas. SiC was selected as ceramic material to apply for the sulfuric acid decomposer and a new type of binding material was also developed for SiC junction. This technology is expected to wide application not only for a sulfuric acid decomposer but also for various type components in this process. Process parameters were provided as design condition for the decomposer. The configuration of the sulfuric acid decomposer was studied, and a cylindrical tubes assembling type was selected. The advantage of this type is applicable for various type of components in the IS process due to manufacturing with using only simple shape part. A sulfuric acid decomposer was divided into two regions of the liquid and the gaseous phase of sulfuric acid. The thermal structural integrity analysis was studied for the liquid phase part. From the result of this analysis, it was investigated that the stress was below the strength of the breakdown probability 1/100,000 at any position, base material or junction part. The prototype model was manufactured, which was a ceramic portion in the liquid phase part, comparatively complicated configuration, of a sulfuric acid decomposer. The size of model was about 1.9 m in height, 1.0 m in width. Thirty-six cylinders including inlet and outlet nozzles were combined and each part article was joined using the new binder

  4. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  5. Heterogeneous Interaction of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate on Liquid Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on liquid sulfuric acid surfaces has been investigated using a fast-flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. PAN was observed to be reversibly adsorbed on sulfuric acid.

  6. Evaluation of some regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for flue gas desulfurization. [Diethylenetriamine, ethylenediamine, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Schwartz, C.H.; Wildman, D.J.; Gasior, S.J.

    1982-07-01

    The vapor pressure of sulfur dioxide above aqueous solutions of citric acid (2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid), glycolic acid (hydroxyacetic acid), 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, ethylenediamine (1,2 diaminoethane), and diethylenetriamine (2,2' diaminodiethylamine), as well as above pure tri-n-butyl phosphate, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and water, were measured for temperatures from 46.2/sup 0/C to 91.1/sup 0/C for possible application to regenerable flue gas desulfurization systems. Sulfur dioxide loadings in the absorbent ranged from 3.1 x 10/sup -5/ to 5.27 x 10/sup -1/ g/g. Measurements were made in a laboratory apparatus using N/sub 2//SO/sub 2/ mixtures. Results were used to estimate the steam rate and principal costs of processes for 11 of the absorbents. For sulfur dioxide absorption followed by indirect steam stripping, a 9.75% ethylenediamine solution had the lowest steam rate. The ethylenediamine steam rate was 25% of the next lowest steam rate, which was for 100% 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. However, cost of losses of ethylenediamine vapor up the stack were excessive, indicating that a higher-boiling-point amine would be preferable.

  7. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  8. Sulfur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, elemental sulfur and the byproduct sulfuric acid were produced at 109 operations in 29 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Total shipments were valued at about $1.6 billion. Elemental sulfur production was 8.2 Mt (9 million st); Louisiana and Texas accounted for about 53 percent of domestic production.

  9. Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

  10. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-10-01

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  11. Sulfur dioxide control (excludes coal burning sources). (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning air pollution control technology and removal of sulfur dioxide from waste streams and atmospheres. Removal methods include flue gas desulfurization by wet or dry sorbents, electron beam processes, corona discharge, reductive gases, microbial processes, and burner injection systems. Applications to utilities, oil refineries, and the metallurgical and chemical industries are described. Control of sulfur dioxide produced from coal burning is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Acute hematologic and hemorheologic effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Baskurt, O.K.

    1988-09-01

    Fifty male rats were exposed to 0.87 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 24 hr. Hematologic and hemorheologic parameters measured in this group were compared with the results of a control group of 51 male rats. Hematocrit values were found to be higher (p less than .005) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (43.55 +/- 0.41%, mean +/- standard error), when compared to the control group value (41.97 +/- 0.35%). Sulfhemoglobin values were also higher (p less than .0001) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (0.60 +/- 0.08%) than the control group (0.08 +/- 0.02%). Osmotic hemolysis ratio was slightly increased (p less than .05) in the 0.55% sodium chloride solution. However, whole blood and packed cell viscosities were lower in the SO/sub 2/-treated animals, while there was no significant difference in the plasma viscosities. The mechanism of these effects could not be clarified completely, but structural and functional effects of SO2 inhalation on peripheral erythrocytes were discussed.

  13. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  14. Sulfur dioxide induced programmed cell death in Vicia guard cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huilan; Yin, Jingjing; Liu, Xin; Jing, Xiuqing; Fan, Sanhong; Zhang, Hufang

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) induced nuclear condensation and nuclear fragmentation and rapid loss of guard cell viability in detached epidermis of Vicia leaves at concentrations of 1 mM and higher (3 h exposure). Caspase inhibitors Z-Asp-CH(2)-DCB (0.1 mM) and TLCK (0.1 mM) markedly suppressed SO(2)-induced cell death. The typical nuclear morphological changes and the inhibition effects of caspase inhibitors suggest the activation of a programmed cell death (PCD) pathway. SO(2)-induced cell death can be blocked by either antioxidants (0.1 mM AsA or 200 U/mL CAT) or Ca(2+) antagonists (0.1mM EGTA or LaCl(3)). AsA and CAT also blocked SO(2)-induced ROS production and [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase. However, EGTA and LaCl(3) can inhibit SO(2)-induced [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase, but cannot suppress SO(2)-induced ROS production. Our results indicate that high concentrations of SO(2) induce guard cell death via a PCD pathway through ROS mediating [Ca(2+)](cyt) elevation, which causes harmful effects to plants.

  15. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  17. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  18. The abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezard, Bruno; De Bergh, Catherine; Fegley, Bruce; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Crisp, David; Owen, Tobias; Pollack, James B.; Grinspoon, David

    1993-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus. Absorption by the 3nu3 band of SO2 near 2.45 microns has been detected in high-resolution spectra of the night side of Venus recorded at the Canada-France Hawaii telescope in 1989 and 1991. The inferred SO2 abundance is 130 +/- 40 ppm at all observed locations and pertains to the 35-45 km region. These values are comparable to those measured by the Pioneer Venus and Venera 11/12 entry probes in 1978. This stability stands in contrast to the apparent massive decrease in SO2 observed at the cloud tops since these space missions. These results are consistent with laboratory and modeling studies of the SO2 destruction rates in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The new spectroscopic technique presented here allows a remote monitoring of the SO2 abundance below the clouds, a likely tracer of Venusian volcanism.

  19. A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

  20. New analytical reagents for the determination of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four solid reagent methods were developed for the determination of sulfur dioxide in air, and one method was developed to measure carbon monoxide. When applied to filter paper with acetamide as the humectant and 4-phenylcyclohexanone as a bisulfite absorbent, oxohydroxybis(8-hydroxyquinolinyl-) vanadium (V) changes from yellow to black in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The three other methods, also on a filter paper support, utilized the reduction of bromate to bromine which then changed 3-,3'-, 5-,5'-tetramethylbenzidine from yellow to blue, phenothiazine from white to green, and 4-dimethylamino-4'-,4/double prime/-dimethoxytriphenylmethanol from colorless to red-purple. Quantitative measurements were made by reflectance spectroscopy. The method for carbon monoxide involved the use of tetrakis (acetamide-) Pd(II) ditetrafluoroborate, sodium iodate, and leuco crystal violet all together on a filter paper support. Carbon monoxide reduced the Pd(II)-acetamide complex to metallic palladium. The metallic palladium then reduced iodate to hypoiodous acid, HOI, which, in turn, oxidized leuco crystal violet to crystal violet. The crystal violet color was then measured by reflectance.

  1. Exposure to sulfuric acid in zinc production.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Haaland, Inger Margrethe; Moen, Bente E; Målsnes, Agnar

    2004-03-01

    This study characterized workers' exposure to sulfuric acid in two cell houses of a zinc production plant. We also aimed at estimating previous exposure to sulfuric acid by simulating the process conditions from before 1975 to produce exposure data for an epidemiological study on cancer in this industry. Further, we compared different sampling methods for aerosols in the cell houses. Personal sampling with a 37 mm Millipore cassette showed that the geometric means of the exposure levels for the workers in the two cell houses were 0.07 mg/m3 (range 0.01-0.48 mg/m3) and 0.04 mg/m3 (range 0.01-0.15 mg/m3). Norway's newly revised limit value of 0.1 mg/m3 was exceeded in 39.0 and 12.9% of the samples in the two cell houses. After the foam layer was removed from the electrolyte surface to simulate the production process from before 1975, the concentration of sulfuric acid increased from 0.11 to 6.04 mg/m3 in stationary measurement by the Millipore sampler. Stationary sampling showed that the Millipore sampler and the inhalable fraction of the Respicon impactor underestimated the sulfuric acid concentration by factors of 1.5 and 2.1 compared with the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler. Sampling with the Respicon impactor showed that the respirable, tracheobronchial and extrathoracic fractions constituted 3.0, 18.7 and 71.7% of the inhalable sulfuric acid aerosol, respectively. Today's exposure levels are lower than those reported to be associated with an increased prevalence of laryngeal cancer in other industries, but the levels prior to 1975 seem to have been much higher. By mass, most of the inhalable aerosol was in the size fractions considered to be highly relevant for the effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system. The risk of cancer among the cell house workers should be investigated in an epidemiological study.

  2. Remote sensing of ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide emissions from cars and trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgard, Daniel Alexander

    This document describes the development of a remote sensor for mobile source ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) based on an instrument previously developed at the University of Denver. Significant optical upgrades allow for the detection of three new species. Detection and quantification of NH3 and SO 2 use wavelengths deeper into the ultraviolet region than previously possible. Currently NH3 is quantified from three peaks at 209 nm, 213 nm, and 217 nm; SO2 from three peaks at 219 nm, 221 nm, and 222 nm; NO2 using the spectral window 430--446 nm. The instrument was demonstrated in the measurement of emissions from both gasoline and diesel light duty vehicles and heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDT). The remote sensor was used for over 20,000 measurements of NH3 and SO2 emissions from motor vehicles in Denver and Tulsa in the summer of 2005. Nitrogen dioxide emissions were measured at the Denver site only. For the first time, on-road vehicle NH3 and SO2 emission trends versus model year were observed. Ammonia is a larger percentage of the exhaust than previously predicted for newer vehicles and its production reaches a maximum with approximately the 1996 model year. NH3 is the first pollutant observed to have lower emissions from the oldest model year. Sulfur dioxide emissions decrease with newer model year vehicles. Nearly 1200 NH3, SO2, and NO2 emission measurements with valid vehicle identification numbers were collected from in-use HDDTs in Golden and Dumont, CO. The Dumont weigh station site allowed emissions to be correlated with gross vehicle weight. No trends were apparent. The Golden site allowed emissions to be correlated with odometer and a trend of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions was apparent even near one million miles, when some vehicles should show lower emissions due to engine rebuild and computer reflash. For the first time HDDT on-road NO x emissions were shown versus vehicle model year and found to reach a

  3. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur...

  4. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur...

  5. Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis: Microbial Karst and Microbial Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A. S.; Bennett, P. C.; Stern, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Sulfuric acid speleogenesis is a fundamental mechanism of karst formation, and is potentially responsible for the formation of some of the most extensive cave systems yet discovered. Speleogenesis occurs from the rapid dissolution of the host limestone by sulfuric acid produced from biotic and abiotic sulfide oxidation, and with the release of carbon dioxide, secondary gypsum crusts form. This crust develops predominately on the cave walls, often preserving original bedding indicators, until it finally collapses under its own weight to expose fresh limestone for dissolution. While this general speleogenetic process can be inferred from secondary residues in some caves, directly observing this process is difficult, and involves entry into an extreme environment with toxic atmospheres and low pH solutions. Kane Cave, Big Horn County, WY, offers the unique opportunity to study microbe-rock interactions directly. Kane Cave presently contains 3 springs that discharge hydrogen sulfide-rich waters, supporting thick subaqueous mats of diverse microbial communities in the stream passage. Condensation droplets and elemental sulfur form on subaerially exposed gypsum surfaces. Droplets have an average pH of 1.7, and are dominated by dissolved sulfate, Ca, Mg, Al, and Si, with minor Sr and Fe, and trace Mn and U. SEM and EDS examination of the crusts reveal the presence of C, O, and S, as well as authigenic, doubly-terminated quartz crystals. An average δ 13C value of -36 ‰ suggests that the crusts are biogenic and are composed of chemoautotrophic microorganisms. Enrichment cultures of biofilms and acid droplets rapidly produce sulfuric acid, demonstrating the dominance of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Colonization of gypsum surfaces by acidophilic microorganisms enhances acid dissolution of the limestone, and hence the growth of the cave itself. Limestone dissolution also results in mineralized crusts and biofilms that accumulate insoluble residues, which serve as sources of

  6. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

  7. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

  8. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid in an Aqueous Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Alicia; Hernandez, Willie; Suarez, Marco F.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of some parameters on sulfurous acid and sulfur oxidation kinetics such as initial concentration of sulfurous acid, oxygen, TiO[2] crystalline concentration, the power of black light, and quantity of TiO[2] is investigated. The experiments can be performed in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory with an inexpensive…

  9. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2002-10-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  11. Microwave investigation of sulfuric acid monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Fiacco, Denise L; Hunt, Sherri W; Leopold, Kenneth R

    2002-04-24

    The complex H2SO4-H2O has been observed by rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic jet. A-type spectra for 18 isotopic forms have been analyzed, and the vibrationally averaged structure of the system has been determined. The complex forms a distorted, six-membered ring with the water unit acting as both a hydrogen bond donor and a hydrogen bond acceptor toward the sulfuric acid. One of the H2SO4 protons forms a short, direct hydrogen bond to the water oxygen, with an H...O distance of 1.645(5) A and an O-H...O angle of 165.2(4) degrees. Additionally, the orientation of the water suggests a weaker, secondary hydrogen bond between one of the H2O hydrogens and a nearby S=O oxygen on the sulfuric acid, with an O...H distance of 2.05(1) A and an O-H...O angle of 130.3(5) degrees. The experimentally determined structure is in excellent agreement with previously published DFT studies. Experiments with HOD in the jet reveal the formation of only isotopomers involving deuterium in the secondary hydrogen bond, providing direct experimental evidence for the secondary H...O interaction. Extensive isotopic substitution has also permitted a re-determination of the structure of the H2SO4 unit within the complex. The hydrogen-bonding OH bond of the sulfuric acid elongates by 0.07(2) A relative to that in free H2SO4, and the S=O bond involved in the secondary interaction stretches by 0.04(1) A. These changes reflect substantial distortion of the H2SO4 moiety in response to only a single water molecule, and prior to the proton transfer event. Spectral data indicate that the complex undergoes at least one, and probably more than one type of internal motion. Although the sulfuric acid in this work was produced from direct reaction of SO3 and water in the jet, experiments with H2(18)O indicate that about 2-3% of the acid is formed via processes not normally associated with the gas-phase hydration of SO3.

  12. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  13. Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

  14. Synthesis of long-chain polyketide fragments by reaction of 1,3-dioxy-1,3-dienes with allylsilanes: umpolung with sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Turks, Māris; Fonquerne, Freddy; Vogel, Pierre

    2004-03-18

    [reaction: see text] In the presence of a Lewis or protic acid and at low temperature, 1,3-dioxy-1,3-dienes add to sulfur dioxide generating zwitterionic intermediates that can react with carbon nucleophiles such as allylsilanes. After a retro-ene elimination of SO(2), valuable polyketide precursors are obtained.

  15. Sulfur cathodes with hydrogen reduced titanium dioxide inverse opal structure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng; Zheng, Guangyuan; Li, Weiyang; Seh, Zhi Wei; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-27

    Sulfur is a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries with a high specific capacity of 1675 mAh/g. The rapid capacity fading, however, presents a significant challenge for the practical application of sulfur cathodes. Two major approaches that have been developed to improve the sulfur cathode performance include (a) fabricating nanostructured conductive matrix to physically encapsulate sulfur and (b) engineering chemical modification to enhance binding with polysulfides and, thus, to reduce their dissolution. Here, we report a three-dimensional (3D) electrode structure to achieve both sulfur physical encapsulation and polysulfides binding simultaneously. The electrode is based on hydrogen reduced TiO2 with an inverse opal structure that is highly conductive and robust toward electrochemical cycling. The relatively enclosed 3D structure provides an ideal architecture for sulfur and polysulfides confinement. The openings at the top surface allow sulfur infusion into the inverse opal structure. In addition, chemical tuning of the TiO2 composition through hydrogen reduction was shown to enhance the specific capacity and cyclability of the cathode. With such TiO2 encapsulated sulfur structure, the sulfur cathode could deliver a high specific capacity of ∼1100 mAh/g in the beginning, with a reversible capacity of ∼890 mAh/g after 200 cycles of charge/discharge at a C/5 rate. The Coulombic efficiency was also maintained at around 99.5% during cycling. The results showed that inverse opal structure of hydrogen reduced TiO2 represents an effective strategy in improving lithium sulfur batteries performance. PMID:24766547

  16. Sulfur cathodes with hydrogen reduced titanium dioxide inverse opal structure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng; Zheng, Guangyuan; Li, Weiyang; Seh, Zhi Wei; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-27

    Sulfur is a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries with a high specific capacity of 1675 mAh/g. The rapid capacity fading, however, presents a significant challenge for the practical application of sulfur cathodes. Two major approaches that have been developed to improve the sulfur cathode performance include (a) fabricating nanostructured conductive matrix to physically encapsulate sulfur and (b) engineering chemical modification to enhance binding with polysulfides and, thus, to reduce their dissolution. Here, we report a three-dimensional (3D) electrode structure to achieve both sulfur physical encapsulation and polysulfides binding simultaneously. The electrode is based on hydrogen reduced TiO2 with an inverse opal structure that is highly conductive and robust toward electrochemical cycling. The relatively enclosed 3D structure provides an ideal architecture for sulfur and polysulfides confinement. The openings at the top surface allow sulfur infusion into the inverse opal structure. In addition, chemical tuning of the TiO2 composition through hydrogen reduction was shown to enhance the specific capacity and cyclability of the cathode. With such TiO2 encapsulated sulfur structure, the sulfur cathode could deliver a high specific capacity of ∼1100 mAh/g in the beginning, with a reversible capacity of ∼890 mAh/g after 200 cycles of charge/discharge at a C/5 rate. The Coulombic efficiency was also maintained at around 99.5% during cycling. The results showed that inverse opal structure of hydrogen reduced TiO2 represents an effective strategy in improving lithium sulfur batteries performance.

  17. Sighting of el chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Krueger, A J

    1983-06-24

    The eruptions of El Chichón volcano on 28 March and 3 and 4 April 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong absorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelengths of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nanometers). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 meters per second. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide absorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on 3 and 4 April is 3.3 x 10(6) tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  18. Effect of water treatment chemicals on limestone/sulfur dioxide reaction in flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, E.R.; Gaikwad, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    A simple laboratory test has been developed which simulates the reaction between limestone/water and sulfur dioxide in flue gas desulfurization systems. By adding various chemicals, in differing concentrations, to the limestone/water mixture, the quantitative impact on the sulfur dioxide/limestone reaction can be qualified and quantified. This paper will present the impact of several water treatment chemicals on the reaction of limestone and sulfur dioxide. An attempt has been made to predict the effect through mathematical correlations. All of the additive chemicals tend to decrease the rate of dissolution of limestone to various degrees. Some of the chemicals retard crystal growth thus adversely impacting solids separation in the thickener. The physical appearance of the crystal growth retarded limestone absorber slurry approaches a colloidal suspension.

  19. Anomalous Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide and Seismicity of San Miguel Volcano, EL Salvador in October, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Hernández, A.; Cartagena, R.; Henríquez, B.; López, D.; Cárdenas, C.; Galle, B.

    2007-12-01

    San Miguel (also known as Chaparrastique) volcano in eastern El Salvador is located 15 km southwest of the city of San Miguel. This volcano has erupted more than 30 times since 1699, with the last gas and ash emission on January 16, 2002. During 2006, San Miguel presented anomalous gas emissions and seismicity. In this work, the seismic parameters reported by SNET (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales de El Salvador) and the crater gas emissions measured by researchers of the University of El Salvador are compared. For the gas efflux, two types of measurements were done using the Mini-DOAS system (Galle et al., 2002): transects around the crater perimeter (~100 m) and transects following roads located between 5 and 10 km from the crater. Several measurements between October 2005 and May 2006 indicate that the sulfur dioxide efflux during quiet periods is around 20 ton/day. From May to June 2006, a progressive increase in fumarolic activity and noise from gas emissions were observed. From May to August 2006, the sulfur dioxide emissions increased to 60 ton/day. A seismic crisis started on October 9, 2006, increasing the RSAM from 10-20 to 208 on October 10, 2006. During this time, the sulfur dioxide efflux reached a maximum of 492 ton/day. This increase in sulfur dioxide efflux represents 25 times the basic emissions during the previous quiet period and 8 times the values observed from May to August 2006. The correlation coefficient between sulfur dioxide efflux and RSAM values during this period of time was 0.81, which is statistically significant at a level higher than 99.9% . These anomalous changes in seismicity and sulfur dioxide emissions at San Miguel volcano suggest a magmatic reactivation with an increase in the exsolution of magma volatiles, long period seismic events, and volcanic tremor.

  20. Forage quality of western wheatgrass exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Milchunas, D.G.; Lauenroth, W.K.; Dodd, J.L.

    1981-07-01

    Effects of three exposure levels of SO/sub 2/ (55, 100, and 170 ..mu..m/sup -3/) on the nutritive value of western wheatgrass were investigated. Significant increases in plant sulfur content were observed, both with time and level of SO/sub 2/ exposure. Plant ash content paralled the trends observed for sulfur concentrations. Nitrogen concentrations in western wheatgrass were not affected by SO/sub 2/ treatments. The increased plant sulfur content and decreased N:S ratios across treatments did not significantly affect forage digestibility as measured by in vitro digestible dry matter.

  1. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  2. Protective effects of seabuckthorn seed oil on mouse injury induced by sulfur dioxide inhalation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Aidong; Min, Hang; Meng, Ziqiang; Lü, Zhenmei

    2003-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common but important air pollutant. Micronuclei (MN) in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow and the ratio between organ and body weight of treatment mouse were determined and analyzed in vivo in order to study injury of sulfur dioxide inhalation on organs and germ plasm of mouse as well as protective effect of seabuckthorn seed oil against this injury. It was showed that SO2 inhalation induced the change of the ratio between organ and body of mouse organs, such as liver, lung, kidney, and spleen, and a significant increase of number of MNPCE, while seabuckthorn seed oil offered a protection against such injury.

  3. Heterogeneous Interactions of Acetaldehyde and Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L. T.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] by aqueous sulfuric acid has been studied via Knudsen cell experiments over ranges of temperature (210-250 K) and acid concentration (40-80 wt. %) representative of the upper troposphere. The Henry's law constants for acetaldehyde calculated from these data range from 6 x 10(exp 2) M/atm for 40 wt. % H2SO4 at 228 K to 2 x 10(exp 5) M/atm for 80 wt. % H2SO4 at 212 K. In some instances, acetaldehyde uptake exhibits apparent steady-state loss. The possible sources of this behavior, including polymerization, will be explored. Furthermore, the implications for heterogeneous reactions of aldehydes in sulfate aerosols in the upper troposphere will be discussed.

  4. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc... percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as...

  5. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc... percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as...

  6. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc... percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as...

  7. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc... percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as...

  8. Sulfuric acid vapor and other cloud-related gases in the Venus atmosphere - Abundances inferred from observed radio opacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, P. G.; Eshleman, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that the absorbing characteristics of sulfuric acid vapor appear to reconcile what had been thought to be an inconsistency among measurements and deductions regarding the constituents of the Venus atmosphere and radio occultation, radar reflection, and radio emission measurements of its opacity. Laboratory measurements of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, water vapor, and carbon dioxide are used to model relative contributions to opacity as a function of height in a way that is consistent with observations of the constituents and absorbing properties of the atmosphere. It is concluded that sulfuric acid vapor is likely to be the principal microwave absorber in the 30-50 km altitude range of the middle atmosphere of Venus.

  9. Sulfur dioxide control: Sulfur dioxide from coal-burning sources. May 1986-September 1989 (Citations from the NTIS database). Report for May 1986-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning air pollution control technology and various means for desulfurization of coal-combustion streams. These means include fluidized-bed and other combustion modifications, and the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas. Proper monitoring of the effluent to meet the established atmospheric standards is also discussed. Applications in power plants, steam boilers, furnaces, kilns, and gas turbines are presented. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  10. Materials study supporting thermochemical hydrogen cycle sulfuric acid decomposer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Michael S.

    Increasing global climate change has been driven by greenhouse gases emissions originating from the combustion of fossil fuels. Clean burning hydrogen has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuels used today reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. The sulfur iodine and hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles coupled with high temperature heat from advanced nuclear reactors have shown promise for economical large-scale hydrogen fuel stock production. Both of these cycles employ a step to decompose sulfuric acid to sulfur dioxide. This decomposition step occurs at high temperatures in the range of 825°C to 926°C dependent on the catalysis used. Successful commercial implementation of these technologies is dependent upon the development of suitable materials for use in the highly corrosive environments created by the decomposition products. Boron treated diamond film was a potential candidate for use in decomposer process equipment based on earlier studies concluding good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. However, little information was available relating the interactions of diamond and diamond films with sulfuric acid at temperatures greater than 350°C. A laboratory scale sulfuric acid decomposer simulator was constructed at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The simulator was capable of producing the temperatures and corrosive environments that process equipment would be exposed to for industrialization of the sulfur iodide or hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles. A series of boron treated synthetic diamonds were tested in the simulator to determine corrosion resistances and suitability for use in thermochemical process equipment. These studies were performed at twenty four hour durations at temperatures between 600°C to 926°C. Other materials, including natural diamond, synthetic diamond treated with titanium, silicon carbide, quartz, aluminum nitride, and Inconel

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  12. Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

  13. Total sulfate vs. sulfuric acid monomer concenterations in nucleation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, K.; Brus, D.; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Sarnela, N.; Jokinen, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-03-01

    Sulfuric acid is known to be a key component for atmospheric nucleation. Precise determination of sulfuric-acid concentration is a crucial factor for prediction of nucleation rates and subsequent growth. In our study, we have noticed a substantial discrepancy between sulfuric-acid monomer concentrations and total-sulfate concentrations measured from the same source of sulfuric-acid vapor. The discrepancy of about 1-2 orders of magnitude was found with similar particle-formation rates. To investigate this discrepancy, and its effect on nucleation, a method of thermally controlled saturator filled with pure sulfuric acid (97% wt.) for production of sulfuric-acid vapor is applied and rigorously tested. The saturator provided an independent vapor-production method, compared to our previous method of the furnace (Brus et al., 2010, 2011), to find out if the discrepancy is caused by the production method itself. The saturator was used in a H2SO4-H2O nucleation experiment, using a laminar flow tube to check reproducibility of the nucleation results with the saturator method, compared to the furnace. Two independent methods of mass spectrometry and online ion chromatography were used for detecting sulfuric-acid or sulfate concentrations. Measured sulfuric-acid or total-sulfate concentrations are compared to theoretical predictions calculated using vapor pressure and a mixing law. The calculated prediction of sulfuric-acid concentrations agrees very well with the measured values when total sulfate is considered. Sulfuric-acid monomer concentration was found to be about 2 orders of magnitude lower than theoretical predictions, but with a temperature dependency similar to the predictions and the results obtained with the ion-chromatograph method. Formation rates are reproducible when compared to our previous results with both sulfuric-acid or total-sulfate detection and sulfuric-acid production methods separately, removing any doubts that the vapor-production method would

  14. Accurate prototype remote sensing of correlated carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions at Mt.Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solvejg Dinger, Anna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Butz, André; Fischerkeller, Marie-Constanze; Giudice, Gaetano; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Kuhn, Jonas; Liuzzo, Marco; Lübcke, Peter; Tirpitz, Lukas; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have a direct as well as indirect impact on climate and air quality. Moreover these two gases, and in particular their ratio, are tracers for dynamic processes inside volcanoes. Hence they can give direct information about volcanic activity. Semi-continuous in-situ measurements of CO2 and SO2 have been conducted for only a decade, demonstrating the great potential of such data. More than once it could be shown that the CO2/SO2 ratio increases and then drops before an eruption. However, in-situ measurements are linked with great effort and risk due to the difficult environment, which might also result in sheer impossibility. Remote sensing of volcanic emissions allows for monitoring a volcano's activity from a safe distance to the volcano and thus generally under less difficult ambient conditions. This means in turn less effort and cost, even employing a more cost intense instrument. Further, remote sensing enables sampling of cross sections of the entire plume thus, suffering less from representativeness errors than the in-situ technique. Remote sensing of SO2 is already well developed, whereas the measurement of CO2 is challenged by the high background concentration and therefore required high accuracy in order to measure little concentration enhancements in the volcanic plume. To overcome this challenge, we employed combined direct sunlight spectroscopy for SO2 and CO2. Two spectrometers (a UV-spectrometer for SO2 and a FTIR-spectrometer for CO2) were coupled into the beam of a common sun tracker. The whole setup was installed on a mobile platform, which allowed for sampling plume cross sections in a stop-and-go pattern. Measurements were conducted during a three-week campaign at Mt.Etna, Sicily. We measured enhancements of the averaged CO2 mixing ratio up to 0.5-1 ppm (2.5x1019 molec cm-2 CO2 column enhancement) and SO2 column enhancements up to 4x1018 molec cm-2. CO2 and SO2 emissions showed a

  15. Solubility of HCL in sulfuric acid at stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Leah R.; Golden, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid was measured using a Knudsen cell technique. Effective Henry's law constants are reported for sulfuric acid concentrations between 50 and 60 weight percent and for temperatures between 220 and 230 K. The measured values indicate that very little HCl will be dissolved in the stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.

  16. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  17. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  18. Sulfur dioxide oxidation induced mechanistic branching and particle formation during the ozonolysis of β-pinene and 2-butene.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Philip T M; Keunecke, Claudia; Krüger, Bastian C; Maaß, Mona-C; Zeuch, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the reaction of stabilised Criegee Intermediates (CIs) with sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), leading to the formation of a carbonyl compound and sulfur trioxide, is a relevant atmospheric source of sulfuric acid. Here, the significance of this pathway has been examined by studying the formation of gas phase products and aerosol during the ozonolysis of β-pinene and 2-butene in the presence of SO(2) in the pressure range of 10 to 1000 mbar. For β-pinene at atmospheric pressure, the addition of SO(2) suppresses the formation of the secondary ozonide and leads to highly increased nopinone yields. A complete consumption of SO(2) is observed at initial SO(2) concentrations below the yield of stabilised CIs. In experiments using 2-butene a significant consumption of SO(2) and additional formation of acetaldehyde are observed at 1 bar. A consistent kinetic simulation of the experimental findings is possible when a fast CI + SO(2) reaction rate in the range of recent direct measurements [Welz et al., Science, 2012, 335, 204] is used. For 2-butene the addition of SO(2) drastically increases the observed aerosol yields at higher pressures. Below 60 mbar the SO(2) oxidation induced particle formation becomes inefficient pointing to the critical role of collisional stabilisation for sulfuric acid controlled nucleation at low pressures.

  19. The Sulfur Dioxide Plume from the February 26, 2000 Eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The February 2000 fissure eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland was captured in sulfur dioxide data from the Earth Probe TOMS. A special algorithm is used to discriminate sulfur dioxide from ozone. The eruption began at 18:19 GMT on February 26, 2000 and was first viewed by TOMS at 09:55 GMT on February 27. The volcanic cloud at that time appeared as a very long and narrow arc extending west from the volcano in southern Iceland, then north across Greenland, and finally east towards Norway. The cloud altitude was reported from aircraft sightings and data to be above 10 km. The circulation of a ridge located north of Iceland produced the large arc shaped cloud. As the eruption is non-explosive the high altitude cloud contains little ash. Almost all the ash from the eruption fell out locally across Iceland. By February 29, the sulfur dioxide cloud had drifted eastward in a band along the Barents Sea coast of Norway and Russia. The analysis includes an assessment of the initial sulfur dioxide content and its rate of conversion to sulfate.

  20. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  1. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  4. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.6 Penalties for excess emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.5 Deduction of allowances to...

  6. Using pH of homogenated needles for assessing the influence of sulfur dioxide on pine

    SciTech Connect

    Vasfilov, S.P.

    1995-09-01

    The total increase and change in the homogenate pH ratio of the apical and basal parts of pine needles under conditions of permanent air pollution by sulfur dioxide are shown. It is proposed to use this index for diagnosing pine state. 16 refs., 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide in the United States: Can the Standards be Justified or Afforded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megonnell, William H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent reviews have concluded that there is no basis for changing the standards set by the EPA in 1971, even though the data base was insufficient then for a quantifiable, scientific definition of clean air. Examination of data shows that the United States does not have a sulfur dioxide problem. (Author/BT)

  8. Acute effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on the middle ear mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Esaki, Y.

    1989-04-01

    A variety of atmospheric pollutants are known to depress mucociliary function in the respiratory system. Since the mucociliary function in the middle ear is similar, and the middle ear may be invaded by atmospheric pollutants, we decided to investigate the possible contribution of sulfur dioxide to middle ear effusion. Guinea pigs were exposed for 24 hours to 300 ppm of sulfur dioxide or air. Immediately after exposure, ciliary activity and epithelial structure were examined close to the tympanic orifice (proximal site) and more distal to it (distal site). In the animals exposed to sulfur dioxide, no effusion was found in the tympanic cavity. Ciliary activity was reduced only in the distal site. Electron microscopy demonstrated hypersecretion in the proximal site and severe pathologic changes in the distal site. Although the normally functioning cilia in the proximal site may prevent retention of surplus secretions in the ear, sulfur dioxide may promote middle ear effusion when combined with other detrimental factors, because it stimulates mucus secretion in the proximal site and impairs ciliary function in the distal site.

  9. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS OVER THE EASTERN U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission reductions were mandated in the Clean Air Art Amendments of 1990 with the expectation that they would result in corresponding reductions in air pollution. The 1990 amendments include new requirements that appreciably reduced sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in two phases o...

  10. ENHANCEMENT OF REACTIVITY IN SURFACTANT-MODIFIED SORBENTS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injection of calcium-based sorbents into the postflame zone of utility boilers is capable of achieving sulfur dioxide (SO2) captures of 50-60% at a stoichiometry of 2. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] appears to be the most effective commercially available sorbent. Recent attempts to ...

  11. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., process source, reference method, refuse, residual fuel oil, solid fuel, stack, standard conditions... sulfur dioxide (SO2) that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating within the Indian... applies to any person who owns or operates an air pollution source that emits, or could emit, SO2 to...

  12. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., process source, reference method, refuse, residual fuel oil, solid fuel, stack, standard conditions... sulfur dioxide (SO2) that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating within the Indian... applies to any person who owns or operates an air pollution source that emits, or could emit, SO2 to...

  13. 78 FR 17915 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... availability published February 15, 2013 (78 FR 11124) must be received on or before April 8, 2013. Please... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations... comment period for the EPA's responses to state and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010...

  14. Sulfur dioxide-releasing perforated plastic liners to control postharvest gray mold of Redglobe table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, limits the duration of table grape storage. Periodic sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation and in-package SO2 generating pads are two common strategies that protect grapes after harvest. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of packaging Redglobe grapes i...

  15. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.5 Deduction of allowances to...

  16. Application of long range transport models to New York State's sulfur dioxide emissions policy

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, P.; Sistla, G.; Hovey, H.; Rao, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    During 1983 and 1984 the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) analyzed various options for a sulfur dioxide emissions policy and prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). The environmental impact of sulfur dioxide emissions that was of major interest was the acidification of surface waters by the deposition of sulfur compunds in areas that are sensitive to such acidification because of a lack of natural buffering. A significant portion of the preparation of this DEIS centered around determining the contribution that New York State sources make to the deposition of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate at a number of locations in Northeastern North America. This paper describes the application of two long range transport models to determine the contribution of SO/sub 2/ emission sources within and outside New York State to total sulfur deposition at the locations of interest. Also discussed is the subsequent use of this data in the development of a policy of sulfur dioxide emission reductions for New York State.

  17. THE CARBON DIOXIDE LEAKAGE FROM CHAMBERS MEASURED USING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In plant chamber studies, if Co2 leaking from a chamber is not quantified, it can lead to an overestimate of assimilation rates and an underestimate of respiration rates: consequently, it is critical that Co2 leakage be determined. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) was introduced into t...

  18. Sulfur Dioxide Plume from Mt. Etna Eruption 2002 as Detected with AIRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Mt. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, 2002. Preliminary analysis of data taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 28 shows the instrument can provide an excellent means to study the evolution and structure of the sulfur dioxide plume emitted from volcanoes. These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of sulfur dioxide injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future.

    The image clearly shows the sulfur dioxide plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to sulfur dioxide. By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the sulfur dioxide feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Sulfur dioxide content of Mount St. Helens' ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschler, C. J.

    1984-06-01

    A rapid heating (980 C)-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique was developed to measure the SO2 produced from Mount St. Helens' ash collected after the May 18, 1980, eruption. The average values of evolved SO2 for ash samples from Moses Lake, Missoula, and Helena are 215, 800, and 1250 ppm, respectively. The results suggest that the SO2 is associated primarily with new magmatic material. Experiments indicate that the SO2 is not due to sulfate species scavenged from the eruption plume or to sulfur gases adsorbed on the ash. Other possible sources include reduction of sulfate salts within the ash, bubbles of SO2 trapped within the ash, or sulfur blebs contained in the ash. Approximately as much SO2 or SO2 precursors are associated with the ash as Mount St. Helens' injected into the stratosphere.

  20. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  1. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  2. Sulfur and hydrogen isotope anomalies in meteorite sulfonic acids.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G W; Thiemens, M H; Jackson, T L; Chang, S

    1997-08-22

    Intramolecular carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were measured on a homologous series of organic sulfonic acids discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionations were observed along with high deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low-temperature environment that is consistent with that of interstellar clouds. Sulfur-33 enrichments observed in methanesulfonic acid could have resulted from gas-phase ultraviolet irradiation of a precursor, carbon disulfide. The source of the sulfonic acid precursors may have been the reactive interstellar molecule carbon monosulfide.

  3. Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Meteorite Sulfonic Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Teresa L.; Chang, Sherwood

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were measured on a homologous series of organic sulfonic acids discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionations were observed along with high deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low-temperature environment that is consistent with that of interstellar clouds. Sulfur-33 enrichments observed in methanesulfonic acid could have resulted from gas-phase ultraviolet irradiation of a precursor, carbon disulfide. The source of the sulfonic acid precursors may have been the reactive interstellar molecule carbon monosulfide.

  4. Biomass hydrolysis with sulfur dioxide and water in the region of the critical point

    SciTech Connect

    Converse, A.O.; Roy, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    Solutions of 1% to 33% water in sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), above or near the critical point, were used to hydrolyze the cellulose in wood to glucose. SO/sub 2/ was chosen because its critical temperature, 157.5/sup 0/C, is within the range where the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose proceeds rapidly. Furthermore, dilute SO/sub 2/ solutions catalyze cellulose hydrolysis. Batch experiments were conducted in a one-liter, stirred Parr reactor which, due to its mass, has long heat-up (50 min.) and cool-down (20 min.) times. The water content, for supercritical work, was constrained to less than 10% by the reactor pressure limitations. The maximum glucose yields (glucose obtained/potential glucose x 100) were 42% from delignified wood (Solka-Floc) and 26% from mixed hardwood flour under subcritical conditions. Under supercritical conditions, a maximum glucose yield of 2% was obtained and the residual solids were charred, indicating over-reaction. To overcome the batch reactor's limitations, a flow-through percolation reactor has been built and experiments with shorter reaction times are being performed.

  5. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m3/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g−1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

  6. Exploring the Capabilities of Satellite Observation of Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in the Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; He, H.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities, such as fuel combustion, oil refining, and metal smelting, emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL), leading to air quality degradation near the source regions. SO2 in the air is oxidized to form sulfate aerosols, which may have a significant impact on regional air quality and climate. Sulfate aerosols are usually removed from the atmosphere through acid deposition, which can damage the environment and ecosystems. SO2 and sulfate aerosols are sometimes lifted into the middle or upper troposphere and subsequently transported over long distances, affecting remote regions. Space-borne UV instruments, such as Aura/OMI, MetOp/GOME-2, and NPP/OMPS, provide a unique perspective on the spatial and temporal distribution of SO2 over the globe. In this presentation, we will describe the recent advances in retrieval algorithm that provide improved detection and quantification of PBL SO2, and compare the new retrievals with the operational OMI SO2 products to show significant reduction in noise and bias. We will also present validation results obtained by the comparisons with co-located in-situ aircraft measurements to illustrate improved accuracy achieved with the advanced algorithm.

  7. Thiol activated prodrugs of sulfur dioxide (SO2) as MRSA inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pardeshi, Kundansingh A; Malwal, Satish R; Banerjee, Ankita; Lahiri, Surobhi; Rangarajan, Radha; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2015-07-01

    Drug resistant infections are becoming common worldwide and new strategies for drug development are necessary. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of 2,4-dinitrophenylsulfonamides, which are donors of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a reactive sulfur species, as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) inhibitors. N-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-2,4-dinitro-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide (5e) was found to have excellent in vitro MRSA inhibitory potency. This compound is cell permeable and treatment of MRSA cells with 5e depleted intracellular thiols and enhanced oxidative species both results consistent with a mechanism involving thiol activation to produce SO2. PMID:25981687

  8. Opacity of monodisperse sulfuric acid aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat, Michael J.; Wilder, James M.

    The plume opacity and droplet diameters of a monodisperse sulfuric acid aerosol were calculated as a function of the initial H 2SO 4 concentration, initial H 2O concentration and final gas temperature after cooling from an original stack gas temperature of 300°C. Calculation assumptions include heterogeneous heteromolecular condensation of H 2SO 4 and H 2O onto monodisperse nuclei of 0.05 μm dia., three aerosol particle nuclei concentrations of 10 6, 10 7 and 10 8 cm -3 (at 300°C and 760 mm Hg); and a stack or plume diameter of 6 m. The calculated results show that for the conditions considered and with the stack temperatures in excess of 125°C, initial H 2SO 4 stack gas concentrations of 10ppm or less will result in calculated opacities of less than 20 % for a plume diameter of 6 m. The results show that the calculated opacity is significantly affected by the initial H 2SO 4 and initial H 2O concentrations and the final gas temperature. The increases in the calculated opacities upon cooling of the stack gases are similar in general to the increases in the measured opacities between instack and outstack reported by Nader and Conner (1978) for an oil-fired boiler.

  9. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; McGimsey, R.G.; Gardner, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the gas plume emitted from fumaroles in the summit crater of Redoubt Volcano were started on March 20, 1990 using the COSPEC method. During the latter half of the period of intermittent dome growth and destruction, between March 20 and mid-June 1990, sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from approximately 1250 to 5850 t/d, rates notably higher than for other convergent-plate boundary volcanoes during periods of active dome growth. Emission rates following the end of dome growth from late June 1990 through May 1991 decreased steadily to less than 75 t/d. The largest mass of sulfur dioxide was released during the period of explosive vent clearing when explosive degassing on December 14-15 injected at least 175,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2 into the atmosphere. Following the explosive eruptions of December 1989, Redoubt Volcano entered a period of intermittent dome growth from late December 1989 to mid-June 1990 during which Redoubt emitted a total mass of SO2 ranging from 572,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes to 680,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes. From mid-June 1990 through May 1991, the volcano was in a state of posteruption degassing into the troposphere, producing approximately 183,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2. We estimate that Redoubt Volcano released a minimum mass of sulfur dioxide of approximately 930,000 tonnes. While COSPEC data were not obtained frequently enough to enable their use in eruption prediction, SO2 emission rates clearly indicated a consistent decline in emission rates between March through October 1990 and a continued low level of emission rates through the first half of 1991. Values from consecutive daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates spanning the March 23, 1990 eruption decreased in the three days prior to eruption. That decrease was coincident with a several-fold increase in the frequency of shallow seismic events, suggesting partial sealing of the magma conduit to gas loss that resulted in

  10. Systematization of published spectral data on sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, S. S.; Akhlestin, A. Yu.; Kozodoev, A. V.; Lavrentiev, N. A.; Privezentsev, A. I.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Naumenko, O. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents a description of properties of published spectral data on spectral lines' parameters of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues. These data were acquired from more than 150 publications for a period of 50 years. Data properties as well as data sources classification according to validity and trust criteria are presented in a form of an ontological knowledge base on information resources. Data source properties values are computed during the assessment of validity and trust1. Published ro-vibrational transitions, energy levels, spectral lines' parameters, knowledge base on information resources of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues are available in the Internet accessible information system W@DIS (http://wadis.saga.iao.ru/).

  11. Synthesis of cyclic sulfites from epoxides and sulfur dioxide with silica-immobilized homogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yasumasa; Kiyosu, Takahiro; Mori, Goro; Choi, Jun-Chul; Fukaya, Norihisa; Sakakura, Toshiyasu; Yasuda, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium- and amino-functionalized silica catalysts have been prepared for the selective synthesis of cyclic sulfites from epoxides and sulfur dioxide, demonstrating the effects of immobilizing the homogeneous catalysts on silica. The cycloaddition of sulfur dioxide to various epoxides was conducted under solvent-free conditions at 100 °C. The quaternary ammonium- and amino-functionalized silica catalysts produced cyclic sulfites in high yields (79-96 %) that are comparable to those produced by the homogeneous catalysts. The functionalized silica catalysts could be separated from the product solution by filtration, thereby avoiding the catalytic decomposition of the cyclic sulfite products upon distillation of the product solution. Heterogenization of a homogeneous catalyst by immobilization can, therefore, improve the efficiency of the purification of crude reaction products. Despite a decrease in catalytic activity after each recycling step, the heterogeneous pyridine-functionalized silica catalyst provided high yields after as many as five recycling processes.

  12. Changes in pulmonary lavage fluid of guinea pigs exposed to ultrafine zinc oxide with adsorbed sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, M.W.; Flood, W.H.; Rogers, A.E.; Amdur, M.O.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrafine metal oxide particles (diameters less than 0.1 microns) and sulfur dioxide are important products of coal combustion. Interaction of these products in the effluent stream results in formation of ultrafine particles with adsorbed sulfur compounds, including sulfuric acid. The toxicity of ultrafine zinc oxide particles with adsorbed sulfuric acid was evaluated by comparing pulmonary lavage fluid from guinea pigs exposed for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 consecutive daily 3-h periods to ultrafine zinc oxide generated in the presence of sulfur dioxide (ZnO + SO/sub 2/) to pulmonary lavage fluid from guinea pigs exposed to an equivalent concentration of ultrafine ZnO. Two groups of guinea pigs exposed either to SO/sub 2/ or to particle-free furnace gas served as additional controls. Cells, protein, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase were increased in lavage fluid obtained from guinea pigs exposed to ZnO + SO/sub 2/ as compared to guinea pigs exposed to ZnO. These results demonstrate the potential importance of ultrafine metal oxides as carries of sulfuric acid derived from fossil fuel combustion.

  13. Corrosion of some chromium-nickel steels and alloys in sulfuric acid solutions of sodium sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, D.K.; Glagolenko, Yu.V.; Ermolinskii, S.P.

    1988-05-01

    Steels 12Kh18N1OT and 10Kh17N13M3T and alloys 06KhN28MDT and 46KhNM were studied in sulfuric acid solutions containing sodium sulfite and sulfur dioxide to determine the effects of different concentrations of the corrosive constituents on the anodic and cathodic active and passive corrosion behavior of the metals. Polarization curves were obtained with a P-5827 M potentiostat. Addition of sulfite facilitated both electrode processes and the region of the reactive state was broadened due to the shift of passivation potentials to more positive values. The activating effect of sulfite reduction products were confirmed by tests of alloys in spent solutions. This increased likelihood of activation and the decrease of the solutions's own corrosion potential were both attributed to retardation of the cathodic process by lower valence sulfur compounds.

  14. Effects of sulfur-dioxide and selected nutrient solutions upon western wheatgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Bicak, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is a key component of emissions from coal burning power plants. The effect of SO/sub 2/ upon dominant vegetation in the northern mixed prairie, an area in which production and burning of coal are expected to expand, is of considerable importance. Western wheatgrass plants (Agropyron smithii Rydb.) were maintained in nutrient solutions and exposed to different atmoshperic concentrations of SO/sub 2/ and root medium concentrations of sulfate (SO/sub 4/=) in field experiments. Plants were analyzed at three levels of organization: segments of leaf blades, fully expanded leaf blades and tillers. There were substantial gradients of increasing sulfur concentration from the bases to the tips of individual leaf blades. There was also a general increase in sulfur concentration from the youngest to the oldest leaf blade. Differences in sulfur concentration of leaf blade segments and leaf blades were not strongly related to SO/sub 2/ and demonstrates recognizable yet variable patterns of sulfur distribution. The objective of the laboratory experiment was to determine the effect of sulfur nutrition on growth of western wheatgrass. Growth was only minimally affected by three nutrient solution concentrations of SO/sub 4/ = (0 mM, 2 mM, and 4mM). It was concluded that the burning of coal and the maintenance of quality grassland dominated by western wheatgrass are compatible.

  15. Effects of sulfur dioxide on resistance to bacterial infection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Azoulay-Dupuis, E.; Bouley, G.; Blayo, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    Continuous exposure to approximately a 10-ppm concentration of sulfur dioxide for periods of up to 3 weeks reduced the resistance of female mice to infection by aerosol inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mortality rate rose and survival time shortened in SO/sub 2/-exposed animals compared to controls. Insofar as these results can be extrapolated to humans, the SO/sub 2/ concentration used in this work is only found on certain industrial premises.

  16. Antitussive activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes on sulfur dioxide induced cough in mice

    PubMed Central

    Marina, G.D.; Kekuda, T.R Prashith; Sudarshan, S.J

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica (Zingiberaceae) was investigated for its antitussive effect on Sulfur dioxide induced cough model in mice. The extract exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependant manner. The activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. The ethanolic extract at the dose of lOOmg. 200mg and 400mg/kg body weight, po, showed 68%, 74% and 79% of inhibition of cough with respect to control group. PMID:22557276

  17. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  18. Ultrasound assisted regioselective sulfonation of aromatic compounds with sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ziyauddin S; Deshmukh, Krishna M; Jagtap, Sachin R; Nandurkar, Nitin S; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2009-03-01

    A simple and convenient methodology for selective sulfonation of aromatic compounds using sulfuric acid under sonication is described. The present methodology shows a considerable enhancement in the reaction rate along with improved selectivity compared with the reactions performed under silent conditions. The effect of various parameters such as agitation speed, sulfuric acid concentration, and temperature on reaction system have been investigated and are explained on the basis of ultrasonically generated cavitational effects. PMID:19014895

  19. Staying hydrated: the molecular journey of gaseous sulfur dioxide to a water surface.

    PubMed

    Shamay, Eric S; Valley, Nicholas A; Moore, Frederick G; Richmond, Geraldine L

    2013-05-14

    A water surface is a dynamic and constantly evolving terrain producing a vast array of unique molecular properties and interactions with chemical species in the environment. The complex dynamics of water surfaces permit life on earth to continue, but also complicate the development of a complete microscopic picture of the specific behaviors that take place within interfacial aqueous environments. This computational study examines a piece of the water puzzle by elucidating the bonding, dynamic interactions, and hydrate structures of sulfur dioxide gas adsorbing to a water cluster. Results described herein address the specific ways in which sulfur dioxide gas molecules bind to a water cluster, and paint a more complete picture of the adsorption pathway than was previously developed from experimental and computational studies. Ab initio molecular dynamics have been employed to study sulfur dioxide and water interactions at two environmentally relevant temperatures on a water cluster. The results of this study on a common environmental and industrially important gas provide molecular insight to aid our understanding of interactions on aqueous surfaces, and gaseous adsorption processes. PMID:23549378

  20. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  1. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process.

  2. Experimental Inhibition of Carbonate Mineral Precipitation by Sulfur Dioxide: Implications for Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, I.; Schrag, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is abundant in terrestrial volcanic emissions and was likely at least as abundant in early martian emissions. Recent photochemical studies indicate that during episodes of vigorous volcanic activity, the atmospheric lifetime of SO2 may have been sufficiently long for it to have helped maintain liquid water on the surface of Mars and perhaps to have regulated the climate through a negative feedback between the atmospheric abundance of SO2 and the rate of chemical weathering of silicate minerals. Here we show experimentally, that atmospheric SO2 concentrations three orders of magnitude lower than those required for it to have been of climatic importance would have had a major impact on the aqueous chemistry at the planet's surface and the precipitated mineral assemblage. Specifically, at near-neutral and even mildly alkaline pH, part-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of SO2 prevent the formation of calcium carbonate in favour of hannebachite - a hydrated calcium sulfite. Based on the results of recent photochemical studies, a volcanic outgassing flux ~300 times smaller than the modern terrestrial flux would have been enough to maintain such atmospheric concentrations. This implies that almost any period of active volcanism would have given rise to conditions under which carbonate precipitation is prevented at near-neutral pH. In the presence of ferrous iron, green rust, a possible precursor to phyllosilicate minerals, co-precipitates with hannebachite. This provides a possible explanation for the presence of phyllosilicates on early Noachian surfaces in the apparent absence of outcrop-scale carbonates. Finally, oxidation of the mineral assemblage precipitated in the experiments produces sulfates, iron oxides and acidity, consistent with observed mineral assemblages and with evidence for acid-sulfate dominated environments on late Noachian-early Hesperian surfaces.

  3. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  4. SOA FORMATION FROM THE IRRADIATION OF A-PINENE-NOX IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important constituent in the polluted atmosphere. It is emitted from combustion sources using fuels that contain sulfur. Emissions of SO2 in the United States were reportedly 17 Tg in 1996 with most coming from coal and petroleum combustion. The pr...

  5. Geometrical isomerization of fatty acids with sulfur as a catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Grompone, M.A.; Tancredi, N.A. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the kinetics of the geometrical isomerization of oleic and palmitoleic acids, both contained in U.S.P. oleic acid that were studied. Sulfur powder was used as a catalyst. The methyl esters of fatty acids were analyzed by GLC with 15% OV-275 columns. The sulfur-catalyzed isomerization at 180 and 225{degrees} C proceeds via two consecutive mechanisms. The position of equilibrium is reached by the second mechanism. For this, at any particular initial concentration of sulfur, the pseudo- first-order rate dependence on substrate for a reversible reaction holds. The full rate has been shown to be proportional to the initial sulfur concentration taken to the 1.2 power. The rate constants at both temperatures and the activation energies were calculated.

  6. The Mystery of Sulfur in Dense Environments: EXES Spectroscopy of Sulfur Dioxide toward Massive Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogert, Adwin

    2015-10-01

    The sulfur element in dense clouds and the envelopes and disks of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is surrounded by mystery. Only 4% of the cosmic sulfur budget is accounted for in known molecules, i.e., 96% is missing! Also, the chemical origin of the detected molecules (their progenitors) is unclear. The warm SO2 gas seen toward massive YSOs by ro-vibrational spectroscopy at 7.35 micron with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is two orders of magnitude more abundant than the widespread SO2 emission seen by pure rotational transitions at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. It likely originates close to the star, and is picked up along the pencil absorption beam at 7.35 micron. We propose to observe the nu_3 S-O stretching mode of SO2 toward three massive YSOs at high (R=50,000, 6 km/s) resolving power with EXES/SOFIA. Many ro-vibrational transitions are expected to be resolved, as opposed to the R~2,000 observations by ISO/SWS. The proposed observations are unique. The 7.35 micron band of SO2 is an order of magnitude stronger than other vibrational modes, and (sub-)millimeter facilities lack sensitivity at the small spatial scales. We will compare the SO2 line profiles over a range of energy levels with those of available VLT and Keck CO isotopologue spectra and with proposed EXES observations of H2O. The stable CO molecule is present everywhere along the sight-line, while H2O sublimates from the grains and is formed in the gas phase at higher temperatures. The observed SO2 may originate from gas phase oxidation of atomic sulfur, but only at temperature below ~230 K as at higher temperatures the oxygen is rapidly driven into H2O. The observations will shed light on S-containing progenitor species: a yet unidentifed ice or grain species?

  7. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1995-06-01

    This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

  8. Monitoring of sulfuric acid episodes in St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Cobourn, W.G.; Djukic-Husar, J.; Husar, R.B.

    1980-08-20

    During July 1977 and again in February 1978 in St. Louis, Missouri, episodes of about 3-day duration occurred in which sulfuric acid persisted as part of the regional haze aerosol. These sulfuric acid episodes were monitored with 15-min time resolution by a thermal analysis--flame photometric detection particulate sulfur monitor. The measurement technique detects the concentration of total particulate sulfur as well as the fraction as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. However, it cannot distinguish between (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 4/; thus it is not specific for the detection of total hydrogen ion concentration associated with particulate sulfur. In the summer, July--August 1977, total particulate sulfur average was 3.8 ..mu..gS/m/sup 3/, and the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (measured as sulfur) average was below 0.5 ..mu..gS/m/sup 3/, while in the winter, February--March 1978, it was 3.2 and 0.8 ..mu..gS/m/sup 3/, respectively. During the summer episode the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (as sulfur) peaked at about 10 ..mu..gS/m/sup 3/, compared to a total particulate sulfur peak concentration of 20 ..mu..gS/m/sup 3/. During the winter episode the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration peaked at about 4 ..mu..gS/m/sup 3/, compared to a particulate sulfur peak concentration of 6 ..mu..gS/m/sup 3/. Daily average particulate sulfur and light scattering from July--August 1977 and February--March 1978 show a strong correlation (r>0.8). There were several general differences between the summer and winter data which suggest chemical and physical changes in the atmospheric aerosol. Analysis of the summer data revealed overall diurnal patterns in particulate sulfur and acidity, but these patterns did not show up with the winter data. The strong correlation between light scattering and particulate sulfur indicates that sulfur compounds play a prominent role in visibility degradation by fine particles.

  9. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sectorial contributions to sulfur deposition in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Richard L.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Bhatti, Neeloo

    Anthropogenic and volcanic emissions of SO 2 in Asia for 1987-1988 are estimated on a 1° × 1° grid. Anthropogenic sources are estimated to be 31.6 Tg of SO 2 with the regions' volcanoes emitting an additional 3.8 Tg. For Southeast Asia and the Indian sub-continent, the emissions are further partitioned into biomass, industrial, utilities, and non-specific sources. In these regions emissions from biomass, utilities and industrial sources account for 16.7, 21.7, and 12.2%, respectively. In Bangladesh, ˜ 90% of the SO 2 emissions result from biomass burning and nearly 20% of India's 5 Tg of SO 2 emissions are due to biomass burning. Malaysia and Singapore's emissions are dominated by the utilities with 42 and 62% of their respective emissions coming from that sector. The spatial distribution of sulfur deposition resulting from these emissions is calculated using an atmospheric transport and deposition model. Sulfur deposition in excess of 2 g m -2 yr -1 is predicted in vast regions of east Asia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Indonesia with deposition in excess of 5 g m -2 yr -1 predicted in southern China. For the Indian sub-continent and Southeast Asia the contribution of biomass burning, industrial activities, and utilities to total sulfur emissions and deposition patterns are evaluated. Biomass burning is found to be a major source of sulfur deposition throughout southeast Asia. Deposition in Bangladesh and northern India is dominated by this emissions sector. Deposition in Thailand, the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra is heavily influenced by emissions from utilities. The ecological impact of the deposition, in 1988 and in the year 2020, is also estimated using critical loads data developed in the RAINS-ASIA projects. Much of eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Thailand, and large regions of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and sections of Vietnam are at risk due to deposition in excess of their

  10. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  11. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  12. Effects of sulfur dioxide on apoptosis-related gene expressions in lungs from rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Juli; Meng, Ziqiang

    2005-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an air pollutant in densely populated areas as well as in areas polluted by coal-fired power plants, smelters, and sulfuric acid factories. In the present study, male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.00+/-1.01, 28.00+/-1.77, and 56.00+/-3.44 mg/m3 SO2 for 6 h/day for 7 days, while control rats were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. The mRNA and protein levels of three apoptosis-related genes (p53 and bax are promoters of apoptosis, whereas bcl-2 is apoptotic suppressor) were analyzed in lungs using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemistry method, and caspase-3 activities were detected. The results showed that mRNA levels of p53 and bax were increased in a dose-dependent manner and at the concentrations of 28.00 and 56.00 mg/m3 SO2 the increases were significant (for p53: 1.23-fold at 28 mg/m3 and 1.39-fold at 56 mg/m3; for bax: 1.77-fold at 28 mg/m3 and 2.26-fold at 56 mg/m3, respectively), while mRNA levels of bcl-2 were decreased significantly (0.78-fold at 28 mg/m3 and 0.73-fold at 56 mg/m3) in lungs of rats exposed to SO2. Dose-dependent increase of p53 and bax proteins in the lungs was observed after SO2 inhalation, while decrease of bcl-2 protein levels was obtained using immunohistochemistry method. Caspase-3 activities were increased in lungs of rats after SO2 inhalation. These results lead to a conclusion that SO2 exposure can change the expression of apoptosis-related genes, and it suggests that SO2 can induce apoptosis in lung of rat and may have relations with some apoptosis-related diseases. Elucidating the expression patterns of those factors after SO2 inhalation may be critical to our understanding mechanisms of SO2 toxicity and helpful for the therapeutic intervention.

  13. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  14. Commercial Alloys for Sulfuric Acid Vaporization in Thermochemical Hydrogen Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas M. Lillo; Karen M. Delezene-Briggs

    2005-10-01

    Most thermochemical cycles being considered for producing hydrogen include a processing stream in which dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated, vaporized and then decomposed over a catalyst. The sulfuric acid vaporizer is exposed to highly aggressive conditions. Liquid sulfuric acid will be present at a concentration of >96 wt% (>90 mol %) H2SO4 and temperatures exceeding 400oC [Brown, et. al, 2003]. The system will also be pressurized, 0.7-3.5 MPa, to keep the sulfuric acid in the liquid state at this temperature and acid concentration. These conditions far exceed those found in the commercial sulfuric acid generation, regeneration and handling industries. Exotic materials, e.g. ceramics, precious metals, clad materials, etc., have been proposed for this application [Wong, et. al., 2005]. However, development time, costs, reliability, safety concerns and/or certification issues plague such solutions and should be considered as relatively long-term, optimum solutions. A more cost-effective (and relatively near-term) solution would be to use commercially-available metallic alloys to demonstrate the cycle and study process variables. However, the corrosion behavior of commercial alloys in sulfuric acid is rarely characterized above the natural boiling point of concentrated sulfuric acid (~250oC at 1 atm). Therefore a screening study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of various commercial alloys for concentration and vaporization of high-temperature sulfuric acid. Initially alloys were subjected to static corrosion tests in concentrated sulfuric acid (~95-97% H2SO4) at temperatures and exposure times up to 200oC and 480 hours, respectively. Alloys with a corrosion rate of less than 5 mm/year were then subjected to static corrosion tests at a pressure of 1.4 MPa and temperatures up to 375oC. Exposure times were shorter due to safety concerns and ranged from as short as 5 hours up to 144 hours. The materials evaluated included nickel-, iron- and cobalt

  15. Hydrogen peroxide maintains the heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide on mineral dust proxy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liubin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Huan; Chen, Zhongming

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on α-Al2O3 particles was investigated using a flow reactor coupled with a transmission-Fourier transform infrared (T-FTIR) spectrometer at different relative humidities (RH) in the absence or presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), with an emphasis on the saturation coverage of SO2 and the timescale on which the reaction reaches saturation. It is found that the saturation coverage of SO2 in the absence of H2O2 increases with rising RH due to the hydrolysis of SO2 by surface adsorbed water. However, the reaction ultimately reaches saturation since the produced sulfite/bisulfite cannot be further converted to sulfate/bisulfate in the absence of oxidants. In addition, the presence of H2O2 can significantly increase the saturation coverage of SO2 by efficiently oxidizing sulfite/bisulfite to sulfate/bisulfate. Under humid conditions, adsorbed water facilitates the hydrolysis of SO2 and mitigates the increase of surface acidity, which can inhibit the hydrolysis of SO2. Hence, in the presence of H2O2, the saturation coverage of SO2 as well as the time of reaction reaching saturation increases with rising RH and the surface is not saturated on the timescale of the experiments (40 h) at 60% RH. Furthermore, the increase of saturation coverage of SO2 in the presence of H2O2 was observed on chemically inactive SiO2 particles, indicating that the hydrolysis of SO2 and subsequent oxidation by H2O2 likely occurs on other types of particles. Our findings are of importance for understanding the role of water vapor and trace gases (e.g., H2O2) in the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 in the atmosphere.

  16. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    PubMed

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity.

  17. Eddy covariance flux of sulfur dioxide to the sea surface: Air-side resistance to deposition of a highly soluble gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J.; De Bruyn, W. J.; Miller, S. D.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Deposition to the sea surface represents a major atmospheric removal mechanism for sulfur dioxide and many other highly soluble products of tropospheric photochemistry. Such gases include nitric acid, ammonia, organic acids, sulfur dioxide, and highly soluble organic compounds such as methanol and acetone. The deposition of highly soluble gases is controlled by turbulent and diffusive transport on the air side of the air/sea interface. In this study, air/sea fluxes of the soluble gas sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), sensible and latent heat, and momentum were measured using eddy covariance. This was a pilot study carried out in April 2014 on Scripps pier in La Jolla, California, that was designed to assess the potential for measuring SO2 fluxes over the ocean. SO2 was detected using chemical ion mass spectrometry in negative ion mode with a sensitivity of roughly 100 Hz/ppt. The ionization scheme involved addition of ozone to a dried air stream and subsequent conversion of SO2 to the SO5 - ion. The results demonstrate the feasibility of seagoing SO2 flux measurements. Such measurements can be used to constrain the depositional velocities of soluble gases and test models for air-side resistance to air/sea gas transfer.

  18. Electrodeposited nanostructured lead dioxide as a thin film electrode for a lightweight lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, D. R. P.; Low, C. T. J.; Walsh, F. C.

    Thin films of nanostructured lead dioxide are investigated as a positive electrode material for a lightweight lead-acid battery. The films are obtained by constant current deposition from electrolytes of lead methanesulfonate in methanesulfonic acid. The films are tested in two conditions namely (a) cyclic voltammetry and (b) constant current battery cycling in sulfuric acid. The charge and discharge current density, charge density and charge efficiency are measured as a function of cycle number. The effect of deposition conditions, such as solution temperature (295 and 333 K), type of substrate and electrolyte additive (hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide), on the electrochemical performance of the PbO 2 in sulfuric acid is investigated. It is found that the as-deposited lead dioxide film is compact and nanostructured β-phase structure. Following successive cycling in sulfuric acid, the compact thin film gradually transforms into a porous microstructure consisting of positive active material (PbO 2 and PbSO 4), several tens of nanometres size. The charge density, discharge density and peak discharge current density of the PbO 2 improve with cycling of the thin film electrode.

  19. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; Hoppe, P.; Crowley, J. N.; Ono, S.; Foley, S.

    2011-08-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to investigate sources and chemistry of sulfur dioxide and sulfate in the atmosphere, however interpretation of measured sulfur isotope ratios is challenging due to a lack of reliable information on the isotopic fractionation involved in major transformation pathways. This paper presents measurements of the fractionation factors for the major atmospheric oxidation reactions for SO2: Gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals, and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and a radical chain reaction initiated by iron. The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during the gas-phase reaction is αOH = (1.0089±0.0007) - ((4±5)×10-5) T(°C). The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during aqueous oxidation by H2O2 or O3 is αaq=(1.0167±0.0019) - ((8.7±3.5) ×10-5) T(°C). The observed fractionation during oxidation by H2O2 and O3 appeared to be controlled primarily by protonation and acid-base equilbria of S(IV) in solution, and there was no significant difference between the fractionation produced by the two oxidants within the experimental error. The isotopic fractionation factor from a radical chain reaction in solution catalysed by iron is αFe = (0.989±0.0043) at 19 °C for 34S/32S. Fractionation was mass-dependent with regards to 33S for all the reactions investigated. The radical chain reaction mechanism was the only measured reaction that had a faster rate for the light isotopes, and will be particularly useful to determine the importance of the transition-metal catalysed oxidation pathway.

  20. Potential heat exchange fluids for use in sulfuric acid vaporizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A series of perhalocarbons are proposed as candidate heat exchange fluids for service in thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production that involve direct contact of the fluid with sulfuric acid and vaporization of the acid. The required chemical and physical criteria of the liquids are described and the results of some preliminary high temperature test data are presented.

  1. Preparation of manganese sulfate from low-grade manganese carbonate ores by sulfuric acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Ren-feng; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a method for preparing pure manganese sulfate from low-grade ores with a granule mean size of 0.47 mm by direct acid leaching was developed. The effects of the types of leaching agents, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and agitation rate on the leaching efficiency of manganese were investigated. We observed that sulfuric acid used as a leaching agent provides a similar leaching efficiency of manganese and superior selectivity against calcium compared to hydrochloric acid. The optimal leaching conditions in sulfuric acid media were determined; under the optimal conditions, the leaching efficiencies of Mn and Ca were 92.42% and 9.61%, respectively. Moreover, the kinetics of manganese leaching indicated that the leaching follows the diffusion-controlled model with an apparent activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. The purification conditions of the leaching solution were also discussed. The results show that manganese dioxide is a suitable oxidant of ferrous ions and sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate is an effective precipitant of heavy metals. Finally, through chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, the obtained product was determined to contain 98% of MnSO4·H2O.

  2. Stomatal Conductance and Sulfur Uptake of Five Clones of Populus tremuloides Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide 1

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerer, Thomas W.; Kozlowski, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    Plants of five clones of Populus tremuloides Michx. were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 for 8 hours in controlled environment chambers. In the absence of the pollutant, two pollution-resistant clones maintained consistently lower daytime diffusive conductance (LDC) than did a highly susceptible clone or two moderately resistant clones. Differences in LDC among the latter three clones were not significant. At 0.2 microliter per liter SO2, LDC decreased in the susceptible clone after 8 hours fumigation while the LDC of the other clones was not affected. Fumigation with 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 decreased LDC of all five clones during the fumigation. Rates of recovery following fumigation varied with the clone, but the LDC of all clones had returned to control values by the beginning of the night following fumigation. Night LDC was higher in the susceptible clone than in the other clones. Fumigation for 16 hours (14 hours day + 2 hours night) with 0.4 microliter per liter SO2 decreased night LDC by half. Sulfur uptake studies generally confirmed the results of the conductance measurements. The results show that stomatal conductance is important in determining relative susceptibility of the clones to pollution stress. PMID:16661807

  3. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  4. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  5. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  6. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  7. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  8. High-temperature corrosion of iron in sulfur dioxide at low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Gilewicz-Wolter, J.

    1996-08-01

    The composition and morphology of scales formed on iron in sulfur dioxide at 3 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 1073 K have been investigated by means of various X-ray techniques of analysis (XRD, EDAX, EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The transport phenomena have been studied using platinum markers and tracers. The scales were composed of a sulfide and oxide mixture and grew by outward diffusion of iron. There was also some inward transport of sulfur and oxygen which occured through the discontinuities of the scale. These oxidants, as well as those originating from the dissociation of the scale, take part in the formation of the inner scale layers in the metal-consumption zone. The initial stage of the process proceeds mainly by the reaction of iron with SO{sub 2} molecules.

  9. Air pollution and asthma: clinical studies with sulfuric acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Frampton, M.W.; Morrow, P.E. )

    1991-11-01

    Until recently, acid deposition has been widely considered a serious ecological problem but not a threat to human health. The controlled clinical study is an important approach in linking acidic aerosol inhalation with respiratory effects. Asthmatic patients represent a subpopulation most responsive to sulfuric acid aerosols. In a series of studies with asthmatic volunteers, several factors have been identified that may modulate the intensity of the bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled acidic aerosols. We found (1) enhancement of the bronchoconstrictor response during exercise, (2) the more acidic aerosols provoke the greatest changes in lung function, and (3) mitigation of airway responses during sulfuric acid aerosol inhalation caused by high respiratory ammonia concentrations. Additional factors influencing responsiveness await identification.

  10. Technological change for sulfur dioxide scrubbers under market-based regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, I.; Bellas, A.

    2005-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) introduced tradable permits for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from coal-burning power plants and forced scrubbers to compete with other SO{sub 2} abatement options. While the flexibility of permits reduced overall compliance costs, a secondary benefit would exist if there were resulting advances in scrubber technology. A hedonic model is used to estimate the effect of changing regulatory regimes on scrubber costs. While scrubbers installed under the 1990 CAAA are cheaper to purchase and operate than older scrubbers, these cost reductions seem to be a one-time drop rather than a continual decline.

  11. Reactions for improving efficiencies in thermochemical cycles related to the sulfur dioxide-iodine process

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.V.; Bowman, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    A modification of the sulfur dioxide-iodine cycle which uses magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfite and magnesium iodide is examined with particular emphasis on decreasing the amount of water employed and thereby increasing the efficiency. The key reaction is that of iodine with magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfite hexahydrate with no additional water. This produces 77% of the total possible sulfate as well as magnesium iodide, hydrogen iodide and hydrogen at 523/sup 0/K. The efficiency of this cycle varies between 58% and 39% depending on the amount of heat that can be recovered. This is the first example of a cycle where there is no large energy burden due to evaporation.

  12. Study of ozone and sulfur dioxide using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumrid

    2014-03-01

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a vertical column of the atmosphere in Thailand were obtained from the Brewers#121 and #120. There are similarities between the O3 patterns obtained from the two sites, which are higher in the summer and rainy season compared with winter, although the magnitude of the change in Bangkok is greater than that in Songkhla. SO2 values showed the summer months provide the higher SO2 values in Bangkok, in contrast to Songkhla where the summer months give lower SO2 values.

  13. Design and construction of a simple, continuous flow sulfur dioxide exposure chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Leetham, J.W.; Ferguson, W.; Dodd, J.L.; Lauenroth, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    For experimental purposes, a reasonably large capacity, low cost, low maintenance chamber was needed to study the long-term (2-4 months) effects of sulfur dioxide on developmental rates of grasshoppers and decomposition rates of plant litter. Internal temperature, humidity, and light controls were not required since the chamber would be used in externally controlled environments. The controlled exposure chamber herein described has proved to be adequate for such studies and satisfied most of the conditions discussed by Heagle and Philbeck. Its utility could be increased by use within an environmentally controlled greenhouse. It is comparatively simple and inexpensive to contruct and maintain.

  14. Safety hazards associated with the charging of lithium/sulfur dioxide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Lawson, D. D.; Barnes, J. A.; Bis, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A continuing research program to assess the responses of spirally wound, lithium/sulfur dioxide cells to charging as functions of charging current, temperature, and cell condition prior to charging is described. Partially discharged cells that are charged at currents greater than one ampere explode with the time to explosion inversely proportional to the charging current. Cells charged at currents of less than one ampere may fail in one of several modes. The data allows an empirical prediction of when certain cells will fail given a constant charging current.

  15. Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, P.J.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo on 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO2 released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO2 is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO2-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO2 that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  17. THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

    2010-03-24

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis

  18. Sulfuric acid measurements in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight: Implications for the sulfuric acid formation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Arnold, F.; Schulte, P.

    2002-04-01

    Sulfuric acid concentrations were measured in the exhaust plume of a B737-300 aircraft in flight. The measurements were made onboard of the German research aircraft Falcon using the Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer (VACA). The VACA measures total H2SO4, which is the sum of gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol H2SO4. Measurements took place at distances of 25-200 m behind the B737 corresponding to plume ages of about 0.1-1 seconds. The fuel sulfur content (FSC) of the fuel burned by the B737 engines was alternatively 2.6 and 56 mg sulfur per kilogram fuel (ppmm). H2SO4 concentrations measured in the plume for the 56 ppmm sulfur case were up to ~600 pptv. The average concentration of H2SO4 measured in the ambient atmosphere outside the aircraft plume was 88 pptv, the maximum ambient atmospheric H2SO4 was ~300 pptv. Average efficiencies ɛΔCO2 = 3.3 +/- 1.8% and ɛΔT = 2.9 +/- 1.6% for fuel sulfur conversion to sulfuric acid were inferred when relating the H2SO4 data to measurements of the plume tracers ΔCO2 and ΔT.

  19. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; Hoppe, P.; Crowley, J. N.; Ono, S.; Foley, S.

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to investigate sources and chemical processes of sulfur dioxide and sulfate in the atmosphere, however interpretation of measured sulfur isotope ratios is challenging due to a lack of reliable information on the isotopic fractionation involved in major transformation pathways. This paper presents laboratory measurements of the fractionation factors for the major atmospheric oxidation reactions for SO2: Gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals, and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and a radical chain reaction initiated by iron. The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during the gas-phase reaction is αOH = (1.0089±0.0007)-((4±5)×10-5) T(°C). The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during aqueous oxidation by H2O2 or O3 is αaq = (1.0167±0.0019)-((8.7±3.5) ×10-5)T(°C). The observed fractionation during oxidation by H2O2 and O3 appeared to be controlled primarily by protonation and acid-base equilibria of S(IV) in solution, which is the reason that there is no significant difference between the fractionation produced by the two oxidants within the experimental error. The isotopic fractionation factor from a radical chain reaction in solution catalysed by iron is αFe = (0.9894±0.0043) at 19 °C for 34S/32S. Fractionation was mass-dependent with regards to 33S/32S for all the reactions investigated. The radical chain reaction mechanism was the only measured reaction that had a faster rate for the light isotopes. The results presented in this study will be particularly useful to determine the importance of the transition metal-catalysed oxidation pathway compared to other oxidation pathways, but other main oxidation pathways can not be distinguished based on stable sulfur isotope measurements alone.

  20. [Determination of Total Sulfur Dioxide in Chinese Herbal Medicines via Triple Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-wei; Liu, Jing-fu; Guan, Hong; Wang, Xiao-yan; Shag, Bing; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Li-ping; Zhang, Ni-na

    2016-02-01

    As an important treatment method, sulfur fumigation plays an essential role in the production and preservation of traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Although there is strict regulation on the use of sulfur dioxide, the abuse of sulfur dioxide still occurred from time to time. And the public faces a high risk of exposure. Because of the poor precision and tedious preparation procedures of traditional recommended titration, the accurate and convenient determination of sulfur dioxide in Chinese herbal medicines is still a critical analytical task for medicines safety and the public health. In this study, an accurate, high-throughput, and convenient method for the absolute determination of SO₂ in Chinese herbal medicines based on triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) technique is developed. The study compared the quantitative ability for sulfur when the ICP-MS operated under traditional single quadrupole (QMS) mode and novel triple quadrupole (MS/MS) mode with three Reaction/Collision cell condition (no gas, helium, and oxygen). The result indicated that when the concentration of sulfate ranging from 0.5 to 100 mg · L⁻¹, isotopic ³⁴S can be selected as quantitative ion either the ICP-MS operated under the QMS mode or MS/MS mode. The use of helium in the Reaction/Collision cell decreased the single intensity of background ions. Better than QMS mode, the MS/MS mode can effectively reduced background interference. But there are no significant differences about the linear range and limit of detection. However, when the ICP-MS operated under MS/MS mode and oxygen was used as reaction gas in the Reaction/Collision cell, the ICP-MS/MS provided an interference-free performance, the linear range and limit of detection improved significantly. Either ³²S or ³⁴S exhibits an excellent linearity (r > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.02-100 mg · L⁻¹, with a limit of detection of 5.48 and 9.76 µg · L⁻¹ for

  1. Assessment of the UV camera sulfur dioxide retrieval for point source plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, M.P.; Watson, I.M.; Nadeau, P.A.; Werner, C.; Morrow, W.; Shannon, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Digital cameras, sensitive to specific regions of the ultra-violet (UV) spectrum, have been employed for quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in recent years. The instruments make use of the selective absorption of UV light by SO2 molecules to determine pathlength concentration. Many monitoring advantages are gained by using this technique, but the accuracy and limitations have not been thoroughly investigated. The effect of some user-controlled parameters, including image exposure duration, the diameter of the lens aperture, the frequency of calibration cell imaging, and the use of the single or paired bandpass filters, have not yet been addressed. In order to clarify methodological consequences and quantify accuracy, laboratory and field experiments were conducted. Images were collected of calibration cells under varying observational conditions, and our conclusions provide guidance for enhanced image collection. Results indicate that the calibration cell response is reliably linear below 1500 ppm m, but that the response is significantly affected by changing light conditions. Exposure durations that produced maximum image digital numbers above 32 500 counts can reduce noise in plume images. Sulfur dioxide retrieval results from a coal-fired power plant plume were compared to direct sampling measurements and the results indicate that the accuracy of the UV camera retrieval method is within the range of current spectrometric methods. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  2. The distribution of sulfur dioxide and other infrared absorbers on the surface of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Lopes-Gautier, R. M. C.; Davies, A.G.; Kamp, L.W.; Mosher, J.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.; Clark, R.N.; Fanale, F.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution and properties of sulfur dioxide over the surface of Io, and qualitative results for the anti-Jove hemisphere are presented here. SO2, existing as a frost, is found almost everywhere, but with spatially variable concentration. The exceptions are volcanic hot spots, where high surface temperatures promote rapid vaporization and can produce SO2-free areas. The pervasive frost, if fully covering the cold surface, has characteristic grain sizes of 30 to 100 Urn, or greater. Regions of greater sulfur dioxide concentrations are found. The equatorial Colchis Regio area exhibits extensive snowfields with large particles (250 to 500 ??m diameter, or greater) beneath smaller particles. A weak feature at 3.15 ??m is observed and is perhaps due to hydroxides, hydrates, or water. A broad absorption in the 1 ??m region, which could be caused by iron-containing minerals, shows a concentration in Io'S southern polar region, with an absence in the Pele plume deposition ring. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  4. Effect of metaproterenol sulfate on mild asthmatics' response to sulfur dioxide exposure and exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.; Shamoo, D.A.; Peng, R.C.; Spier, C.E.; Smith, M.N.; Hackney, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    Twenty asthmatic volunteers, most with mild disease, underwent dose-response studies with sulfur dioxide (SO2) under three pretreatment conditions: (1) drug (metaproterenol sulfate in aerosolized saline solution), (2) placebo (aerosolized saline only), and (3) no pretreatment. Sulfur dioxide exposure concentrations were 0.0, 0.3, and 0.6 ppm. Experimental conditions were presented in random order at 1-wk intervals. Exposures lasted 10 min with heavy continuous exercise. Lung function was measured at baseline, after pretreatment (immediately pre-exposure), immediately post-exposure, and during a 2-hr follow-up. Subjects could elect to take bronchodilators during follow-up. Symptoms were monitored before, during, and for 1 wk after exposure. With no pretreatment, subjects exhibited typical exercise-induced bronchospasm at 0.0 ppm, slightly increased responses at 0.3 ppm, and more marked increases at 0.6 ppm. Seven subjects took bronchodilator after 0.6-ppm exposures, compared to 2 at lower concentrations. Within 30 min post-exposure, most subjects' symptoms and lung function had returned to near pre-exposure levels. A similar sequence was observed when subjects received placebo. Drug pretreatment improved lung function relative to baseline, prevented bronchoconstrictive responses at 0.0 and 0.3 ppm, and greatly mitigated responses at 0.6 ppm. Thus, typical bronchodilator usage by asthmatics is likely to reduce their response to ambient SO2 pollution.

  5. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Mahesh; Oro, Inês; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD) trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables) in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v)/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v)/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v)/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20-32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v) or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence.

  6. Potential heat exchange fluids for use in sulfuric acid vaporizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of liquids have been screened as candidate heat exchange fluids for service in thermochemical cycles that involve the vaporization of sulfuric acid. The required chemical and physical criteria of the liquids is described with the results of some preliminary high temperature test data presented.

  7. Heat-Exchange Fluids for Sulfuric Acid Vaporizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Some fluorine-substituted organic materials meet criteria for heat-exchange fluids in contact with sulfuric acid. Most promising of these are perfluoropropylene oxide polymers with degree of polymerization (DP) between 10 and 50. It is desirable to have DP in high range because vapor pressure of material decreases as DP increases, and high-DP liquids have lower loss due to vaporization.

  8. ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

  9. Methanol Uptake by Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Essin, A. M.; Golden, D. M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The global methanol budget is currently unbalanced, with source terms significantly larger than the sinks terms. To evaluate possible losses of gaseous methanol to sulfate aerosols, the solubility and reactivity of methanol in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols is under investigation. Methanol will partition into sulfate aerosols according to its Henry's law solubility. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H*, for cold (196 - 220 K) solutions ranging between 45 and 70 wt % H2SO4. We have found that methanol solubility ranges from approx. 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) M/atm for UT/LS conditions. Solubility increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. Although methanol is slightly more soluble than are acetone and formaldehyde, current data indicate that uptake by clean aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and any rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H is not significant over our experimental time scale for solutions below 80 wt % H2SO4. To confirm this directly, results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique will also be presented.

  10. Methanol Uptake By Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the role of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols in the global budget of methanol, the solubility and reactivity of CH3OH in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions are under investigation. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H(*), for methanol dissolution into 45 to 70 percent by weight H2SO4. We find that methanol solubility ranges from 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 8) M/atm and increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and all rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Our data indicate that simple uptake by aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These results differ from those recently reported in the literature, and an explanation of this disparity will be presented. In addition to solvation, reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H may proceed in the atmosphere but is not significant under our experimental conditions. Results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique confirm this directly. In addition, the extent of methanol sequestration via formation of mono- and dimethylsulfate will be evaluated under several atmospheric conditions.

  11. Diffusion of benzoic acid (1); sulfur hexafluoride (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) benzoic acid; (2) sulfur hexafluoride

  12. Hydrogen peroxide in sulfuric acid extraction of uranium ores

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, F.W.

    1984-01-10

    Uranium can be extracted from its ores at a pH of 2.5 to 5.5 using sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, trace of iron and a sulfate. The extraction process is applicable to both tank leaching of conventionally mined ores and in situ leaching.

  13. Microbial reduction of sulfur dioxide with anaerobically digested municipal sewage biosolids as electron donors.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, P T; Sublette, K L

    1995-01-01

    A concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is produced by regeneration of the sorbent in certain new regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. We have previously proposed that this SO2 can be converted to elemental sulfur for disposal or byproduct recovery using a microbial/Claus process. In this process, two-thirds of the SO2-reducing gas stream would be contacted with a mixed culture containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), where SO2 would act as an electron acceptor with reduction to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This H2S could then be recombined with the remaining SO2 and sent to a Claus unit to produce elemental sulfur. The sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, has been immobilized by coculture with flocforming heterotrophs from an anaerobic digester, resulting in a SO2-reducing floc that may be collected from the effluent of a continuous reactor for recycle by gravity sedimentation. The carbon and energy source for these cultures was anaerobically digested municipal sewage solids. The maximum specific activity for SO2 reduction in these cultures, in terms of dry weight of D. desulfuricans biomass, was 9.1 mmol of SO2/h.g. The stoichiometry with respect to the electron donor was 15.5 mg of soluble COD/mmol of SO2 reduced.

  14. Recovery of high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid in toluene nitration process by rectification.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Meng, Qingqiang; Shu, Fan; Ye, Zhengfang

    2013-01-01

    Waste sulfuric acid is a byproduct generated from numerous industrial chemical processes. It is essential to remove the impurities and recover the sulfuric acid from the waste acid. In this study the rectification method was introduced to recover high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid generated in toluene nitration process by using rectification column. The waste acid quality before and after rectification were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, GC/MS, HPLC and other physical and chemical analysis. It was shown that five nitro aromatic compounds in the waste acid were substantially removed and high purity sulfuric acid was also recovered in the rectification process at the same time. The COD was removed by 94% and the chrominance was reduced from 1000° to 1°. The recovered sulfuric acid with the concentration reaching 98.2 wt% had a comparable quality with commercial sulfuric acid and could be recycled back into the toluene nitration process, which could avoid waste of resources and reduce the environmental impact and pollution.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  16. Measurement of formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide at Whiteface Mountain using a dual tunable diode laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Q.; Demerjian, K. L.; Zahniser, M. S.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Herndon, S. C.

    2004-08-01

    An application of a dual tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) to ambient measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is described. During the PM2.5 Technology Assessment and Characterization Study-New York (PMTACS-NY) 2002 intensive field campaign at Whiteface Mountain, New York, a dual TDLAS was deployed during a field instrument comparison study along with five other state-of-the-art trace gas measurement techniques. Prior to the field study, a thorough laboratory characterization of the instrument was undertaken to establish the optimum operational conditions including the selection of absorption features and the implementation of continuous laser frequency locking and rapid background subtraction. The Allan variance method was used to determine the optimal background subtraction cycle and to evaluate instrument performance. During the field campaign, measurements of HCHO, NO2 and SO2 were made by the TDLAS with the measurement precisions (1-min time interval, 1σ) of 80 ppt, 30 ppt and 40 ppt, respectively. The HCHO time series indicated a high variability of HCHO concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 5 ppbv. The diurnal cycle of HCHO measurements showed higher concentrations during the late afternoon and early morning hours. The measured NO2 concentrations varied from less than the detection limit to the maximum of 25 ppbv. Broad NO2 plumes from long-distance transport of air masses and as well as high spikes from local pollution sources were observed during the campaign. The measured SO2 results also show high variability with the average concentration of 0.75 ± 0.95 ppbv (1σ).

  17. Ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations over a region of natural gas production, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, S. M. Nazrul; Jackson, Peter L.; Aherne, Julian

    2016-10-01

    The Peace River district of Northeastern British Columbia, Canada is a region of natural gas production that has undergone rapid expansion since 2005. In order to assess air quality implications, Willems badge passive diffusive samplers were deployed for six two-week exposure periods between August and November 2013, at 24 sites across the region to assess the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The highest concentrations of both species (NO2: 9.1 ppb, SO2: 1.91 ppb) during the whole study period (except the 1st exposure period), were observed in Taylor (Site 14), which is consistent with its location near major industrial sources. Emissions from industrial activities, and their interaction with meteorology and topography, result in variations in atmospheric dispersion that can increase air pollution concentrations in Taylor. However, relatively high concentrations of NO2 were also observed near the center of Chetwynd (site F20), indicating the importance of urban emissions sources in the region as well. Observations of both species from the other study sites document the spatial variability and show relatively high concentrations near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, where unconventional oil and gas development activities are quite high. Although a few sites in Northeastern British Columbia recorded elevated concentrations of NO2 and SO2 during this investigation, the concentrations over the three-month period were well below provincial annual ambient air quality objectives. Nonetheless, given the limited observations in the region, and the accelerated importance of unconventional oil and gas extraction in meeting energy demands, it is imperative that monitoring networks are established to further assess the potential for elevated ambient concentrations associated with industrial emissions sources in the Peace River region.

  18. Effects of sulfur dioxide on formation of fishy off-odor and undesirable taste in wine consumed with seafood.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Akiko; Isogai, Atsuko; Endo, Michiko; Utsunomiya, Hitoshi; Nakano, Shigeyoshi; Iwata, Hiroshi

    2010-04-14

    In order to evaluate sensory compatibility of alcoholic beverages with food, beverages and dried squid, namely, "surume", a common Japanese accompaniment, were consumed together. White wine and dried squid pairings had a more undesirable taste and more fishy off-odor than sake and dried squid pairings. The undesirable taste and fishy off-odor appeared to be caused by degradation of unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), which are found in fish and squid. Upon addition of DHA to the beverage, bitterness intensity, measured by instrumental taste sensor analysis, and the concentration of certain aldehydes reported to contribute to fishy flavors, increased in white wines, whereas they remained largely the same in sake. Among the major chemical constituents that distinguish wine from sake, only wine-specific sulfite markedly increased bitterness intensity and aldehyde levels upon addition of DHA. These results suggest that sulfur dioxide in wine participated in degradation of unsaturated fatty acids, causing an increase in undesirable taste and fishy off-odor in wine and seafood pairings. PMID:20218721

  19. Size Distribution Studies on Sulfuric Acid-Water Particles in a Photolytic Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullahi, H. U.; Kunz, J. C.; Hanson, D. R.; Thao, S.; Vences, J.

    2015-12-01

    The size distribution of particles composed of sulfuric acid and water were measured in a Photolytic cylindrical Flow Reactor (PhoFR, inner diameter 5 cm, length ~ 100 cm). In the reactor, nitrous acid, water and sulfur dioxide gases along with ultraviolet light produced sulfuric acid. The particles formed from these vapors were detected with a scanning mobility particle spectrometer equipped with a diethylene glycol condensation particle counter (Jiang et al. 2011). For a set of standard conditions, particles attained a log-normal distribution with a peak diameter of 6 nm, and a total number of about 3x105 cm-3. The distributions show that ~70 % of the particles are between 4 and 8 nm diameter (lnσ ~ 0.37). These standard conditions are: 296 K, 25% relative humidity, total flow = 3 sLpm, ~10 ppbv HONO, SO2 in excess. With variations of relative humidity, the total particle number varied strongly, with a power relationship of ~3.5, and the size distributions showed a slight increase in peak diameter with relative humidity, increasing about 1 nm from 8 to 33 % relative humidity. Variations of HONO at a constant light intensity (wavelength of ~ 360 nm) were performed and particle size and total number changed dramatically. Size distributions also changed drastically with variations of light intensity, accomplished by turning on/off some of the black light flourescent bulbs that illuminated the flow reactor. Comparisons of these size distributions to recently published nucleation experiments (e.g. Zollner et al., Glasoe et al.) as well as to simulations of PhoFR reveal important details about the levels of sulfuric acid present in PhoFR as well as possible base contaminants.

  20. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  1. Interaction of sulfuric acid corrosion and mechanical wear of iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid at concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.00007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid). Load and reciprocating sliding speed were kept constant. With the most dilute acid concentration of 0.00007 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At slightly higher concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent (1 N), the well-established high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid and decreased somewhat to 50 percent acid in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It was apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established that rapidly attacked the wear area. Under the conditions where direct corrosion losses were highest, the coefficient of friction was the lowest.

  2. Interaction of sulfuric acid corrosion and mechanical wear of iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Friction and wear experiment were conducted with elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid at concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.00007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid). Load and reciprocating sliding speed were kept constant. With the most dilute acid concentration of 0.00007 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At slightly higher concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent (1 N), the well-established high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid and decreased somewhat to 50 percent acid in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It was apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established that rapidly attacked the wear area. Under the conditions where direct corrosion losses were highest, the coefficient of friction was the lowest.

  3. Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessing a larger set of enzymes for sulfur metabolism. The review also deals with several enzyme deficiencies that lead to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur, although they do not correspond to defects within the biosynthetic pathway. In S. cerevisiae, the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway is tightly controlled: in response to an increase in the amount of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transcription of the coregulated genes is turned off. The second part of the review is devoted to the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. The coordinated response to AdoMet requires two cis-acting promoter elements. One centers on the sequence TCACGTG, which also constitutes a component of all S. cerevisiae centromeres. Situated upstream of the sulfur genes, this element is the binding site of a transcription activation complex consisting of a basic helix-loop-helix factor, Cbf1p, and two basic leucine zipper factors, Met4p and Met28p. Molecular studies have unraveled the specific functions for each subunit of the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex as well as the modalities of its assembly on the DNA. The Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex contains only one transcription activation module, the Met4p subunit. Detailed mutational analysis of Met4p has elucidated its functional organization. In addition to its activation and bZIP domains, Met4p contains two regulatory domains, called the inhibitory region and the auxiliary domain. When the level of intracellular AdoMet increases

  4. Trend analysis of monthly sulfur dioxide emissions in the conterminous United States, 1975-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great Plains States, in several New England States, and in Georgia; and no trends frequently occurring in proximity to the upward trending emissions in the Plains States. A time-series decomposition of the monthly values indicates that one distinct emissions pattern commonly occurred through the period of record. This pattern is characterized by an initial emissions increase that peaks between 1977 and 1978, followed by a shallow and undulating decrease though the end of 1984. It is suggested that this signature represents the 'national' trend for the period. In addition, five regions of coherent sulfur dioxide emissions behavior are defined on the basis of seasonal occurrence of maximum and minimum emission loadings. A winter-summer, latitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions maxima, whereas an equinox-summer, longitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions minima.Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great

  5. Free energy barrier in the growth of sulfuric acid-ammonia and sulfuric acid-dimethylamine clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Ortega, I. K.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2013-08-01

    The first step in atmospheric new particle formation involves the aggregation of gas phase molecules into small molecular clusters that can grow by colliding with gas molecules and each other. In this work we used first principles quantum chemistry combined with a dynamic model to study the steady-state kinetics of sets of small clusters consisting of sulfuric acid and ammonia or sulfuric acid and dimethylamine molecules. Both sets were studied with and without electrically charged clusters. We show the main clustering pathways in the simulated systems together with the quantum chemical Gibbs free energies of formation of the growing clusters. In the sulfuric acid-ammonia system, the major growth pathways exhibit free energy barriers, whereas in the acid-dimethylamine system the growth occurs mainly via barrierless condensation. When ions are present, charged clusters contribute significantly to the growth in the acid-ammonia system. For dimethylamine the role of ions is minor, except at very low acid concentration, and the growing clusters are electrically neutral.

  6. The source of carbon dioxide for gastric acid production.

    PubMed

    Steer, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The source of carbon dioxide for the chemical reaction leading to the production of gastric acid is unknown. The decarboxylation of an amino acid releases carbon dioxide. Pepsinogens provide a rich source of the amino acid arginine. Both the source of carbon dioxide, arginine, and the consequence of arginine decarboxylation, agmatine, have been studied. The site of carbon dioxide production has been related to the survival of the parietal cell. An immunohistochemical study has been carried out on glycol methacrylate embedded gastric biopsies from the normal stomach of 38 adult patients. The sections have been stained using polyclonal antibody to pepsinogen II, polyclonal antibody to agmatine, and polyclonal antibody to Helicobacter pylori. Pepsinogen II and agmatine are found in the parietal cell canaliculi. This is consistent with the production of carbon dioxide from arginine in the parietal cell canaliculi. Evidence is presented for the decarboxylation of arginine derived from the activation segment of pepsinogen as the source of carbon dioxide for the production of gastric acid. The production of carbon dioxide by the decarboxylation of arginine in the parietal cell canaliculus enables the extracellular hydration of carbon dioxide at the known site of carbonic anhydrase activity. The extracellular production of acid in the canaliculus together with the presence of agmatine helps to explain why the parietal cells are not destroyed during the formation of gastric acid. Agmatine is found in the mucus secreting cells of the stomach and its role in acid protection of the stomach is discussed. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:18951509

  7. Friction and wear of iron in sulfuric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.000007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid) was studied. Load and reciprocating sliding speeds were kept constant. With the most dilute acid of 0.7 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent, the high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid, and decreased somewhat at 50 percent in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It is apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established which rapidly attached to the wear area.

  8. Quality of tomatoes harvested from plants receiving chronic exposures to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lotstein, R.J.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    Potted plants of 'Merit' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown from seed to maturity in controlled-environment chambers and exposed to charcoal-filtered air or 288-314 ..mu..gm/sup -3/ (0.11-0.12 ppm) SO/sub 2/ during weeks 1-5, 6-10, or 1-10 beginning about one week after transplanting. Red ripe fruit harvested from plants exposed to SO/sub 2/ exhibited a slight but significant decrease in ascorbic acid expressed on a dry-weight basis. SO/sub 2/ induced significantly greater levels of foliar sulfur, but did not increase sulfur content of the fruit. Exposure of plants to SO/sub 2/ did not affect fruit yield or quality factors including soluble solids, total solids, or ascorbic acid on fresh-weight basis. A multiple regression model revealed low but significant R/sup 2/ values, indicating a weak and indirect, yet significant, association between plant sulfur content and fruit ascorbic acid.

  9. Improvement in the capacity and safety of lithium/inorganic electrolyte sulfur dioxide rechargeable cells, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.; Jones, Medlinda D.; Johnson, Arden P.; Torkelson, James E.; Vanschalkwijk, Walter

    1990-11-01

    The objective was to develop a prototype rechargeable lithium/sulfur dioxide/carbon cell, using practical AA size hardware, in which the electrolyte was to be a sulfur dioxide solution of lithium bromide or thiocyanate, together with a highly soluble cosolute, a second non-lithium salt of the same anion. The cosolute was intended to replace the organic cosolvents familiar from the primary cells, and hopefully, to improve lithium plating efficiency and electrolyte stability during cycling. The primary discharge capacities for AA size cells containing 1.25M CsBr/0.12 M LiBr/SO2 were only about 400mAh, while secondary and subsequent capacities were less than 200 mAh. The rates of solvolysis of bromide and of thiocyanate were exacerbated apparently both by the high anion concentrations and by increased lithium ion concentration. Lithium/sulfur dioxide/carbon rechargeable cells were examined in which the electrolytes were mixtures of tetrachloro aluminate salts in sulfur dioxide, to take advantage of the better performance, but to face the problem of limited capacity. It was determined that the capacity of lithium/bromine soluble positive cells was being limited by the loss of electrical contact between the carbon and the positive electrode current collector. Also, lithium plating efficiency was poor.

  10. Acute and chronic sulfur dioxide fumigation of Pi{tilde n}on pine seeds and seedlings: Data compilation

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, M.L.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.; Bowker, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    Pi{tilde n}on pine germinating seeds, emergent seedlings, and one-year-old seedlings were exposed to sulfur dioxide under both acute and chronic exposure conditions. These fumigations were conducted in order to determine the potential for damage to pi{tilde n}on pine in southwestern national parks and monuments where there is potential for exposure to elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations from smelters and power plants. Injury was apparent only in acute fumigations of one-year-old seedlings at ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations of greater than 3 ppm. Chronic fumigations were conducted only a ambient concentrations of 0.2 ppm. Pi{tilde n}on pine resistance was evidenced by lack of effect of fumigation on biomass and growth parameters. Growth rate data for both experimental and control seedlings were fit to a linear growth model with a correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.95). The results of this study agree with other data in the literature and indicate that damage from elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations in southwestern national parks and monuments is much more likely for other, more sensitive, species than for pi{tilde n}on pine.

  11. Effect of sulfur dioxide fumigation on survival of foodborne pathogens on table grapes under standard storage temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica Thompson inoculated on freshly-harvested table grapes under standard cold storage with initial and weekly sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation. L. monocytogenes and S. enterica Thompson were much more...

  12. Limestone treatment for sulfur dioxide removal. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of limestone for the control of sulfur dioxide emmisions in flue gases. The various designs for flue gas desulfurization are discussed, including dry fluidized beds and wet scrubbers. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  14. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide-generating pads and modified atmosphere packaging for control of postharvest diseases in blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...

  15. Developing an Alternative to Sulfur Dioxide for Maintaining Quality and Reducing Decay of Table Grapes during Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decay and rachis browning are major problems that limit the shelf life of fresh table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and are often controlled by the application of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to maintain quality. However, SO2 is dangerous to people who are allergic to sulfites and its application has been rest...

  16. Sulfuric acid-induced corrosion of aluminum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Q.; Freedman, A.; Robinson, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The sulfuric acid-induced corrosion of smooth (2 nm average roughness) aluminum surfaces has been studied in real times using an in situ Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectrometer and a quartz crystal microbalance. Submicron thick, 35 to 55 weight percent (5 to 12 molal), sulfuric acid films were formed on room temperature metal surfaces by the reaction of gas-phase SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O vapor in a flowing gas system at a total pressure of {approximately}200 Torr. The deposition of the acid films and subsequent changes in their chemical composition resulting from corrosion of the aluminum substrate could be monitored using characteristic infrared absorption features. The corrosion process always significantly perturbed the spectral signature of the films from that which was observed on inert gold surfaces. Using changes in spectral features that are linked to the production of Al{sup 3+} as indicators of corrosion, the authors conclude the rate of corrosion of the metal is strongly enhanced by both higher relative humidities and increased rates of sulfuric acid deposition.

  17. Bacterial Synthesis of Unusual Sulfonamide and Sulfone Antibiotics by Flavoenzyme-Mediated Sulfur Dioxide Capture.

    PubMed

    Baunach, Martin; Ding, Ling; Willing, Karsten; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Sulfa drugs, such as sulfonilamide and dapsone, are classical antibiotics that have been in clinical use worldwide. Despite the relatively simple architectures, practically no natural products are known to feature such aromatic sulfonamide or diarylsulfone substructures. We report the unexpected discovery of three fully unprecedented, sulfonyl-bridged alkaloid dimers (sulfadixiamycins A-C) from recombinant Streptomyces species harboring the entire xiamycin biosynthesis gene cluster. Sulfadixiamycins exhibit moderate antimycobacterial activities and potent antibiotic activities even against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Gene inactivation, complementation, and biotransformation experiments revealed that a flavin-dependent enzyme (XiaH) plays a key role in sulfadixiamycin biosynthesis. XiaH mediates a radical-based, three-component reaction involving two equivalents of xiamycin and sulfur dioxide, which is reminiscent of radical styrene/SO2 copolymerization. PMID:26366473

  18. The impact of sulfur dioxide on plant sexual reproduction: in vivo and in vitro effects compared

    SciTech Connect

    DuBay, D.T.; Murdy, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In Lepidium virginicum L., exposure of pollen to 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 4 h reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control, whereas exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 2, 4, and 8 h during flowering reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but did not affect seed set.An interaction between SO/sub 2/ and water may have caused the inhibition of pollen germination in a liquid culture medium, as well as on the moist surface of an intact stigma. However, the results suggest that the use of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in vitro to asses the direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on plant sexual reproduction in vivo is not valid.

  19. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P < 0.01). In the meantime, more than 90% of hydrogen sulfide was removed during the combustion process using un-desulfurized biogas (P < 0.01). Those disappeared hydrogen sulfide may deposit on the surfaces of power generator's engines or burner heads of boilers. Some of them (4.6-9.1% of H₂S) were converted to SO₂ in exhaust gas. Considering the impacts to human health and living environment, it is better to desulfurize biogas before any applications.

  20. Benzothiazole Sulfinate: a Water-Soluble and Slow-Releasing Sulfur Dioxide Donor.

    PubMed

    Day, Jacob J; Yang, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei; Pacheco, Armando; Xian, Ming

    2016-06-17

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has long been considered a toxic environmental pollutant and byproduct of industrial processing. Recently it has become evident that SO2 may also have regulatory functions in mammalian pulmonary systems. However, the study of these effects has proven to be challenging due to the difficulty in administering SO2 in a reliable manner. In this work, we report the discovery of a new pH-dependent and water-soluble SO2 donor, benzothiazole sulfinate (BTS). We have found BTS to have slow and sustained SO2 release at physiological pH. Additionally, we have explored its vasorelaxation properties as compared to the authentic SO2 gas solutions. The slow release of BTS should make it a useful tool for the study of endogenously generated SO2. PMID:27031093

  1. The dry deposition of sulfur dioxide on a loblolly pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Robert; Murphy, Charles E.

    A concentration gradient/resistance model approach was used to determine the flux density, deposition velocity, and transport resistances for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) between the atmosphere and a loblolly pine ( Pirms taeda L.) plantation. Measurements were made on 54 clear to partly sunny days during the period from June 1982 to May 1983. For this stand and these days, the average daylight flux density was 0.052 μg m -2s -1 and the deposition velocity for SO 2 was 0.72±0.65 cms -1. The average transport resistance for SO 2 includes the aerodynamic resistance ( ra), canopy resistance ( rc), and internal resistance corrected for solubility ( rir). The values for these resistances were 15 ±4, 127 ±94 and 14+-39 s m -1, respectively.

  2. Controlled exposure of volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Anzar, U.T.; Hackney, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    Twenty-four volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm in an environmental control chamber. Exposures lasted 1 hr and included two 15-min exercise periods (mean exercise ventilation rate 18 liter/min). Pulmonary mechanical function was evaluated before exposures, after initial exercise, and at the end of exposure. Blood oxygenation was measured by ear oximetry before exposure and during the second exercise period. Symptoms were recorded throughout exposure periods and for 1 week afterward. No statistically significant changes in physiology or symptoms could be attributed to SO/sub 2/ exposure. Older adults with COPD seem less reactive to a given concentration of SO/sub 2/ than heavily exercising young adult asthmatics. This may be due to lower ventilation rates (i.e., lower SO/sub 2/ dose rates) and/or to lower airway reactivity in the COPD group.

  3. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P < 0.01). In the meantime, more than 90% of hydrogen sulfide was removed during the combustion process using un-desulfurized biogas (P < 0.01). Those disappeared hydrogen sulfide may deposit on the surfaces of power generator's engines or burner heads of boilers. Some of them (4.6-9.1% of H₂S) were converted to SO₂ in exhaust gas. Considering the impacts to human health and living environment, it is better to desulfurize biogas before any applications. PMID:25404540

  4. Improving volcanic sulfur dioxide cloud dispersal forecasts by progressive assimilation of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichu, Marie; Clarisse, Lieven; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2014-04-01

    Forecasting the dispersal of volcanic clouds during an eruption is of primary importance, especially for ensuring aviation safety. As volcanic emissions are characterized by rapid variations of emission rate and height, the (generally) high level of uncertainty in the emission parameters represents a critical issue that limits the robustness of volcanic cloud dispersal forecasts. An inverse modeling scheme, combining satellite observations of the volcanic cloud with a regional chemistry-transport model, allows reconstructing this source term at high temporal resolution. We demonstrate here how a progressive assimilation of freshly acquired satellite observations, via such an inverse modeling procedure, allows for delivering robust sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud dispersal forecasts during the eruption. This approach provides a computationally cheap estimate of the expected location and mass loading of volcanic clouds, including the identification of SO2-rich parts.

  5. The absorption of sulfur dioxide in the terahertz range at temperatures of 300-1200 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskaya, O. K.; Egorov, O. V.

    2013-03-01

    The rotational spectrum of the absorption of the main isotope of sulfur dioxide (32S16O2), which corresponds to the terahertz range of electromagnetic waves, namely 1-250 cm-1 (0.1-10 THz), is studied. The consideration covers rotational transitions within all vibrational states whose Hamiltonian parameters are known from the literature: (000-000), (010-010), (100-100), (001-001), (020-020), (110-110), (011-011), (030-030), (120-120), (200-200), (002-002), (130-130), (103-103), (301-301), (101-101), (021-021), (210-210), (111-111), (201-201), (003-003), and (131-131). As a result, the absorption coefficient of 32S16O2 is calculated for a broad temperature range (300-1200 K) and the contribution of the rotational band of each vibrational state to the total absorption coefficient is evaluated.

  6. Opportunistic validation of sulfur dioxide in the Sarychev Peak volcanic eruption cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Lopez, T. M.

    2011-06-01

    We report attempted validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) sulfur dioxide (SO2) retrievals in the stratospheric volcanic cloud from Sarychev Peak (Kurile Islands) in June 2009, through opportunistic deployment of a ground-based ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer (FLYSPEC) as the volcanic cloud drifted over Central Alaska. The volcanic cloud altitude (~12-14 km) was constrained using coincident CALIPSO lidar observations. By invoking some assumptions about the spatial distribution of SO2, we derive averages of FLYSPEC vertical SO2 columns for comparison with OMI SO2 measurements. Despite limited data, we find minimum OMI-FLYSPEC differences of ~5-6 % which support the validity of the operational OMI SO2 algorithm. These measurements represent the first attempt to validate SO2 in a stratospheric volcanic cloud using a mobile ground-based instrument, and demonstrate the need for a network of rapidly deployable instruments for validation of space-based volcanic SO2 measurements.

  7. Sulfur dioxide retrievals from OMI and GOME-2 in preparation of TROPOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, Nicolas; De Smedt, Isabelle; Danckaert, Thomas; Yu, Huan; van Gent, Jeroen; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) will be launched in 2016 onboard the ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) platform and will provide global observations of atmospheric trace gases, with unprecedented spatial resolution. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from S5P will significantly improve the current capabilities for anthropogenic and volcanic emissions monitoring, and will extend the long-term datasets from past and existing UV sensors (TOMS, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2, OMPS). This work presents the SO2 retrieval schemes performed at BIRA-IASB as part of level-2 algorithm prototyping activities for S5P and tested on OMI and GOME-2. With a focus on anthropogenic sources, we show comparisons between OMI and GOME-2 as well as ground-based measurements, and discuss the possible reasons for the differences.

  8. Short-term endproducts of sulfate reduction in a salt marsh: Formation of acid volatile sulfides, elemental sulfur, and pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gary M.; Howes, B. L.; Dacey, J. W. H.

    1985-07-01

    Rates of sulfate reduction, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production in sediments from a short Spartina alterniflora zone of Great Sippewissett Marsh were measured simultaneously during late summer. Surface sediments (0-2 cm) were dominated by aerobic metabolism which accounted for about 45% of the total carbon dioxide production over 0-15 cm. Rates of sulfate reduction agreed well with rates of total carbon dioxide production below 2 cm depth indicating that sulfate reduction was the primary pathway for sub-surface carbon metabolism. Sulfate reduction rates were determined using a radiotracer technique coupled with a chromous chloride digestion and carbon disulfide extraction of the sediment to determine the extent of formation of radiolabelled elemental sulfur and pyrite during shortterm (48 hr) incubations. In the surface 10 cm of the marsh sediments investigated, about 50% of the reduced radiosulfur was recovered as dissolved or acid volatile sulfides, 37% as carbon disulfide extractable sulfur, and only about 13% was recovered in a fraction operationally defined as pyrite. Correlations between the extent of sulfate depletion in the marsh sediments and the concentrations of dissolved and acid volatile sulfides supported the results of the radiotracer work. Our data suggest that sulfides and elemental sulfur may be major short-term end-products of sulfate reduction in salt marshes.

  9. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide measurements using small unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Christensen, L. E.; Corrales, E.; Linick, J.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; Realmuto, V. J.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanoes emit gases continuously with significant pre-post-eruption changes, mainly H2O and CO2, plus SO2, and others. The SO2/CO2 ratio changes within volcanic life cycles making it an indicator of oncoming eruption phases: it can dip weeks to months before eruptions, then increase, and decrease back to background after eruptions. Over the last five years, we have made an effort to develop small and inexpensive lighter-than-air and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms in Costa Rica at Turrialba Volcano. Turrialba is an appropriate natural laboratory to test and prove platforms and instrumentation in low-level steady state volcanogenic gas and aerosol emissions at moderate altitudes (<12Kft ASL), where good technical infrastructure exists, with good physical access to the volcano. Our program in Costa Rica includes: (1) systematic monitoring of Turrialba from orbit with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), with its thermal infrared (TIR) camera for SO2 retrieval, and more recently with GOSAT and OCO-2 for CO2; (2) in situ observations from aerostats and UAVs during ASTER overpasses, and (3) reconciliation of the orbital results with in situ data to validate mass retrieval and transport models. As part of the NASA HyspIRI Preparatory Airborne Activities program, we will conduct similar observations at Kilauea volcano using small UAVs and for both SO2 and CO2 in situ. One of the salient characteristics of the long lived Kilauea eruptions since 1983 has been the emission of SO2 in significant amounts, generating environmental stresses on local inhabitants due to lowered air quality, and stress on vegetation. Kilauea volcanic plumes, as with Turrialba, are mainly gases and liquid--SO2 is hydrolyzed to H2SO4 and the resulting highly acidic liquid aerosol is termed "vog," an environmental health hazard. Measurement of the diffuse CO2 emissions at Kilauea will also be of interest. Such measurements at Turrialba

  10. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide mixtures on forest vegetation of the southern Sierra Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, O.C.; Miller, P.R.; Page, A.L.; Lund, L.J.

    1986-03-01

    In 1981 and 1982, a multidisciplinary study was conducted within a 32-mile zone from Oildale, CA eastward to points in the southern Sierra Nevada. Concentrations of sulfur in pine needles and lichens along transects tended to decrease with increasing elevation. Stable isotope ratios in soils and plant tissue ran counter to expectations because natural isotopic composition at greater distances is similiar to the source area. Recently germinated pine seedlings exposed to ozone and sulfur dioxide mixtures showed significant differences in root dry weight, suggesting that pollutant mixtures may affect seedling establishment. Surveys of the study area showed increased ozone damage to pines between 1977 and 1981. Sulfur dioxide did not appear to be acting jointly with ozone to cause existing injury.

  11. Understanding volcanic processes using UV camera measurements of sulfur dioxide and coincident infrasound and seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Marika Piirak

    The exsolution of volatiles from magma maintains an important control on volcanic eruption styles. The nucleation, growth, and connectivity of bubbles during magma ascent provide the driving force behind eruptions, and the rate, volume, and ease of gas exsolution can affect eruptive activity. Volcanic plumes are the observable consequence of this magmatic degassing, and remote sensing techniques allow us to quantify changes in gas exsolution. However, until recently the methods used to measure volcanic plumes did not have the capability of detecting rapid changes in degassing on the scale of standard geophysical observations. The advent of the UV camera now makes high sample rate gas measurements possible. This type of dataset can then be compared to other volcanic observations to provide an in depth picture of degassing mechanisms in the shallow conduit. The goals of this research are to develop a robust methodology for UV camera field measurements of volcanic plumes, and utilize this data in conjunction with seismoacoustic records to illuminate degassing processes. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of imaging conditions, vignetting, exposure time, calibration technique, and filter usage on the UV camera sulfur dioxide measurements. Using the best practices determined from these studies, a field campaign was undertaken at Volcan de Pacaya, Guatemala. Coincident plume sulfur dioxide measurements, acoustic recordings, and seismic observations were collected and analyzed jointly. The results provide insight into the small explosive features, variations in degassing rate, and plumbing system of this complex volcanic system. This research provides useful information for determining volcanic hazard at Pacaya, and demonstrates the potential of the UV camera in multiparameter studies.

  12. Effects of sulfur dioxide and ozone on yield and quality of potatoes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pell, E.J.; Pearson, N.S.; Vinten-Johansen, C.; McGruer, G.; Yang, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop an outdoor fumigation facility designed to expose plants to ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and to conduct experiments that would examine the impact of the two gases alone and in combination on field grown potato plants. Two systems of dispensing and monitoring pollutants were contrasted, one using miniature solenoid valves and the other using critical orifices. Both systems provided excellent pollutant control. The orifices were relatively inexpensive and required less maintenance than did the solenoid valve system. Two field experiments were conducted, one in 1985 and and the other in 1986. Potato plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air, nonfiltered air, nonfiltered air supplemented with O3 at levels which resulted in 1.33, 1.66 or 1.99 times ambient O3 concentrations or charcoal filtered air plus 0.14, 0.28 or 0.56 ppM SO2. There were additional treatments combining the two pollutant regimes. Ozone induced a linear reduction in yield reflected by decreases in weight and number of tubers > 6.35 cm in diameter. In general effects on number and weight of smaller tubers were not detected. Ozone also induced a decrease in the percent dry matter and reducing sugar content of potato tubers. Sulfur dioxide affected number of Grade One tubers in both years and percent dry matter and sucrose content in 1986 only. While dose-response curves for all SO2 effects fit quadratic curves the impact of SO2 doses used in these experiments were stimulatory. No important interactions were observed between O3 and SO2. 36 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  14. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  15. Uptake and Dissolution of Gaseous Ethanol in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Staton, Sarah J. R.; Iraci, Laura T.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of gas-phase ethanol (ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH, EtOH) in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was measured in a Knudsen cell reactor over ranges of temperature (209-237 K) and acid composition (39-76 wt % H2SO4). Ethanol is very soluble under these conditions: effective Henry's law coefficients, H*, range from 4 x 10(exp 4) M/atm in the 227 K, 39 wt % acid to greater than 10(exp 7) M/atm in the 76 wt % acid. In 76 wt % sulfuric acid, ethanol solubility exceeds that which can be precisely determined using the Knudsen cell technique but falls in the range of 10(exp 7)-10(exp 10) M/atm. The equilibrium concentration of ethanol in upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UT/LS) sulfate particles is calculated from these measurements and compared to other small oxygenated organic compounds. Even if ethanol is a minor component in the gas phase, it may be a major constituent of the organic fraction in the particle phase. No evidence for the formation of ethyl hydrogen sulfate was found under our experimental conditions. While the protonation of ethanol does augment solubility at higher acidity, the primary reason H* increases with acidity is an increase in the solubility of molecular (i.e., neutral) ethanol.

  16. N2-, O2- and He-collision-induced broadening of sulfur dioxide ro-vibrational lines in the 9.2 μm atmospheric window.

    PubMed

    Tasinato, Nicola; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi; Buffa, Giovanni

    2014-01-24

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a molecule of considerable interest for both atmospheric chemistry and astrophysics. In the Earth's atmosphere, it enters in the sulfur cycle and it is ubiquitous present in polluted atmospheres, where it is responsible for acid rains. It is also of astrophysical and planetological importance, being present on Venus and in interstellar clouds. In this work the collisional broadening of a number of ν1 ro-vibrational lines of SO2 perturbed by N2, O2 and He are investigated at room temperature in the 9 μm atmospheric region by means of high resolution tunable diode laser (TDL) infrared spectroscopy. From N2- and O2-broadening coefficients, the broadening parameters of sulfur dioxide in air, useful for atmospheric applications, are derived as well. From the present measurements some conclusions on the quantum number dependence of the N2-, O2- and He-broadening coefficients are drawn. While the J dependence is weak for all the perturbers investigated, different trends with Ka are reported. N2-broadening coefficients show a slight decrease with increasing values of Ka, whereas O2 and He broadening cross sections first increase up to Ka(″)≈6 and then they keep a nearly constant value. A comparison and a brief discussion on the efficiency of self-, N2-, O2- and He-collisional dynamics are given. The data obtained represent a significant analysis on foreign broadening of SO2 useful for atmospheric remote sensing and astrophysical applications.

  17. N2-, O2- and He-collision-induced broadening of sulfur dioxide ro-vibrational lines in the 9.2 μm atmospheric window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasinato, Nicola; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi; Buffa, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a molecule of considerable interest for both atmospheric chemistry and astrophysics. In the Earth's atmosphere, it enters in the sulfur cycle and it is ubiquitous present in polluted atmospheres, where it is responsible for acid rains. It is also of astrophysical and planetological importance, being present on Venus and in interstellar clouds. In this work the collisional broadening of a number of ν1 ro-vibrational lines of SO2 perturbed by N2, O2 and He are investigated at room temperature in the 9 μm atmospheric region by means of high resolution tunable diode laser (TDL) infrared spectroscopy. From N2- and O2-broadening coefficients, the broadening parameters of sulfur dioxide in air, useful for atmospheric applications, are derived as well. From the present measurements some conclusions on the quantum number dependence of the N2-, O2- and He-broadening coefficients are drawn. While the J dependence is weak for all the perturbers investigated, different trends with Ka are reported. N2-broadening coefficients show a slight decrease with increasing values of Ka, whereas O2 and He broadening cross sections first increase up to Ka″≈6 and then they keep a nearly constant value. A comparison and a brief discussion on the efficiency of self-, N2-, O2- and He-collisional dynamics are given. The data obtained represent a significant analysis on foreign broadening of SO2 useful for atmospheric remote sensing and astrophysical applications.

  18. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  19. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the

  20. Thermal regeneration of sulfuric acid hydrates after irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2012-06-01

    In an attempt to more completely understand the surface chemistry of the jovian icy satellites, we have investigated the effect of heating on two irradiated crystalline sulfuric acid hydrates, H2SO4·4H2O and H2SO4·H2O. At temperatures relevant to Europa and the warmer jovian satellites, post-irradiation heating recrystallized the amorphized samples and increased the intensities of the remaining hydrate's infrared absorptions. This thermal regeneration of the original hydrates was nearly 100% efficient, indicating that over geological times, thermally-induced phase transitions enhanced by temperature fluctuations will reform a large fraction of crystalline hydrated sulfuric acid that is destroyed by radiation processing. The work described is the first demonstration of the competition between radiation-induced amorphization and thermally-induced recrystallization in icy ionic solids relevant to the outer Solar System.

  1. Thermal Regeneration of Sulfuric Acid Hydrates after Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to more completely understand the surface chemistry of the jovian icy satellites, we have investigated the effect of heating on two irradiated crystalline sulfuric acid hydrates, H2SO4 4H2O and H2SO4 H2O. At temperatures relevant to Europa and the warmer jovian satellites, post-irradiation heating recrystallized the amorphized samples and increased the intensities of the remaining hydrate's infrared absorptions. This thermal regeneration of the original hydrates was nearly 100% efficient, indicating that over geological times, thermally-induced phase transitions enhanced by temperature fluctuations will reform a large fraction of crystalline hydrated sulfuric acid that is destroyed by radiation processing. The work described is the first demonstration of the competition between radiation-induced amorphization and thermally-induced recrystallization in icy ionic solids relevant to the outer Solar System.

  2. Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Sun, Lingxia; Cai, Shizhen; Huang, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  3. Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus 1 sounding rocket observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclintock, William E.; Barth, Charles A.; Kohnert, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present ultraviolet reflectance spectra obtained during two sounding rocket observations of Venus made during September 1988 and March 1991. We describe the sensitivity of the derived reflectance to instrument calibration and show that significant artifacts can appear in that spectrum as a result of using separate instruments to observe both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance. We show that sulfur dioxide is the primary spectral absorber in the 190 - 230 nm region and that the range of altitudes probed by these wavelengths is very sensitive to incidence and emission angles. In a following paper Na et. al. (1994) show that sulfur monoxide features are also present in these data. Accurate identification and measurement of additional species require observations in which both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance are measured with the same instrument. The instrument used for these observations is uniquely suited for obtaining large phase angle coverage and for studying transient atmospheric events on Venus because it can observe targets within 18 deg of the sun while earth orbiting instruments are restricted to solar elongation angles greater than or equal to 45 deg.

  4. Constraining the sulfur dioxide degassing flux from Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica using unmanned aerial system measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xin; Johnson, Matthew S.; Jeong, Seongeun; Fladeland, Matthew; Pieri, David; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Bland, Geoffrey L.

    2016-10-01

    Observed sulfur dioxide (SO2) mixing ratios onboard unmanned aerial systems (UAS) during March 11-13, 2013 are used to constrain the three-day averaged SO2 degassing flux from Turrialba volcano within a Bayesian inverse modeling framework. A mesoscale model coupled with Lagrangian stochastic particle backward trajectories is used to quantify the source-receptor relationships at very high spatial resolutions (i.e., < 1 km). The model shows better performance in reproducing the near-surface meteorological properties and observed SO2 variations when using a first-order closure non-local planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. The optimized SO2 degassing fluxes vary from 0.59 ± 0.37 to 0.83 ± 0.33 kt d- 1 depending on the PBL scheme used. These fluxes are in good agreement with ground-based gas flux measurements, and correspond to corrective scale factors of 8-12 to the posteruptive SO2 degassing rate in the AeroCom emission inventory. The maximum a posteriori solution for the SO2 flux is highly sensitive to the specification of prior and observational errors, and relatively insensitive to the SO2 loss term and temporal averaging of observations. Our results indicate relatively low degassing activity but sustained sulfur emissions from Turrialba volcano to the troposphere during March 2013. This study demonstrates the utility of low-cost small UAS platforms for volcanic gas composition and flux analysis.

  5. Improvements and Validation of Sulfur Dioxide Retrievals from Aura/OMI Observations of Anthropogenic Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Krotkov, N. A.; He, H.; Dickerson, R. R.; Li, C.

    2011-12-01

    Both natural and anthropogenic sources can release the trace gas, sulfur dioxide (SO2), into the atmosphere, in which it is usually oxidized to form sulfate aerosols, affecting the environment and climate. The largest contributions to the total annual sulfur budget are anthropogenic emissions from combustions of fossil fuels and smelting of metal ores. While these sources emit SO2 into the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL), leading to air quality degradation near the source regions, the pollutants are sometimes lifted into the free troposphere and subsequently transported over long distances, affecting remote regions. It is therefore important to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of SO2 over the globe. This can be accomplished with satellite UV remote sensing, as exemplified by the SO2 data derived from the global daily observations made by the Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's Aura spacecraft launched in July 2004. In this presentation, we describe the recent progress in developing an advanced algorithm to improve detection and quantification of anthropogenic SO2, and compare the new retrievals with the operational OMI SO2 products to show significant reduction in noise and bias. We also present validation results obtained by the comparisons with co-located in-situ aircraft measurements in China in 2005 - 2008 and during DISCOVER-AQ field experiment in Maryland in July 2011, to illustrate improved accuracy achieved with the advanced algorithm.

  6. Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  7. COS in the stratosphere. [sulfuric acid aerosol precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inn, E. C. Y.; Vedder, J. F.; Tyson, B. J.; Ohara, D.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been detected in the stratosphere, and mixing ratio measurements are reported for altitudes of 15.2 to 31.2 km. A large volume, cryogenic sampling system mounted on board a U-2 aircraft has been used for lower stratosphere measurements and a balloon platform for measurement at 31.2 km. These observations and measurements strongly support the concept that stratospheric COS is an important precursor in the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  8. Recovery of rhenium from sulfuric acid solutions with activated coals

    SciTech Connect

    Troshkina, I.D.; Naing, K.Z.; Ushanova, O.N.; P'o, V.; Abdusalomov, A.A.

    2006-09-15

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of rhenium sorption from sulfuric acid solutions (pH 2) by activated coals produced from coal raw materials (China) were studied. Constants of the Henry equation describing isotherms of rhenium sorption by activated coals were calculated. The effective diffusion coefficients of rhenium in the coals were determined. The dynamic characteristics of rhenium sorption and desorption were determined for the activated coal with the best capacity and kinetic characteristics.

  9. Sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide for graphene preparation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanzhong; Wang, Zhiyong; Jin, Xianbo

    2013-12-06

    Graphene has shown enormous potential for innovation in various research fields. The current chemical approaches based on exfoliation of graphite via graphite oxide (GO) are potential for large-scale synthesis of graphene but suffer from high cost, great operation difficulties, and serious waste discharge. We report a facile preparation of graphene by rapid reduction and expansion exfoliation of sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide (SIGO) at temperature just above 100°C in ambient atmosphere, noting that SIGO is easily available as the immediate oxidation descendent of graphite in sulfuric acid. The oxygenic and hydric groups in SIGO are mainly removed through dehydration as catalyzed by the intercalated sulfuric acid (ISA). The resultant consists of mostly single layer graphene sheets with a mean diameter of 1.07 μm after dispersion in DMF. This SIGO process is reductant free, easy operation, low-energy, environmental friendly and generates graphene with low oxygen content, less defect and high conductivity. The provided synthesis route from graphite to graphene via SIGO is compact and readily scalable.

  10. Sulfuric Acid Intercalated Graphite Oxide for Graphene Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yanzhong; Wang, Zhiyong; Jin, Xianbo

    2013-12-01

    Graphene has shown enormous potential for innovation in various research fields. The current chemical approaches based on exfoliation of graphite via graphite oxide (GO) are potential for large-scale synthesis of graphene but suffer from high cost, great operation difficulties, and serious waste discharge. We report a facile preparation of graphene by rapid reduction and expansion exfoliation of sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide (SIGO) at temperature just above 100°C in ambient atmosphere, noting that SIGO is easily available as the immediate oxidation descendent of graphite in sulfuric acid. The oxygenic and hydric groups in SIGO are mainly removed through dehydration as catalyzed by the intercalated sulfuric acid (ISA). The resultant consists of mostly single layer graphene sheets with a mean diameter of 1.07 μm after dispersion in DMF. This SIGO process is reductant free, easy operation, low-energy, environmental friendly and generates graphene with low oxygen content, less defect and high conductivity. The provided synthesis route from graphite to graphene via SIGO is compact and readily scalable.

  11. Sulfuric Acid Intercalated Graphite Oxide for Graphene Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yanzhong; Wang, Zhiyong; Jin, Xianbo

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has shown enormous potential for innovation in various research fields. The current chemical approaches based on exfoliation of graphite via graphite oxide (GO) are potential for large-scale synthesis of graphene but suffer from high cost, great operation difficulties, and serious waste discharge. We report a facile preparation of graphene by rapid reduction and expansion exfoliation of sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide (SIGO) at temperature just above 100°C in ambient atmosphere, noting that SIGO is easily available as the immediate oxidation descendent of graphite in sulfuric acid. The oxygenic and hydric groups in SIGO are mainly removed through dehydration as catalyzed by the intercalated sulfuric acid (ISA). The resultant consists of mostly single layer graphene sheets with a mean diameter of 1.07 μm after dispersion in DMF. This SIGO process is reductant free, easy operation, low-energy, environmental friendly and generates graphene with low oxygen content, less defect and high conductivity. The provided synthesis route from graphite to graphene via SIGO is compact and readily scalable. PMID:24310650

  12. The influence of hydroxyl volatile organic compounds on the oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Yogpal; Chandel, C P S; Gupta, K S

    2014-01-01

    Although the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide by oxygen has been the subject of many investigations, this is the first study which examines the effect of a large number of precisely 16 hydroxy compounds. The kinetics both in the absence and the presence of VOCs was defined by rate laws (A and B): -d[S(IV)]dt = R₀ = k₀[S(IV)] (A) -d[S(IV)]dt = R(i) = k(i)[S(IV)] (B) where R₀ and k₀ are the initial rate and first-order rate constant, respectively, in the absence of VOCs, R(i), and k(i) are the initial rate and the first-order rate constant, respectively, in the presence of VOCs, and [S(IV)] is the concentration of dissolved sulfur dioxide, sulfur(IV). The nature of the dependence of k(i) on the concentration of inhibitor, [Inh], was defined by Eq. (C). [k(i) = k₀/(1 + B[Inh]) (C) where B is an empirical inhibition parameter. The values of B have been determined from the plots of 1/k(i) versus [Inh]. Among aliphatic and aromatic hydroxy compounds studied, t-butyl alcohol and pinacol were without any inhibition effect due to the absence of secondary or tertiary hydrogen. The values of inhibition parameter, B, were related to k(inh), the rate constant for the reaction of SO₄(-) radical with the inhibitor, by Eq. (D). B = (9 ± 2) x 10⁻⁴ x k(inh) (D) Equation (D) may be used to calculate the values of either of B or k(inh) provided that the other is known. The extent of inhibition depends on the value of the composite term, B[Inh]. However, in accordance with Eq. (C), the extent of inhibition would be sizeable and measurable when B[Inh] > 0.1 and oxidation of S(IV) would be almost completely stopped when B[Inh] ≥ 10. B[Inh] value can be used as a guide whether the reaction step: SO4 (-) + organics → SO₄(2-) + non-chain products: should be included in the multiphase models or not.

  13. The influence of hydroxyl volatile organic compounds on the oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Yogpal; Chandel, C P S; Gupta, K S

    2014-01-01

    Although the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide by oxygen has been the subject of many investigations, this is the first study which examines the effect of a large number of precisely 16 hydroxy compounds. The kinetics both in the absence and the presence of VOCs was defined by rate laws (A and B): -d[S(IV)]dt = R₀ = k₀[S(IV)] (A) -d[S(IV)]dt = R(i) = k(i)[S(IV)] (B) where R₀ and k₀ are the initial rate and first-order rate constant, respectively, in the absence of VOCs, R(i), and k(i) are the initial rate and the first-order rate constant, respectively, in the presence of VOCs, and [S(IV)] is the concentration of dissolved sulfur dioxide, sulfur(IV). The nature of the dependence of k(i) on the concentration of inhibitor, [Inh], was defined by Eq. (C). [k(i) = k₀/(1 + B[Inh]) (C) where B is an empirical inhibition parameter. The values of B have been determined from the plots of 1/k(i) versus [Inh]. Among aliphatic and aromatic hydroxy compounds studied, t-butyl alcohol and pinacol were without any inhibition effect due to the absence of secondary or tertiary hydrogen. The values of inhibition parameter, B, were related to k(inh), the rate constant for the reaction of SO₄(-) radical with the inhibitor, by Eq. (D). B = (9 ± 2) x 10⁻⁴ x k(inh) (D) Equation (D) may be used to calculate the values of either of B or k(inh) provided that the other is known. The extent of inhibition depends on the value of the composite term, B[Inh]. However, in accordance with Eq. (C), the extent of inhibition would be sizeable and measurable when B[Inh] > 0.1 and oxidation of S(IV) would be almost completely stopped when B[Inh] ≥ 10. B[Inh] value can be used as a guide whether the reaction step: SO4 (-) + organics → SO₄(2-) + non-chain products: should be included in the multiphase models or not. PMID:24638831

  14. Process for producing and recovering elemental sulfur from acid gas

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R. L.

    1985-03-26

    A system and process produce high actual levels of sulfur recovery from acid gas. The system includes two conventional Claus reactors and two cold bed adsorption (CBA) reactors. Four condensers are provided, one disposed before each of the catalytic reactors, and one disposed after the CBA reactor. The system includes a gas clean-up treatment zone for hydrogenation, drying and oxidation of gas to provide stoichiometric ratio of H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/. The gas is passed through the clean-up treatment zone prior to being fed to the first of the CBA reactors. The system is designed to operate either in a recovery mode or in a regeneration mode. In the recovery mode, the reactors are in series and the CBA reactors are operated below dew point of sulfur. In regeneration mode, effluent from the clean-up treatment zone is heated in a heat exchanger using effluent from the first catalytic reactor as the heat source. The resulting regeneration gas is fed to one of the two CBA reactors to vaporize sulfur and regenerate the catalyst. The vaporized sulfur is recovered in the condenser. The effluent from the condenser is passed to the other CBA reactor which is operated in the recovery mode during regeneration.

  15. Low-cost silica, calcite and metal sulfide scale control through on-site production of sulfurous acid from H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Kitz, K.

    1997-12-31

    UNOCAL Corporation currently utilizes brine pH modification technology to control scale deposition. Acids utilized in commercial operations include, sulfuric and hydrochloric. A new process reduces costs by producing acid on-site by burning hydrogen sulfide or elemental sulfur. Hydrogen sulfide in non-condensible gas emissions is reduced by oxidization to sulfurous acid. Brine or condensate is treated with sulfurous acid to control scale deposition, mitigate corrosion and improve gas partitioning in condensers.

  16. Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particle Formation in Aircraft Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Vay, S.; Kinne, S. A.; Baumgardner, D.; Dermott, P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Goodman, J.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A combination of CN counts, Ames wire impactor size analyses and optical particle counter data in aircraft exhaust results in a continuous particle size distribution between 0.01 micrometer and 1 micrometer particle radius sampled in the exhaust of a Boeing 757 research aircraft. The two orders of magnitude size range covered by the measurements correspond to 6-7 orders of magnitude particle concentration. CN counts and small particle wire impactor data determine a nucleation mode, composed of aircraft-emitted sulfuric acid aerosol, that contributes between 62% and 85% to the total aerosol surface area and between 31% and 34% to its volume. Soot aerosol comprises 0.5% of the surface area of the sulfuric acid aerosol. Emission indices are: EIH2SO4 = 0.05 g/kgFUEL and (0.2-0.5) g/kgFUEL (for 75 ppmm and 675 ppmm fuel-S, respectively), 2.5E4sulfur (gas) to H2SO4 (particle) conversion efficiency is between 10% and 25%.

  17. The production of sulfate particles through the radiolytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Karpen-Hayes, K.

    1991-09-13

    The production of hydroxyl radicals by the radiolytic decomposition of water vapor following alpha decay of {sup 222}Rn can be used to produce an ultrafine sulfuric acid aerosol in the presence of SO{sub 2}. In the past, the production of this aerosol appeared to have a limiting threshold in as much as sufficient conversion of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 4} must be attained to achieve the concentration required for nucleation. This appeared to occur when the bulk average acidity reached an adequately high value. The threshold curve for the onset of the sulfuric acid aerosol formation is a function of the H{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2} and Rn concentrations. The hydroxyl radical formation is dependent on the H{sub 2}O and Rn concentrations. The mass conversion rate of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} has been studied by measuring the airborne H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration by ion chromatography after it has been collected on a filter and leached into solution. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  18. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi

  19. Retrieval of Vertical Columns of Sulfur Dioxide From SCIAMACHY and OMI: Air Mass Factor Algorithm Development and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Martin, R. V.; Donkelaar, A. V.; O'Byrne, G.; Krotkov, N.; Richter, A.; Huey, G.; Holloway, J. S.

    2009-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is released into the atmosphere as a result of both anthropogenic activities and natural phenomena. SO2 oxidizes rapidly in the atmosphere, leading to aerosol formation and acid deposition. Outstanding questions exist about SO2 emissions and its atmospheric chemistry. Global mapping of atmospheric SO2 concentrations can provide critical information on its emissions and transport and generally improve scientific understanding of its atmospheric chemistry. Here, we present an improved retrieval of sulfur dioxide (SO2) vertical columns from satellite instruments (SCIAMACHY and OMI) that measure solar backscattered UV radiance. Particular attention is devoted to development of a local air mass factor (AMF) algorithm to convert slant columns to vertical columns. For each SCIAMACHY and OMI observation, we calculate an AMF from the relative vertical SO2 distribution (shape factor) determined locally with a 3-D global model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem), weighted by altitude-dependent scattering weights computed with a radiative transfer model (LIDORT). Seasonal mean instrument sensitivity to SO2 (AMF) is generally twice as high over ocean than land. Mineral dust can reduce seasonal mean instrument sensitivity by 50%. Mean relative vertical profiles of SO2 simulated with GEOS-Chem and used in the AMF calculation are highly consistent with airborne in situ measurements (INTEX-A and INTEX-B); differences would affect the retrieved SO2 columns by 10%. The retrieved vertical columns are validated (r = 0.9) with coincident airborne in-situ measurements (INTEX-A, INTEX-B, and a campaign over East China). A global uniform AMF would reduce the correlation with aircraft measurements by 0.1 - 0.2. The overall error assessment leads to 45 - 80% errors for yearly averages over the polluted regions. Seasonal mean SO2 columns retrieved from SCIAMACHY and OMI for 2006 are significantly spatially correlated with those from GEOS-Chem, in particular over the

  20. Sulfur-containing amino acid requirements of growing dogs.

    PubMed

    Blaza, S E; Burger, I H; Holme, D W; Kendall, P T

    1982-11-01

    Three experiments were undertaken to establish the total sulfur-containing amino acid requirement of growing dogs. In experiment 1, six Labradors failed to grow normally when fed a soy isolate diet of 0.28% methionine with 0.18% cystine but grow well when the food was supplemented to either 0.57% or 0.74% methionine. In the next experiment, 12 Labradors and 21 beagles were fed the soy isolate diet containing either 0.39%, 0.57% or 0.74% methionine in the presence of 0.15% cystine for 12 weeks. Dogs fed 0.39% methionine had significantly lower body weights, nitrogen retentions, food intakes and feed efficiencies than their littermates fed the two higher levels. This diet provided 468 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per 100 g, therefore a level of 116 mg total sulfur-containing amino acids (TSAA)/100 kcal ME was not adequate for growth. The lowest level found to be adequate was 0.57% methionine, or 154 mg TSAA/100 kcal ME, which is similar to the requirement of other young omnivores. A final experiment with a free amino acid diet indicated that a level of 117 mg TSAA/100 kcal ME while inadequate for Labradors, may be sufficient for some beagles, highlighting differences between intact protein and free amino acid diets and suggesting possible breed differences.

  1. A mitochondria-targeted ratiometric fluorescent probe to monitor endogenously generated sulfur dioxide derivatives in living cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang; Teoh, Chai Lean; Peng, Juanjuan; Su, Dongdong; Yuan, Lin; Chang, Young-Tae

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can be endogenously produced by enzymes in mitochondria during oxidation of H2S or sulphur-containing amino acids, and plays important roles in several physiological processes. However, the design and synthesis of fluorescent probes which can detect mitochondrial SO2 and its derivatives in living cells still remain unresolved. Herein, we report the preparation of a lipophilic cationic dye 1 (Mito-Ratio-SO2), which targets the mitochondria in living cells and is sensitive to the presence of SO2 derivatives. The ratiometric probe Mito-Ratio-SO2 displays a 170 nm blue-shift in emission with two well-resolved emission bands upon addition of sulfite. Mechanistic studies indicate that three probe-SO2 adducts coexist after reaction, as supported by liquid chromatography and density function theory investigations. Importantly, the ratiometric probe is highly selective for sulfite over other bio-species including H2S. Fluorescence co-localization studies indicate that the probe localizes solely in the mitochondria of HeLa cells. Last but not least, fluorescent imaging of HeLa cells successfully demonstrates the detection of intrinsically generated intracellular SO2 derivatives in living cells.

  2. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the

  3. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents

  4. Formation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Wine: Interactions between Copper and Sulfur Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Marlize Z; Smith, Mark E; Smith, Paul A; Wilkes, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    The combined synergistic effects of copper (Cu(2+)) and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) on the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) in Verdelho and Shiraz wine samples post-bottling was studied over a 12-month period. The combined treatment of Cu(2+) and SO₂ significantly increased H₂S formation in Verdelho wines samples that were not previously treated with either Cu(2+) or SO₂. The formation of H₂S produced through Cu(2+) mediated reactions was likely either: (a) directly through the interaction of SO₂ with either Cu(2+) or H₂S; or (b) indirectly through the interaction of SO₂ with other wine matrix compounds. To gain better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the significant increases in H₂S concentration in the Verdelho samples, the interaction between Cu(2+) and SO₂ was studied in a model wine matrix with and without the presence of a representative thiol quenching compound (4-methylbenzoquinone, 4MBQ). In these model studies, the importance of naturally occurring wine compounds and wine additives, such as quinones, SO₂, and metal ions, in modulating the formation of H₂S post-bottling was demonstrated. When present in equimolar concentrations a 1:1 ratio of H₂S- and SO₂-catechol adducts were produced. At wine relevant concentrations, however, only SO₂-adducts were produced, reinforcing that the competition reactions of sulfur nucleophiles, such as H₂S and SO₂, with wine matrix compounds play a critical role in modulating final H₂S concentrations in wines. PMID:27626394

  5. Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D R

    1975-04-01

    Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer.

  6. Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, D R

    1975-01-01

    Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer. PMID:50930

  7. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for

  8. Process and apparatus for recovery of sulfur from ammonia containing acid gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, J.W.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a Claus process for the recovery of sulfur, the steps comprising: passing a first stream containing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia through a low temperature Claus catalytic conversion zone and depositing elemental sulfur and ammonium compounds on catalyst therein; deriving a regeneration stream from the Claus process and regenerating the resulting laden catalyst therewith vaporizing sulfur and ammonia therefrom and producing a regeneration effluent stream comprising elemental sulfur and ammonia; cooling the regeneration effluent stream and condensing elemental sulfur therefrom and producing a sulfur lean regeneration effluent stream; introducing at least a portion of the sulfur lean regeneration effluent stream into a hydrogenation zone and converting substantially all sulfur compounds therein to hydrogen sulfide. The resulting hydrogen sulfide containing stream is introduced into an ammonia removal zone. The resulting stream is contacted with a first aqueous stream and produces a second aqueous stream enriched in ammonia and a sulfur lean regeneration effluent stream reduced in ammonia content; removing ammonia from the second aqueous stream and producing an ammonia enriched stream; returning the sulfur lean regeneration effluent stream reduced in ammonia content to the Claus process adjacent and downstream of the point of derivation of the regeneration stream for the further recovery of sulfur therefrom; and introducing the ammonia enriched stream into an ammonia conversion zone and reducing the concentration of ammonia therein.

  9. Why sulfuric acid forms particles so extremely well, and how organics might still compete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurten, T.; Ehn, M.; Kupiainen, O.; Olenius, T.; Rissanen, M.; Thornton, J. A.; Nielsen, L.; Jørgensen, S.; Ortega Colomer, I. K.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2013-12-01

    It is a well-known result in aerosol science that the single most important molecule for the first steps of new-particle formation in our atmosphere is sulfuric acid, H2SO4. From a chemical perspective, this seems somewhat counterintuitive: the atmosphere contains thousands of different organic compounds, many of which can potentially form oxidation products with even lower volatility than H2SO4. The unique role of sulfuric acid is due to its formation kinetics. The conversion of sulfur dioxide, SO2 to H2SO4 requires only a single oxidant molecule (e.g. OH), as subsequent steps are extremely rapid. Still, the saturation vapor pressure of H2SO4 is over 108 times lower than that of SO2. In contrast, the oxidation reactions of organic molecules typically lower their saturation vapor pressure by only a factor of 10-1000 per oxidation step. Therefore, organic compounds are usually lost to pre-existing aerosol surfaces before they have undergone sufficiently many oxidation reactions to nucleate on their own. The presence of strong nitrogen-containing base molecules such as amines enhances the particle-forming advantages of sulfuric acid even further. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the evaporation rate of sulfuric acid from key clusters containing two acid molecules may decrease by a factor of 108 in the presence of ppt-level concentrations of amines, implying a total decrease of up to 1016 in the effective vapor pressure going from SO2 to H2SO4. In some circumstances, this decrease causes the energy barrier for new-particle formation to disappear: the process is no longer nucleation, and some common applications of e.g. the nucleation theorem cease to apply. Cluster kinetic models combined with first-principles evaporation rates appear to describe this sulfuric acid - base clustering reasonably well, and result in cluster formation rates close to those measured at the CLOUD experiment in CERN. There may nevertheless exist exceptions to the general rule that

  10. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Driedger, Arthur R., III

    1993-01-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  11. Temporary Disturbance of Translocation of Assimilates in Douglas Firs Caused by Low Levels of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide 1

    PubMed Central

    Gorissen, Antonie; van Veen, Johannes A.

    1988-01-01

    Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) are suffering strongly from air pollution in western Europe. We studied the effect of low concentrations of ozone (200 micrograms per cubic meter during 3 days) and sulfur dioxide (53 micrograms per cubic meter during 28 days) on translocation of assimilates in 2 year old Douglas firs. The trees were exposed to the pollutants and afterward transferred to a growth chamber adapted to the use of 14CO2. Root/soil respiration was measured daily. The results showed a significant decrease of the 14CO2 root/soil respiration during the first 1 to 2 weeks after exposure to either ozone or sulfur dioxide. The ultimate level of 14CO2 root/soil respiration did not differ significantly, which suggests a recovery of the exposed trees during the first weeks after exposure. PMID:16666348

  12. Sulfuric acid cloud interpretation of the infrared spectrum of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martonchik, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfuric acid single-cloud models are compared with the Venus spectrum in the 8-14 micron region. The results indicate that a cloud composed of a 75 percent H2SO4 solution and with a particle density of 100 per cu cm is in good agreement with observations. In addition to explaining the 11.2 micron absorption, this model also predicts an absorption feature at 16.7 microns which should be detectable if the observation is made from an aircraft.

  13. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  14. Effects of controlled levels of sulfur dioxide on the nutrient quality of western wheatgrass and prairie June grass

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, C.C.; Lauenroth, W.K.; Heitschmidt, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of low level (0, 2, 5, and 10 pphm) sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) fumigation on nutrient quality of western wheatgrass and prairie June grass were investigated. Analyses indicated significantly higher levels of sulfur on fumigated vs. control plots. Accumulation rates of sulfur in tissues were greatest in the high treatment (0.0022%/day) followed by the medium (0.0015%/day) and low (0.0002%/day) treatments. Concentrations of sulfur in control plants did not change with time. Ash concentrations paralleled sulfur concentrations and major increases in ash content of plant tissue were attributed to the increased levels of sulfur. Crude protein levels varied seaonally, regardless of fumigation level, with the highest concentrations in May and the lowest in August. There were significantly lower levels of crude protein on treatment plots fumigated for 2 years compared to controls. This significant reduction was attributed to SO/sub 2/ fumigation. Cell-wall constituent analysis indicated SO/sub 2/ fumigation did not measurably alter the fiber content of plant tissue. Digestion of dry matter was significantly higher on treatments fumigated for one year than those fumigated for two years. In general, digestion of dry matter paralleled crude protein concentrations. 24 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Ru-OSO coordination photogenerated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anthony E; Cole, Jacqueline M; d'Almeida, Thierry; Low, Kian Sing

    2012-02-01

    The photoinduced O-bound coordination mode in RuSO(2) complexes, previously observed only at 13 K, has been generated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) (±)-camphorsulfonate. This coordination state, often denoted MS1, decays to the η(2)-bound MS2 state, with an estimated half-life of 3.4(8) h and a long-lived population of 2.9(4)% at 120 K.

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi

  17. Continuous recovery of sulfur oxide from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.W.

    1987-12-01

    A process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gas is described comprising: (i) arranging adsorption chambers for rotation about a fixed vertical axis, the chambers containing adsorption particles capable of absorbing sulfur dioxide and of desorbing sulfuric acid when contacted with water; (ii) conducting flue gas containing sulfur dioxide and particulate material through a precipitator to at least partially remove the particulate material, while allowing flue gas containing sulfur dioxide to pass through the precipitator; (iii) conducting the flue gas containing sulfur dioxide through a first fixed port and through the chambers containing the adsorption particles in sequence while the chambers are rotating about the fixed axis and adsorbing sulfur dioxide on the surface of adsorption particles; (iv) regenerating the adsorption particles by conducting water through a second fixed port and through the chambers in sequence after the flue gas conducting step to produce and desorb sulfuric acid from the adsorption particles in the form of weak sulfuric acid; (v) discharging the flue gas from the chambers before the regenerating step (iv), and subsequently; (vi) discharging the sulphuric acid from the chambers; and (vii) mixing the sulfuric acid with ground phosphate rock to produce normal superphosphate.

  18. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006. During the period covered by this report, Kilauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kilauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975). From 1979 until 2003, summit and east rift zone emission rates were derived using vehicle- and tripod- based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements. In late 2003, we began to augment traditional COSPEC measurements with data from one of the new generation of miniature spectrometer systems, the FLYSPEC (Horton and others, 2006; Elias and others, 2006, Williams-Jones and others, 2006).

  19. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Vascular Calcification in Association with the TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenzhen; Huang, Yaqian; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) plays a role in vascular calcification (VC) in rats and its possible mechanisms. In vivo medial vascular calcification was induced in rats by vitamin D3 and nicotine for four weeks. In vitro calcification of cultured A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was induced by calcifying media containing 5 mmol/L CaCl2. Aortic smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smad expression was measured. VC rats showed dispersed calcified nodules among the elastic fibers in calcified aorta with increased aortic calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. SM α-actin was markedly decreased, but the osteochondrogenic marker Runx2 concomitantly increased and TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated, in association with the downregulated SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway. However, SO2 supplementation successfully ameliorated vascular calcification, and increased SM α-actin expression, but inhibited Runx2 and TGF-β/Smad expression. In calcified A7r5 VSMCs, the endogenous SO2/AAT pathway was significantly downregulated. SO2 treatment reduced the calcium deposits, calcium content, ALP activity and Runx2 expression and downregulated the TGF-β/Smad pathway in A7r5 cells but increased SM α-actin expression. In brief, SO2 significantly ameliorated vascular calcification in association with downregulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. PMID:26907267

  20. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Peruvian copper smelters detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Yang, K.; Levelt, P. F.

    2007-05-01

    We report the first daily observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from copper smelters by a satellite-borne sensor - the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's EOS/Aura spacecraft. Emissions from two Peruvian smelters (La Oroya and Ilo) were detected in up to 80% of OMI overpasses between September 2004 and June 2005. SO2 production by each smelter in this period is assessed and compared with contemporaneous emissions from active volcanoes in Ecuador and southern Colombia. Annual SO2 discharge from the Ilo smelter, La Oroya smelter, and volcanoes in 2004-2005 is estimated and amounts to 0.3-0.1 +0.2, 0.07 +/- 0.03, and 1.2 +/- 0.5 Tg, respectively. This study confirms OMI's potential as an effective tool for evaluation of anthropogenic and natural SO2 emissions. Smelter plumes transport an array of toxic metals in addition to SO2 and continued monitoring to mitigate health and environmental impacts is recommended.