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Sample records for acid supplementation alters

  1. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

  2. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

  3. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy alters neonatal behavior in sheep.

    PubMed

    Capper, Judith L; Wilkinson, Robert G; Mackenzie, Alexander M; Sinclair, Liam A

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine whether supplementation of pregnant ewes with long-chain (n-3) fatty acids present in fish oil, in combination with dietary vitamin E, would alter neonatal behavior in sheep. Twin- (n=36) and triplet- (n=12) bearing ewes were allocated at d 103 of gestation to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 1 of 2 fat sources [Megalac, a calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate or a fish oil mixture, high in 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3)] and 1 of 2 dietary vitamin E concentrations (50 or 500 mg/kg) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Feeding fish oil increased gestation length by 2 d and increased the proportion of 22:6(n-3) within neonatal plasma by 5.1-fold and brain by 10%, whereas brain 20:5(n-3) was increased 5-fold. Supranutritional dietary vitamin E concentrations decreased the latency of lambs to stand in ewes fed fish oil but not Megalac, whereas latency to suckle was decreased from 43 to 34 min by fish oil supplementation. Supplementation with fish oil also substantially decreased the secretion rate (mL/h) of colostrum and the yield (g/h) of fat and protein. We conclude that supplementation of ewes with fish oil decreases the latency to suckle, increases gestation length and the 22:6(n-3):20:4(n-6) ratio in the neonatal brain, and may improve lamb survival rate. However, further work is required to determine how to mitigate the negative effects of fish oil on colostrum production.

  5. Choline supplementation alters some amino acid concentrations with no change in homocysteine in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, Belal; Schall, Joan I; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria; Bennett, Michael J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2016-05-01

    The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months. We hypothesized that choline supplementation would result in lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in children with CF. At baseline, dietary protein intake was high and the amino acid profile was within laboratory reference ranges in most participants. Alanine and cysteine were elevated in 24% and 36% of participants, respectively. Children with baseline alanine above reference range had improved weight, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Low homocysteine was found in 62% of children 11 years and older. After 3 and 12 months, there was no effect of choline supplementation on methionine or homocysteine status. Compared with placebo, choline supplementation resulted in increased glycine and decreased threonine, histidine, valine, and total branch chained amino acids at 12 months. In conclusion, daily choline supplementation with LYM-X-SORB did not alter methionine-homocysteine metabolism but did result in alterations in other amino acids in children with CF and PI.

  6. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  7. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future. PMID:22259192

  8. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  9. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not alter oxidative stress markers in healthy volunteers engaged in a supervised exercise program.

    PubMed

    Bunpo, Piyawan; Anthony, Tracy G

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ascorbic acid (AA) consumption on the oxidative stress status of untrained volunteers participating in a supervised exercise program. The study included 46 young adults (average age, 23.5 ± 0.59 years; 37 females, 9 males) who remained sedentary (n = 16) or participated in 30 min of outdoor aerobic running (n = 30) at an intensity corresponding to 65%-75% of maximum heart rate for 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Exercised subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group without AA supplementation (control; n = 10) or received either 250 mg (n = 10) or 500 mg (n = 10) of AA supplementation previous to each exercise session. Blood samples were taken on day 0 and day 84 to evaluate metabolic profiles and antioxidant status. Sedentary subjects underwent in a single bout of aerobic running to determine total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondiadehyde (MDA) at pre- and postexercise with or without AA supplementation. No significant change in TAS was observed. Plasma MDA significantly increased at postexercise (P < 0.05), and AA supplementation decreased MDA level significantly (P < 0.05). After 3 months of exercise, there was no significant change in blood glucose, lipid profile, MDA, TAS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities amongst groups. Supplementation of AA was associated with minor and inconsistent reductions in SOD, GPx, and catalase activities (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that pre-exercise supplementation of ascorbic acid does not alter oxidative stress markers in the plasma and erythrocytes of young adults engaged in a supervised exercise program. PMID:26789096

  10. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation does not affect changes of lipid metabolism induced in rats by altered thyroid status.

    PubMed

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Behuliak, M; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. It is well known that lipid metabolism is also influenced by thyroid hormones. The aim of our study was to test whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (200 mg/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks given intragastrically) would affect lipid metabolism in Lewis male rats with altered thyroid status. Euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid status of experimental groups was well defined by plasma levels of triiodothyronine, the activity of liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and by relative heart weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid compared to the euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (5.0±0.2 vs. 3.7±0.4 and 4.4±0.2 mmol/l, respectively). In hyperthyroid animals, the concentration of plasma postprandial triglycerides was also increased compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.5±0.1 and 0.4±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). On the other hand, hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was associated with elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (2.6±0.2 vs. 1.5±0.1 and 1.6±0.1 mmol/l, respectively), LDL cholesterol (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.4±0.1 and 0.2±0.1 mmol/l, respectively) as well as HDL cholesterol (1.6±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). Supplementation of n-3 PUFA in the present study did not significantly modify either relative heart weight or glucose and lipid levels in any thyroid status.

  11. Dietary supplementation with arachidonic acid but not eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acids alter lipids metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Magdeldin, Sameh; Elewa, Yaser; Ikeda, Takako; Ikei, Junko; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Bo; Nameta, Masaaki; Fujinaka, Hidehiko; Yoshida, Yutaka; Yaoita, Eishin; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2009-09-01

    In order to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation rich in omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, we set up an experiment of twenty four C57BL/6J male mice segregated into 3 groups: normal diet (ND), omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA,) and omega 6 (n-6 PUFA). At the end of the experiment that lasted for 1 month, food consumption of ND and n-3 PUFA were similar while it decreased in n-6 PUFA group. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids profiles were increased in n-6 PUFA. LDL decreased in n-3 PUFA while increased in n-6 PUFA fed mice comparing to control group. On the other hand, there was no difference between treatments in HDL and glucose levels. Expression of leptin (ob) gene transcripts in epididymal fat were significantly elevated in n-6 PUFA mice compared to ND and n-3 PUFA groups while hypothalamic ob receptor A (obRa) mRNA did not changed in response to diet regimes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed different degrees in fatty changes in the liver of both PUFA groups including lipid droplet infiltration and Ito cells with over accumulated lipids. In conclusion, under PUFA dietary supplementation, the hyperlipidemic status and elevated ob expression of n-6 PUFA but not n-3 PUFA fed mice suggests altered lipid metabolism between PUFA groups and/or different endocrine involvement. Moreover, the coincidently structural changes observed in liver of this group direct us to call for further studies to investigate the anti-obesity effect and safety of these PUFA under high supplementation condition.

  12. High-dose folic acid supplementation alters the human sperm methylome and is influenced by the MTHFR C677T polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Aarabi, Mahmoud; San Gabriel, Maria C; Chan, Donovan; Behan, Nathalie A; Caron, Maxime; Pastinen, Tomi; Bourque, Guillaume; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Zini, Armand; Trasler, Jacquetta

    2015-11-15

    Dietary folate is a major source of methyl groups required for DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that is actively maintained and remodeled during spermatogenesis. While high-dose folic acid supplementation (up to 10 times the daily recommended dose) has been shown to improve sperm parameters in infertile men, the effects of supplementation on the sperm epigenome are unknown. To assess the impact of 6 months of high-dose folic acid supplementation on the sperm epigenome, we studied 30 men with idiopathic infertility. Blood folate concentrations increased significantly after supplementation with no significant improvements in sperm parameters. Methylation levels of the differentially methylated regions of several imprinted loci (H19, DLK1/GTL2, MEST, SNRPN, PLAGL1, KCNQ1OT1) were normal both before and after supplementation. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) revealed a significant global loss of methylation across different regions of the sperm genome. The most marked loss of DNA methylation was found in sperm from patients homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, a common polymorphism in a key enzyme required for folate metabolism. RRBS analysis also showed that most of the differentially methylated tiles were located in DNA repeats, low CpG-density and intergenic regions. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that methylation of promoter regions was altered in several genes involved in cancer and neurobehavioral disorders including CBFA2T3, PTPN6, COL18A1, ALDH2, UBE4B, ERBB2, GABRB3, CNTNAP4 and NIPA1. Our data reveal alterations of the human sperm epigenome associated with high-dose folic acid supplementation, effects that were exacerbated by a common polymorphism in MTHFR. PMID:26307085

  13. High Gestational Folic Acid Supplementation Alters Expression of Imprinted and Candidate Autism Susceptibility Genes in a sex-Specific Manner in Mouse Offspring.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Brown, W Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2016-02-01

    Maternal nutrients play critical roles in modulating epigenetic events and exert long-term influences on the progeny's health. Folic acid (FA) supplementation during pregnancy has decreased the incidence of neural tube defects in newborns, but the influence of high doses of maternal FA supplementation on infants' brain development is unclear. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of a high dose of gestational FA on the expression of genes in the cerebral hemispheres (CHs) of 1-day-old pups. One week prior to mating and throughout the entire period of gestation, female C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet, containing FA at either 2 mg/kg (control diet (CD)) or 20 mg/kg (high maternal folic acid (HMFA)). At postnatal day 1, pups from different dams were sacrificed and CH tissues were collected. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed sex-specific alterations in the expression of several genes that modulate various cellular functions (P < 0.05) in pups from the HMFA group. Genomic DNA methylation analysis showed no difference in the level of overall methylation in pups from the HMFA group. These findings demonstrate that HMFA supplementation alters offsprings' CH gene expression in a sex-specific manner. These changes may influence infants' brain development. PMID:26547318

  14. Supplementation of essential fatty acids to Holstein calves during late uterine life and first month of life alters hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Lock, A L; Block, E; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W; Staples, C R

    2016-09-01

    Linoleic acid is an essential dietary fatty acid (FA). However, how the supplementation of linoleic acid during uterine and early life may modify the FA profile and transcriptome regulation of the liver, and performance of preweaned dairy calves is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of essential FA to Holstein calves during late uterine and early life on their hepatic FA profile and global gene expression at 30 d of age. During the last 8 wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed either no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA supplement enriched with C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched with linoleic acid. Male calves (n=40) born from these dams were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low (LLA) or high linoleic acid (HLA) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30 d. Liver biopsy was performed at 30 d of age, and microarray analysis was performed on 18 liver samples. Total concentration of FA in liver were greater in calves fed LLA compared with those fed HLA MR (8.2 vs. 7.1%), but plasma concentrations of total FA did not differ due to MR diets. The FA profiles of plasma and liver of calves were affected differently by the prepartum diets. Specifically, the FA profile in liver was affected moderately by the feeding of fat prepartum, but the profiles did not differ due to the type of FA fed prepartum. The type of MR fed during the first 30 d of life had major effects on both plasma and liver FA profiles, resembling the type of fat fed. Plasma and liver of calves fed LLA MR had greater percentage of medium-chain FA (C12:0 and C14:0), whereas plasma and liver from calves fed HLA MR had greater percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. Dams fed fat or a specific type of FA modified the expression of some genes in liver of calves, particularly those genes involved in biological functions and pathways related to upregulation of lipid metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory responses

  15. Supplementation of essential fatty acids to Holstein calves during late uterine life and first month of life alters hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Lock, A L; Block, E; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W; Staples, C R

    2016-09-01

    Linoleic acid is an essential dietary fatty acid (FA). However, how the supplementation of linoleic acid during uterine and early life may modify the FA profile and transcriptome regulation of the liver, and performance of preweaned dairy calves is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of essential FA to Holstein calves during late uterine and early life on their hepatic FA profile and global gene expression at 30 d of age. During the last 8 wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed either no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA supplement enriched with C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched with linoleic acid. Male calves (n=40) born from these dams were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low (LLA) or high linoleic acid (HLA) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30 d. Liver biopsy was performed at 30 d of age, and microarray analysis was performed on 18 liver samples. Total concentration of FA in liver were greater in calves fed LLA compared with those fed HLA MR (8.2 vs. 7.1%), but plasma concentrations of total FA did not differ due to MR diets. The FA profiles of plasma and liver of calves were affected differently by the prepartum diets. Specifically, the FA profile in liver was affected moderately by the feeding of fat prepartum, but the profiles did not differ due to the type of FA fed prepartum. The type of MR fed during the first 30 d of life had major effects on both plasma and liver FA profiles, resembling the type of fat fed. Plasma and liver of calves fed LLA MR had greater percentage of medium-chain FA (C12:0 and C14:0), whereas plasma and liver from calves fed HLA MR had greater percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. Dams fed fat or a specific type of FA modified the expression of some genes in liver of calves, particularly those genes involved in biological functions and pathways related to upregulation of lipid metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory responses

  16. Evaluation of the Quantitative and Qualitative Alterations in the Fatty Acid Contents of the Sebum of Patients with Inflammatory Acne during Treatment with Systemic Lymecycline and/or Oral Fatty Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira Talarico, Aline; Parra Duarte, Carla de Oliveira; Silva Pereira, Caroline; de Souza Weimann, Ellem Tatiani; Sabino de Matos, Lissa; Della Coletta, Livia Carolina; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Vasconcellos, Cidia

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acne is a dermatosis that involves an altered sebum pattern. Objectives. (1) To evaluate if a treatment based on antibiotics (lymecycline) can alter fatty acids contents of the sebum of patients with acne; (2) to evaluate if oral supplementation of fatty acids can interfere with fatty acids contents of the sebum of patients with acne; (3) to evaluate if there is any interaction in fatty acids contents of the sebum of patients with acne when they use both antibiotics and oral supplementation of fatty acids. Methods. Forty-five male volunteers with inflammatory acne vulgaris were treated with 300 mg of lymecycline per day, with 540 mg of γ-linolenic acid, 1,200 mg of linoleic acid, and 510 mg of oleic acid per day, or with both regimens for 90 days. Every 30 days, a sample of sebum from the forehead was collected for fatty acids' chromatographic analysis. Results. Twelve fatty acids studied exhibited some kind of pattern changes during the study: C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1n9c+C18:1n9t, C18:2n6t, C18:3n6, C18:3n3, C20:1, C22:0, and C24:0. Conclusions. The daily administration of lymecycline and/or specific fatty acids may slightly influence some fatty acids levels present in the sebum of patients with inflammatory acne vulgaris. PMID:24191156

  17. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  18. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  19. Alterations in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine release by polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the diet under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Albenzio, Marzia; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Sevi, Agostino; Muscio, Antonio; Caroprese, Mariangela

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation from different sources in the diet of dairy sheep under high ambient temperatures on ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation and inflammatory responses. The experiment was carried out during summer: 32 Comisana ewes were divided into 4 groups of 8. The FS group was supplemented with whole flaxseed, the AG group was supplemented with Ascophyllum nodosum, the FS+AG group was supplemented with a combination of flaxseed and A. nodosum. The fourth group (CON group) was a control and received a diet containing no supplement. The average maximum temperature was around 33°C during wk 2 and 3, whereas the mean temperature never decreased below 26°C. Following 15 d of treatment with respective diets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from sheep who received a diet supplemented with A. nodosum had impaired cell proliferation responses and IL-6 production after mitogen stimulation compared with PBMC from FS+AG sheep. In addition, PBMC from AG sheep displayed impaired cell proliferation compared with cells from the CON group. The FS+AG cells produced lower levels of IL-10 than CON cells, and higher IL-6 than AG and CON cells. Results demonstrated that the supplementation with PUFA from different sources in a sheep's diet can influence their immunological responses under high ambient temperatures depending on the composition of fatty acid supplementation. In particular, synergistic effects of different PUFA from flaxseed and A. nodosum, simultaneously administrated in the sheep diet, were observed on activation of inflammation response. PMID:25497814

  20. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  1. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  2. A supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces milk fat yield but does not alter organ weight or body fat deposition in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Liam A; Weerasinghe, Weerasinghe M P B; Wilkinson, Robert G; de Veth, Michael J; Bauman, Dale E

    2010-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in ruminants, but effects on carcass composition and organ weight are unknown. Our objectives in this experiment were to determine the dose response of ruminally protected CLA on the performance, organ weight, and fatty acid (FA) composition of early lactation dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous dairy ewes were fed a basal diet for 10 wk that was supplemented with a lipid-encapsulated CLA at 1 of 3 levels: no CLA (control, CON), low CLA (L-CLA), or high CLA (H-CLA) to supply 0, 1.5, or 3.8 g/d, respectively, of both trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Dry matter intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment. Ewes fed H-CLA had a 13% higher milk yield compared with those receiving either CON or L-CLA. Compared with CON, milk fat yield (g/d) was 14 and 24% lower in ewes fed L-CLA or H-CLA, respectively. Supplementing ewes with CLA did not affect carcass or organ weights, carcass composition, or organ FA content. Compared with ewes receiving the CON diet, CLA supplementation had little effect on the FA composition of the Longissimus dorsi, although cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA were increased in ewes receiving H-CLA. The current findings are consistent with the view that the energy spared by the CLA reduction in milk fat content was mainly partitioned to milk yield and there was no evidence of organ hypertrophy or liver steatosis.

  3. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the expression of genes involved in the endocannabinoid system in the bovine endometrium and increases plasma progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, A; Dirandeh, E; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Shohreh, B

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids are derived from phospholipids and reduce fertility by interfering with implantation. Identification of changes in the expression of genes of the endocannabinoid system as a result of dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is critical to the advancement of our understanding of the nutritional regulation of uterine function. An experiment was conducted on transition cows to evaluate the expression of key endocannabinoid genes in bovine endometrium in response to dietary supplementation with CLA. A total of 16 cows were randomly assigned to two treatments: (1) control (75 g/day palm oil) and (2) CLA (75 g/day CLA) from 21 days prepartum to Day 42 postpartum. Cows underwent uterine biopsy on days 21 and 42 postpartum. The abundance of mRNA encoding endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) was measured by real-time PCR. Results reported that relative levels of mRNA encoding CNR2 and NAPEPLD were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with control cows between Days 21 and 42 postpartum. Relative levels of mRNA coding for NAAA and MGLL were not different (P > 0.05) in the same situation. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher in CLA-fed cows compared with control cows at Day 42 postpartum (3.51 and 1.42 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with CLA are the result of a decrease in relative gene expression of the endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2) and enzymes that synthesize fatty acid amides (NAPEPLD) and of an increase in the expression of PTGS2 that in turn can oxidate endocannabinoids and consequently resulted in increased plasma progesterone concentrations during early lactation. PMID:27262886

  4. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  5. Short communication: amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutamine is the preferred AA used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during the inflammatory response. However, the effect of other AA on bovine PMN response during inflammation and how this is altered by stage of lactation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to dete...

  6. Folic acid supplementation lowers blood arsenic2

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Mary V; Liu, Xinhua; Slavkovich, Vesna; Pilsner, J Richard; Ilievski, Vesna; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Levy, Diane; Alam, Shafiul; Islam, Mominul; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure currently affects >100 million persons worldwide. Methylation of ingested inorganic arsenic (InAs) to monomethylarsonic (MMAs) and dimethylarsinic (DMAs) acids relies on folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and facilitates urinary arsenic elimination. Objective We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation to arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults would increase arsenic methylation and thereby lower total blood arsenic. Design In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated blood concentrations of total arsenic, InAs, MMAs, and DMAs in 130 participants with low plasma folate (<9 nmol/L) before and after 12 wk of supplementation with folic acid (400 μg/d) or placebo. Results MMAs in blood was reduced by a mean ± SE of 22.24 ± 2.86% in the folic acid supplementation group and by 1.24 ± 3.59% in the placebe group (P < 0.0001). There was no change in DMAs in blood; DMAs is rapidly excreted in urine as evidenced by an increase in urinary DMAs (P = 0.0099). Total blood arsenic was reduced by 13.62% in the folic acid supplementation group and by 2.49% in the placebo group (P = 0.0199). Conclusions Folic acid supplementation to participants with low plasma concentrations of folate lowered blood arsenic concentrations, primarily by decreasing blood MMAs and increasing urinary DMAs. Therapeutic strategies to facilitate arsenic methylation, particularly in populations with folate deficiency or hyperhomocysteinemia or both, may lower blood arsenic concentrations and thereby contribute to the prevention of arsenic-induced illnesses. PMID:17921403

  7. Supplementation with complex milk lipids during brain development promotes neuroplasticity without altering myelination or vascular density

    PubMed Central

    Guillermo, Rosamond B.; Yang, Panzao; Vickers, Mark H.; McJarrow, Paul; Guan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Supplementation with complex milk lipids (CML) during postnatal brain development has been shown to improve spatial reference learning in rats. Objective The current study examined histo-biological changes in the brain following CML supplementation and their relationship to the observed improvements in memory. Design The study used the brain tissues from the rats (male Wistar, 80 days of age) after supplementing with either CML or vehicle during postnatal day 10–80. Immunohistochemical staining of synaptophysin, glutamate receptor-1, myelin basic protein, isolectin B-4, and glial fibrillary acidic protein was performed. The average area and the density of the staining and the numbers of astrocytes and capillaries were assessed and analysed. Results Compared with control rats, CML supplementation increased the average area of synaptophysin staining and the number of GFAP astrocytes in the CA3 sub-region of the hippocampus (p<0.01), but not in the CA4 sub-region. The supplementation also led to an increase in dopamine output in the striatum that was related to nigral dopamine expression (p<0.05), but did not alter glutamate receptors, myelination or vascular density. Conclusion CML supplementation may enhance neuroplasticity in the CA3 sub-regions of the hippocampus. The brain regions-specific increase of astrocyte may indicate a supporting role for GFAP in synaptic plasticity. CML supplementation did not associate with postnatal white matter development or vascular remodelling. PMID:25818888

  8. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Eng, Y.; Olumese, F. E.; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1β level was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the diabetic control and supplement treated groups. The liver lipogenic enzyme activities were not significantly altered among the groups. These results suggest that phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation. PMID:24454345

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Ausdal, Wendy Van

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega-3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid). PMID:19173020

  10. Large supplements of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide increase tissue NAD+ and poly(ADP-ribose) levels but do not affect diethylnitrosamine-induced altered hepatic foci in Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Jackson, T M; Rawling, J M; Roebuck, B D; Kirkland, J B

    1995-06-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) is a homopolymer of ADP-ribose units synthesized from NAD+ on nuclear acceptor proteins and is known to be involved in DNA repair. It is not known whether large oral doses of the clinically utilized NAD precursors nicotinic acid or nicotinamide affect poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism or the cellular response to DNA damage. In our first study, using Fischer-344 rats, 2 wk of dietary nicotinic acid supplementation (500 and 1000 mg/kg diet) caused elevated levels of NAD+ in the blood, liver, heart and kidney, while nicotinamide caused elevated levels only in the blood and liver, compared with controls fed a diet containing 30 mg/kg nicotinic acid. Both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, at 1000 mg/kg diet, caused elevations in liver NAD+, by 44 and 43%, respectively. Only nicotinamide, however, elevated liver poly(ADP-ribose) (63% higher than control group). Following treatment with the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine, higher levels of hepatic NAD+ were observed in rats fed both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide at 1000 mg/kg diet, but only nicotinic acid supplementation caused a greater accumulation of hepatic poly(ADP-ribose) (61% higher than control group). Neither of the dietary treatments significantly affected the proportion of the liver occupied by placental glutathione-S-transferase positive foci. These results show that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is not directly responsive to hepatic NAD+ levels during niacin supplementation, and that the mechanisms of action of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are different. The observed changes in poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism do not appear to cause any change in susceptibility to chemically induced carcinogenesis in this organ.

  11. Supplemental feeding alters migration of a temperate ungulate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Jennifer D; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Cross, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of migration requires information on behavior and environmental determinants. The spatial distribution of forage resources, which migration exploits, often are altered and may have subtle, unintended consequences. Supplemental feeding is a common management practice, particularly for ungulates in North America and Europe, and carryover effects on behavior of this anthropogenic manipulation of forage are expected in theory, but have received limited empirical evaluation, particularly regarding effects on migration. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to evaluate the influence of winter feeding on migration behavior of 219 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) from 18 fed ranges and 4 unfed ranges in western Wyoming. Principal component analysis revealed that the migratory behavior of fed and unfed elk differed in distance migrated, and the timing of arrival to, duration on, and departure from summer range. Fed elk migrated 19.2 km less, spent 11 more days on stopover sites, arrived to summer range 5 days later, resided on summer range 26 fewer days, and departed in the autumn 10 days earlier than unfed elk. Time-to-event models indicated that differences in migratory behavior between fed and unfed elk were caused by altered sensitivity to the environmental drivers of migration. In spring, unfed elk migrated following plant green-up closely, whereas fed elk departed the feedground but lingered on transitional range, thereby delaying their arrival to summer range. In autumn, fed elk were more responsive to low temperatures and precipitation events, causing earlier departure from summer range than unfed elk. Overall, supplemental feeding disconnected migration by fed elk from spring green-up and decreased time spent on summer range, thereby reducing access to quality forage. Our findings suggest that ungulate migration can be substantially altered by changes to the spatial distribution of resources, including those of anthropogenic origin, and that

  12. Protective effect of methionine supplementation on arsenic-induced alteration of glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Ajay K

    2004-05-01

    Short term exposure of arsenic produces carbohydrate depletion and hypoglycemia. Dietary deficiency of methionine causes impaired biotransformation of arsenic which has been attributed to the pathogenesis of different diseases induced by arsenic. Accordingly, the effects of methionine supplementation on the altered glucose homeostasis induced by arsenic were studied. Arsenic (as sodium arsenite) treatment (i.p) of male Wistar rats (weighing 80-100 g) at a dose of 5.55 mg kg(-1) body weight (equivalent to 35% LD50) per day for a period of 21 days caused a significant diminution in blood glucose level and fall in liver glycogen and pyruvic acid contents. The free amino acid nitrogen content of liver was elevated while that of kidney was decreased after arsenic treatment. Transaminase activities in liver and kidney were not significantly altered except that glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activity of kidney decreased significantly after arsenic treatment. Methionine supplementation reversed the above changes except decreased liver glycogen due to arsenic treatment. It may be suggested that hypoglycemia with associated decreased glycolytic activity induced by arsenic treatment at the present dose and duration can be partially counteracted by dietary methionine supplementation.

  13. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2-24 h post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16-24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2 and 24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16-24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects.

  14. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2–24 hours post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16–24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2–24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16–24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. PMID:25541501

  15. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  16. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  17. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  18. Sunflower oil supplementation alters meat quality but not performance of growing partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    PubMed

    Gülşen, N; Umucalilar, H D; Kirikçi, K; Hayirli, A; Aktümsek, A; Alaşahan, S

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil supplementation (0%, 3%, 6% and 9%) to partridge chicks (Alectoris chukar) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics. Feed consumption and live weight gain were responsive to dietary sunflower oil inclusion during the starter period, but not during the grower period. Increasing sunflower oil level linearly increased crude protein and fat digestibilities. Except for abdominal fat, weights of inedible parts and edible organs remained unchanged by the diets. The treatments linearly decreased weight and efficiency of carcass and weights of wings and breast and did not alter weights of thighs and neck. Breast meat saturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 17.9% and unsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 10.6%, as sunflower oil level increased in the diets. Monounsaturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 27.3%, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 51%. Overall, n-3 (0.78% vs. 0.59%) and n-6 (42.6% vs. 29.8%) were greater in breast meat in treatment groups than in control group. In conclusion, sunflower addition into diets has minimal effects on performance of growing partridges, but significantly alters meat fatty acid composition.

  19. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  20. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  1. (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid Nourishes Protein Synthesis via Altering Metabolic Directions of Amino Acids in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Ningning; Li, Longlong; Peng, Mengling; Ma, Haitian

    2016-08-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress body weight gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the underlying mechanism of (-)-HCA has not fully understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of long-term supplement with (-)-HCA on body weight gain and variances of amino acid content in rats. Results showed that (-)-HCA treatment reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in rats. The content of hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen, and serum T4 , T3 , insulin, and Leptin were increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Protein content in liver and muscle were significantly increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Amino acid profile analysis indicated that most of amino acid contents in serum and liver, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were higher in (-)-HCA treatment groups. However, most of the amino acid contents in muscle, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were reduced in (-)-HCA treatment groups. These results indicated that (-)-HCA treatment could reduce body weight gain through promoting energy expenditure via regulation of thyroid hormone levels. In addition, (-)-HCA treatment could promote protein synthesis by altering the metabolic directions of amino acids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145492

  2. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  3. Chromium supplementation alters the glucose and lipid metabolism of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbreed steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brand Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (C...

  4. Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. )

    1989-02-09

    Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.

  5. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  6. Folic acid supplementation for 4 weeks affects liver morphology in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Roncalés, María; Achón, María; Manzarbeitia, Félix; Maestro de las Casas, Carmen; Ramírez, Carmen; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Julia

    2004-05-01

    Several countries have approved universal folic acid (FA) fortification to prevent neural tube defects and/or high homocysteine levels; this has led to a chronic intake of FA. Traditionally, the vitamin is considered to be safe and nontoxic, except for the potential masking of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Recent reports from our laboratories showed several effects of high-dose folate supplementation in rats. In this work, we compared the effect of FA on the liver of weanling (3 wk) and aged (18 mo) male rats fed either a diet supplemented with 40 mg FA/kg diet or a control diet (1 mg FA/kg diet) for 4 wk. FA supplementation did not alter serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, glucose oxidase, total bilirubin, or uric acid. Routine histological staining as well as immunohistochemistry with proliferating cell nuclear antibody for dividing cells, and cytokeratin-8 against bile ductal cells, showed that aged, supplemented rats had the same number of hepatocytes as both control and supplemented weanling rats, and tended to have more (17%, P = 0.07) hepatocytes than aged, control rats. Moreover, the bile duct cells of aged, control rats proliferated and transformed into cholestatic rosettes at a higher frequency than in aged, supplemented rats. The morphology of the liver in weanling rats was similar in both diet groups, and comparable to the supplemented, aged rats, thus indicating that a high intake of FA improves normal liver morphology in livers of aged rats.

  7. Effect of folic acid supplementation on homocysteine concentration and association with training in handball players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strenuous physical activity can alter the status of folic acid, a vitamin directly associated with homocysteine (Hcy); alterations in this nutrient are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Handball players are a population at risk for nutrient deficiency because of poor dietary habits. Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate nutritional status for macronutrients and folic acid in members of a high-performance handball team, and determine the effect of a nutritional intervention with folic acid supplementation and education. Design A total of 14 high-performance handball players were monitored by recording training time, training intensity (according to three levels of residual heart rate (RHR): <60%, 60%–80% and >80%), and subjective perceived exertion (RPE) during a 4-month training period. Nutritional, laboratory and physical activity variables were recorded at baseline (Week 0), after 2 months of dietary supplementation with 200 μg folic acid (50% of the recommended daily allowance) (Week 8) and after 2 months without supplementation (Week 16). We compared training load and analyzed changes in plasma concentrations of Hcy before and after the intervention. Results Bivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy and folic acid concentrations (r = −0.84) at Week 8, reflecting a significant change in Hcy concentration (P < 0.05) as a result of hyperhomocysteinemia following the accumulation of high training loads. At Week 16 we observed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy concentration and training time with an RHR <60%, indicating that aerobic exercise avoided abrupt changes in Hcy and may thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular accidents in high-performance athletes. Conclusion Integral monitoring and education are needed for practitioners of handball sports to record their folic acid status, a factor that directly affects Hcy metabolism. Folic acid

  8. 14 CFR 26.47 - Holders of and applicants for a supplemental type certificate-Alterations and repairs to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing structural alteration data approved under a supplemental certificate, the holder of the supplemental certificate must— (1) Review the alteration data and... IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Aging Airplane Safety-Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs...

  9. Effect of forage type with or without corn supplementation on animal performance, beef fatty acid composition, and palatability.

    PubMed

    Wright, A M; Andrae, J G; Rosso, C Fernandez; Miller, M C; Pavan, E; Bridges, W; Duckett, S K

    2015-10-01

    Thirty-two steers were used to examine forage type (legumes [ and ] vs. grasses [ and ]) with or without individual corn grain supplementation (0 vs. 0.75% of live weight [LW]/d) on beef fatty acid composition and palatability. In each year, steers ( = 16/yr) were randomly assigned to forage type ( = 8/forage type per yr) and to supplementation treatments within forage type ( = 4/supplementation treatment/forage type per yr). Forage types (grasses vs. legumes) were replicated in 2 paddocks of perennial and annual forage type pastures. A mixed model was developed with forage type, corn grain supplementation, and the 2-way interaction as fixed effects and 2 different error terms, one for testing forage and another for testing grain supplement and grain supplement × forage interaction. Corn grain supplementation increased ( = 0.01) ADG by 0.29 kg/d and final LW by 13 kg. Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage (DP), and KPH were greater ( < 0.05) for steers supplemented with corn grain. Carcasses from steers grazing legumes had greater ( = 0.04) DP compared with carcasses from steers grazing grasses. Alpha-linolenic acid concentration was higher ( < 0.05) in LM of steers grazing legumes than in LM of steers grazing grasses, both without supplementation. Supplementation decreased ( < 0.05) linolenic acid levels for both forage types; however, the magnitude of this reduction was greater for legumes than for grasses. The ratio of -6 to -3 PUFA was greater ( = 0.03) in the LM of corn grain-supplemented steers than in the LM of nonsupplemented steers. Supplementation of corn grain decreased ( < 0.05) the percentage of odd-chain fatty acids and increased ( < 0.05) the percentage of MUFA in the LM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were not altered ( > 0.05) by forage type, supplementation, or the 2-way interaction. Beef finished on legumes had greater concentrations of -3 PUFA, whereas beef supplemented with corn grain had a greater ratio of -6 to -3 fatty acids. On a

  10. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA in WP-USA supplements, as compared to the WP-BRA supplements; however, there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  11. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution.

    PubMed

    Powers, Michael E.; Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. DESIGN AND SETTING: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. SUBJECTS: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 +/- 3.01 years, height = 179.8 +/- 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 +/- 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 +/- 2.51 years, height = 163.4 +/- 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 +/- 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. RESULTS: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. CONCLUSIONS: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed.

  12. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. Design and Setting: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. Subjects: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 ± 3.01 years, height = 179.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 ± 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 ± 2.51 years, height = 163.4 ± 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 ± 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. Results: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. Conclusions: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed. PMID:12937471

  13. Effect of zinc supplementation on ethanol-mediated bone alterations.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Durán-Castellón, M C; Martín-Olivera, R; López-Lirola, A; Santolaria-Fernández, F; De la Vega-Prieto, M J; Pérez-Ramírez, A; García-Valdecasas Campelo, E

    2005-10-01

    Ethanol consumption leads to bone alterations, mainly osteoporosis. Ethanol itself may directly alter bone synthesis, but other factors, such as accompanying protein malnutrition--frequently observed in alcoholics, chronic alcoholic myopathy with muscle atrophy, alcohol induced hypogonadism or hypercortisolism, or liver damage, may all contribute to altered bone metabolism. Some data suggest that zinc may exert beneficial effects on bone growth. Based on these facts, we analyzed the relative and combined effects of ethanol, protein malnutrition and treatment with zinc, 227 mg/l in the form of zinc sulphate, on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (urinary hydroxyproline excretion), and hormones involved in bone homeostasis (insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), vitamin D, parathormone (PTH), free testosterone and corticosterone), as well as the association between these parameters and muscle fiber area and liver fibrosis, in eight groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats fed following the Lieber de Carli model during 5 weeks. Ethanol showed an independent effect on TBV (F=14.5, p<0.001), causing it to decrease, whereas a low protein diet caused a reduction in osteoid area (F=8.9, p<0.001). Treatment with zinc increased osteoid area (F=11.2, p<0.001) and serum vitamin D levels (F=3.74, p=0.057). Both ethanol (F=45, p<0.001) and low protein diet (F=46.8, p<0.01) decreased serum osteocalcin levels. Ethanol was the only factor independently related with serum IGF-1 (F=130.24, p<0.001), and also showed a synergistic interaction with protein deficiency (p=0.027). In contrast, no change was observed in hydroxyproline excretion and serum PTH levels. No correlation was found between TBM and muscle atrophy, liver fibrosis, corticosterone, or free testosterone levels, but a significant relationship was observed between type II-b muscle fiber area and osteoid area (rho=0.34, p<0.01). Osteoporosis is, therefore, present in alcohol treated

  14. Cerebral folate deficiency: life-changing supplementation with folinic acid.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Flemming Juul; Blau, Nenad

    2005-04-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency is characterized by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and a broad spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. A patient with progressive spasticity, gait disturbance, speech difficulties, initially diagnosed as a recessive spastic paraplegia recovered on folinic acid (15-30 mg/day) and her 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in CSF normalized. This report demonstrates the importance of CSF investigation in the diagnosis of cerebral folate deficiency and efficiency of folinic acid (5-formyltetrahydrofolate) supplementation. PMID:15781200

  15. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  16. Whey protein supplementation does not alter plasma branched-chained amino acid profiles but results in unique metabolomics patterns in obese women enrolled in an 8-week weight loss trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: It has been suggested that perturbations in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism are associated with insulin resistance and contribute to elevated systemic BCAAs. Evidence in rodents suggests dietary protein rich in BCAAs can increase BCAA catabolism, but there is limited evidence...

  17. Whey protein supplementation does not alter plasma branched-chained amino acid profiles but results in unique metabolomics patterns in obese women enrolled in an 8-week weight loss trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are correlated with insulin resistance. Reduction in the activity of branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activity and impaired complete mitochondrial BCAA catabolism may contribute to this phenoty...

  18. Maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation interact to influence body weight, insulin resistance, and food intake regulatory gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Huot, Pedro S P; Ly, Anna; Szeto, Ignatius M Y; Reza-López, Sandra A; Cho, Daniel; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-04-01

    Maternal intake of multivitamins or folic acid above the basal dietary requirement alters the growth and metabolic trajectory of rat offspring. We hypothesized that a modest increase in the folic acid content of maternal diets would alter the offspring's metabolic phenotype, and that these effects could be corrected by matching the folic acid content of the offspring's diet with that of the maternal diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control or a 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, pups from each maternal diet group were randomized to the control or to the 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet for 25 weeks. Male pups from dams fed the folic acid-supplemented diet were 3.7% heavier than those from control-fed dams and had lower mRNA expression for leptin receptor Obrb isoform (Lepr) (11%) and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) (14%). In contrast, female pups from folic acid-supplemented dams were 5% lighter than those from control-fed dams and had lower proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) (42%), Lepr (32%), and Agrp (13%), but higher neuropeptide Y (Npy) (18%) mRNA expression. Folic acid supplementation ameliorated the alterations induced by maternal folic acid supplementation in male pups and led to the lowest insulin resistance, but the effects were smaller in female pups and led to the highest insulin resistance. In conclusion, maternal folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control level was associated with alterations in body weight and hypothalamic gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner, and some of these effects were attenuated by postweaning folic acid supplementation.

  19. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

  20. Omeprazole induces altered bile acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, K; Machida, M; Fukumura, M; Koide, K; Yamazaki, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—It has been reported that the acidity of gastric contents could be an important factor in regulating jejunal flora. 
Aims—To investigate the effects of omeprazole induced changes in gastric pH on jejunal flora and bile acid metabolism. 
Methods—Twenty one patients with gastric ulcer and 19 healthy volunteers were studied. Deconjugation of bile acids was detected using a bile acid breath test. Jejunal fluid was aspirated using a double lumen tube with a rubber cover on the tip and deconjugation was examined using thin layer chromatography. Fat malabsorption was detected by a triolein breath test. 
Results—In the bile acid breath test, expired breath samples from all patients and healthy volunteers showed significantly greater 14CO2 specific activity after omeprazole treatment (20 mg/day) than before treatment. Bacterial overgrowth was found in the jejunal fluid and gastric juice of both ulcer patients and healthy volunteers after omeprazole treatment. The following species were identified: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, enterococcus, Lactobacillus bifidus, Bacteroides vulgatus, B uniformis, Eubacterium lentum, Eu parvum, and Corynebacterium granulosum. All of these species, except E coli and C albicans, deconjugate bile acids. There was a significant correlation between 14CO2 activity and gastric pH, both before and after omeprazole treatment in both groups. The triolein breath test revealed impaired fat absorption in both groups after omeprazole treatment. 
Conclusions—Both patients with gastric ulcer and healthy volunteers exhibited increased deconjugation of bile acids caused by bacterial overgrowth in the jejunum and fat malabsorption after omeprazole treatment. The bacterial overgrowth consisted of both anaerobes and aerobes with deconjugation ability and was probably associated with an omeprazole induced shift to neutral pH in the gastric juice. 

 Keywords: omeprazole; bacterial overgrowth; deconjugation; bile acid breath

  1. DNA methylation in Folbp1 knockout mice supplemented with folic acid during gestation.

    PubMed

    Finnell, Richard H; Spiegelstein, Ofer; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Triplett, Aleata; Pogribny, Igor P; Melnyk, Stepan; James, Jill S

    2002-08-01

    Periconceptional folic acid supplementation has been shown to prevent up to 70% of neural tube and other birth defects in humans; however, the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we tested whether defective intracellular folate transport, as achieved by inactivation of the murine folate-binding protein 1 (Folbp1), affects global DNA methylation in the liver and brain from gestational day (GD) 15 embryos. Complete Folbp1 inactivation is embryolethal but can be reversed by maternal folinic acid (FA) supplementation, and thus we also tested the effect of FA supplementation on DNA methylation in Folbp1 fetuses. Overall, the extent of global DNA methylation seems to be similar across all genotypes in unsupplemented control Folbp1 mice; however, explicit conclusions regarding Folbp1(-/-) fetuses were not possible because only a single living unsupplemented fetus was viable at GD 15. FA supplementation induced global DNA hypomethylation across all genotypes. FA-induced hypomethylation is most likely due to its ability to inhibit the enzyme glycine hydroxymethyltransferase, thereby inhibiting the homocysteine remethylation cycle necessary to regenerate S-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor for DNA methyltransferases. Our hypothesis was that due to defective folate transport in Folbp1(-/-) embryos and fetuses, DNA would be hypomethylated, thereby altering the temporal expression of critical genes necessary for normal embryonic development. However, these results suggest that an extended examination of changes in DNA methylation prior to GD 15 is required to unequivocally prove or disprove the hypothesis. PMID:12163711

  2. Maternal folic acid supplementation modulates DNA methylation and gene expression in the rat offspring in a gestation period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Ly, Anna; Ishiguro, Lisa; Kim, Denise; Im, David; Kim, Sung-Eun; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation can alter DNA methylation and gene expression in the developing fetus, which may confer disease susceptibility later in life. We determined which gestation period and organ were most sensitive to the modifying effect of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring. Pregnant rats were randomized to a control diet throughout pregnancy; folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control during the 1st, 2nd or 3rd week of gestation only; or folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy. The brain, liver, kidney and colon from newborn pups were analyzed for folate concentrations, global DNA methylation and gene expression of the Igf2, Er-α, Gr, Ppar-α and Ppar-γ genes. Folic acid supplementation during the 2nd or 3rd week gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly increased brain folate concentrations (P<.001), while only folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy significantly increased liver folate concentrations (P=.005), in newborn pups. Brain global DNA methylation incrementally decreased from early to late gestational folic acid supplementation and was the lowest with folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy (P=.026). Folic acid supplementation in late gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly decreased Er-α, Gr and Ppar-α gene expression in the liver (P<.05). The kidney and colon were resistant to the effect of folic acid supplementation. Maternal folic acid supplementation affects tissue folate concentrations, DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring in a gestation-period-dependent and organ-specific manner. PMID:27152636

  3. Maternal folic acid supplementation modulates DNA methylation and gene expression in the rat offspring in a gestation period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Ly, Anna; Ishiguro, Lisa; Kim, Denise; Im, David; Kim, Sung-Eun; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation can alter DNA methylation and gene expression in the developing fetus, which may confer disease susceptibility later in life. We determined which gestation period and organ were most sensitive to the modifying effect of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring. Pregnant rats were randomized to a control diet throughout pregnancy; folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control during the 1st, 2nd or 3rd week of gestation only; or folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy. The brain, liver, kidney and colon from newborn pups were analyzed for folate concentrations, global DNA methylation and gene expression of the Igf2, Er-α, Gr, Ppar-α and Ppar-γ genes. Folic acid supplementation during the 2nd or 3rd week gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly increased brain folate concentrations (P<.001), while only folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy significantly increased liver folate concentrations (P=.005), in newborn pups. Brain global DNA methylation incrementally decreased from early to late gestational folic acid supplementation and was the lowest with folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy (P=.026). Folic acid supplementation in late gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly decreased Er-α, Gr and Ppar-α gene expression in the liver (P<.05). The kidney and colon were resistant to the effect of folic acid supplementation. Maternal folic acid supplementation affects tissue folate concentrations, DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring in a gestation-period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  5. Supplemental dietary fat and ruminally protected amino acids for lactating Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Karunanandaa, K; Goodling, L E; Varga, G A; Muller, L D; McNeill, W W; Cassidy, T W; Lykos, T

    1994-11-01

    Eight Jersey cows receiving a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate on a DM basis were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of added fat (3.4% of dietary DM) and ruminally protected AA (8 g of Met and 24 g of Lys daily) on yield and composition of milk. Treatments were 1) basal control, 2) added fat, 3) added AA, and 4) fat plus AA. Compared with no added fat, fat supplementation increased 4% FCM yield (24.7 vs. 23.0 kg/d) and milk fat yield (1.05 vs. .97 kg), depressed milk protein content (3.58 vs. 3.74%), and altered fatty acid composition of milk. Blood triglyceride and NEFA were elevated (34.4 vs. 29.5 mg/dl and 175.1 vs. 143.7 microeq/L, respectively) by added fat. Supplementation with AA elevated blood Lys, Met, and urea N without increasing milk protein yield. Increase in blood NEFA was further augmented by fat plus AA supplementation, but no changes in concentrations of Lys or Met in blood were found. Addition of AA did not alleviate the depression of milk protein content when supplemental fat was added to the diet for Jersey cows.

  6. Altered retinoic acid signalling underpins dentition evolution.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Yann; Samarut, Eric; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Bernard, Laure; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Sadier, Alexa; Labbé, Catherine; Viriot, Laurent; Laudet, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Small variations in signalling pathways have been linked to phenotypic diversity and speciation. In vertebrates, teeth represent a reservoir of adaptive morphological structures that are prone to evolutionary change. Cyprinid fish display an impressive diversity in tooth number, but the signals that generate such diversity are unknown. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA) availability influences tooth number size in Cyprinids. Heterozygous adult zebrafish heterozygous for the cyp26b1 mutant that encodes an enzyme able to degrade RA possess an extra tooth in the ventral row. Expression analysis of pharyngeal mesenchyme markers such as dlx2a and lhx6 shows lateral, anterior and dorsal expansion of these markers in RA-treated embryos, whereas the expression of the dental epithelium markers dlx2b and dlx3b is unchanged. Our analysis suggests that changes in RA signalling play an important role in the diversification of teeth in Cyprinids. Our work illustrates that through subtle changes in the expression of rate-limiting enzymes, the RA pathway is an active player of tooth evolution in fish.

  7. Omega—3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, Elizabeth; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the value of Omega—3 (n—3) fatty acid supplementation for treatment of ADHD remains high. No prior meta-analysis has examined whether ADHD is associated with alterations in blood lipid levels and meta-analyses of supplementation have reached conflicting conclusions. Methods We report two new meta-analyses. Study 1 examined blood levels of Omega—3 fatty acids in relation to ADHD. Study 2 examined a larger sample of randomized intervention trials than previously reported. Results Study 1 included 9 studies (n = 586) and found lower overall blood levels of n—3 in individuals with ADHD versus controls (g = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26–0.59; p < .001). Study 2 included 16 studies (n = 1408) and found that n—3 supplementation improved ADHD composite symptoms; using the best available rating and reporter (g = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.15–0.37; p < .001). Supplementation showed reliable effects on hyperactivity by parent and teacher report, but reliable effects for inattention only by parent report. Conclusions Omega—3 levels are reduced in children with ADHD. Dietary supplementation appears to create modest improvements in symptoms. There is sufficient evidence to consider Omega—3 fatty acids as a possible supplement to established therapies. However it remains unclear whether such intervention should be confined to children with below normal blood levels. PMID:25181335

  8. Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation and its effects on ammonemia and performance under thermoneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Saulo Rodrigo Alves e Silva; Lima, Rafaela Carvalho Pereira; França, Thássia Casado Lima; Herculano, Edla de Azevedo; Rodrigues, Daniela Souza Araújo; Gouveia, Marcos Guilherme de Sousa; Cameron, L C; Prado, Eduardo Seixas

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of cerebral function, fatigue and disturbance in cognitive-motor performance can be caused by hyperammonemia and/or hot environmental conditions during exercise. Exercise-induced hyperammonemia can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA) to improve exercise tolerance. In the present study, we evaluated KAAA supplementation on ammonia metabolism and cognitive-motor performance after high-intensity exercise under a low heat stress environment. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for 2 d and were divided into two groups, KAAA (KEx) or placebo (CEx) supplementation. The athletes performed a 2 h cycling session followed by a maximum test (MAX), and blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise. Cognitive-motor tasks were performed before and after the protocol, and the exhaustion time was used to evaluate physical performance. The hydration status was also evaluated. The CEx group showed a significant increase (∼ 70%) in ammonia concentration at MAX, which did not change in the KEx group. The non-supplemented group showed a significant increase in uremia. Both the groups had a significant increase in blood urate concentrations at 120 min, and an early significant increase from 120 min was observed in the CEx group. There was no change in the glucose concentrations of the two groups. A significant increase in lactate was observed at the MAX moment in both groups. There was no significant difference in the exhaustion times between the groups. No changes were observed in the cognitive-motor tasks after the protocol. We suggest that KAAA supplementation decreases ammonia concentration during high-intensity exercise but does not affect physical or cognitive-motor performances under a low heat stress environment. PMID:26679329

  9. Fish oil supplement alters markers of inflammatory and nutritional status in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana de Aguiar Pastore; Trindade, Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes; Fabre, Maria Emilia de Souza; Menegotto, Vicente Martorano; Gevaerd, Sheila; Buss, Ziliane da Silva; Frode, Tânia Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a common feature in cancer. The presence and magnitude of the chronic systemic inflammatory responses may produce progressive nutritional decline. This study aims at investigating whether there are changes in inflammation markers and/or in nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer undergoing chemotherapy who were supplemented with fish oil. The clinical trial was conducted with 23 patients randomly distributed in 2 groups. The supplemented group (SG) consumed 2 g of fish oil containing 600 milligrams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 9 wk. Nutritional and inflammatory markers status was available, both at a baseline (M0), and after 9 wk of chemotherapy (M9) in the SG and in the nonsupplemented group (NSG). Statistical analysis was conducted with STATA 11.0 software. SG and NSG presented the same baseline characteristics (P > 0.05). Nutritional status indicators such as body mass index and body weight were modified only in the NSG when comparing baseline and M9, P = 0.03 and P = 0.01 respectively, whereas in SG these indicators did not vary. Patients supplemented with fish oil (SG) showed a clinically relevant decrease in the C-reactive protein/albumin relation (P = 0.005). Low doses of fish oil supplement can positively modulate the nutritional status and the C-reative protein/albumin ratio.

  10. Protein supplementation does not alter intramuscular anabolic signaling or endocrine response after resistance exercise in trained men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Boone, Carleigh H; Beyer, Kyle S; Baker, Kayla M; Wells, Adam J; Church, David D; Mangine, Gerald T; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Moon, Jordan R; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway appears to be the primary regulator of muscle protein synthesis. A variety of stimuli including resistance exercise, amino acids, and hormonal signals activate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a protein supplement on mTORC1 signaling following a resistance exercise protocol designed to promote elevations in circulating hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that the protein supplement would augment the intramuscular anabolic signaling response. Ten resistance-trained men (age, 24.7 ± 3.4 years; weight, 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; height, 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) received either a placebo or a supplement containing 20 g protein, 6 g carbohydrates, and 1 g fat after high-volume, short-rest lower-body resistance exercise. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, immediately, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours after exercise. Fine-needle muscle biopsies were completed at baseline, 1 hour, and 5 hours after exercise. Myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactate concentrations were significantly elevated after resistance exercise (P < .0001); however, no differences were observed between trials. Resistance exercise also elicited a significant insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol response (P < .01); however, no differences were observed between trials for insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, testosterone, growth hormone, or cortisol. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed significant elevations in RPS6 phosphorylation after resistance exercise (P = .001); however, no differences were observed between trials for signaling proteins including Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6. The endocrine response and phosphorylation status of signaling proteins within the mTORC1 pathway did not appear to be altered by ingestion of supplement after resistance exercise in resistance-trained men. PMID:26428621

  11. Protein supplementation does not alter intramuscular anabolic signaling or endocrine response after resistance exercise in trained men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Boone, Carleigh H; Beyer, Kyle S; Baker, Kayla M; Wells, Adam J; Church, David D; Mangine, Gerald T; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Moon, Jordan R; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway appears to be the primary regulator of muscle protein synthesis. A variety of stimuli including resistance exercise, amino acids, and hormonal signals activate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a protein supplement on mTORC1 signaling following a resistance exercise protocol designed to promote elevations in circulating hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that the protein supplement would augment the intramuscular anabolic signaling response. Ten resistance-trained men (age, 24.7 ± 3.4 years; weight, 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; height, 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) received either a placebo or a supplement containing 20 g protein, 6 g carbohydrates, and 1 g fat after high-volume, short-rest lower-body resistance exercise. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, immediately, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours after exercise. Fine-needle muscle biopsies were completed at baseline, 1 hour, and 5 hours after exercise. Myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactate concentrations were significantly elevated after resistance exercise (P < .0001); however, no differences were observed between trials. Resistance exercise also elicited a significant insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol response (P < .01); however, no differences were observed between trials for insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, testosterone, growth hormone, or cortisol. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed significant elevations in RPS6 phosphorylation after resistance exercise (P = .001); however, no differences were observed between trials for signaling proteins including Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6. The endocrine response and phosphorylation status of signaling proteins within the mTORC1 pathway did not appear to be altered by ingestion of supplement after resistance exercise in resistance-trained men.

  12. Fatty acid profile and proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells after conjugated linoleic acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are in focus of dairy cattle research because of its milk fat reducing effects. Little is known about the impact of CLA on immune function in dairy cows. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of a long term supplementation of dairy cows with CLA on the fatty acid profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their proliferation ex vivo. Results The supplementation of dairy cows with either 100 g/d of a control fat preparation (CON, n = 15), 50 g/d of the control fat preparation and 50 g/d CLA supplement – containing 12.0% cis-9, trans-11 and 11.9% trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acid methyl esters – (CLA-50, n = 15) or 100 g/d of the CLA supplement (CLA-100, n = 16) did not influence the major fatty acids (C18:0, C16:0, cis-9 C18:1, cis-9, cis-12 C18:2, cis-5, cis-8, cis-11, cis-14 C20:4) in the lipid fraction of PBMC. The proportion of trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acids was increased in both CLA supplemented groups, but there was no effect on the cis-9, trans-11 isomer. Furthermore, the proportion of trans-9 C18:1 and cis-12 C24:1 was reduced in the CLA-100 group. The mitogen stimulated cell proliferation was not influenced by CLA feeding. Conclusion CLA supplementation influenced the FA profile of some minor FA in PBMC, but these changes did not lead to differences in the mitogen induced activation of the cells. PMID:22668674

  13. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    dust. The Moessbauer parameters are not definitive for mineralogical speciation (other than octahedrally-coordinated Fe(3+) but are consistent with a schwertmannite-like phase (i.e., a nanophase ferric oxide). The high oxidation state and values of Moessbauer parameters (center shift and quadrupole splitting) for the high-SO3 samples imply ferric sulfate (i.e., oxidized sulfur), although the hydration state cannot be constrained. In no case is there an excess of SO3 over available cations (i.e., no evidence for elemental sulfur), and Fe sulfide (pyrite) has been detected in only one Gusev sample. The presence of both high-SiO2 (and low total iron and SO3) and high SO3 (and high total iron as ferric sulfate) can be accommodated by a two-step geochemical model developed with the Geochemist's Workbench. (1) Step 1 is anoxic acid sulfate leaching of Martian basalt at high water-to rock ratios (greater than 70). The result is a high-SiO2 residue0, and anoxic conditions are required to solubilize Fe as Fe(2+). (2) Step 2 is the oxic precipitation of sulfate salts from the leachate. Oxic conditions are required to produce the high concentrations of ferric sulfate with minor Mg-sulfates and no detectable Fe(2+)-sulfates.

  14. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990649

  15. [Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-07-24

    For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders.

  16. Metabolic supplementation with orotic acid and magnesium orotate.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, F L

    1998-09-01

    Orotic acid (OA), a naturally occurring substance, is a key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of pyrimidines. Previous investigations in the heart suggest that orotate can protect recently infarcted hearts against a further ischemic stress and may be beneficial in certain types of experimental cardiomyopathy. At the Hamburg symposium on magnesium orotate, a number of studies of this form of metabolic supplementation were presented that indicate orotic acid and its magnesium salt have a modest beneficial effect on the myocardium under conditions of stress ranging from myocardial infarction to severe physical exercise. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Orotic acid can improve the energy status of the recently infarcted myocardium (rat hearts). (2) Orotic acid may improve myocardial purine and pyrimidine levels by stimulating hepatic release of uridine into the bloodstream, which in turn augments depleted myocardial pyrimidines and purines (rat heart). (3) Orotic acid improves the tolerance of the recently infarcted heart to global ischemia (rats). (4) Magnesium orotate may reduce the severity of chronic myocardial dysfunction and structural damage in cardiomyopathy (cardiomyopathic hamsters). (5) Magnesium orotate may improve exercise tolerance in patients with coronary artery disease and in trained athletes (humans). (6) Magnesium orotate has only a weak inotropic effect, if any, on normal hearts (rats). (7) Further clinical testing is indicated to determine if the effects described could be of significant clinical benefit in the treatment of heart disease. PMID:9794088

  17. Long-term ω-3 fatty acid supplementation induces anti-stress effects and improves learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Miguel Á; Terreros, Gonzalo; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2013-06-14

    Chronic stress leads to secretion of the adrenal steroid hormone corticosterone, inducing hippocampal atrophy and dendritic hypertrophy in the rat amygdala. Both alterations have been correlated with memory impairment and increased anxiety. Supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids improves memory and learning in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ω-3 supplementation on learning and major biological and behavioral stress markers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: 1) Control, 2) Vehicle, animals supplemented with water, and 3) ω-3, rats supplemented with ω-3 (100 mg of DHA+25 mg of EPA). Each experimental group was divided into two subgroups: one of which was not subjected to stress while the other was subjected to a restraint stress paradigm. Afterwards, learning was analyzed by avoidance conditioning. As well, plasma corticosterone levels and anxiety were evaluated as stress markers, respectively by ELISA and the plus-maze test. Restraint stress impaired learning and increased both corticosterone levels and the number of entries into the open-arm (elevated plus-maze). These alterations were prevented by ω-3 supplementation. Thus, our results demonstrate that ω-3 supplementation had two beneficial effects on the stressed rats, a strong anti-stress effect and improved learning.

  18. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and energy metabolism in rats supplemented with chlorogenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Zhou, Yan; Wen, Yanmei; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Assaad, Houssein; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) supplementation on serum and hepatic metabolomes in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either CGA (60 mg/kg body weight) or distilled water (control) for 4 weeks. Growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, and hepatic morphology were measured. Additionally, serum and liver tissue extracts were analyzed for metabolomes by high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and multivariate statistics. CGA did not affect rat growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, or hepatic morphology. However, supplementation with CGA decreased serum concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, succinate, citrate, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, while increasing serum concentrations of glycine and hepatic concentrations of glutathione. These results suggest that CGA supplementation results in perturbation of energy and amino acid metabolism in rats. We suggest that glycine and glutathione in serum may be useful biomarkers for biological properties of CGA on nitrogen metabolism in vivo. PMID:24927697

  19. Association of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and infant bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Dorris, Stacy L; Mitchel, Edward F; Hartert, Tina V; Cooper, William O; Tylavsky, Frances A; Dupont, William; Hartman, Terryl J; Carroll, Kecia N

    2014-04-15

    Viral bronchiolitis affects 20%-30% of infants; because there is no known effective treatment, it is important to identify risk factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. Although adequate folate intake during the periconceptional period prevents neural tube defects, animal data suggest that higher supplementation may be a risk factor for child respiratory diseases. Using a population-based retrospective cohort of 167,333 women and infants, born in 1995-2007 and enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program, we investigated the association between the filling of folic acid-containing prescriptions and infant bronchiolitis. We categorized women into the following 4 groups in relation to the first trimester: "none" (no prescription filled), "first trimester only," "after first trimester," and "both" (prescriptions filled both during and after the first trimester). Overall, 21% of infants had a bronchiolitis diagnosis, and 5% were hospitalized. Most women filled their first prescriptions after the fifth to sixth weeks of pregnancy, and most prescriptions contained 1,000 µg of folic acid. Compared with infants born to women in the "none" group, infants born to women in the "first trimester only" group had higher relative odds of bronchiolitis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22) and greater severity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22). This study's findings contribute to an understanding of the implications of prenatal nutritional supplement recommendations for infant bronchiolitis.

  20. Influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on the overall rumen microbiota of dairy cows and linkages with production parameters.

    PubMed

    Torok, Valeria A; Percy, Nigel J; Moate, Peter J; Ophel-Keller, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    The rumen microbiota contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and has an impact on feed efficiency and ruminant product fatty acid composition. Dietary fat supplements have shown promise in reducing enteric methane production and in altering the fatty acid profiles of ruminant-derived products, yet in vivo studies on how these impact the rumen microbiota are limited. In this study, we investigated the rumen bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and ciliate protozoan communities of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with 4 levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0, 25, 50, and 75 g·cow(-1)·day(-1)) and established linkages between microbial communities and production parameters. Supplementation with DHA significantly (P < 0.05) altered rumen bacterial and archaeal, including methanogenic archaeal, communities but had no significant (P > 0.05) effects on rumen fungal or ciliate protozoan communities. Rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving no DHA were correlated with increased saturated fatty acids (C18:0 and C11:0) in their milk. Furthermore, rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving a diet supplemented with 50 g DHA·cow(-1)·day(-1) were correlated with increases in monounsaturated fatty acids (C20:1n-9) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (C22:5n-3; C22:6n-3; C18:2 cis-9, trans-11; C22:3n-6; and C18:2n-6 trans) in their milk. The significant diet-associated changes in rumen archaeal communities observed did not result in altered enteric methane outputs in these cows.

  1. Folic acid supplementation and IVF pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Murto, T; Skoog Svanberg, A; Yngve, A; Nilsson, T K; Altmäe, S; Wånggren, K; Salumets, A; Stavreus-Evers, A

    2014-06-01

    Folic acid supplements are commonly used by infertile women which leads to a positive folate status. However, the effect of folic acid supplements on pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility has not been well investigated. This study evaluated folic acid supplement use and folate status in women with unexplained infertility in relation to IVF pregnancy outcome. In addition, use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile, nonpregnant control women. Women with unexplained infertility used significantly more folic acid supplements and had higher median total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women (both P < 0.001). Women with unexplained infertility also had significantly higher median plasma folate and lower median plasma homocysteine concentrations than fertile women (both P < 0.001), but folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility. In conclusion, folic acid supplementation or good folate status did not have a positive effect on pregnancy outcome following infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Folate is one of the B vitamins which has been suggested to be related to infertility. Folic acid is an artificial form of folate which is commonly used in dietary supplements. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to increase folate concentrations and decrease concentrations of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid supplementation is commonly used by infertile women, but the effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, folic acid supplement use and folate status (concentrations of folate and homocysteine) in women with unexplained infertility were evaluated in relation to pregnancy outcome. In addition, the use of folic acid supplements and folate

  2. Effect of thyroxine supplementation on the response to perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gutshall, D.M.; Pilcher, G.D.; Langley, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) is a member of a family of perfluorinated carboxylic acids that have found widespread commercial applications as lubricants, surfactants, wetting agents and corrosion inhibitors. The effects of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) supplementation on perfluoro-n-decanoic acid- (PFDA) induced decreases in food consumption, body weight, and body temperature were examined. A dose-response study was carried out with 50-, 100-, 200-, or 250-{mu}g/kg ip doses of T{sub 4} for 7 d prior to PFDA administration, and daily dosing with T{sub 4} was continued for an additional 30 d. From this study a T{sub 4} dose of 200 {mu}g/kg was chosen, and subsequent experiments were conducted with this dose. Supplementation with T{sub 4} at 200 {mu}g/kg daily alleviated the hypophagia but not the severe weight loss and hypothermia produced by PFDA treatment. Their results suggest that some component of the thyroid axis plays a role in feeding behavior. In addition, the PFDA-induced wasting syndrome and hypothermia appear to be unrelated to changes in serum thyroid hormones. The unexpected observation that severe weight loss occurred in the presence of essentially normal food intake suggests that PFDA alters basic cellular metabolic processes.

  3. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A − V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  4. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Gasparotto, Juciano; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; da Boit Martinello, Katia; Saldanha Henkin, Bernardo; Rabello, Thallita Kelly; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days) in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX) model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n = 8) and one OVX group (n = 11) were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil), and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n = 8/group). OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses) were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause.

  5. Supplemental dietary inulin of variable chain lengths alters intestinal bacterial populations in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jannine K; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M; Miller, Dennis D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-12-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P < 0.05) the abundance of beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the microbiota adherent to intestinal mucus of various gut segments of pigs. These changes were seen as proximal as in the jejunum with P95 but did not appear until the distal ileum or cecum with HP. Similar effects of inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits.

  6. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Gasparotto, Juciano; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; da Boit Martinello, Katia; Saldanha Henkin, Bernardo; Rabello, Thallita Kelly; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days) in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX) model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n = 8) and one OVX group (n = 11) were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil), and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n = 8/group). OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses) were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause. PMID:26640615

  7. Supplemental Dietary Inulin of Variable Chain Lengths Alters Intestinal Bacterial Populations in Young Pigs123

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Jannine K.; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M.; Miller, Dennis D.; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P < 0.05) the abundance of beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the microbiota adherent to intestinal mucus of various gut segments of pigs. These changes were seen as proximal as in the jejunum with P95 but did not appear until the distal ileum or cecum with HP. Similar effects of inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits. PMID:20980641

  8. Folic acid supplementation during early hepatocarcinogenesis: cellular and molecular effects.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Carlos Eduardo Andrade; Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; de Souza, Camila Alexandre Soares; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Paiva, Sérgio Alberto Rupp; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2011-11-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation during carcinogenesis is controversial. Considering the impact of liver cancer as a public health problem and mandatory FA fortification in several countries, the role of FA supplementation in hepatocarcinogenesis should be elucidated. We evaluated FA supplementation during early hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats received daily 0.08 mg (FA8 group) or 0.16 mg (FA16 group) of FA/100 g body weight or water (CO group, controls). After a 2-week treatment, animals were subjected to the "resistant hepatocyte" model of hepatocarcinogenesis (initiation with diethylnitrosamine, selection/promotion with 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial hepatectomy) and euthanized after 8 weeks of treatment. Compared to the CO group, the FA16 group presented: reduced (p < 0.05) number of persistent and increased (p < 0.05) number of remodeling glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL); reduced (p < 0.05) cell proliferation in persistent GST-P positive PNL; decreased (p < 0.05) hepatic DNA damage; and a tendency (p < 0.10) for decreased c-myc expression in microdissected PNL. Regarding all these parameters, no differences (p > 0.05) were observed between CO and FA8 groups. FA-treated groups presented increased hepatic levels of S-adenosylmethionine but only FA16 group presented increased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between experimental groups regarding apoptosis in persistent and remodeling GST-P positive PNL, and global DNA methylation pattern in microdissected PNL. Altogether, the FA16 group, but not the FA8 group, presented chemopreventive activity. Reversion of PNL phenotype and inhibition of DNA damage and of c-myc expression represent relevant FA cellular and molecular effects.

  9. Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24842467

  10. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  11. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  12. Folic acid supplementation dysregulates gene expression in lymphoblastoid cells--implications in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Mohammed A; Kuizon, Salomon; Cardona, Juan; Azher, Tayaba; Murakami, Noriko; Pullarkat, Raju K; Brown, W Ted

    2011-09-01

    For over a decade, folic acid (FA) supplementation has been widely prescribed to pregnant women to prevent neural tube closure defects in newborns. Although neural tube closure occurs within the first trimester, high doses of FA are given throughout pregnancy, the physiological consequences of which are unknown. FA can cause epigenetic modification of the cytosine residues in the CpG dinucleotide, thereby affecting gene expression. Dysregulation of crucial gene expression during gestational development may have lifelong adverse effects or lead to neurodevelopmental defects, such as autism. We have investigated the effect of FA supplementation on gene expression in lymphoblastoid cells by whole-genome expression microarrays. The results showed that high FA caused dysregulation by ≥ four-fold up or down to more than 1000 genes, including many imprinted genes. The aberrant expression of three genes (FMR1, GPR37L1, TSSK3) was confirmed by Western blot analyses. The level of altered gene expression changed in an FA concentration-dependent manner. We found significant dysregulation in gene expression at concentrations as low as 15 ng/ml, a level that is lower than what has been achieved in the blood through FA fortification guidelines. We found evidence of aberrant promoter methylation in the CpG island of the TSSK3 gene. Excessive FA supplementation may require careful monitoring in women who are planning for, or are in the early stages of pregnancy. Aberrant expression of genes during early brain development may have an impact on behavioural characteristics. PMID:21867686

  13. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids alter cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid composition and delay Ca2+-induced permeability transition.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Karen M; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Sparagna, Genevieve C; Xu, Wenhong; Hecker, Peter A; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Kristian, Tibor; Murphy, Robert C; Fiskum, Gary; Stanley, William C

    2009-12-01

    Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), decreases risk for heart failure and attenuates pathologic cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload. Dietary supplementation with EPA + DHA may also impact cardiac mitochondrial function and energetics through alteration of membrane phospholipids. We assessed the role of EPA + DHA supplementation on left ventricular (LV) function, cardiac mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition, respiration, and sensitivity to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in normal and infarcted myocardium. Rats were subjected to sham surgery or myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (n=10-14), and fed a standard diet, or supplemented with EPA + DHA (2.3% of energy intake) for 12 weeks. EPA + DHA altered fatty acid composition of total mitochondrial phospholipids and cardiolipin by reducing arachidonic acid content and increasing DHA incorporation. EPA + DHA significantly increased calcium uptake capacity in both subsarcolemmal and intrafibrillar mitochondria from sham rats. This treatment effect persisted with the addition of cyclosporin A, and was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial respiration or coupling, or cyclophilin D protein expression. Myocardial infarction resulted in heart failure as evidenced by LV dilation and contractile dysfunction. Infarcted LV myocardium had decreased mitochondrial protein yield and activity of mitochondrial marker enzymes, however respiratory function of isolated mitochondria was normal. EPA + DHA had no effect on LV function, mitochondrial respiration, or MPTP opening in rats with heart failure. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with EPA + DHA altered mitochondrial membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in normal and infarcted hearts, but delayed MPTP opening only in normal hearts.

  14. Dietary Polyphenol Supplementation Prevents Alterations of Spatial Navigation in Middle-Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Bensalem, Julien; Servant, Laure; Alfos, Serge; Gaudout, David; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Lafenetre, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to their navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB; from the Neurophenols Consortium) with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of nerve growth neurotrophic factor (NGF) mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline. PMID:26903826

  15. Dietary Polyphenol Supplementation Prevents Alterations of Spatial Navigation in Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bensalem, Julien; Servant, Laure; Alfos, Serge; Gaudout, David; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Lafenetre, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to their navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB; from the Neurophenols Consortium) with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of nerve growth neurotrophic factor (NGF) mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline. PMID:26903826

  16. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma concentrations of free amino acids, insulin, and energy substrates in young men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Sato, Juichi; Bajotto, Gustavo; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in the concentrations of plasma free amino acids, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and urea nitrogen induced by branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young men. Overnight-fasted subjects ingested drinks containing 1 or 5 g of a BCAA mixture (weight ratio of 1 : 2.3 : 1.2 for isoleucine : leucine : valine), and blood was intermittently collected for 3 h after ingestion. Ingestion of the BCAA mixture resulted in significant increases in the plasma concentrations of individual BCAAs, corresponding to the amounts of amino acids ingested. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids tended to decrease in the trial with 5 g BCAAs, suggesting that BCAA ingestion affects the metabolism of these amino acids. The ingestion of BCAAs temporarily increased plasma insulin levels and affected plasma concentrations of FFAs, but had almost no effect on glucose or urea nitrogen. PMID:21512300

  17. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  18. Acidic Alteration Environments on Mars and Implications for Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Flahaut, J.; Weitz, C. M.; Gross, C.; Parente, M.; Horgan, B. H. N.

    2014-12-01

    Unique surface materials have been discovered recently at Valles Marineris (Roach et al., 2010; Weitz et al., 2014; Flahaut et al., 2014), Noctis Labyrinthus (Weitz et al., 2011), Mawrth Vallis (Bishop et al., 2013), and elsewhere that have CRISM features distinct from those of any known minerals. Typically these unusual sites are found in light-toned outcrops or interior layered deposits associated with phyllosilicates, sulfates or both. Frequently these units are called "doublet" materials because they exhibit a doublet absorption in CRISM spectra between 2.2 and 2.3 µm. We are investigating the spectral signatures of these martian materials compared to our library of minerals and alteration materials. We are also evaluating the stratigraphy of these unique alteration phases compared with neighboring phyllosilicate and sulfate units. A similar 2.2-2.3 µm doublet has been observed in spectra taken of acid altered clays produced in the laboratory (Madejova et al., 2009; Tosca et al., 2009). The band centers and relative intensities of these martian doublet features vary greatly suggesting that a process such as acid weathering could be acting on OH-bearing minerals to produce altered phases that differ depending on the type of substrate, water/rock ratio, solution chemistry, and duration of aqueous processes. Because these unique materials occur in many regions across a range of times on Mars, acidic alteration may have been a key process at local and regional scales throughout martian geologic history. Constraining the types of acidic alteration that have taken place on Mars will assist in defining the aqueous geochemistry at these sites and whether habitable conditions were possible. References: Bishop et al. (2013) PSS, 86, 130-149. Flahaut et al. (2014) EPSC, #211. Madejová et al. (2009) Vibrational Spectroscopy, 49, 211-218. Roach et al. (2010) Icarus, 206, 253-268. Tosca & Knoll (2009) 40th LPSC, #1538. Weitz et al. (2011) Geology, 39, 899-902. Weitz et al

  19. Folic Acid Supplementation Stimulates Notch Signaling and Cell Proliferation in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Huang, Guo-wei; Zhang, Xu-mei; Ren, Da-lin; X. Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14–16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation (4 mg/l above baseline, Folate-L) and high folic acid supplementation (40 mg/l above baseline, Folate-H). NSCs were identified by their expression of immunoreactive nestin and proliferating cells by incorporation of 5'bromo-2'deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was also assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Notch signaling was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses of the expression of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). Supplementation of NSCs with folic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch1 and Hes5. Folic acid supplementation also stimulated NSC proliferation dose-dependently. Embryonic NSCs respond to folic acid supplementation with increased Notch signaling and cell proliferation. This mechanism may mediate the effects of folic acid supplementation on neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system. PMID:20838574

  20. Folic Acid Supplementation Mitigates Alzheimer's Disease by Reducing Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shuai; Ji, Lu; Wu, Tianfeng; Ji, Yong; Zhou, Yuying; Zhang, Meilin; Xu, Weili; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Low serum folate levels can alter inflammatory reactions. Both phenomena have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of folic acid on AD itself is unclear. We quantified folate supplementation's effect on inflammation and cognitive function in patients with AD over the course of 6 months. Methods. Patients newly diagnosed with AD (age > 60 years; n = 121; mild to severe; international criteria) and being treated with donepezil were randomly assigned into two groups with (intervention group) or without (control group) supplemental treatment with folic acid (1.25 mg/d) for 6 months. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered to all patients at baseline and follow-up, and blood samples were taken before and after treatment. We quantified serum folate, amyloid beta (Aβ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), plasma homocysteine (Hcy), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and the mRNA levels of presenilin (PS), IL-6, and TNFα in leukocytes. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures mixed model. Results. The mean MMSE was slightly increased in the intervention group compared to that in the control group (P < 0.05). Posttreatment, plasma SAM and SAM/SAH levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05), while Aβ40, PS1-mRNA, and TNFα-mRNA levels were lower in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was also higher in the intervention group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Folic acid is beneficial in patients with AD. Inflammation may play an important role in the interaction between folic acid and AD. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003246. PMID:27340344

  1. Ascorbic acid supplementation enhances recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis than abstention in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnakartha, Harikrishnan; Appu, Abhilash Puthuvelvippel; Indira, Madambath

    2014-01-15

    The impact of ascorbic acid supplementation against ethanol induced Leydig cell toxicity was studied in guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs were exposed to ethanol (4g/kgb.wt.) for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was completely stopped and animals in the ethanol group were divided into abstention group and ascorbic acid supplemented group (25mg/100gb.wt.) and those in control group were maintained as control and control+ascorbic acid group. Ethanol administration reduced the serum testosterone and LH (luteinising hormone) levels and elevated estradiol levels. Cholesterol levels in Leydig cell were increased whereas the mRNA and protein expressions of StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory) protein, cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome p450side chain cleavage enzyme), 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), 17β-HSD (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) and LH receptor were drastically reduced. Administration of ascorbic acid resulted in alteration of all these parameters indicating enhanced recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Although abstention could also reduce the inhibition of steroidogenesis, this was lesser in comparison with ascorbic acid supplemented group.

  2. Dicarboxylic acids generated by thermal alteration of kerogen and humic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    Significant amounts (up to 2 percent of organic geopolymers) of low-molecular-weight (LMW) dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10) have been detected during thermal alteration (270 C, 2 h) of kerogens and humic acids isolated from young or ancient lithified sediments. Their distribution is characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid followed by succinic, fumaric, and methylsuccinic acids. These acids are probably released by the breakdown of macromolecular structures, which have incorporated biogenic organic compounds, including diacids, during early digenesis in sediments. Because of their reactivity, LMW diacids may play geochemically important roles under natural conditions.

  3. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk.

  4. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia-A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Guo, Yanfang; Rodger, Marc; White, Ruth Rennicks; Yang, Qiuying; Smith, Graeme N; Perkins, Sherry L; Walker, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurrence of PE between women with folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and women without were compared. Multiple logistic regression was used in the estimation of the independent effect of supplementation of folic acid. Additional analyses assessing the effect of low RBC and serum folate and dose-response relationship were performed. Analyses were performed in all study participants, and then in high risk and low risk sub-groups, respectively. A total of 7,669 participants were included in the final analysis. Ninety five percent of the study participants were taking folic acid supplementation in early second trimester. The rate of PE was lower in the supplementation group than in the no supplementation group, and the difference was statistically significant in high risk women. Similar patterns of associations were observed in analysis by RBC and serum folate levels and in dose-response analysis. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy may reduce PE risk in pregnant women, especially in those women with increased risk of developing PE.

  5. Alteration of fatty acid profile and nucleotide-related substances in post-mortem breast meat of α-lipoic acid-fed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Y

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation on post-mortem changes in the fatty acid profile and concentrations of nucleotide-related substances, especially those of a taste-active compound, inosine 5'-monophosphate, in chicken meat. Mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 14 d were divided into three groups of 16 birds each and were fed on diets supplemented with α-lipoic acid at levels of 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Blood and breast muscle samples were taken at 42 d of age under the fed condition and then after fasting for 18 h. The breast muscle obtained from fasted chickens was subsequently refrigerated at 2°C for one and 3 d. α-Lipoic acid supplementation did not affect any plasma metabolite concentration independently of feeding condition, while a slight increase in plasma glucose concentration was shown with both administration levels of α-lipoic acid. In early post-mortem breast muscle under the fed condition, α-lipoic acid had no effect on concentrations of fatty acids or nucleotides of ATP, ADP, and AMP. In post-mortem breast tissues obtained from fasted chickens, total fatty acid concentrations were markedly increased by α-lipoic acid feeding at 200 mg/kg irrespective of length of refrigeration. This effect was dependent on stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. However, among fatty acids, the only predominantly increased unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid. Dietary supplementation with α-lipoic acid at 200 mg/kg increased the inosine 5'-monophosphate concentration in breast meat and, in contrast, reduced the subsequent catabolites, inosine and xanthine, regardless of the length of refrigeration. Therefore, the present study suggests that α-lipoic acid administration altered the fatty acid profile and improved meat quality by increasing taste-active substances in the post-mortem meat obtained from fasted chickens.

  6. DNA Methylation Profiling at Single-Base Resolution Reveals Gestational Folic Acid Supplementation Influences the Epigenome of Mouse Offspring Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Brown, W. Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly more evident that lifestyle, environmental factors, and maternal nutrition during gestation can influence the epigenome of the developing fetus and thus modulate the physiological outcome. Variations in the intake of maternal nutrients affecting one-carbon metabolism may influence brain development and exert long-term effects on the health of the progeny. In this study, we investigated whether supplementation with high maternal folic acid during gestation alters DNA methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of mouse offspring. We used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to analyze the DNA methylation profile at the single-base resolution level. The genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed that supplementation with higher maternal folic acid resulted in distinct methylation patterns (P < 0.05) of CpG and non-CpG sites in the cerebellum of offspring. Such variations of methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of offspring were highly sex-specific, including several genes of the neuronal pathways. These findings demonstrate that alterations in the level of maternal folic acid during gestation can influence methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of offspring. Such changes in the offspring epigenome may alter neurodevelopment and influence the functional outcome of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. PMID:27199632

  7. DNA Methylation Profiling at Single-Base Resolution Reveals Gestational Folic Acid Supplementation Influences the Epigenome of Mouse Offspring Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Brown, W Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly more evident that lifestyle, environmental factors, and maternal nutrition during gestation can influence the epigenome of the developing fetus and thus modulate the physiological outcome. Variations in the intake of maternal nutrients affecting one-carbon metabolism may influence brain development and exert long-term effects on the health of the progeny. In this study, we investigated whether supplementation with high maternal folic acid during gestation alters DNA methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of mouse offspring. We used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to analyze the DNA methylation profile at the single-base resolution level. The genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed that supplementation with higher maternal folic acid resulted in distinct methylation patterns (P < 0.05) of CpG and non-CpG sites in the cerebellum of offspring. Such variations of methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of offspring were highly sex-specific, including several genes of the neuronal pathways. These findings demonstrate that alterations in the level of maternal folic acid during gestation can influence methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of offspring. Such changes in the offspring epigenome may alter neurodevelopment and influence the functional outcome of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. PMID:27199632

  8. Serum amino acid profiles and their alterations in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Ceglarek, Uta; Kase, Julia; Conrad, Tim; Witzigmann, Helmut; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin

    2012-08-01

    Mass spectrometry-based serum metabolic profiling is a promising tool to analyse complex cancer associated metabolic alterations, which may broaden our pathophysiological understanding of the disease and may function as a source of new cancer-associated biomarkers. Highly standardized serum samples of patients suffering from colon cancer (n = 59) and controls (n = 58) were collected at the University Hospital Leipzig. We based our investigations on amino acid screening profiles using electrospray tandem-mass spectrometry. Metabolic profiles were evaluated using the Analyst 1.4.2 software. General, comparative and equivalence statistics were performed by R 2.12.2. 11 out of 26 serum amino acid concentrations were significantly different between colorectal cancer patients and healthy controls. We found a model including CEA, glycine, and tyrosine as best discriminating and superior to CEA alone with an AUROC of 0.878 (95% CI 0.815-0.941). Our serum metabolic profiling in colon cancer revealed multiple significant disease-associated alterations in the amino acid profile with promising diagnostic power. Further large-scale studies are necessary to elucidate the potential of our model also to discriminate between cancer and potential differential diagnoses. In conclusion, serum glycine and tyrosine in combination with CEA are superior to CEA for the discrimination between colorectal cancer patients and controls.

  9. Effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on preeclampsia: the folic acid clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Champagne, Josee; Rennicks White, Ruth; Coyle, Doug; Fraser, William; Smith, Graeme; Fergusson, Dean; Walker, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 8(0/7) and 16(6/7) weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  10. Heart Alterations after Domoic Acid Administration in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Andres C; Cifuentes, José Manuel; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ferreiro, Sara F; Castro, Albina Román; Botana, Luis M

    2016-03-10

    Domoic acid (DA) is one of the best known marine toxins, causative of important neurotoxic alterations. DA effects are documented both in wildlife and experimental assays, showing that this toxin causes severe injuries principally in the hippocampal area. In the present study we have addressed the long-term toxicological effects (30 days) of DA intraperitoneal administration in rats. Different histological techniques were employed in order to study DA toxicity in heart, an organ which has not been thoroughly studied after DA intoxication to date. The presence of DA was detected by immunohistochemical assays, and cellular alterations were observed both by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Although histological staining methods did not provide any observable tissue damage, transmission electron microscopy showed several injuries: a moderate lysis of myofibrils and loss of mitochondrial conformation. This is the first time the association between heart damage and the presence of the toxin has been observed.

  11. Heart Alterations after Domoic Acid Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Andres C.; Cifuentes, José Manuel; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ferreiro, Sara F.; Castro, Albina Román; Botana, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is one of the best known marine toxins, causative of important neurotoxic alterations. DA effects are documented both in wildlife and experimental assays, showing that this toxin causes severe injuries principally in the hippocampal area. In the present study we have addressed the long-term toxicological effects (30 days) of DA intraperitoneal administration in rats. Different histological techniques were employed in order to study DA toxicity in heart, an organ which has not been thoroughly studied after DA intoxication to date. The presence of DA was detected by immunohistochemical assays, and cellular alterations were observed both by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Although histological staining methods did not provide any observable tissue damage, transmission electron microscopy showed several injuries: a moderate lysis of myofibrils and loss of mitochondrial conformation. This is the first time the association between heart damage and the presence of the toxin has been observed. PMID:26978401

  12. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  13. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  14. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated.

  15. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-08-24

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  16. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index. PMID:26305244

  17. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. PMID:27418998

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats.

  19. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200–250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. PMID:27418998

  20. Supplementation with Vitamin E and Vitamin C inversely alters mitochondrial copy number and mitochondrial protein in obese, exercising rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data...

  1. Probiotic supplementation influences faecal short chain fatty acids in infants at high risk for eczema.

    PubMed

    Kim, H K; Rutten, N B M M; Besseling-van der Vaart, I; Niers, L E M; Choi, Y H; Rijkers, G T; van Hemert, S

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota plays a role in the development of allergies. Based on the immunomodulating capacities of bacteria, various studies have investigated the potential role for probiotics in the prevention of childhood eczema. In a previous study we have shown that significantly less children developed eczema after probiotic supplementation (Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis W52 and Lactococcus lactis W58, Ecologic(®)Panda) at three months of age as compared to controls. Here, metabolites in faecal samples of these 3-month old children were measured by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate possible gut metabolic alterations. Lower amounts of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), succinate, phenylalanine and alanine were found in faecal samples of children later developing eczema, whereas the amounts of glucose, galactose, lactate and lactose were higher compared to the children not developing eczema. Although these differences were already present at the age of 3 months, eczema did not develop in the majority of children before the age of 1 year. Supplementation of multispecies probiotics seems to induce higher levels of lactate and SCFAs, and lower levels of lactose and succinate when compared with the placebo group. This might explain the temporary preventive effect of probiotics on the development of eczema. These results highlight the role bacterial metabolites may play in development of the immune system, even before clinical manifestations of allergic disease arise.

  2. Effects of essential fatty acid supplementation in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Helen; Granger, Nicolas; Wood, James; Skelly, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    The effects of essential fatty acid supplementation (EFA) on the control of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs were investigated in a blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Fifteen dogs were treated with triple purified Ω-3 oil containing 400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 250 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 22 mg vitamin E per 1.5 mL at a dose of 1.5 mL/10 kg once daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 12 week placebo period of supplementation with olive oil. Owners recorded seizure frequency and severity and any adverse events. EFA supplementation did not reduce seizure frequency or severity in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

  3. High dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy: are we sure it is safe?

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2015-04-01

    Most experts agree that folic acid supplementation is a key preconception intervention, particularly in women with epilepsy who take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Primary prevention of neural tube defect through folic acid supplementation results in reduction of risk in an otherwise healthy population. The current folic acid supplementation recommendation is that all women of childbearing potential be supplemented with at least 0.4 mg of folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. It is recommended that all women with epilepsy and of childbearing potential be supplemented with folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. However, considering the potential significant drug-drug interactions between high doses of folic acid and some AEDs in patients with epilepsy and also with the emerging evidence from animal studies that high levels of folic acid throughout gestation may have adverse effects on fetal brain development, it is not suggested to advocate high dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy until more information is available about its appropriate, safe and optimal dosing. PMID:25891927

  4. High dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy: are we sure it is safe?

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2015-04-01

    Most experts agree that folic acid supplementation is a key preconception intervention, particularly in women with epilepsy who take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Primary prevention of neural tube defect through folic acid supplementation results in reduction of risk in an otherwise healthy population. The current folic acid supplementation recommendation is that all women of childbearing potential be supplemented with at least 0.4 mg of folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. It is recommended that all women with epilepsy and of childbearing potential be supplemented with folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. However, considering the potential significant drug-drug interactions between high doses of folic acid and some AEDs in patients with epilepsy and also with the emerging evidence from animal studies that high levels of folic acid throughout gestation may have adverse effects on fetal brain development, it is not suggested to advocate high dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy until more information is available about its appropriate, safe and optimal dosing.

  5. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    PubMed

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  6. Nonsteroidal management of canine pruritus: chlorpheniramine and a fatty acid supplement (DVM Derm Caps) in combination, and the fatty acid supplement at twice the manufacturer's recommended dosage.

    PubMed

    Scott, D W; Miller, W H

    1990-10-01

    Forty-three dogs having pruritus associated with atopy, flea bite hypersensitivity, and idiopathy were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment protocols. Twenty-three dogs received chlorpheniramine in combination with a fatty acid supplement (DVM Derm Caps). Twenty dogs received the fatty acid supplement at twice the manufacturer's recommended dosage. All 43 dogs were known to be unresponsive to chlorpheniramine and the manufacturer's recommended dosage of the fatty acid supplement when either drug was used alone. Pruritus was satisfactorily controlled in 34.8% of the dogs in the chlorpheniramine--DVM Derm Caps protocol. No dog in the double DVM Derm Caps protocol showed a beneficial response. Side effects were uncommon and mild with either protocol.

  7. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production.

  8. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids in the gravid pig uterus as affected by maternal supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Brazle, A E; Johnson, B J; Webel, S K; Rathbun, T J; Davis, D L

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of maternal fatty acid supplementation to alter conceptus and endometrial fatty acid composition. In Exp. 1, treatments were 1) the control, a corn-soybean meal diet; 2) flax, the control diet plus ground flax (3.75% of diet); and 3) protected fatty acids (PFA), the control plus a protected fish oil source rich in n-3 PUFA (Gromega, JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN; 1.5% of diet). Supplements replaced equal parts of corn and soybean meal. When gilts reached 170 d of age, PG600 (PMSG and hCG, Intervet USA, Millsboro, DE) was injected to induce puberty, and dietary treatments (n = 8/treatment) were initiated. When detected in estrus, gilts were artificially inseminated. On d 40 to 43 of gestation, 7 gilts in the control treatment, 8 gilts in the PFA treatment, and 5 gilts in the flax treatment were pregnant and were slaughtered. Compared with the control treatment, the flax treatment tended to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5n-3) in fetuses (0.14 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/g of dry tissue; P = 0.055), whereas gilts receiving PFA had more (P < 0.05) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6n-3) in their fetuses (5.23 vs. 4.04 +/- 0.078 mg/g) compared with gilts fed the control diet. Both the flax and PFA diets increased (P < 0.05) DHA (0.60, 0.82, and 0.85 +/- 0.078 mg/g for the control, flax, and PFA diet, respectively) in the chorioallantois. In the endometrium, EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3) were increased by the flax diet (P < 0.001; P < 0.05), whereas gilts receiving PFA had increased DHA (P < 0.001). The flax diet selectively increased EPA, and the PFA diet selectively increased DHA in the fetus and endometrium. In Exp. 2, gilts were fed diets containing PFA (1.5%) or a control diet beginning at approximately 170 of age (n = 13/treatment). A blood sample was collected after 30 d of treatment, and gilts were artificially inseminated when they were approximately 205 d old. Conceptus and endometrial samples were collected on

  10. A mid-life vitamin A supplementation prevents age-related spatial memory deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis alterations through CRABP-I.

    PubMed

    Touyarot, Katia; Bonhomme, Damien; Roux, Pascale; Alfos, Serge; Lafenêtre, Pauline; Richard, Emmanuel; Higueret, Paul; Pallet, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Age-related memory decline including spatial reference memory is considered to begin at middle-age and coincides with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, a dysfunction of vitamin A hippocampal signalling pathway has been involved in the appearance of age-related memory deficits but also in adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. The present study aims at testing the hypothesis that a mid-life vitamin A supplementation would be a successful strategy to prevent age-related memory deficits. Thus, middle-aged Wistar rats were submitted to a vitamin A enriched diet and were tested 4 months later in a spatial memory task. In order to better understand the potential mechanisms mediating the effects of vitamin A supplementation on hippocampal functions, we studied different aspects of hippocampal adult neurogenesis and evaluated hippocampal CRABP-I expression, known to modulate differentiation processes. Here, we show that vitamin A supplementation from middle-age enhances spatial memory and improves the dendritic arborisation of newborn immature neurons probably resulting in a better survival and neuronal differentiation in aged rats. Moreover, our results suggest that hippocampal CRABP-I expression which controls the intracellular availability of retinoic acid (RA), may be an important regulator of neuronal differentiation processes in the aged hippocampus. Thus, vitamin A supplementation from middle-age could be a good strategy to maintain hippocampal plasticity and functions. PMID:23977218

  11. A Mid-Life Vitamin A Supplementation Prevents Age-Related Spatial Memory Deficits and Hippocampal Neurogenesis Alterations through CRABP-I

    PubMed Central

    Touyarot, Katia; Bonhomme, Damien; Roux, Pascale; Alfos, Serge; Lafenêtre, Pauline; Richard, Emmanuel; Higueret, Paul; Pallet, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Age-related memory decline including spatial reference memory is considered to begin at middle-age and coincides with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, a dysfunction of vitamin A hippocampal signalling pathway has been involved in the appearance of age-related memory deficits but also in adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. The present study aims at testing the hypothesis that a mid-life vitamin A supplementation would be a successful strategy to prevent age-related memory deficits. Thus, middle-aged Wistar rats were submitted to a vitamin A enriched diet and were tested 4 months later in a spatial memory task. In order to better understand the potential mechanisms mediating the effects of vitamin A supplementation on hippocampal functions, we studied different aspects of hippocampal adult neurogenesis and evaluated hippocampal CRABP-I expression, known to modulate differentiation processes. Here, we show that vitamin A supplementation from middle-age enhances spatial memory and improves the dendritic arborisation of newborn immature neurons probably resulting in a better survival and neuronal differentiation in aged rats. Moreover, our results suggest that hippocampal CRABP-I expression which controls the intracellular availability of retinoic acid (RA), may be an important regulator of neuronal differentiation processes in the aged hippocampus. Thus, vitamin A supplementation from middle-age could be a good strategy to maintain hippocampal plasticity and functions. PMID:23977218

  12. Bile Acid Alters Male Mouse Fertility in Metabolic Syndrome Context

    PubMed Central

    Baptissart, Marine; De Haze, Angélique; Vaz, Frederic; Kulik, Wim; Damon-Soubeyrand, Christelle; Baron, Silvère; Caira, Françoise; Volle, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids have recently been demonstrated as molecules with endocrine activities controlling several physiological functions such as immunity and glucose homeostases. They act mainly through two receptors, the nuclear receptor Farnesol-X-Receptor alpha (FXRα) and the G-protein coupled receptor (TGR5). These recent studies have led to the idea that molecules derived from bile acids (BAs) and targeting their receptors must be good targets for treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity or diabetes. Thus it might be important to decipher the potential long term impact of such treatment on different physiological functions. Indeed, BAs have recently been demonstrated to alter male fertility. Here we demonstrate that in mice with overweight induced by high fat diet, BA exposure leads to increased rate of male infertility. This is associated with the altered germ cell proliferation, default of testicular endocrine function and abnormalities in cell-cell interaction within the seminiferous epithelium. Even if the identification of the exact molecular mechanisms will need more studies, the present results suggest that both FXRα and TGR5 might be involved. We believed that this work is of particular interest regarding the potential consequences on future approaches for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26439743

  13. Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Priscila; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Pereira, Renata Virginia Fernandes; Neto, Marcilio Hubner Miranda; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) dietary supplementation on myenteric neurons and epithelial cell proliferation of the jejunum of adult rats with chronic diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty rats at 90 d of age were divided into three groups: Non-diabetic, diabetic and diabetic treated with AA (DA) (1 g/L). After 120 d of treatment with AA the animals were killed. The myenteric neurons were stained for myosin-V and analyzed quantitatively in an area of 11.2 mm2/animal. We further measured the cellular area of 500 neurons per group. We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. The data area was analyzed using the Olympus BX40 microscope. RESULTS: There was an increase of 14% in the neuronal density (792.6 ± 46.52 vs 680.6 ± 30.27) and 4.4% in the cellular area (303.4 ± 5.19 vs 291.1 ± 6.0) respectively of the diabetic group treated with AA when compared to control diabetic animals. There were no significant differences in MI parameters, villi height or crypt depths among the groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AA in the diabetic animal promoted moderate neuroprotection. There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes mellitus with or without supplementation with AA. PMID:19030205

  14. Sex-related differences in effect of ethanol administration and folic acid supplementation on pancreatic amylase in rats.

    PubMed

    García-Benítez, Olga; Delgado-Villa, Maria Jesús; Murillo, Maria Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether folic acid supplement is sufficient to reverse the negative effects of ethanol consumption on amylase activity during gestation, lactation, and growth. Moreover, this study investigated the sex-related differences in amylase content in the pancreatic tissue, serum, and urine. The animals were randomized into three groups: Control group (CG) received water and a basic rat diet during pregnancy, lactation, and growth; Ethanol-rats (EG) were fed an ethanol diet during pregnancy, the suckling period, and growth until death; and Ethanol + folic acid group (E + FG) were handled the same way as those of EG, except they received a folic acid supplement from reproduction until the end of experimental period. Our results showed that ethanol consumption decreased the pancreatic amylase level in offspring rats at 2 months postpartum. Folic acid supplementation did not alter pancreatic amylase activities. In offspring males, ethanol administration decreased serum amylase activity at 2 months postpartum. Folic acid supplementation in males resulted in higher serum amylase levels than those corresponding to the ethanol-fed group. In females, no significant differences between groups in serum amylase levels were found. Ethanol consumption decreased urinary amylase excretion (at 30 days and 2 months postpartum), but the folic acid-supplemented group showed a more pronounced decrease in urine amylase activity than in the ethanol-fed group. At 30 days postpartum, no sex difference in urinary amylase was identified. However, in general, males showed higher values for urine amylase than females at 2 months postpartum. A folic acid-supplemented diet exerts an advantageous effect on amylase in serum in offspring males at 2 months postpartum of mothers fed ethanol during gestation and lactation periods, because amylase renal absorption is increased. In offspring females, amylase renal absorption is also increased, but we did not observed

  15. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-01-29

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness.

  16. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R.; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness. PMID:26840330

  17. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-02-01

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness. PMID:26840330

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:27138439

  20. Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces placental oxidative stress and increases fetal and placental growth in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jones, Megan L; Mark, Peter J; Mori, Trevor A; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Waddell, Brendan J

    2013-02-01

    Placental oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of several placenta-related disorders including intrauterine growth restriction. Oxidative stress occurs when accumulation of reactive oxygen species damages DNA, proteins, and lipids, an outcome normally limited by antioxidant defenses. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may limit oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant capacity, but n-3 PUFAs are also highly susceptible to lipid peroxidation; so n-3 PUFA supplementation is potentially harmful. Here we examined the effect of n-3 PUFAs on placental oxidative stress and on placental and fetal growth in the rat. We also investigated whether diet-induced changes in maternal plasma fatty acid profiles are associated with comparable changes in placental and fetal tissues. Rats were fed either standard or high n-3 PUFA diets from Day 1 of pregnancy, and tissues were collected on Day 17 or 22 (term = Day 23). Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs increased fetal (6%) and placental (12%) weights at Day 22, the latter attributable primarily to growth of the labyrinth zone (LZ). Increased LZ weight was accompanied by reduced LZ F(2)-isoprostanes (by 31% and 11% at Days 17 and 22, respectively), a marker of oxidative damage. Maternal plasma PUFA profiles were altered by dietary fatty acid intake and were strongly predictive of corresponding profiles in placental and fetal tissues. Our data indicate that n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces placental oxidative stress and enhances placental and fetal growth. Moreover, fatty acid profiles in the mother, placenta, and fetus are highly dependent on dietary fatty acid intake.

  1. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children. PMID:19772683

  2. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children.

  3. Pregnancy intentions and folic acid supplementation exemplars: findings from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Roxanne; Volkman, Julie E; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Weisman, Carol S; Chase, Gary A; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2009-06-01

    One Healthy People 2010 objective is that 80% of women in the United States start a pregnancy with optimal levels of folic acid. This often requires women to use folic acid supplements preconceptionally to get adequate levels. Efforts to achieve the objective have resulted in a suboptimal floor effect at less than 50% of women. We advance a framework based on exemplification theory, identifying supplementation as an additive action in which two role models exemplify folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age able to become pregnant (n = 1,258). The women were participants in Phase I of the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study (CePAWHS). One exemplar identified represents the positive habits aligned with supplementers considering a pregnancy sometime in their future, while the other resides in the exemplification of positive habits aligned with supplementers not considering a pregnancy sometime in their future but still able to become pregnant. Among women not considering a future pregnancy, daily green salad consumption, weekly fish consumption, having had a health care visit in the past year, and having had any ob/gyn visit in the past 2 years resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use in a multivariable model. In the same model, an increase in age resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use. Among women considering a future pregnancy, not smoking cigarettes, having higher levels of psychosocial stress, and having higher levels of interaction social support resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use in a multivariable model. In the same model, those who have had a health care visit in the past year, as well as those who have received pregnancy planning counseling, were also more likely to use a folic acid supplement. Implications for strategic communication are considered.

  4. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on recurrent colorectal adenoma, we conduc...

  5. Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces Campylobacter Load

    PubMed Central

    Prasai, Tanka P.; Walsh, Kerry B.; Bhattarai, Surya P.; Midmore, David J.; Van, Thi T. H.; Moore, Robert J.; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were absent: an OTU 100% identical to Campylobacter jejuni; an OTU 99% identical to Helicobacter pullorum; multiple Gallibacterium anatis (>97%) related OTUs; Bacteroides dorei (99%) and Clostridium aldenense (95%) related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens. PMID:27116607

  6. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters ventricular myocyte contractile function in the offspring of rats: influence of maternal Mg2+ supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wold, L E; Norby, F L; Hintz, K K; Colligan, P B; Epstein, P N; Ren, J

    2001-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is often associated with cardiac hypertrophy and impaired ventricular function in a manner similar to postnatal chronic alcohol ingestion. Chronic alcoholism has been shown to lead to hypomagnesemia, and dietary Mg2+ supplementation was shown to ameliorate ethanol- induced cardiovascular dysfunction such as hypertension. However, the role of gestational Mg2+ supplementation on FAS-related cardiac dysfunction is unknown. This study was conducted to examine the influence of gestational dietary Mg2+ supplementation on prenatal ethanol exposure-induced cardiac contractile response at the ventricular myocyte level. Timed-pregnancy female rats were fed from gestation day 2 with liquid diets containing 0.13 g/L Mg2+ supplemented with ethanol (36%) or additional Mg2+ (0.52 g/L), or both. The pups were maintained on standard rat chow through adulthood, and ventricular myocytes were isolated and stimulated to contract at 0.5 Hz. Mechanical properties were evaluated using an IonOptix soft-edge system, and intracellular Ca2+ transients were measured as changes in fura-2 fluorescence intensity (Delta FFI). Offspring from all groups displayed similar growth curves. Myocytes from the ethanol group exhibited reduced cell length, enhanced peak shortening (PS), and shortened time to 90% relengthening (TR90) associated with a normal Delta FFI and time to PS (TPS). Mg2+ reverted the prenatal ethanol-induced alteration in PS and maximal velocity of relengthening. However, it shortened TPS and TR90, and altered the Delta FFI, as well as Ca2+ decay rate by itself. Additionally, myocytes from the ethanol group exhibited impaired responsiveness to increased extracellular Ca2+ or stimulating frequency, which were restored by gestational Mg2+ supplementation. These data suggest that although gestational Mg2+ supplementation may be beneficial to certain cardiac contractile dysfunctions in offspring of alcoholic mothers, caution must be taken, as Mg2

  7. Chem I Supplement: Emphasis on Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education Staff

    1977-01-01

    Provides supplementary notes on acids and bases suitable for secondary school chemistry instruction, including acidity in solid and natural waters, acidity balance in body chemistry, acid and basic foods, pH values of common fluids, examples of drugs, and commercial preparation of nitric acid. (SL)

  8. AXIAL SKELETAL AND HOX EXPRESSION DOMAIN ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID, VALPROIC ACID AND BROMOXYNIL DURING MURINE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Retinoic acid (RA) alters the developmental fate of the axial skeletal anlage. "Anteriorizations" or "posteriorizations", the assumption of characteristics of embryonic areas normally anterior or posterior to the affected tissues, are correlated with altered emb...

  9. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception. PMID:26627544

  10. The stable isotope geochemistry of acid sulfate alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, R.O.; Bethke, P.M.; Wasserman, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Acid sulfate wall-rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz ?? pyrite, results from base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4. Requisite amounts of H2SO4 can be generated by different mechanisms in three principal geologic environments: 1) by atmospheric oxidation of sulfides in the supergene environment, 2) by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in the steam-heated environment of H2S released by deeper, boiling fluids, and 3) by the disproportionation of magmatic SO2 to H2S and H2SO4 during condensation of a magmatic vapor plume at intermediate depths in magmatic hydrothermal environments in silicic and andesitic volcanic terranes. In addition, coarse vein alunite may form in a magmatic steam environment. -from Authors

  11. Supplementation of dairy cow diets with calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and nicotinic acid in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P S; Murphy, M R; Clark, J H

    1992-04-01

    Forty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments 15 d postpartum according to milk yield during wk 2 postpartum to examine the effects of supplementing niacin, Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids, and their interaction. Treatments were control, niacin (12 g/d), Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids (3% of dietary DM), or a combination of niacin and Ca salts. On d 99 postpartum, all cows were fed the control treatment for 2 wk to evaluate residual effects. Milk and FCM yields, blood plasma NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and apparent total tract hemicellulose digestibility were increased; milk protein percentage, milk SNF percentage, and blood plasma glucose concentrations were reduced by treatments containing the Ca soaps. Niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield but reduced blood plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. During the residual period, in which all cows received the control treatment, milk yield and plasma NEFA concentration remained elevated, milk protein and SNF contents remained depressed, and milk fat content was reduced for cows previously supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids. Methionine and phenylalanine uptakes by the mammary gland were enhanced by niacin supplementation. Results indicated that dairy cattle in early lactation yielded more milk when their diets were supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids and that niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield.

  12. Fatty acid intake alters growth and immunity in milk-fed calves.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Vandehaar, M J; Sordillo, L M; Catherman, D R; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing milk replacer (MR) with NeoTec4 (Provimi North America, Brookville, OH), a commercially available blend of butyric acid, coconut oil, and flax oil, on calf growth, efficiency, and indices of immune function. In trial 1a, 48 male Holstein calves were fed either a control MR that contained only animal fat or the same MR with NeoTec4 (treatment) along with free-choice starter. The MR (28.7% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of dry matter (DM)/d. In trial 1b, weaned calves from trial 1a were all fed dry starter for 28 d without NeoTec4 (phase 1), and then half the calves were fed NeoTec4 for 28 d (phase 2). In trial 2, 40 male Holstein calves were fed a control MR with lard, coconut oil, and soy lecithin or the same MR supplemented with NeoTec4 (treatment). The MR (22.8% crude protein, 18.9% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of DM/d; no starter was fed. In trial 1a, NeoTec4 improved average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, reduced the number of days that calves experienced scours, and reduced the medical treatments for clostridium sickness. In trials 1a and 2, NeoTec4 altered the inflammatory response to vaccination with Pasteurella at 5 wk of age and to challenge with Salmonella toxin at less than 2 wk of age (fed NeoTec4 for 6 d), as observed by reduced hyperthermia and hypophagia, and altered the tumor necrosis factor-α response. In addition, NeoTec4 enhanced the response in IL-4 and globular protein estimates postchallenge and enhanced titers for bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3. Postchallenge serum concentrations of albumin were lower and urea nitrogen concentrations were greater in control calves than in calves fed NeoTec4. In trial 1b, performance did not differ during the first 28 d when no calves received NeoTec4, but calves receiving NeoTec4 in the second 28 d had greater average daily gain and feed efficiency. We conclude that

  13. Relationship between body weight and level of fat supplementation on fatty acid digestion in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, A; Mendoza, G D; Vásquez, C; Zinn, R A

    2003-11-01

    Eight Holstein steers with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a split-plot design experiment to evaluate the interaction of body weight (175 vs. 370 kg) and level of fat supplementation (0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow grease) on characteristics of digestion and feeding value of fat in finishing diets. Dry matter intake was restricted to 2% of BW. There were no interactions between BW and level of fat supplementation (P > 0.10) on ruminal or total-tract digestion. Level of supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) ruminal digestion of OM and NDF, and increased (linear, P < 0.05) ruminal N efficiency. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and N. There tended to be an interaction (P < 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal starch digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation increased postruminal digestion of starch in heavier steers but did not affect starch digestion in lighter steers. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal fatty acid digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal fatty acid digestion, which was due to a decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal digestion of C16:0 and C18:0. Supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) total-tract digestion of OM and NDF. The estimated NEm (Mcal/kg) of yellow grease averaged (linear, P < 0.01) 6.02, 5.70, and 5.06 for the 3, 6, and 9% of level supplementation, respectively. We conclude that intestinal fatty acid digestion (FAD, %) is a predictable function (r2 = 0.89; P < 0.01) of total fatty acid intake per unit body weight (FAI, g/kg BW): FAD = 87.560 - 8.591FAI. Depressions in fatty acid digestion with increasing level of intake were due primarily to decreased intestinal absorption of palmitic and stearic acid. Level of fatty acids intake did not appreciably affect intestinal absorption of unsaturated fatty acid. Changes

  14. Folic Acid Supplementation Adversely Affects Chemosensitivity of Colon Cancer Cells to 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Lisa; Yang, Michael; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Streutker, Catherine J; Grin, Andrea; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Folic acid (FA) fortification and widespread supplemental use have significantly increased folate status in North America. Furthermore, >50% of colorectal cancer patients use FA supplement. The increased folate status may interfere with cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effect of FA supplementation on chemosensitivity of human colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using a xenograft model. Mice harboring human HCT116 colon cancer xenografts were randomized to receive the control, or 4× or 12.5× supplemental levels of FA. Within each diet group, mice were randomized to receive 5-FU+leucovorin or saline and xenograft growth and characteristics were determined. The expression of genes involved in folate metabolism and cancer treatment was determined. FA supplementation and 5-FU significantly interacted to influence xenograft growth (P < 0.007). At the control level, 5-FU significantly inhibited the growth of the xenografts (P < 0.0001). However, at the 4× supplemental level, 5-FU-treated xenografts grew faster than untreated xenografts (P = 0.048) while at the 12.5× supplemental level, 5-FU exhibited no effect. Cell proliferation, degree of necrosis, and expression of the selected genes did not significantly differ by the supplemental levels of FA. Our data suggest that FA supplementation may be detrimental to 5-FU chemotherapy of colon cancer and pose public health concern.

  15. Alterations in fear response and spatial memory in pre- and post-natal zinc supplemented rats: remediation by copper.

    PubMed

    Railey, Angela M; Micheli, Teresa L; Wanschura, Patricia B; Flinn, Jane M

    2010-05-11

    The role of zinc in the nervous system is receiving increased attention. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation have increased the amount of zinc being consumed, little work has been done on the effects of enhanced zinc on behavior. Both zinc and copper are essential trace minerals that are acquired from the diet; under normal conditions the body protects against zinc overload, but at excessive dosages, copper deficiency has been seen. In order to examine the effect of enhanced metal administration on learning and memory, Sprague Dawley rats were given water supplemented with 10ppm Zn, 10ppm Zn+0.25ppm Cu, or normal lab water, during pre- and post-natal development. Fear conditioning tests at 4months showed significantly higher freezing rates during contextual retention and extinction and cued extinction for rats drinking water supplemented with zinc, suggesting increased anxiety compared to controls raised on lab water. During the MWM task at 9months, zinc-enhanced rats had significantly longer latencies to reach the platform compared to controls. The addition of copper to the zinc supplemented water brought freezing and latency levels closer to that of controls. These data demonstrate the importance of maintaining appropriate intake of both metals simultaneously, and show that long-term supplementation with zinc may cause alterations in memory.

  16. Response of milk fatty acid composition to dietary supplementation of soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid, or both.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Schoonmaker, J P; Bradford, B J; Beitz, D C

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six Holstein cows were blocked by parity and allotted by stage of lactation to 6 treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; free acid or calcium salt), or both, on CLA content of milk. Diets were fed for 4 wk and are as follows: (1) control, (2) control + 5% soy oil, (3) control + 1% CLA, (4) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2, (5) control + 1% CLA + 4% soy oil, and (6) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2 + 4% soy oil. Rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, blood fatty acid concentrations, milk yield, and milk composition were measured weekly or biweekly. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. Dietary supplementation of soy oil or CLA had no effect on daily milk yield, milk protein concentration and production, or milk lactose concentration and production. Supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids as soy oil, CLA, or Ca(CLA)2 increased total fatty acid concentration in plasma, decreased milk fat concentration and production, and had no effect on rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations. The weight percentage of CLA in milk was increased from 0.4 to 0.7% with supplementation of 1% CLA, to 1.2% with supplementation of soy oil, and to 1.3% with supplementation of 1% CLA plus soy oil. Supplementation with Ca(CLA)2 or Ca(CLA)2 + soy oil increased the CLA content of milk fat to 0.9 and 1.4%, respectively. In summary, adding 5% soy oil was as effective as supplementing CLA, Ca(CLA)2, or a combination of 1% CLA (free acid or calcium salt) + 4% soy oil at increasing CLA concentrations in milk fat. Feeding CLA as the calcium salt resulted in greater concentrations of CLA in milk fat than did feeding CLA as the free acid. Dietary supplementation of 5% soy oil or 4% soy oil + 1% CLA as the free acid or the calcium salt increased the yield of CLA in milk.

  17. Effect of Diet Supplementation on the Expression of Bovine Genes Associated with Fatty Acid Synthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Robbins, Kelly R.; Pavan, Enrique; Pratt, Scott L.; Duckett, Susan K.; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are of important nutritional and health benefit to human. Food products of animal origin are their major dietary source and their concentration increases with high concentrate diets fed to animals. To examine the effects of diet supplementation on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, 28 Angus steers were fed either pasture only, pasture with soybean hulls and corn oil, pasture with corn grain, or high concentrate diet. At slaughter, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected, from which RNA was extracted. Relative abundance of gene expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome array. An ANOVA model nested within gene was used to analyze the background adjusted, normalized average difference of probe-level intensities. To control experiment wise error, a false discovery rate of 0.01 was imposed on all contrasts. Expression of several genes involved in the synthesis of enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism and lipogenesis such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), fatty acid synthetase (FASN), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty-acyl elongase (LCE) along with several trancription factors and co-activators involved in lipogenesis were found to be differentially expressed. Confirmatory RT-qPCR was done to validate the microarray results, which showed satisfactory correspondence between the two platforms. Results show that changes in diet by increasing dietary energy intake by supplementing high concentrate diet have effects on the transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in fat metabolism which in turn has effects on fatty acid content in the carcass tissue as well as carcass quality. Corn supplementation either as oil or grain appeared to significantly alter the expression of genes directly associated with fatty acid synthesis. PMID:20448844

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.

  19. Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acid Composition in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice- a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Tamara; Ranic, Marija; Bulajic, Predrag; Milicevic, Miroslav; Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional and immunological status of patients with obstructive jaundice is usually severely altered, with high mortality rates. The n-3 polyunsaturate fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), posess potent immunomodulatory activities. Thus, our aim was to compare the plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of these patients with healthy subjects, as well as before and after 7 days preoperative supplementation with high doses of EPA (0.9 g per day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3, 0.6 g per day). We found impaired FA status in obstructive jaundice patients, especially EPA, DHA and PUFA, but significantly increased content of total n-3 FA, 22:5 n-3 FA and particularly EPA, which increased more than 3 fold, after 7 days supplementation. In addition, the n6/n3 ratio significantly decreased from 14.24 to 10.24, demonstrating severely improved plasma phospholipid profile in these patients after the intervention. PMID:19902030

  20. Influence of different systems for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not.

  1. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  2. Increasing Maternal or Post-Weaning Folic Acid Alters Gene Expression and Moderately Changes Behavior in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kuizon, Salomon; Buenaventura, Diego; Stapley, Nathan W.; Ruocco, Felicia; Begum, Umme; Guariglia, Sara R.; Brown, W. Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have indicated that altered maternal micronutrients and vitamins influence the development of newborns and altered nutrient exposure throughout the lifetime may have potential health effects and increased susceptibility to chronic diseases. In recent years, folic acid (FA) exposure has significantly increased as a result of mandatory FA fortification and supplementation during pregnancy. Since FA modulates DNA methylation and affects gene expression, we investigated whether the amount of FA ingested during gestation alters gene expression in the newborn cerebral hemisphere, and if the increased exposure to FA during gestation and throughout the lifetime alters behavior in C57BL/6J mice. Methods Dams were fed FA either at 0.4 mg or 4 mg/kg diet throughout the pregnancy and the resulting pups were maintained on the diet throughout experimentation. Newborn pups brain cerebral hemispheres were used for microarray analysis. To confirm alteration of several genes, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses were performed. In addition, various behavior assessments were conducted on neonatal and adult offspring. Results Results from microarray analysis suggest that the higher dose of FA supplementation during gestation alters the expression of a number of genes in the newborns’ cerebral hemispheres, including many involved in development. QRT-PCR confirmed alterations of nine genes including down-regulation of Cpn2, Htr4, Zfp353, Vgll2 and up-regulation of Xist, Nkx6-3, Leprel1, Nfix, Slc17a7. The alterations in the expression of Slc17a7 and Vgll2 were confirmed at the protein level. Pups exposed to the higher dose of FA exhibited increased ultrasonic vocalizations, greater anxiety-like behavior and hyperactivity. These findings suggest that although FA plays a significant role in mammalian cellular machinery, there may be a loss of benefit from higher amounts of FA. Unregulated high FA supplementation during pregnancy and throughout the

  3. Amino acid supplementation decreases plasma and liver triglycerides in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bui, Quynh-Uyen T.; Tissier, Sandrine; Cree, Melanie G.; Rønsen, Ola; Morio, Beatrice; Ferrando, Arny A.; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of AA supplementation on plasma, liver and muscle lipid concentrations and insulin sensitivity in elderly. Methods Twelve impaired glucose tolerant elderly (67.0 ± 5.6 (SD) years, 7 females, 5 males) ingested 11 g of essential AA + arginine twice a day for 16 weeks, after a 7 week control run in. Diet and activity were not otherwise modified. Plasma lipid concentrations and oral glucose tolerance were measured every 4th week, and tissue lipid concentrations (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) every 8th week. Results No changes in plasma lipids were observed during the control run-in. AA supplementation lowered plasma triglyceride (TG) (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.048) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (P < 0.001) concentrations. Plasma TG dropped ~20% from the initial value of 1.45 ± 0.18 (SE) mmol/l (128 ± 16 mg/dl), with greatest decrease in the subjects starting out with highest concentrations (r = −0.83). Similarly, liver fat content (liver TG/intralipid standard) decreased ~50% from the initial value of 0.34 ± 0.06 (P = 0.021; n = 9), with greatest decrease in the subjects that initially had highest values (r = −0.86). Intramuscular fat content and insulin sensitivity did not change. Conclusion Diet supplementation with AA lowers plasma TG, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations, and liver lipid content in impaired glucose tolerant elderly. AA supplementation may have a potential role in treatment of hypertriglyceridemia or hepatic steatosis. PMID:19041223

  4. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Zhang, Youcai; Wu, Kai Connie; Fan, Fang; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by liver histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential. - Highlights: • Oleanolic acid at higher doses and long-term use may produce liver injury. • Oleanolic acid increased serum ALT, ALP, bilirubin and bile acid concentrations. • OA produced feathery degeneration, inflammation and cell death in the liver. • OA altered bile acid homeostasis, affecting bile acid synthesis and transport.

  5. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study.

  6. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study. PMID:25665795

  7. Effect of daily food supplementation with essential fatty acids on canine semen quality.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, A A; da Cunha, I C N; Ederli, B B; Albernaz, A P; Quirino, C R

    2009-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important membrane components that influence membrane integrity and fluidity. In the present study, the effect of oral supplementation for 60 days with essential fatty acids (omega 3, 6 and 9) and vitamin E on canine semen quality was evaluated. Sixteen dogs were selected for the experiment; eight were used as the control group and eight received the fatty acid supplemented diet for 60 days. Semen samples were taken every 15 days during the entire experimental period and were analyzed for volume (ml), motility (%), vigour (0-5), concentration (x10(6)/ml), morphology of spermatozoa (%), plasma membrane integrity (%; using the hyposmotic swelling test) and thermoresistance (motility and vigour after 4 h at 38 degrees C). We concluded that, daily supplementation with omega 3, omega 6 and omega 9 fatty acids, together with vitamin E, for a period of 60 days, significantly increased the semen volume of the treated group after 15 days of supplementation; the vigour and concentration of spermatozoa were superior after the first month of supplementation, while the percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa decreased and the cells were protected against thermal stress.

  8. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future.

  9. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future. PMID:16466091

  10. Probiotic supplement consumption alters cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a preliminary study using healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, N J; Garaiova, I; Williams, E A; Michael, D R; Plummer, S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of daily probiotic supplementation upon the immune profile of healthy participants by the assessment of ex vivo cytokine production. Twenty healthy adult volunteers received a multi-strain probiotic supplement consisting of two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (CUL60 and CUL21), Bifidobacterium lactis (CUL34) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (CUL20) and fructooligosaccharide for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultured ex vivo in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide and cytokine production was assessed. Postintervention, a significant decrease in the production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β was apparent when PBMCs were incubated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, whilst a significant increase in IL-10 and transforning growth factor-β production was seen when the cells were incubated without an additional stimulus. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of a multi-strain probiotic supplement to alter the immune response as demonstrated by changes in ex vivo cytokine production. Such results demonstrate the potential benefit of probiotic supplementation for healthy individuals and warrants further investigation.

  11. Probiotic supplement consumption alters cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a preliminary study using healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, N J; Garaiova, I; Williams, E A; Michael, D R; Plummer, S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of daily probiotic supplementation upon the immune profile of healthy participants by the assessment of ex vivo cytokine production. Twenty healthy adult volunteers received a multi-strain probiotic supplement consisting of two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (CUL60 and CUL21), Bifidobacterium lactis (CUL34) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (CUL20) and fructooligosaccharide for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultured ex vivo in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide and cytokine production was assessed. Postintervention, a significant decrease in the production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β was apparent when PBMCs were incubated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, whilst a significant increase in IL-10 and transforning growth factor-β production was seen when the cells were incubated without an additional stimulus. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of a multi-strain probiotic supplement to alter the immune response as demonstrated by changes in ex vivo cytokine production. Such results demonstrate the potential benefit of probiotic supplementation for healthy individuals and warrants further investigation. PMID:24311314

  12. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  13. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  14. Protein quality of supplements and meal replacements. Amino acids and calculated indicators of protein quality.

    PubMed

    Marable, N L; Hinners, M L; Hardison, N W; Kehrberg, N L

    1980-09-01

    The amino acid composition of several types of dietary supplements and meal replacements was measured and compared with label values when available and to published values for egg. Calculated indicators of protein quality, such as chemical score, protein calorie:total calorie ratio, individual essential amino acid:total essential amino acid ratio, and total essential amino acid:total amino acid ratio were also compared for products, egg, and the estimated pattern of adult requirements. Predigested liquid protein products were notably lower in protein quality than other products. All non-predigested products compared favorably with egg in terms of protein quality, but were more expensive and had no advantages over regular meals in terms of protein quality as reducing aids or protein supplements.

  15. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  16. Retinoic acid deficiency alters second heart field formation.

    PubMed

    Ryckebusch, Lucile; Wang, Zengxin; Bertrand, Nicolas; Lin, Song-Chang; Chi, Xuan; Schwartz, Robert; Zaffran, Stéphane; Niederreither, Karen

    2008-02-26

    Retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been implicated in various steps of cardiovascular development. The retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) enzyme catalyzes the second oxidative step in RA biosynthesis and its loss of function creates a severe embryonic RA deficiency. Raldh2(-/-) knockout embryos fail to undergo heart looping and have impaired atrial and sinus venosus development. To understand the mechanism(s) producing these changes, we examined the contribution of the second heart field (SHF) to pharyngeal mesoderm, atria, and outflow tract in Raldh2(-/-) embryos. RA deficiency alters SHF gene expression in two ways. First, Raldh2(-/-) embryos exhibited a posterior expansion of anterior markers of the SHF, including Tbx1, Fgf8, and the Mlc1v-nlacZ-24/Fgf10 reporter transgene as well as of Islet1. This occurred at early somite stages, when cardiac defects became irreversible in an avian vitamin A-deficiency model, indicating that endogenous RA is required to restrict the SHF posteriorly. Explant studies showed that this expanded progenitor population cannot differentiate properly. Second, RA up-regulated cardiac Bmp expression levels at the looping stage. The contribution of the SHF to both inflow and outflow poles was perturbed under RA deficiency, creating a disorganization of the heart tube. We also investigated genetic cross-talk between Nkx2.5 and RA signaling by generating double mutant mice. Strikingly, Nkx2.5 deficiency was able to rescue molecular defects in the posterior region of the Raldh2(-/-) mutant heart, in a gene dosage-dependent manner. PMID:18287057

  17. Effect of supplemental folic acid on valproic acid-induced embryotoxicity and tissue zinc levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D K; Grafton, T F; Dial, S L; Gehring, T A; Siitonen, P H

    1995-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-convulsant drug known to cause spina bifida in humans. Administration of the vitamin, folic acid, has been shown to decrease the recurrence and possibly also the occurrence of neural tube defects, primarily spina bifida, in humans. Additionally, treatment with a derivative (folinic acid) of folic acid has been reported to decrease the frequency of VPA-induced exencephaly in mice treated with the drug in vivo. A protective effect by folinic acid has not been observed in vitro. The purpose of this investigation was to reexamine the ability of folinic acid to decrease the incidence of VPA-induced neural tube defects in vivo. We also examined the effect of increased intake of folic acid on zinc levels in various maternal and embryonic tissues. Folinic acid, whether administered by intraperitoneal injection or in osmotic mini-pumps, did not decrease the number of mouse fetuses with VPA-induced exencephaly. Dietary supplementation with 10-20 times the daily required intake of folic acid in rodents also failed to decrease the embryotoxicity of VPA. Such dietary supplementation had no effect on zinc levels in maternal liver, brain, or kidney, nor in embryonic tissues. These results indicate that folic acid is not able to reverse the embryotoxicity induced by the anticonvulsant, that there is no apparent effect of high dietary folate intake on maternal or embryonic zinc levels and suggest that folate is probably not involved in the mechanism of VPA-induced embryotoxicity. PMID:8838251

  18. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid–sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4‐1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3‐ to 5‐fold higher in Northern China and 3‐fold higher in India. A recent population‐based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with

  19. The proteomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose conditions with amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Wright, Phillip C

    2008-11-01

    Ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose (VHG) media with an amino acid supplement was investigated. Amino acid supplementation led to positive cell responses, including reduced lag time and increased cell viability in VHG media. A quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was used to understand how amino acid supplemented S. cerevisiae responds to high osmotic conditions. iTRAQ data revealed that most proteins involved in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated under high glucose shock. Reactivation of amino acid metabolism was also observed at the end of the lag phase. The relative abundance of most identified proteins, including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis proteins, and heat-shock proteins, remained unchanged in the hours immediately following application of glucose shock. However, the expression of these proteins increased significantly at the end of the lag phase. Furthermore, the up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen biosynthesis proteins, first maintaining then latterly increasing glycolysis pathway activity was also observed. This was verified by enhanced ethanol yields at 10 and 12 h (0.43 and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose) compared to 2 h (0.32 g ethanol/g glucose). These data combined with relevant metabolite measurements demonstrates that enhanced ethanol fermentation under VHG conditions can be achieved with the aid of amino acid supplementation.

  20. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  1. Potency of pre–post treatment of coenzyme Q10 and melatonin supplement in ameliorating the impaired fatty acid profile in rodent model of autism

    PubMed Central

    El-Ansary, Afaf; Al-Ghamdi, Mashael; Bhat, Ramesa Shafi; Al-daihan, Sooad; Al-Ayadhi, Laila

    2016-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism and membrane fatty acid composition play a part in a wide range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Altered fatty acid homeostasis as a result of insufficient dietary supplementation, genetic defects, the function of enzymes involved in their metabolism, or mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of autism. Objective This study evaluates the association of altered brain lipid composition and neurotoxicity related to autism spectrum disorders in propionic acid (PA)–treated rats. Design Forty-eight young male western albino rats were used in this study. They were grouped into six equal groups with eight rats in each. The first group received only phosphate buffered saline (control group). The second group received a neurotoxic dose of buffered PA (250 mg/kg body weight/day for 3 consecutive days). The third and fourth groups were intoxicated with PA as described above followed by treatment with either coenzyme Q (4.5 mg/kg body weight) or melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 1 week (therapeutically treated groups). The fifth and sixth groups were administered both compounds for 1 week prior to PA (protected groups). Methyl esters of fatty acid were extracted with hexane, and the fatty acid composition of the extract was analyzed on a gas chromatography. Results The obtained data proved that fatty acids are altered in brain tissue of PA-treated rats. All saturated fatty acids were increased while all unsaturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in the PA-treated group and relatively ameliorated in the pre–post melatonin and coenzyme Q groups. Conclusions Melatonin and coenzyme Q were effective in restoring normal level of most of the impaired fatty acids in PA-intoxicated rats which could help suggest both as supplements to ameliorate the autistic features induced in rat pups. PMID:26945230

  2. Effects of supplemental protein on acid-base status and calcium metabolism of nonlactating Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Beede, D K

    1990-11-01

    The objective was to study effects of 11, 15, and 19% dietary CP on acid-base status, Ca balance, and metabolic responses to intravenous infusion of disodium EDTA. Dietary protein content was increased by supplementation of hydrolyzed feather meal and distillers dried grains with solubles to a concentrate combined with cottonseed hulls (40:60). Six nonlactating, nonpregnant multiparous Jersey cows (average 6.7 yr old) were used in two balanced 3 x 3 Latin squares with 24-d periods. Increasing supplemental CP decreased blood base excess, urinary titratable base, and net base excretion, but increased urinary ammonium excretion. Calcium excretion and balance were not affected by supplemental CP. Analysis to detect heterogeneity of regression showed that response of plasma EDTA-free Ca to EDTA infusion over time was not different among treatments. Increasing supplemental protein induced mild acidosis but did not affect Ca balance or responses to Ca removal from blood (via EDTA infusion) of non-lactating cows.

  3. Neither folic acid supplementation nor pregnancy affects the distribution of folate forms in the red blood cells of women.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Brenda A; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2014-09-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30-36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P < 0.0022). No difference was found between the NPW-1 and NPW-5 groups. We detected 5-methyl-THF [limit of detection (LOD) = 0.06 nmol/L] in all groups and tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.2 nmol/L) in most women regardless of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype. Most women consuming folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83-84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6-3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did

  4. Role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of neural tube defects: physicians yet unaware!

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A; Kumhar, G Das; Harit, D; Faridi, M M A

    2010-09-01

    Folic acid supplementation is important in the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD). The study was conducted to assess the awareness amongst physicians regarding the role of Folic Acid (FA) in the prevention of NTD. Physicians were interviewed regarding the awareness of FA dose, timing of supplementation and knowledge about its role in prevention of neural tube defects using a semistructured questionnaire. Among 202 physicians interviewed (48 pediatricians, 54 obstetricians, 100 recently qualified medical graduates) overall awareness about FA was present in 92.07%, similar in three groups (P > 0.05). Only 47.52% were aware of preconception administration, 61.38% about dose of supplementation and 11.88% about recurrence rate of NTD. Only 15 (7.4%) knew all these. Regarding the etiology of NTDs only 26.7% said both FA and genetic factors are involved. Though majority were aware that folic acid has a role in prevention of NTDs, their knowledge about timing and dose of supplementation was lacking. Hence attempts should be made to increase the awareness regarding prevention of NTD's by FA supplementation at a proper time.

  5. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, Maria J; Veldhuizen, Maria G; de Araujo, Ivan E; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers.

  6. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  7. Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and γ-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-α-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, γ-amino-n-butyric acid and L-α-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

  8. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  9. High dose of maternal folic acid supplementation is associated to infant asthma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Jiang, Liwen; Bi, Meirong; Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Youqing; He, Chuan; Yao, Yao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation had a positive effect on preventing neural tube defects (NTDs), but its effects in infant asthma remained unclear. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted with outpatients between March 2010 and March 2011 including 150 onset infant asthma cases and 212 controls, together with a meta-analysis involving 14,438 participants, was performed. The association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of infant asthma was not significant either in the meta-analysis (OR = 1.06, 95% CI =0.99-1.14) or in the case-control study (OR = 0.72, 95% CI =0.37-1.39). However, quantitative analysis of the supplementation dose demonstrated that the risk of infant asthma significantly increased for the infants whose mother were with high-dose supplementation (>72,000 µg•d; OR = 3.16, 95% CI =1.15-8.71) after adjusting for confounding factors in the case-control study. Meanwhile, the risk of infant asthma significantly decreased for the infants whose mother were with low-dose supplementation (<36,000 µg•d; OR = 0.36, 95% CI =0.17-0.77). A high dose of folic acid supplementation for mother during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of infant asthma, whereas supplementation with a relatively low-dose was associated with a decreased risk of infant asthma. These findings should be further investigated in a large population.

  10. n -- 3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy in women with allergic disease: effects on blood pressure, and maternal and fetal lipids.

    PubMed

    Barden, Anne E; Dunstan, Janet A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Prescott, Susan L; Mori, Trevor A

    2006-10-01

    n--3 Fatty acids derived from fish oil reduce plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and increase HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol); however, the effect of n--3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, a hyperlipidaemic state, remains unknown. We took the opportunity to investigate maternal lipid levels and blood pressure during and after pregnancy, and fetal lipid levels at birth, in a study that aimed primarily to examine the effect of fish oil supplementation during pregnancy on immune function in infants born to women with allergic disease. Eighty-three pregnant women who had allergic disease, but were otherwise healthy, completed the study. They were randomly allocated to receive fish oil or olive oil capsules, taken as 4 g/day, from 20 weeks of pregnancy until delivery. Compared with olive oil, fish oil supplementation did not alter triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) or HDL-C during or after pregnancy. There was also no effect of fish oil on cord blood triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C or HDL-C. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy did not alter maternal blood pressure during or after pregnancy. The effects of fish oil on lipids and blood pressure in non-pregnant individuals appear to be lost when it is administered during pregnancy. PMID:16822237

  11. Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-12-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis. PMID:25653995

  12. Fermentanomics informed amino acid supplementation of an antibody producing mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Read, Erik K; Bradley, Scott A; Smitka, Tim A; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Lute, Scott C; Brorson, Kurt A

    2013-01-01

    Fermentanomics, or a global understanding of a culture state on the molecular level empowered by advanced techniques like NMR, was employed to show that a model hybridoma culture supplied with glutamine and glucose depletes aspartate, cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, and tyrosine during antibody production. Supplementation with these amino acids prevents depletion and improves culture performance. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the distribution of glycans attached to the IgG3 in cultures supplemented with specific amino acids, arguing that this strategy can be implemented without fear of impact on important product quality attributes. In summary, a targeted strategy of quantifying media components and designing a supplementation strategy can improve bioprocess cell cultures when enpowered by fermentanomics tools.

  13. Chromium supplementation alters the performance, metabolism, and immune response of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbreed steers (n = 180; 507 +/- 13 lb) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACEbrandChromiumPropionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens...

  14. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters immune parameters in response to a salmonella challenge in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the immune response of pigs supplemented with yeast cell wall (YCW) when challenged with Salmonella. Weaned pigs (n=39; 7.1+/-0.1 kilograms body weight) were individually housed in pens (1.2x0.6 meters) in an environmentally-controlled facility equip...

  15. Cancer risk with folic acid supplements: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wien, Tale Norbye; Pike, Eva; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Staff, Annetine; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Klemp, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore if there is an increased cancer risk associated with folic acid supplements given orally. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies of folic acid supplementation in humans reporting cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality. Studies on folic acid fortification of foods were not included. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, clinical trial registries and hand-searching of key journals. Results From 4104 potential references, 19 studies contributed data to our meta-analyses, including 12 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-analysis of the 10 RCTs reporting overall cancer incidence (N=38 233) gave an RR of developing cancer in patients randomised to folic acid supplements of 1.07 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.14) compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Meta-analyses of six RCTs reporting prostate cancer incidence showed an RR of prostate cancer of 1.24 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49) for the men receiving folic acid compared to controls. No significant difference in cancer incidence was shown between groups receiving folic acid and placebo/control group, for any other cancer type. Total cancer mortality was reported in six RCTs, and a meta-analysis of these did not show any significant difference in cancer mortality in folic acid supplemented groups compared to controls (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30). None of the observational studies addressed mortality. Conclusions A meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed a borderline significant increase in frequency of overall cancer in the folic acid group compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Prostate cancer was the only cancer type found to be increased after folic acid supplementation (meta-analyses of six RCTs). Prospective studies of cancer development in populations where food is fortified with folic acid could indicate whether

  16. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children.

  17. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. PMID:21840465

  18. Geothermal surface alteration of basalts, Krýsuvík Iceland—Alteration mineralogy, water chemistry and the effects of acid supply on the alteration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markússon, Sigurdur H.; Stefánsson, Andri

    2011-09-01

    The geothermal surface alteration of basalts and associated water chemistry at Krýsuvík, SW Iceland were studied. The geothermal area was characterised with zones of intensive surface alteration, steam vents, mud pots and hot springs. The steam-heated geothermal surface waters had pH values between 1.69 and 7.67 and total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations between 154 and 6660 ppm, with Cl and SO 4 concentration decreasing and increasing with decreasing pH, respectively. Alteration mineral assemblages observed were strongly associated with the surface intensity. In areas of most intensive activity the basaltic rocks were altered to amorphous silica, anatase and pyrite with a crust of native sulphur at the surface. With decreased activity, kaolinite became important, as well as iron oxyhydroxides and oxides. On the flanks of the area montmorillonite was the predominant alteration product. Based on these observations the surface geothermal activity was divided into three groups: (1) high activity areas with active steam vents and mud pots and intensive acid leaching, (2) medium activity areas where the ground is hot, steam vents and mud pots are uncommon and the surface alteration is less intensive and (3) low activity areas on the margins of the surface geothermal activity. The primary factors influencing the steam-heated acid sulphate alteration of basalts included the redox state (oxidation front), supply of acids and pH, and the extent of reaction. The formation of iron- and sulphur-containing minerals and the respective elemental mobility depended on the redox conditions with pyrite formation under reduced conditions and goethite and/or hematite under oxidised conditions. At low pH, Ca, Mg, K and Na were mobile and leached out, whereas Fe, Ti and Al and to a large degree Si were retained in the alteration product. At higher pH values > 5 the mobility of Ca, Mg, K and Na was reduced due to the formation of clays.

  19. Can supplementation with vitamin C and E alter physiological adaptations to strength training?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antioxidant supplementation has recently been demonstrated to be a double-edged sword, because small to moderate doses of exogenous antioxidants are essential or beneficial, while high doses may have adverse effects. The adverse effects can be manifested in attenuated effects of exercise and training, as the antioxidants may shut down some redox-sensitive signaling in the exercised muscle fibers. However, conditions such as age may potentially modulate the need for antioxidant intake. Therefore, this paper describes experiments for testing the hypothesis that high dosages of vitamin C (1000 mg/day) and E (235 mg/day) have negative effects on adaptation to resistance exercise and training in young volunteers, but positive effects in older men. Methods/design We recruited a total of 73 volunteers. The participants were randomly assigned to receiving either vitamin C and E supplementation or a placebo. The study design was double-blinded, and the participants followed an intensive training program for 10–12 weeks. Tests and measurements aimed at assessing changes in physical performance (maximal strength) and physiological characteristics (muscle mass), as well as biochemical and cellular systems and structures (e.g., cell signaling and morphology). Discussion Dietary supplements, such as vitamin C and E, are used by many people, especially athletes. The users often believe that high dosages of supplements improve health (resistance to illness and disease) and physical performance. These assumptions are, however, generally not supported in the scientific literature. On the contrary, some studies have indicated that high dosages of antioxidant supplements have negative effects on exercise-induced adaptation processes. Since this issue concerns many people and few randomized controlled trials have been conducted in humans, further studies are highly warranted. Trial registration ACTRN12614000065695 PMID:25075311

  20. Alteration of membrane fatty acid composition and inositol phosphate metabolism in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Awad, A B; Fink, C S; Horvath, P J

    1993-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of membrane fatty acid (FA) composition on inositol phosphate (InsP) release by a human colon tumor cell line. Cells were supplemented for five days in culture with 0, 10, 30, or 100 microM sodium stearate (18:0), linoleate [18:2(omega-6)], or linolineate [18:3(omega-3)]. These FAs were supplied as a complex with FA-free bovine serum albumin. InsP release was examined in these cells with or without stimulation with deoxycholic acid (DCA) after they were labeled with [3H]myoinositol. FA enrichment was found to influence inositol incorporation into membrane lipids. Although 18:0 had no effect, 18:2(omega-6) decreased the incorporation. On the other hand, 18:3(omega-3) increased the incorporation of inositol compared with the cells supplemented with the other FAs, but they were not different from control. Basal release of total InsP was elevated only with supplementation of 10 and 30 microM 18:3(omega-3). FA supplementation with 18:0 at 30 microM and 18:2 at 30 and 100 microM resulted in downregulation of bsal release of InsP. Enrichment of HT-29 cell membranes with polyunsaturated FAs resulted in a significant increase in stimulated release of InsP, but this was not seen with saturated FA supplementation. At 10 microM supplementation, 18:2 had the greatest effect on stimulated InsP release. This effect of 18:2 disappeared at 30 microM. However, the increase in the stimulated InsP release caused by 18:3 occurred at 10 and 30 microM. DCA-stimulated release of InsP was not downregulated by any FA supplementation. This study showed that enrichment of the membranes with polyunsaturated FAs increases the response of the phosphatidylinositol cycle to DCA stimulation. In addition, enrichment with 18:3(omega-3) increases the basal turnover of InsP. It is concluded that alteration of membrane FAs has a profound effect on the phosphatidylinositol cycle.

  1. Effects of extruded linseed supplementation on n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk and cheese from ewes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Bach, A; Luna, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of extruded linseed on animal performance and fatty acid (FA) profile of ewe milk for the production of n-3 FA- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched cheeses. A Manchega ewe flock (300 animals) receiving a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet was divided into 3 groups supplemented with 0, 6, and 12 g of extruded linseed/100 g of dry matter for the control, low, and high extruded linseed diets, respectively. Bulk and individual milk samples from 5 dairy ewes per group were monitored at 7, 14, 28, 45, and 60 d following supplementation. Manchego cheeses were made with bulk milk from the 3 treatment groups. Milk yield increased in dairy ewes receiving extruded linseed. Milk protein, fat, and total solids contents were not affected by linseed supplementation. Milk contents of alpha-linolenic acid increased from 0.36 with the control diet to 1.91% total FA with the high extruded linseed diet. Similarly, cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 rose from 0.73 to 2.33% and its precursor in the mammary gland, trans-11 C18:1, increased from 1.55 to 5.76% of total FA. This pattern occurred with no significant modification of the levels of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10 cis-12 C18:2 FA. Furthermore, the high extruded linseed diet reduced C12:0 (-30%), C14:0 (-15%) and C16:0 (-28%), thus significantly diminishing the atherogenicity index of milk. The response to linseed supplementation was persistently maintained during the entire study. Acceptability attributes of n-3-enriched versus control cheeses ripened for 3 mo were not affected. Therefore, extruded linseed supplementation seems a plausible strategy to improve animal performance and nutritional quality of dairy lipids in milk and cheese from ewes. PMID:19700673

  2. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL USE OF FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTS AND RISK OF AUTISM IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Surén, Pål; Roth, Christine; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Haugen, Margaretha; Hornig, Mady; Hirtz, Deborah; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W. Ian; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Smith, George Davey; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Susser, Ezra; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Context Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and the subsequent risk of autistic disorder in children. Design, Setting, and Patients The study sample of 85,176 was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002–08. By the end of follow-up on March 31st, 2012, the age range was 3.3–10.2 years and the mean age 6.4 years. The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy. The start of pregnancy was defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASD were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a logistic regression analysis. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education level, year of birth, and parity. Main Outcome Measure Specialist-confirmed diagnosis of autistic disorder. Results To date, 114 children in the study sample have been diagnosed with autistic disorder. In children whose mothers took folic acid, 0.10% (64/61,042) had autistic disorder, compared with 0.21% (50/24,134) in those unexposed to folic acid. The adjusted OR for autistic disorder in children of folic acid users was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41–0.90). Similar analyses for prenatal fish oil supplements showed no such association with autistic disorder, even though fish oil use was associated with the same maternal characteristics as folic acid use. Conclusion Prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception were associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder in the MoBa cohort. PMID:23403681

  3. The combined action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and grape proanthocyanidins on a rat model of diet-induced metabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Romero, Sara; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Taltavull, Núria; Dasilva, Gabriel; Romeu, Marta; Medina, Isabel; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2016-08-10

    It has been suggested that food components such as ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and (poly)phenols counteract diet-induced metabolic alterations by common or complementary mechanisms. To examine the effects of a combination of ω-3 PUFAs and (poly)phenols on such alterations, adult Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed an obesogenic high-fat high-sucrose diet supplemented, or not, for 24 weeks with: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 1 : 1 (16.6 g kg(-1) feed); proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract (GSE, 0.8 g kg(-1) feed); or EPA/DHA 1 : 1 + GSE. Body weight, feed intake, and plasma glucose were evaluated every 6 weeks, while adipose tissue weight, insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated at the end of the experiment. ω-3 PUFAs reduced plasma leptin and cholesterol levels, but did not modify diet-induced perigonadal fat or plasma insulin levels; while GSE increased plasma triglyceride levels. The combined action of ω-3 PUFAs and the proanthocyanidins reduced plasma insulin and leptin, as well as partially prevented perigonadal fat accumulation. While separate supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs or grape proanthocyanidins may not counteract all the key metabolic changes induced by a high-energy-dense diet, the combination of both supplements reverts altered insulin, leptin and triglyceride levels to normal. PMID:27418399

  4. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...

  5. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, E T; Prokoski, K; Horn, D; Viott, A D; Santos, T C; Fernandes, J I M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. coli challenged broilers supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and threonine. Six hundred male broilers at one d of age from the Cobb strain were utilized. The design was completely randomized using a 2×3 factorial design (unchallenged and challenged and 3 diets). A commercial diet was used as a control and 2 other diets were formulated with glutamine (1.5 and 3% Aminogut®), arginine (1 and 2% L-Arginine), and threonine (1 and 2% L-threonine). The animals that consumed diets supplemented with amino acids presented better (P<0.05) feed conversion in the period from one to 42 d of age. The ability of cell proliferation and the villus:crypt ratio in response to enteric challenge were greater (P<0.05) for broilers that received diets supplemented with amino acids. High levels of amino acids in the experimental feeds reflected in greater protein levels in poultry house litter, and they did not interfere with ammonia production. The supplementation of diets with trophic amino acids can positively contribute to the regeneration and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa in broilers and to the maintenance of zootechnical performance when submitted to enteric challenges.

  6. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  7. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  8. Effect of folic acid plus glycine supplement on uterine prostaglandin and endometrial granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression during early pregnancy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Guay, Frédéric; Matte, J Jacques; Girard, Christiane L; Palin, Marie-France; Giguère, Alain; Laforest, Jean-Paul

    2004-01-15

    expression of GM-CSF but not in ML sows. In summary, folic acid+glycine supplement altered endometrial expression of GM-CSF and uterine metabolism of prostaglandins during the post-attachment period of porcine embryos but some of these effects were manifest only in Meishan and nulliparous sows.

  9. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Delany, C; McDonnell, R; Robson, M; Corcoran, S; Fitzpatrick, C; De La Harpe, D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  10. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation in Combination with Voluntary Running Improves Body Composition in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Platt, Kristen M; Charnigo, Richard J; Shertzer, Howard G; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an inexpensive intervention that may be used to reduce obesity and its consequences. In addition, many individuals who regularly exercise utilize dietary supplements to enhance their exercise routine and to accelerate fat loss or increase lean mass. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a popular supplement and have been shown to produce a number of beneficial effects in rodent models and humans. Therefore, we hypothesized that BCAA supplementation would protect against high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and obesity in mice with and without access to exercise. We subjected 80 female C57BL/6 mice to a paradigm of HFD feeding, exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running, and BCAA supplementation in the drinking water for 16 weeks (n = 10 per group). Body weight was monitored weekly, while food and water consumption were recorded twice weekly. During the 5th, 10th, and 15th weeks of treatment, glucose tolerance and body composition were analyzed. Exercise significantly improved glucose tolerance in both control-fed and HFD-fed mice. BCAA supplementation, however, did not significantly alter glucose tolerance in any treatment group. While BCAA supplements did not improve lean to fat mass ratio in sedentary mice, it significantly augmented the effects of exercise on this parameter. PMID:26716948

  11. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation reduces SERCA Ca2+ transport efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Bombardier, Eric; Irvine, Thomas; Metherel, Adam H; Stark, Ken D; Duhamel, Todd; Rush, James W E; Green, Howard J; Tupling, A Russell

    2015-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the efficiency and increase the energy consumption of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump and mitochondrial electron transport chain by promoting Na(+) and H(+) membrane permeability, respectively. In skeletal muscle, the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are major contributors to resting metabolic rate. Whether DHA can affect SERCA efficiency remains unknown. Here, we examined the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with DHA would reduce Ca(2+) transport efficiency of the SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle. Total lipids were extracted from enriched sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes that were isolated from red vastus lateralis skeletal muscles of rats that were either fed a standard chow diet supplemented with soybean oil or supplemented with DHA for 8 weeks. The fatty acid composition of total SR membrane lipids and the major phospholipid species were determined using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). After 8 weeks of DHA supplementation, total SR DHA content was significantly elevated (control, 4.1 ± 1.0% vs. DHA, 9.9 ± 1.7%; weight percent of total fatty acids) while total arachidonic acid was reduced (control, 13.5 ± 0.4% vs. DHA-fed, 9.4 ± 0.2). Similar changes in these fatty acids were observed in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol, altogether indicating successful incorporation of DHA into the SR membranes post-diet. As hypothesized, DHA supplementation reduced SERCA Ca(2+) transport efficiency (control, 0.018 ± 0.0002 vs. DHA-fed, 0.014 ± 0.0009) possibly through enhanced SR Ca(2+) permeability (ionophore ratio: control, 2.8 ± 0.2 vs. DHA-fed, 2.2 ± 0.3). Collectively, our results suggest that DHA may promote skeletal muscle-based metabolism and thermogenesis through its influence on SERCA.

  12. Fish Oil Supplementation Alters the Plasma Lipidomic Profile and Increases Long-Chain PUFAs of Phospholipids and Triglycerides in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ottestad, Inger; Hassani, Sahar; Borge, Grethe I.; Kohler, Achim; Vogt, Gjermund; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Orešič, Matej; Brønner, Kirsti W.; Holven, Kirsten B.; Ulven, Stine M.; Myhrstad, Mari C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background While beneficial health effects of fish and fish oil consumption are well documented, the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipid classes is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the plasma lipidomic profile in healthy subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, healthy subjects received capsules containing either 8 g/d of fish oil (FO) (1.6 g/d EPA+DHA) (n = 16) or 8 g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) (n = 17) for seven weeks. During the first three weeks of intervention, the subjects completed a fully controlled diet period. BMI and total serum triglycerides, total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were unchanged during the intervention period. Lipidomic analyses were performed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS), where 568 lipids were detected and 260 identified. Both t-tests and Multi-Block Partial Least Square Regression (MBPLSR) analysis were performed for analysing differences between the intervention groups. The intervention groups were well separated by the lipidomic data after three weeks of intervention. Several lipid classes such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and triglycerides contributed strongly to this separation. Twenty-three lipids were significantly decreased (FDR<0.05) in the FO group after three weeks compared with the HOSO group, whereas fifty-one were increased including selected phospholipids and triglycerides of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. After seven weeks of intervention the two intervention groups showed similar grouping. Conclusions/Significance In healthy subjects, fish oil supplementation alters lipid metabolism and increases the proportion of

  13. Dietary supplements of folic acid during lactation: effects on the performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Matte, J J

    1998-05-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid administered from 4 wk prepartum to 305 d of lactation on lactational performance. Sixty-three Holstein cows were assigned to 22 blocks of 3 cows according to lactation number, milk production, and body weight (BW). Within each block, cows received 0, 2, or 4 mg of folic acid/kg of BW per d. Dietary supplements of folic acid increased serum and milk folates but affected milk production and composition of primiparous and multiparous cows differently. Supplementary folic acid had little effect on milk production and composition of primiparous cows, except that milk production decreased during the first 100 d of lactation. However, during a complete lactation (3 to 305 d after calving), supplementary folic acid was associated with increased milk production by multiparous cows (8284 +/- 560, 8548 +/- 380, and 8953 +/- 191 kg for cows fed diets supplemented with 0, 2, and 4 mg of folic acid/kg of BW per d, respectively). The percentage of ash in milk was decreased for cows fed the highest amount of dietary folic acid. During the first 100 d of lactation, supplementary folic acid was associated with a lower concentration of nonprotein nitrogen in the milk of multiparous cows. The present study confirms results obtained previously, suggesting that, although the supply of folates from an unsupplemented diet and the ruminal microflora is sufficient to avoid a deficiency in folic acid, supplementary folic acid may increase the milk production of cows in the second lactation or greater.

  14. High Dosage Folic Acid Supplementation, Oral Cleft Recurrence and Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Félix, Têmis Maria; Goco, Norman; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Souza, Josiane; Pereira, Rui; Padovani, Carla; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence and fetal growth. Patients and Methods: The study included 2,508 women who were at-risk for oral cleft recurrence and randomized into two folic acid supplementation groups: 0.4 and 4 mg per day before pregnancy and throughout the first trimester. The infant outcome data were based on 234 live births. In addition to oral cleft recurrence, several secondary outcomes were compared between the two folic acid groups. Cleft recurrence rates were also compared to historic recurrence rates. Results: The oral cleft recurrence rates were 2.9% and 2.5% in the 0.4 and 4 mg groups, respectively. The recurrence rates in the two folic acid groups both separately and combined were significantly different from the 6.3% historic recurrence rate post the folic acid fortification program for this population (p = 0.0009 when combining the two folic acid groups). The rate of cleft lip with palate recurrence was 2.9% in the 0.4 mg group and 0.8% in the 4 mg group. There were no elevated fetal growth complications in the 4 mg group compared to the 0.4 mg group. Conclusions: The study is the first double-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT) to study the effect of high dosage folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence. The recurrence rates were similar between the two folic acid groups. However, the results are suggestive of a decrease in oral cleft recurrence compared to the historic recurrence rate. A RCT is still needed to identify the effect of folic acid on oral cleft recurrence given these suggestive results and the supportive results from previous interventional and observational studies, and the study offers suggestions for such future studies. The results also suggest that high dosage folic acid does not compromise fetal growth. PMID:23380913

  15. Supplemental Feeding for Ecotourism Reverses Diel Activity and Alters Movement Patterns and Spatial Distribution of the Southern Stingray, Dasyatis americana

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Mark J.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Shivji, Mahmood S.; Potenski, Matthew D.; Chapman, Demian D.; Harvey, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world’s most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05) smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and

  16. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05) smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and

  17. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05) smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and

  18. Folic acid supplement use is the most significant predictor of folate concentrations in Canadian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; O'Connor, Deborah L; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-04-01

    One-fifth of Canadian women of childbearing age (WCBA) have red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations below those considered optimal for neural tube defect risk reduction (≥906 nmol·L(-1)). Determinants of optimal concentrations have not been examined in a nationally representative sample of Canadian WCBA since food fortification with folic acid was implemented. This study explored correlates of optimal RBC folate concentrations and characteristics of folic acid supplement users in a sample of Canadian WCBA. RBC folate concentrations from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey were assessed in women aged 15 to 45 years (n = 1162). Sociodemographic, behavioural, and clinical determinants of RBC folate ≥906 nmol·L(-1) were examined using univariate and separate multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age and household income. t tests were used to study differences between folic acid supplement users and nonusers. WCBA not taking folic acid supplements were less likely to achieve a RBC folate concentration ≥906 nmol·L(-1) compared with folic acid supplement users (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24, 0.92). Twenty-five percent of WCBA reported folic acid supplement use, and there was a higher percentage of folic acid supplement users in the highest income group. Folic acid supplement users were also more frequent consumers of supplemental vitamin B(12) and of fruit and vegetables (>3 times per day). Folic acid supplement use was the most significant predictor of WCBA achieving optimal RBC folate concentrations. These results indicate a need for targeted strategies to improve compliance with folic acid supplement recommendations among WCBA.

  19. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  20. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. PMID:27472154

  1. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and fat metabolism in rats with L-tryptophan supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Wen, Yanmei; Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-12-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is an important precursor for several neurotransmitters and metabolic regulators, which play a vital role in regulating nutrient metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tryptophan supplementation on the biochemical profiles, intestinal structure, liver structure and serum metabolome in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either tryptophan at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight per day or saline (control group) for 7 days. TRP supplementation had a tendency to decrease the body weight of rats (P > 0.05). The levels of urea and CHO in serum were decreased in the TRP-supplemented group rats compared with control group rats (P < 0.05). TRP supplementation increased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum compared to control group rats (P < 0.05). Metabolic effects of tryptophan supplementation include: (1) increases in the serum concentrations of lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrulline, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and albumin, and decreases in the concentrations of serum branched-chain amino acid (isoleucine, valine and leucine); (2) decreases in the serum concentrations of formate and nitrogenous products (trimethylamine, TMAO, methylamine and dimethylamine), and in the contraction of trimethylamine in feces; (3) decreases in serum levels of lipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, together with the elevated ratio of acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate. The results indicate that tryptophan supplementation reduced the catabolism of dietary amino acids and promoted protein synthesis in rats, promoted the oxidation of fatty acid and reduced fat deposition in the body of rats. PMID:25139634

  2. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing.

  3. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. PMID:26284828

  4. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner. PMID:25289020

  5. Folic Acid Supplementation and Cardiac and Stroke Mortality among Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Leung, June; Larive, Brett; Dwyer, Johanna; Hibberd, Patricia; Jacques, Paul; Rand, William

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess whether use of folic acid vitamin supplements reduces cardiac and stroke mortality in hemodialysis patients. Further, we examined whether consumption of folic acid from vitamin supplements greater than 1000 μg compared to standard 1000 μg, and 1000 μg compared to either lower dose or no consumption were associated with reduced cardiac and stroke mortality risk. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, a randomized clinical trial examining dialysis treatment regimens over three years follow-up. Participants: One thousand eight hundred and forty-six hemodialysis patients previously participating in the HEMO study. Interventions None Main Outcome Measure Cardiac and stroke mortality. Results From time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regression models, folic acid consumption from vitamin supplements, above or below the standard 1000 μg dose was not associated with decrease or increase in cardiac mortality (P = 0.53 above vs. standard dose and P = 0.46, below vs. standard dose). There was also no association between folic acid consumption and mortality from stroke (P = 0.27, above vs. standard dose and P = 0.64, below vs. standard dose). Conclusion Consumption of higher than the standard 1000 μg prescribed dose of folic acid was not beneficial in reducing cardiac or stroke mortality in hemodialysis patients. Similarly, consumption of lower than standard dose was not associated with an increase in either cardiac or stroke mortality. PMID:20303789

  6. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on male reproductive system during exposure to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazhagan, G.; Riar, S. S.; Kain, A. K.; Bardhan, Jaya; Thomas, Pauline

    1989-09-01

    Two groups of male rats were exposed to simulated altitudes of 6060 m and 7576 m for 6 h/day for 7 days (intermittent exposure). In two additional groups of animals exposed to the same altitude, 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) was fed daily for 5 days prior to the exposure period and also during the exposure period. Rats that did not receive AA showed loss of body weight and weight of reproductive organs after exposure. Sex organs showed atrophy on histological examination and there was a deterioration in spermatozoal quality. There was an increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase, and decrease in protein, sialic acid and glyceryl phosphorylcholine content in various reproductive tissues after exposure. All the above changes in histology and biochemical composition could be partially prevented by AA supplementation. AA supplementation can therefore protect the male reproductive system from deleterious effects of hypoxia. The probable mechanism of action of AA is discussed.

  8. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    PubMed

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes.

  9. Pilot study of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ibegbulam, Obike; Duru, Augustine; Ocheni, Sunday; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Umar, Garba; Asinobi, Isaac; Madu, Anazoeze; Okoye, Augustine; Nwagha, Tessy; Oguonu, Uche; Uamai, Ify; Agwu, Obineche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anike, Uche; Agu, Kingsley; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Herrada, Sagrario

    2011-07-01

    In a previous retrospective study, it was observed that the greater the amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood, the lesser the number of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and the higher the steady state haemoglobin level. SCD causes ischaemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation; which can be ameliorated by a metabolite of DHA that down-regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes. The objectives of this prospective pilot study were to evaluate the effects of DHA and EPA supplements in SCD, and test the hypothesis that these effects are mediated partly by reducing inflammation. Oral DHA and EPA supplements were given to 16 SCD patients for 6 months. We then compared pre- and post-supplementation values of number of crisis, steady state Hb, plasma unconjugated bilirubin and three indices of inflammation: plasma interleukin-6, blood neutrophil and platelet counts. There was a significant reduction in the plasma level of unconjugated bilirubin, and the number of sickle cell crisis; but not in the markers of inflammation. The pilot data suggest that DHA and EPA supplements reduce the number of crisis and steady state haemolysis in SCD; but provide no evidence that these effects are mediated by reducing inflammation.

  10. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    PubMed

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes. PMID:21761236

  11. Nicotinic acid supplementation in the context of alcoholic liver injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2014-07-01

    Li and colleagues (2014) in this issue report that dietary nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation ameliorates ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but a deficiency does not worsen injury induced by alcohol alone. The authors further present some mechanistic insights into the protective role of NA supplementation. Results of this and other previous studies in the context of alcoholic liver injury raise one important question as to what should be an adequate dose of NA that will provide the maximum benefit to hepatic and extrahepatic tissues and with minimum adverse effects.

  12. Effect of dietary sugar concentration and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Carpenter, A J; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat concentration and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar concentrations with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the concentration of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter

  13. Effect of dietary sugar concentration and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Carpenter, A J; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat concentration and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar concentrations with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the concentration of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter

  14. Prenatal testosterone supplementation alters puberty onset, aggressive behavior, and partner preference in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) could change the body weight (BW), anogenital distance (AGD), anogenital distance index (AGDI), puberty onset, social behavior, fertility, sexual behavior, sexual preference, and T level of male rats in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rats received either 1 mg/animal of T propionate diluted in 0.1 ml peanut oil or 0.1 ml peanut oil, as control, on the 17th, 18th and 19th gestational days. No alterations in BW, AGD, AGDI, fertility, and sexual behavior were observed (p > 0.05). Delayed onset of puberty (p < 0.0001), increased aggressive behavior (p > 0.05), altered pattern of sexual preference (p < 0.05), and reduced T plasma level (p < 0.05) were observed for adult male rats exposed prenatally to T. In conclusion, the results showed that prenatal exposure to T was able to alter important aspects of sexual and social behavior although these animals were efficient at producing descendants. In this sense more studies should be carried to evaluated the real impact of this hormonal alteration on critical period of sexual differentiation on humans, because pregnant women exposed to hyperandrogenemia and then potentially exposing their unborn children to elevated androgen levels in the uterus can undergo alteration of normal levels of T during the sexual differentiation period, and, as a consequence, affect the reproductive and behavior patterns of their children in adulthood.

  15. Cardiac connexin-43 and PKC signaling in rats with altered thyroid status without and with omega-3 fatty acids intake.

    PubMed

    Szeiffová Bačová, B; Egan Beňová, T; Viczenczová, C; Soukup, T; Rauchová, H; Pavelka, S; Knezl, V; Barančík, M; Tribulová, N

    2016-09-19

    Thyroid hormones are powerful modulators of heart function and susceptibility to arrhythmias via both genomic and non-genomic actions. We aimed to explore expression of electrical coupling protein connexin-43 (Cx43) in the heart of rats with altered thyroid status and impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) supplementation. Adult male Lewis rats were divided into following six groups: euthyroid controls, hyperthyroid (treated with T(3)) and hypothyroid (treated with methimazol) with or without six-weeks lasting supplementation with omega-3 (20 mg/100 g/day). Left and right ventricles, septum and atria were used for immunoblotting of Cx43 and protein kinase C (PKC). Total expression of Cx43 and its phosphorylated forms were significantly increased in all heart regions of hypothyroid rats compared to euthyroid controls. In contrast, the total levels of Cx43 and its functional phosphorylated forms were decreased in atria and left ventricle of hyperthyroid rats. In parallel, the expression of PKC epsilon that phosphorylates Cx43, at serine 368, was increased in hypothyroid but decreased in hyperthyroid rat hearts. Omega-3 intake did not significantly affect either Cx43 or PKC epsilon alterations. In conclusion, there is an inverse relationship between expression of cardiac Cx43 and the levels of circulating thyroid hormones. It appears that increased propensity of hyperthyroid while decreased of hypothyroid individuals to malignant arrhythmias may be in part attributed to the changes in myocardial Cx43.

  16. Cardiac connexin-43 and PKC signaling in rats with altered thyroid status without and with omega-3 fatty acids intake.

    PubMed

    Szeiffová Bačová, B; Egan Beňová, T; Viczenczová, C; Soukup, T; Rauchová, H; Pavelka, S; Knezl, V; Barančík, M; Tribulová, N

    2016-09-19

    Thyroid hormones are powerful modulators of heart function and susceptibility to arrhythmias via both genomic and non-genomic actions. We aimed to explore expression of electrical coupling protein connexin-43 (Cx43) in the heart of rats with altered thyroid status and impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) supplementation. Adult male Lewis rats were divided into following six groups: euthyroid controls, hyperthyroid (treated with T(3)) and hypothyroid (treated with methimazol) with or without six-weeks lasting supplementation with omega-3 (20 mg/100 g/day). Left and right ventricles, septum and atria were used for immunoblotting of Cx43 and protein kinase C (PKC). Total expression of Cx43 and its phosphorylated forms were significantly increased in all heart regions of hypothyroid rats compared to euthyroid controls. In contrast, the total levels of Cx43 and its functional phosphorylated forms were decreased in atria and left ventricle of hyperthyroid rats. In parallel, the expression of PKC epsilon that phosphorylates Cx43, at serine 368, was increased in hypothyroid but decreased in hyperthyroid rat hearts. Omega-3 intake did not significantly affect either Cx43 or PKC epsilon alterations. In conclusion, there is an inverse relationship between expression of cardiac Cx43 and the levels of circulating thyroid hormones. It appears that increased propensity of hyperthyroid while decreased of hypothyroid individuals to malignant arrhythmias may be in part attributed to the changes in myocardial Cx43. PMID:27643942

  17. A Propensity for n-omega-Amino Acids in Thermally-Altered Antarctic Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Martin, Mildred G.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are known to contain a wealth of indigenous organic molecules, including amino acids, which suggests that these meteorites could have been an important source of prebiotic organic material during the origins of life on Earth and possibly elsewhere. We report the detection of extraterrestrial amino acids in thermally-altered type 3 CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites and ureilites recovered from Antarctica. The amino acid concentrations of the thirteen Antarctic meteorites were generally less abundant than in more amino acid-rich CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites that experienced much lower temperature aqueous alteration on their parent bodies. In contrast to low-temperature aqueously-altered meteorites that show complete structural diversity in amino acids formed predominantly by Strecker-cyanohydrin synthesis, the thermally-altered meteorites studied here are dominated by small, straight-chain, amine terminal (n-omega-amino) amino acids that are not consistent with Strecker formation. The carbon isotopic ratios of two extraterrestrial n-omega-amino acids measured in one of the CV chondrites are consistent with C-13-depletions observed previously in hydrocarbons produced by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions. The predominance of n-omega-amino acid isomers in thermally-altered meteorites hints at cosmochemical mechanisms for the preferential formation and preservation of a small subset of the possible amino acids.

  18. Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kliem, K E; Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirkland, R M; Barratt, C E S; Livingstone, K M; Givens, D I

    2013-05-01

    In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were

  19. Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kliem, K E; Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirkland, R M; Barratt, C E S; Livingstone, K M; Givens, D I

    2013-05-01

    In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were

  20. High Physiological Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dangardt, Frida; Chen, Yun; Gronowitz, Eva; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Friberg, Peter; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14–17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 months each with a six-week washout period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and lipids were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed, and skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and total omega-3 PUFA in muscle phospholipids increased in both sexes. In the females, omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation improved glucose tolerance by 39% (P = 0.04) and restored insulin concentration by 34% (P = 0.02) during IVGTT. Insulin sensitivity improved 17% (P = 0.07). In males, none of these parameters was influenced by omega-3 supplementation. Thus, three months of supplementation of omega-3 LCPUFA improved glucose and insulin homeostasis in obese girls without influencing body weight. PMID:22523671

  1. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  2. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  3. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial. PMID:27528436

  4. The effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Aliasghari, Fereshte; Beigi, Mohammad Ali Babaei; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most serious cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological studies indicated that dyslipidemia is the major risk factor of CVD. Dyslipidemia can be modified either by proper lifestyle or medical intervention or by the combination of both. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and ω3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis patient. Materials and Methods: This study was a 2-month clinical randomized trial. Ninety atherosclerotic patients with angiographically diagnosed coronary atherosclerosis who were referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from February to march 2011 were selected if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The participants were randomly classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA or 1 920 mg/d ω3 or placebo for 2 months. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol were measured before and after the intervention. This study was a two-month clinical randomized trial. Results: Data were analyzed using SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, version19). Although CLA did not appear to have a significant effect on TG, ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level. Consumption of CLA and ω3 supplementation did not significantly affect HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol. Conclusions: ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level but CLA and ω3 did not show significant changes in other indices of lipid profile in atherosclerotic patients. PMID:24600599

  5. URBANIZATION ALTERS FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS OF STREAM FOOD WEBS IN THE NARRAGANSETT BAY WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization and associated human activities negatively affect stream algal and invertebrate assemblages, likely altering food webs. Our goal was to determine if urbanization affects food web essential fatty acids (EFAs) and if EFAs could be useful ecological indicators in monito...

  6. Plurality of anxiety and depression alteration mechanism by oleanolic acid.

    PubMed

    Fajemiroye, James O; Galdino, Pablinny M; Florentino, Iziara F; Da Rocha, Fabio F; Ghedini, Paulo C; Polepally, Prabhakar R; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Costa, Elson A

    2014-10-01

    Our study sought to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of oleanolic acid as well as the neural mechanisms involved. Animal models such as barbiturate sleep-induction, light-dark box, elevated plus maze, forced swimming test, tail suspension test and open field test were conducted. Male Albino Swiss mice were treated orally with vehicle 10 mL/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg, imipramine 15 mg/kg, diazepam 1 mg/kg or oleanolic acid 5-40 mg/kg. Pretreatment (intraperitoneal) of animals with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 20 mg/kg, 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[4- (2-phthalimido) butyl]piperazine hydrobromide (NAN-190) 0.5 mg/kg, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA) 100 mg/kg or α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) 100 mg/kg, WAY100635 (WAY) 0.3 mg/kg, prazosin (PRAZ) 1 mg/kg, yohimbine 2 mg/kg as well as monoamine oxidase assay and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) quantification were carried out. Oleanolic acid potentiated the hypnotic effect of barbiturate and demonstrated an anxiolytic effect in both the light-dark box and elevated plus maze. This effect was not reversed by PTZ. Acute and/or chronic oral treatment of mice with oleanolic acid (5-20 mg/kg) elicited an antidepressant effect in the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test without interfering with the locomotor activity. The antidepressant effect of oleanolic acid was attenuated by NAN-190, AMPT, PCPA, WAY and PRAZ. Although monoamine oxidase activity remained unaltered by oleanolic acid, chronic administration of oleanolic acid augmented hippocampal BDNF level. These findings demonstrate multiple mechanisms of the anxiolytic and antidepressant effect of oleanolic acid.

  7. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  8. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  9. Effect of linoleic acid and dietary vitamin E supplementation on sustained conjugated linoleic acid production in milk fat from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Capper, J L; Weiss, W P; Bauman, D E

    2012-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; cis-9,trans-11 18:2), a bioactive fatty acid (FA) found in milk and dairy products, has potential human health benefits due to its anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties. Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat can be markedly increased by dietary manipulation; however, high levels of CLA are difficult to sustain as rumen biohydrogenation shifts and milk fat depression (MFD) is often induced. Our objective was to feed a typical Northeastern corn-based diet and investigate whether vitamin E and soybean oil supplementation would sustain an enhanced milk fat CLA content while avoiding MFD. Holstein cows (n=48) were assigned to a completely randomized block design with repeated measures for 28 d and received 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), (2) 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (VE), (3) 2.5% soybean oil (SO), and (4) 2.5% soybean oil plus 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (SO-VE). A 2-wk pretreatment control diet served as the covariate. Milk fat percentage was reduced by both high-oil diets (3.53, 3.56, 2.94, and 2.92% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), whereas milk yield increased significantly for the SO-VE diet only, thus partially mitigating MFD by oil feeding. Milk protein percentage was higher for cows fed the SO diet (3.04, 3.05, 3.28, and 3.03% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), implying that nutrient partitioning or ruminal supply of microbial protein was altered in response to the reduction in milk fat. Milk fat concentration of CLA more than doubled in cows fed the diets supplemented with soybean oil, with concurrent increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-11 18:1 FA. Moreover, milk fat from cows fed the 2 soybean oil diets had 39.1% less de novo synthesized FA and 33.8% more long-chain preformed FA, and vitamin E had no effect on milk fat composition. Overall, dietary supplements of soybean oil caused a reduction in milk fat percentage and a shift in FA composition characteristic of MFD. Supplementing diets with vitamin E

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25019084

  11. The enrichment of eggs with folic acid through supplementation of the laying hen diet.

    PubMed

    House, J D; Braun, K; Ballance, D M; O'Connor, C P; Guenter, W

    2002-09-01

    In light of evidence supporting a need for humans to increase their dietary folate intakes, experiments were conducted to evaluate the extent to which egg folate levels could be increased. In Study 1, Hyline W36 hens (n = 6/diet) received a barley-based diet, containing 0 or 10 mg/kg of crystalline folic acid, to establish the potential for folate incorporation into table eggs. In Study 2, 70 hens were divided into seven treatment groups (n = 10 hens/diet) and received diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 mg folic acid/kg diet. In Study 3, 64 hens received the barley-based diet with or without 4 mg folic acid/kg diet. Eggs were collected and stored for 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 d, prior to folate determinations. The folate content of eggs was determined by HPLC for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (the sole form of folate in egg yolk). Results from Study 1 showed that a 10 mg/kg inclusion of folic acid increased folate incorporation into egg yolk (41.0 +/- 0.7 microg /egg) over that of an unsupplemented diet (17.5 +/- 0.7 microg /egg; P = 0.0001). In Study 2, the response of egg folate to dietary folic acid supplementation was saturable, with 90% of maximal egg folate levels established at approximately 4 mg folic acid/ kg diet. Results from Study 3 showed that folate levels are stable, in control and fortified eggs, during 28 d of storage at 4 C. In terms of its nutritional value, one large egg collected from a folic acid-supplemented hen provided approximately 12.5% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adult humans (RDA = 400 mg/d).

  12. Influences of carbohydrate plus amino acid supplementation on differing exercise intensity adaptations in older persons: skeletal muscle and endocrine responses.

    PubMed

    Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys Leopoldine; Breen, Leigh; Stewart, Claire E

    2010-06-01

    Losses in physiological function in healthy ageing occur partly as a consequence of reduced protein intake and partly as a consequence of less than 30-min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The current study aimed to compare the effects of two different intensities of resistance training in healthy older adults, whose habitual dietary intake was supplemented with carbohydrate and amino acid preparations. We hypothesised that although intensive exercise with appropriate carbohydrate and amino acid supplementation would result in the most profound impact on in vivo markers of healthy physiologic and endocrine functions in previously sedentary older individuals, the effectiveness of the less intense exercise prescription with supplementation would also result in beneficial adaptations over and above findings of previous studies on low intensity exercise alone. Twenty-nine older adults (out of 32) completed the study after being randomly assigned to low (SUP_LowR, i.e., approximately 40% 1RM; n = 16) versus high resistance training (SUP_HighR, i.e., approximately 80% 1RM; n = 13) for 12 weeks. A carbohydrate supplement was ingested immediately before and during every exercise session and an amino acid cocktail was ingested post-exercise. Neither intervention significantly impacted upon body composition assessed using: Body mass index, waist/hip ratio and bioelectric impedance. Muscle strength increased similarly in the two groups with the SUP_HighR protocol showing 46 +/- 8%, 10.8 +/- 4.4% and 26.9 +/- 4.9% (P < 0.01) improvements in 1-RM strength, unilateral and bilateral knee extension torque, respectively, compared with 39 +/- 2%, 9.4 +/- 3.7% and 29.5 +/- 8.2% (P < 0.01) increments in the same measures in the SUP_LowR group. Lean muscle thickness however, showed a greater benefit of the SUP_LowR protocol (8.7 +/- 3.9% increase, P < 0.05) compared with the SUP_HighR protocol, which elicited no significant change. In terms of functional abilities, only

  13. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  14. Influence of vitamin C supplementation on lead-induced histopathological alterations in male rats.

    PubMed

    Shaban El-Neweshy, Mahmoud; Said El-Sayed, Yasser

    2011-03-01

    This study is intended to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin C (VC) in ameliorating the detrimental effects of long-term lead intoxication on the liver, kidneys, brain and testes as assessed by histopathology. A total of forty male Wistar rats (six-weeks-old) was divided into 4 groups: control group; lead-acetate (PbAc)-treated group (20 mgPbAc/kgbwt); PbAc+VC-treated group (20 mgPbAc/kgbwt plus 20 mg VC/kgbwt); and VC-treated group (20 mgVC/kgbwt). The Experimental period was lasted for 60 successive days in which PbAc was administered once daily while VC was supplemented every other day using intra-gastric intubation. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed and pathological examinations were performed. Control and VC-supplemented rats showed normal liver, kidney, brain, and testes histology. In contrast, the liver of PbAc-intoxicated rats exhibited degenerated hepatocytes and portal inflammatory cell infiltrations. The kidneys showed degenerated glomeruli and formation of karyomegalic cells containing intranuclear inclusions in the proximal tubular epithelium. Cerebellar edema, cerebral satellitosis and encephalomalacia observed in the brain. Testicular tissues showed arrest of spermatogenesis and interstitial edema. Co-administration of VC with PbAc diminished the severity of pathological changes and reduced the number of affected organs compared to PbAc-intoxicated rats. These results show that low level of VC ameliorated and mitigated the adverse pathological impacts of chronic lead toxicity. PMID:20056397

  15. Influence of vitamin C supplementation on lead-induced histopathological alterations in male rats.

    PubMed

    Shaban El-Neweshy, Mahmoud; Said El-Sayed, Yasser

    2011-03-01

    This study is intended to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin C (VC) in ameliorating the detrimental effects of long-term lead intoxication on the liver, kidneys, brain and testes as assessed by histopathology. A total of forty male Wistar rats (six-weeks-old) was divided into 4 groups: control group; lead-acetate (PbAc)-treated group (20 mgPbAc/kgbwt); PbAc+VC-treated group (20 mgPbAc/kgbwt plus 20 mg VC/kgbwt); and VC-treated group (20 mgVC/kgbwt). The Experimental period was lasted for 60 successive days in which PbAc was administered once daily while VC was supplemented every other day using intra-gastric intubation. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed and pathological examinations were performed. Control and VC-supplemented rats showed normal liver, kidney, brain, and testes histology. In contrast, the liver of PbAc-intoxicated rats exhibited degenerated hepatocytes and portal inflammatory cell infiltrations. The kidneys showed degenerated glomeruli and formation of karyomegalic cells containing intranuclear inclusions in the proximal tubular epithelium. Cerebellar edema, cerebral satellitosis and encephalomalacia observed in the brain. Testicular tissues showed arrest of spermatogenesis and interstitial edema. Co-administration of VC with PbAc diminished the severity of pathological changes and reduced the number of affected organs compared to PbAc-intoxicated rats. These results show that low level of VC ameliorated and mitigated the adverse pathological impacts of chronic lead toxicity.

  16. Use of dietary supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2005.

    PubMed

    2005-09-30

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Daily periconceptional consumption of 400 mug of folic acid, as recommended by the Public Health Service (PHS) since 1992, reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. The Food and Drug Administration ordered mandatory fortification with folic acid of U.S. cereal grain products, beginning in 1998. However, despite a 26% reduction in NTDs, not all women of childbearing age receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the number of women who take dietary supplements containing 400 mug of folic acid daily remains an important component of NTD prevention. This report summarizes results from the 2005 March of Dimes Gallup survey, which determined a decrease in the proportion of childbearing-aged women who reported taking folic acid in dietary supplements daily, from 40% in 2004 to 33% in 2005, returning to a level consistent with that reported during 1995-2003. These results emphasize the need for innovative programs to increase folic acid consumption to further reduce NTDs.

  17. [Lipid peroxidation in cardiac mitochondrial fraction of rats exposed to different supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Shmarakov, I O; Marchenko, M M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) used at different ratios of w-6/w-3 was studied on the content of primary (diene conjugates, DC; triene conjugates, TC), secondary (ketodienes, CD; coupled trienes, CT; TBA-active products) and terminal (Schiff bases) lipid peroxidation products (LPO) and generation of superoxide anion-radical in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. It was shown that diet supplementation with high doses of w-6 or w-3 PUFAs increased the content of primary, secondary and terminal LPO in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. Llipid peroxidation was accompanied by the intensification of superoxide anion-radical generation in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. During diet consumption with the PUFAs leading factor affecting the intensity of lipoperoxidation in rat heart mitochondria is fatty acid composition, rather than the level of their saturation.

  18. Review: Mechanisms of How the Intestinal Microbiota Alters the Effects of Drugs and Bile Acids.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Curtis D; Cui, Julia Yue

    2015-10-01

    Information on the intestinal microbiota has increased exponentially this century because of technical advancements in genomics and metabolomics. Although information on the synthesis of bile acids by the liver and their transformation to secondary bile acids by the intestinal microbiota was the first example of the importance of the intestinal microbiota in biotransforming chemicals, this review will discuss numerous examples of the mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota alters the pharmacology and toxicology of drugs and other chemicals. More specifically, the altered pharmacology and toxicology of salicylazosulfapridine, digoxin, l-dopa, acetaminophen, caffeic acid, phosphatidyl choline, carnitine, sorivudine, irinotecan, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heterocyclic amines, melamine, nitrazepam, and lovastatin will be reviewed. In addition, recent data that the intestinal microbiota alters drug metabolism of the host, especially Cyp3a, as well as the significance and potential mechanisms of this phenomenon are summarized. The review will conclude with an update of bile acid research, emphasizing the bile acid receptors (FXR and TGR5) that regulate not only bile acid synthesis and transport but also energy metabolism. Recent data indicate that by altering the intestinal microbiota, either by diet or drugs, one may be able to minimize the adverse effects of the Western diet by altering the composition of bile acids in the intestine that are agonists or antagonists of FXR and TGR5. Therefore, it may be possible to consider the intestinal microbiota as another drug target.

  19. Review: Mechanisms of How the Intestinal Microbiota Alters the Effects of Drugs and Bile Acids

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Julia Yue

    2015-01-01

    Information on the intestinal microbiota has increased exponentially this century because of technical advancements in genomics and metabolomics. Although information on the synthesis of bile acids by the liver and their transformation to secondary bile acids by the intestinal microbiota was the first example of the importance of the intestinal microbiota in biotransforming chemicals, this review will discuss numerous examples of the mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota alters the pharmacology and toxicology of drugs and other chemicals. More specifically, the altered pharmacology and toxicology of salicylazosulfapridine, digoxin, l-dopa, acetaminophen, caffeic acid, phosphatidyl choline, carnitine, sorivudine, irinotecan, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heterocyclic amines, melamine, nitrazepam, and lovastatin will be reviewed. In addition, recent data that the intestinal microbiota alters drug metabolism of the host, especially Cyp3a, as well as the significance and potential mechanisms of this phenomenon are summarized. The review will conclude with an update of bile acid research, emphasizing the bile acid receptors (FXR and TGR5) that regulate not only bile acid synthesis and transport but also energy metabolism. Recent data indicate that by altering the intestinal microbiota, either by diet or drugs, one may be able to minimize the adverse effects of the Western diet by altering the composition of bile acids in the intestine that are agonists or antagonists of FXR and TGR5. Therefore, it may be possible to consider the intestinal microbiota as another drug target. PMID:26261286

  20. Supplementation of Saturated Long-chain Fatty Acids Maintains Intestinal Eubiosis and Reduces Ethanol-induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Torralba, Manolito; Tan, Justin; Embree, Mallory; Zengler, Karsten; Stärkel, Peter; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; DePew, Jessica; Loomba, Rohit; Ho, Samuel B.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.; Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Nelson, Karen E.; Fouts, Derrick E.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis, and development of alcoholic liver disease requires gut-derived bacterial products. However, little is known about how alterations to the microbiome contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Methods We used the Tsukamoto-French mouse model which involves continuous intragastric feeding of isocaloric diet or alcohol for 3 weeks. Bacterial DNA from the cecum was extracted for deep metagenomic sequencing. Targeted metabolomics assessed concentrations of saturated fatty acids in cecal contents. To maintain intestinal metabolic homeostasis, diets of ethanol-fed and control mice were supplemented with saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, amounts of lactobacilli, and saturated LCFA were measured in fecal samples of non-alcoholic individuals and patients with active alcohol abuse. Results Analyses of intestinal contents from mice revealed alcohol-associated changes to the intestinal metagenome and metabolome, characterized by reduced synthesis of saturated LCFA. Maintaining intestinal levels of saturated fatty acids in mice resulted in eubiosis, stabilized the intestinal gut barrier and reduced ethanol-induced liver injury. Saturated LCFA are metabolized by commensal Lactobacillus and promote their growth. Proportions of bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were lower in feces from patients with active alcohol abuse than controls. Total levels of LCFA correlated with those of lactobacilli in fecal samples from patients with active alcohol abuse but not in controls. Conclusion In humans and mice, alcohol causes intestinal dysbiosis, reducing the capacity of the microbiome to synthesize saturated LCFA and the proportion of Lactobacillus species. Dietary approaches to restore levels of saturated fatty acids in the intestine might reduce ethanol

  1. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Jin, L.; Wen, Q. N.; Kopparapu, N. K.; Liu, J.; Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Y. G.

    2016-01-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  2. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Wen, Q N; Kopparapu, N K; Liu, J; Liu, X L; Zhang, Y G

    2016-02-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established.

  3. ALTERED GENE EXPRESSION IN MOUSE LIVERS AFTER DICHLOROACETIC ACID EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated that DCA exhibits hepatocarcinogenic effects in rodents when administered in drinking water. The mechanism(s) involved in DCA induction of cancer are not clear...

  4. High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice12345

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Karen E; Mikael, Leonie G; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lévesque, Nancy; Deng, Liyuan; Wu, Qing; Malysheva, Olga V; Best, Ana; Caudill, Marie A; Greene, Nicholas DE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of folic acid is prevalent, leading to concerns about negative consequences. The effects of folic acid on the liver, the primary organ for folate metabolism, are largely unknown. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) provides methyl donors for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and methylation reactions. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the impact of high folic acid intake on liver disease and methyl metabolism. Design: Folic acid–supplemented diet (FASD, 10-fold higher than recommended) and control diet were fed to male Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/− mice for 6 mo to assess gene-nutrient interactions. Liver pathology, folate and choline metabolites, and gene expression in folate and lipid pathways were examined. Results: Liver and spleen weights were higher and hematologic profiles were altered in FASD-fed mice. Liver histology revealed unusually large, degenerating cells in FASD Mthfr+/− mice, consistent with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. High folic acid inhibited MTHFR activity in vitro, and MTHFR protein was reduced in FASD-fed mice. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, SAM, and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were lower in FASD and Mthfr+/− livers. Choline metabolites, including phosphatidylcholine, were reduced due to genotype and/or diet in an attempt to restore methylation capacity through choline/betaine-dependent SAM synthesis. Expression changes in genes of one-carbon and lipid metabolism were particularly significant in FASD Mthfr+/− mice. The latter changes, which included higher nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, higher Srepb2 messenger RNA (mRNA), lower farnesoid X receptor (Nr1h4) mRNA, and lower Cyp7a1 mRNA, would lead to greater lipogenesis and reduced cholesterol catabolism into bile. Conclusions: We suggest that high folic acid consumption reduces MTHFR protein and activity levels, creating a pseudo-MTHFR deficiency. This deficiency results in hepatocyte degeneration, suggesting a 2

  5. Three targets of branched-chain amino acid supplementation in the treatment of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan

    2010-05-01

    The article explains the pathogenesis of disturbances in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in various forms of hepatic injury and it is suggested that the main cause of decrease in plasma BCAA concentration in liver cirrhosis is hyperammonemia. Three possible targets of BCAA supplementation in hepatic disease are suggested: (1) hepatic encephalopathy, (2) liver regeneration, and (3) hepatic cachexia. The BCAA may ameliorate hepatic encephalopathy by promoting ammonia detoxification, correction of the plasma amino acid imbalance, and by reduced brain influx of aromatic amino acids. The influence of BCAA supplementation on hepatic encephalopathy could be more effective in chronic hepatic injury with hyperammonemia and low concentrations of BCAA in blood than in acute hepatic illness, where hyperaminoacidemia frequently develops. The favorable effect of BCAA on liver regeneration and nutritional state of the body is related to their stimulatory effect on protein synthesis, secretion of hepatocyte growth factor, glutamine production and inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Presumably the beneficial effect of BCAA on hepatic cachexia is significant in compensated liver disease with decreased plasma BCAA concentrations, whereas it is less pronounced in hepatic diseases with inflammatory complications and enhanced protein turnover. It is concluded that specific benefits associated with BCAA supplementation depend significantly on the type of liver disease and on the presence of inflammatory reaction. An important task for clinical research is to identify groups of patients for whom BCAA treatment can significantly improve the health-related quality of life and the prognosis of hepatic disease. PMID:20071143

  6. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  7. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  8. Selective decrease of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate content in macrophages by high supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jérôme; Zemski Berry, Karin A; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Geloën, Alain; Murphy, Robert C; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Lagarde, Michel; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid (PL) preferentially found in late endosomal membranes, where it forms specialized lipid domains. Recently, using cultured macrophages treated with anti-BMP antibody, we showed that BMP-rich domains are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. We had previously stressed the high propensity of BMP to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared with other PUFAs. Because phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was reported as a precursor for BMP synthesis in RAW macrophages, we examined the effects of PG supplementation on both FA composition and amount of BMP in this cell line. Supplementation with dioleoyl-PG (18:1/18:1-PG) induced BMP accumulation, together with an increase of oleate proportion. Supplementation with high concentrations of didocosahexaenoyl-PG (22:6/22:6-PG) led to a marked enrichment of DHA in BMP, resulting in the formation of diDHA molecular species. However, the amount of BMP was selectively decreased. Similar effects were observed after supplementation with high concentrations of nonesterified DHA. Addition of vitamin E prevented the decrease of BMP and further increased its DHA content. Supplementation with 22:6/22:6-PG promoted BMP accumulation with an enhanced proportion of 22:6/22:6-BMP. DHA-rich BMP was significantly degraded after cell exposure to oxidant conditions, in contrast to oleic acid-rich BMP, which was not affected. Using a cell-free system, we showed that 22:6/22:6-BMP is highly oxidizable and partially protects cholesterol oxidation, compared with 18:1/18:1-BMP. Our data suggest that high DHA content in BMP led to specific degradation of this PL, possibly through the diDHA molecular species, which is very prone to peroxidation and, as such, a potential antioxidant in its immediate vicinity. PMID:18809971

  9. Altered cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Block, Robert C; Dorsey, E Ray; Beck, Christopher A; Brenna, J Thomas; Shoulson, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities, cognitive decline, and involuntary movements that lead to a progressive decline in functional capacity, independence, and ultimately death. The pathophysiology of Huntington disease is linked to an expanded trinucleotide repeat of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) in the IT-15 gene on chromosome 4. There is no disease-modifying treatment for Huntington disease, and novel pathophysiological insights and therapeutic strategies are needed. Lipids are vital to the health of the central nervous system, and research in animals and humans has revealed that cholesterol metabolism is disrupted in Huntington disease. This lipid dysregulation has been linked to specific actions of the mutant huntingtin on sterol regulatory element binding proteins. This results in lower cholesterol levels in affected areas of the brain with evidence that this depletion is pathologic. Huntington disease is also associated with a pattern of insulin resistance characterized by a catabolic state resulting in weight loss and a lower body mass index than individuals without Huntington disease. Insulin resistance appears to act as a metabolic stressor attending disease progression. The fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have been examined in clinical trials of Huntington disease patients. Drugs that combat the dysregulated lipid milieu in Huntington disease may help treat this perplexing and catastrophic genetic disease.

  10. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese.

  11. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  12. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Zhang, Youcai; Wu, Kai Connie; Fan, Fang; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by liver histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential.

  13. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  14. The effect of subchronic supplementation with folic acid on homocysteine induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Rasic-Markovic, A; Rankov-Petrovic, B; Hrncic, D; Krstic, D; Colovic, M; Macut, Dj; Djuric, D; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2015-06-01

    Influence of folic acid on the CNS is still unclear. Folate has a neuroprotective effect, while on the other hand excess folate can exacerbate seizures in epileptics. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of subchronic administration of folic acid on behavioural and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of DL homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase in different brain regions was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: 1. Controls (C, 0.9% NaCl); 2. DL homocysteine-thiolactone 8.0 mmol/kg (H); 3. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid 5 mg/kg for 7 days (F) and 4. Subchronic supplementation with F + single dose of H (FH). Seizure behaviour was assessed by incidence, latency, number and intensity of seizure episodes. Seizure severity was described by a descriptive scale with grades 0-4. For EEG recordings, three gold-plated recording electrodes were implanted into the skull. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid did not affect seizure incidence, median number of seizure episodes and severity in FH, comparison with H (p > 0.05). The majority of seizure episodes in all groups were of grade 2. There were no significant differences in lethal outcomes at 24 h upon H injection in the FH vs. H group. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase was significantly increased in almost all examined structures in the FH vs. H group. Subchronic folic acid administration did not exacerbate H induced seizures and completely recovered the activity of ATPases.

  15. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-04-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that folic acid-containing multivitamins may markedly reduce the risk of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. We examined whether maternal supplementation with folic acid alone during early pregnancy can prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. The data are from a large population-based cohort study established to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation in China. We selected participants who were registered in 2 southern provinces, had exact information on folic acid use, and were not affected by chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus before 20 weeks gestation. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for the effects of the main potential confounders, including age, body mass index, education, occupation, parity, and multiple births. The study size had 99.9% power (α=0.05) to detect a decrease of 10% over the unexposed rate of 9.4% for gestational hypertension. Among the 193 554 women (47.9% took folic acid, 52.1% did not), the overall incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.7% and 2.5% for women who took folic acid, and 9.4% and 2.4% for women who did not use it. The adjusted risk ratio associated with folic acid use was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11) for gestational hypertension and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.18) for preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that daily consumption of 400 μg folic acid alone during early pregnancy cannot prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

  16. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    TOORANG, Fatemeh; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; DJALALI, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes. Results: A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation. Conclusion: Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity. PMID:27141496

  17. Alteration of bile acid metabolism in the rat induced by chronic ethanol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhong, Wei; Li, Houkai; Li, Qiong; Qiu, Yunping; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Chen, Huiyuan; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhang, Shucha; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zeisel, Steven H.; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the bile acid metabolism is limited by the fact that previous analyses have primarily focused on a selected few circulating bile acids; the bile acid profiles of the liver and gastrointestinal tract pools are rarely investigated. Here, we determined how chronic ethanol consumption altered the bile acids in multiple body compartments (liver, gastrointestinal tract, and serum) of rats. Rats were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with 38% of calories as ethanol (the amount equivalent of 4–5 drinks in humans). While conjugated bile acids predominated in the liver (98.3%), duodenum (97.8%), and ileum (89.7%), unconjugated bile acids comprised the largest proportion of measured bile acids in serum (81.2%), the cecum (97.7%), and the rectum (97.5%). In particular, taurine-conjugated bile acids were significantly decreased in the liver and gastrointestinal tract of ethanol-treated rats, while unconjugated and glycine-conjugated species increased. Ethanol consumption caused increased expression of genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis, efflux transport, and reduced expression of genes regulating bile acid influx transport in the liver. These results provide an improved understanding of the systemic modulations of bile acid metabolism in mammals through the gut-liver axis.—Xie, G., Zhong, W., Li, H., Li, Q., Qiu, Y., Zheng, X., Chen, H., Zhao, X., Zhang, S., Zhou, Z., Zeisel, S. H., Jia, W. Alteration of bile acid metabolism in the rat induced by chronic ethanol consumption. PMID:23709616

  18. Linoleic acid supplementation results in increased arachidonic acid and eicosanoid production in CF airway cells and in cftr−/− transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Munir M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Andersson, Charlotte; Bhutta, Abdul Q.; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Laposata, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF leads to increased levels of arachidonate-derived proinflammatory metabolites and that this process is exacerbated by increasing linoleic acid levels in the diet. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of linoleic acid supplementation on downstream proinflammatory biomarkers in two CF models: 1) in vitro cell culture model using 16HBE14o− sense [wild-type (WT)] and antisense (CF) human airway epithelial cells; and 2) in an in vivo model using cftr−/− transgenic mice. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and IL-8 and eicosanoids were measured by ELISA. Neutrophils were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from knockout mice following linoleic acid supplementation and exposure to aerosolized Pseudomonas LPS. Linoleic acid supplementation increased arachidonic acid levels in CF but not WT cells. IL-8, PGE2, and PGF2α secretion were increased in CF compared with WT cells, with a further increase following linoleic acid supplementation. cftr−/− Mice supplemented with 100 mg of linoleic acid had increased arachidonic acid levels in lung tissue associated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the airway compared with control mice. These findings support the hypothesis that increasing linoleic acid levels in the setting of loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function leads to increased arachidonic acid levels and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:20656894

  19. Single-laboratory validated method for determination of nordihydroguaiaretic acid in chaparral-containing dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Gay, Martha L; Musser, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) occurs naturally in chaparral (Larrea tridentate Coville), a plant which commonly grows in the Southwest United States and has been used for medicinal purposes by Native Americans indigenous to that region. In addition to its traditional use as a tea, manufacturers of dietary supplements have marketed chaparral-containing products in a variety of formulations. Because of the hepatotoxicity of NDGA, and its occurrence in regulated products, we have developed a method for the determination of NDGA in dietary supplements and have tested this method in several dietary supplement formulations. Products were extracted with 80% methanol, filtered, and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. NDGA was detected and determined with both a diode array detector and negative-ion electrospray. Fragmentation in the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was obtained by collisional activation of the [M-H](-) ion. Collisional activation produced sufficient fragmentation to provide unambiguous identification. Lack of a stable isotope labeled internal standard has led us to compare quantitations based on UV detection with quantitations based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Presence of NDGA was confirmed in several dietary supplement products. Quantitative results from the 2 detection methods were comparable for most products. The limit of quantitation using MS/MS was lower and fewer interferences were observed, although UV detection provided better linearity.

  20. Pilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Elliot D; Kushner, Laura J; Kramer, Neil; Kazandjian, Gregory

    2003-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been demonstrated in vitro and in many disease states, in particular in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The benefit of n-3 PUFA supplementation has been documented in animal models of periodontal inflammation and a trend towards reduced inflammation has been seen in human experimental gingivitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PUFA supplementation, by administration of fish oil as a source of the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and borage oil as a source of the n-6 PUFA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), to adults with periodontitis. Thirty adult human subjects with periodontitis were administered either fish oil 3000 mg daily; borage oil 3000 mg daily; fish oil 1500 and borage oil 1500 mg daily, or placebo. The modified gingival index, the plaque index (PI), periodontal probing depths and beta-glucuronidase levels in gingival crevicular fluid were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Improvement in gingival inflammation was observed in subjects treated with borage oil (P<0.016), with a trend apparent in subjects treated with fish oil or a combination of PUFA. There was no statistically significant improvement in PI, although a trend was apparent in those receiving borage oil. Improvement in probing depth was seen in those subjects treated with either fish oil alone or borage oil alone, but statistical significance was only seen for the comparison of borage oil and placebo (P<0.044). No change was seen in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) beta-glucuronidase levels. The use of borage oil supplementation, a source of the n-6 PUFA, GLA, can have beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation. n-6 PUFA supplementation seemed to offer more impressive results than either n-3 PUFA supplementation or the combination of lower doses of the two supplements. Additional studies will be necessary to more fully assess the

  1. Responses to n-3 fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of gestating gilts, and lactating and weaned sows.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Patterson, J L; Webel, S K; Spencer, J D; Cameron, A C; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-05-01

    Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P

  2. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation.

  3. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  4. Acidic Alteration Environments at Valles Marineris, Noctis Labyrinthus and Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Flahaut, Jessica; Gross, Christoph; Horgan, Briony

    2015-04-01

    Unique surface materials have been discovered at Valles Marineris, Noctis Labyrinthus, Mawrth Vallis, and elsewhere that have CRISM features distinct from those of any known minerals. Typically these unusual sites are found in light-toned outcrops or interior layered deposits associated with phyllosilicates and/or sulfates. We term these units "doublet" materials because they exhibit a doublet absorption in CRISM spectra between 2.2 and 2.3 µm. We are investigating the spectral signatures of these outcrops compared to lab spectra of minerals, mixtures and alteration products. We're also evaluating the stratigraphy of these unique alteration phases compared with neighboring phyllosilicate and sulfate units. A similar 2.2-2.3 µm doublet has been observed in spectra taken of acid altered clays produced in the laboratory. The band centers and relative intensities of these Martian doublet features vary greatly suggesting that a process such as acid weathering could be acting on OH-bearing minerals to produce altered phases that differ depending on the type of substrate, water/rock ratio, solution chemistry, and duration of aqueous processes. Because these unique materials occur in many regions across a range of times on Mars, acidic alteration may have been a key process at local and regional scales throughout Martian geologic history. Constraining the types of acidic alteration that have taken place on Mars will assist in defining the aqueous geochemistry at these sites.

  5. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation: a new indication for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tam, Carolyn; McKenna, Kate; Goh, Y Ingrid; Klieger-Grossman, Chagit; O'Connor, Deborah L; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2009-06-01

    The role of periconceptional folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) has been well established. Maternal red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration is inversely associated with NTD risk, and concentrations above 906 nmol/L are associated with a low risk of NTDs. Current guidelines call for a minimum of 0.4 mg of folic acid per day for all women who could become pregnant and higher levels of supplementation for women with a family history of NTDs or risk factors associated with NTDs. However, there is variability in supplement adherence and lack of knowledge of conditions that may elevate folate requirements or NTD risk. Therefore, guidance provided to the population as a whole may be inappropriate for individual women. Current data show that a significant proportion of women of childbearing age have RBC folate concentrations below 906 nmol/L, rendering a higher-than-baseline risk for NTDs. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of RBC folate could be used to identify these women and to help them improve their folate status, thus reducing their risk for having a child with an NTD.This review describes the evolution of the evidence for TDM of RBC folate and preliminary experience with TDM in a population of 12 women who were planning a pregnancy and who were being treated with an atypical antipsychotic.

  6. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  7. Isolation of Arabidopsis mutants with altered seed fatty acid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, B.; Browse, J.; Somerville, C. Washington State Univ., Pullman )

    1989-04-01

    By direct screening of Arabidopsis seed fatty acid methyl esters, we have isolated mutants which are deficient in the elongation of 18:1 to 20:1 and the desaturation of 18:2 to 18:3. Both the elongation and the desaturation mutants, designated MB14 and BL1 respectively, have only 10% of the wild-type levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in their seeds. The intermediate levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in F1 seeds of crosses to the wild type indicate that the level of enzyme is regulating the amount of 20:1 and 18:3 in seeds. Consistent with this observation, the mutations were found to segregate 1:2:1 in F2 seeds. We have found that the 18:2 desaturase mutation is clearly expressed in root phosphatidylcholine.

  8. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  9. The effect of dietary supplements of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Younger, K M

    1981-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary supplements of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides were studied in vegans and in omnivores. 2. A supplement of 18:3 omega 3 led to an increase in 20:5 omega 3 but was less effective than one of 20:5 omega 3 + 22:6 omega 3.

  10. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in atherosclerotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hassan Eftekhari, Mohammad; Aliasghari, Fereshte; Babaei-Beigi, Mohammad Ali; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and disability in Iranian people. Inflammation and oxidative processes are key components of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on inflammation markers and oxidative stress in atherosclerotic patients. METHODS This study was a two-month clinical, randomized trial. 90 volunteers who referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) from February to March 2011 and had the inclusion criteria of this study were selected. Participants were classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA, 1920 mg/d ω-3, or placebo for 2 months. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured before and after supplementation. RESULTS The hs-CRP level decreased significantly in both the omega-3 and CLA group (P < 0.05). IL-6 reduced significantly in the ω-3 group, but the reduction of IL-6 levels in the CLA group was not significant. GPx increased in the CLA and omega-3 groups (P < 0.05). MDA level decreased significantly in both omega-3 and CLA groups (P < 0.05). Comparison between the groups indicates a significant change in CRP levels in the ω-3 group relative to the control group. However, other indices did not cause any significant change in the ω-3 and CLA groups in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSION Diet supplementation with CLA and ω-3 can have a beneficial effect on some indices of inflammatory and oxidative stress. PMID:24575132

  11. A diet with lactosucrose supplementation ameliorates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Xiaoli; Huang, Xiaoliu; Li, Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shiqiang; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation contributes to an increased risk of colon cancer. Lactosucrose (LS), a kind of functional trisaccharide, can modulate immunity and promote microbe growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LS on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats. Rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: the normal group, TNBS group, LS group, and salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) group for five weeks. LS supplementation ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. LS supplementation increased IL-10 production and suppressed the secretion of IL-12 in the colon, as compared to the TNBS group. LS decreased the production of TLR-2 protein and nuclear NF-κB p65 protein, as well as mRNA levels, as compared with colitic rats. These results indicate that chronic feeding of LS inhibited TNBS-induced chronic inflammation. LS has potential nutraceutical intervention to combat colitis.

  12. Effect of acid-base alterations on hepatic lactate utilization

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Philip J.; Simmons, Daniel H.; Tashkin, Donald P.

    1972-01-01

    1. The effect of acid-base changes on hepatic lactate utilization was investigated in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. 2. Portal vein flow and hepatic artery flow were measured with electromagnetic flowmeters, lactate concentration of portal vein, arterial and mixed hepatic venous blood was determined by an enzymatic technique, and hepatic lactate uptake was calculated using the Fick principle. 3. Respiratory alkalosis (Δ pH 0·25 ± 0·02) in four dogs resulted in a significant fall in total hepatic blood flow (-22 ± 4%) and a significant rise in both arterial lactate concentration (2·18 ± 0·32 m-mole/l.) and hepatic lactate utilization (3·9 ± 1·2 μmole/min.kg). 4. 0·6 M-Tris buffer infusion (Δ pH 0·21 ± 0·02) in four dogs produced no significant changes in liver blood flow, arterial lactate concentration or hepatic lactate uptake. 5. Respiratory acidosis (Δ pH -0·20 ± 0·03) in six dogs and metabolic acidosis (Δ pH -0·20 ± 0·02) in four dogs produced no significant changes in liver blood flow, decreases in arterial lactate concentration of 0·38 ± 0·09 m-mole/l. (P < 0·05) and 0·13 ± 0·13 m-mole/l., respectively, and no significant changes in hepatic lactate uptake. 6. A significant correlation (r = 0·63; P < 0·01) was found between hepatic lactate utilization and arterial lactate concentration during the hyperlactataemia associated with respiratory alkalosis. 7. Hyperlactataemia induced in four dogs by infusion of buffered sodium lactate (Δ pH 0·05 ± 0·01;% Δ liver blood flow 29 ± 7%) was also significantly correlated with hepatic lactate utilization (r = 0·70; P < 0·01) and the slope of the regression was similar to that during respiratory alkalosis. 8. These data suggest that the hyperlactataemia of alkalosis is not due to impaired hepatic utilization of lactate and that the principal determinant of hepatic lactate uptake during alkalosis or lactate infusion is blood lactate concentration, rather than liver

  13. Interaction of exercise training and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tom R; Liu, Ying; Linden, Melissa A; Rector, R Scott

    2007-06-01

    The effect of combining omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation and exercise training treatment on postprandial lipemia (PPL) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of n-3 FA and exercise training in attenuating PPL after a high-fat meal. Previously sedentary, overweight, subjects (n=22; 12 women, 10 men, BMI 26.6+/-0.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: n-3 FA supplementation alone (FO, n=10) or n-3 FA supplementation plus exercise training (FO+ExTr, n=12). Both groups consumed 4 g/d n-3 FA, and one group also exercise trained for 45 min/d, 5d/week of brisk walking and (or) jogging at 60% VO2 max. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, subjects performed a baseline PPL and a PPL following a single session of exercise (ExPPL). PPL was assessed by triglyceride (TG) area under the curve (AUC) and peak TG response (TGpeak). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare results from treatments for baseline and exercise trials. FO alone reduced PPL and Ex PPL, and FO+ExTr attenuated the ExPPL response measured as total AUC and TGpeak. There was no significant main effect for group or group by time interaction for baseline PPL or ExPPL. Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C (i.e., subfraction 2) concentrations were significantly increased in the FO+ExTr group after the treatments. These results suggest that n-3 FA supplementation reduced PPL in sedentary subjects. Exercise training has no interference or additive effects with n-3 FA supplementation in attenuating PPL, but combined treatments may be additive in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:17510682

  14. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C.; Carey, Amanda N.; Galli, Rachel L.; Spangler, Edward L.; Ingram, Donald K.; Joseph, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study, we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries can reduce the deleterious effects of inflammation induced by central administration of kainic acid by altering the expression of genes associated with inflammation. To this end, 4-month-old male Fischer-344 (F344) rats were fed a control, 0.015% piroxicam (an NSAID) or 2% blueberry diet for 8 weeks before either Ringer's buffer or kainic acid was bilaterally micro-infused into the hippocampus. Two weeks later, following behavioral evaluation, the rats were killed and total RNA from the hippocampus was extracted and used in real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression of inflammation-related genes. Kainic acid had deleterious effects on cognitive behavior as kainic acid-injected rats on the control diet exhibited increased latencies to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze compared to Ringer's buffer-injected rats and utilized non-spatial strategies during probe trials. The blueberry diet, and to a lesser degree the piroxicam diet, was able to improve cognitive performance. Immunohistochemical analyses of OX-6 expression revealed that kainic acid produced an inflammatory response by increasing the OX-6 positive areas in the hippocampus of kainic acid-injected rats. Kainic acid up-regulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, the neurotrophic factor IGF-1, and the transcription factor NF-κB. Blueberry and piroxicam supplementations were found to attenuate the kainic acid-induced increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB, while only blueberry was able to augment the increased IGF-1 expression. These results indicate that blueberry polyphenols attenuate learning impairments following neurotoxic insult and exert anti-inflammatory actions

  15. Impact of folic acid supplementation on single- and double-stranded RNA degradation in human colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jevtoci-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Langerholc, Tomaz; Jonovic, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Sufficient intake of folic acid is necessary for normal embryogenesis, fetal, and neonatal development. Folic acid facilitates nucleic acid internalization, and protects cellular DNA from nuclease degradation. Human milk contains enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, and antibodies, along with macrophages, that protect against infections and allergies. However, little to no information is available on the effects of folic acid supplementation on degradation of nucleic acids in human milk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the RNase activity (free and inhibitor-bound) in colostrum and mature milk, following folic acid supplementation. The study design included a total of 59 women, 27 of whom received 400 μg of folic acid daily periconceptionally and after. Folic acid supplementation increased the free RNase and polyadenylase activity following lactation. However, the increased RNase activity was not due to de novo enzyme synthesis, as the inhibitor-bound (latent) RNase activity was significantly lower and disappeared after one month. Folic acid reduced RNase activity by using double-stranded RNA as substrate. Data suggests that folic acid supplementation may improve viral RNAs degradation and mRNA degradation, but not dsRNA degradation, preserving in this way the antiviral defense.

  16. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, James A.; Clendenon, Sherry G.; Ratcliffe, Don R.; Fielding, Stephen M.; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid signaling caused by embryonic ethanol. Retinoic acid deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100 mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with retinoic acid at a low concentration (10−9 M) and 100 mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100 mM ethanol alone. The rescue phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10−9 M retinoic acid alone (retinoic acid toxicity) than to untreated or 100 mM ethanol treated embryos. Retinoic acid rescues defects caused by 100 mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e. g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by retinoic acid supplement. PMID:20036484

  17. Effects of fatty acid supplements on milk yield and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). The SAT treatment did not change milk fat concentration, but UNS linearly decreased milk fat in cannulated cows and tended to decrease milk fat in noncannulated cows compared with control. Milk fat depression with UNS corresponded to increased concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Milk fat profile was similar for SAT and control, but UNS decreased concentration of short- and medium-chain FA. Digestible energy intake tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS in cannulated and noncannulated cows. Increasing unsaturated FS linearly increased empty body weight and net energy gain in cannulated cows, whereas increasing saturated FS linearly increased plasma insulin. Efficiency of conversion of digestible energy to milk tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS for cannulated cows only. Addition of SAT provided little benefit to production and energy balance, whereas UNS decreased energy intake and milk energy yield.

  18. New insights in nutritional management and amino acid supplementation in urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate is used in the pharmacological treatment of urea cycle disorders to create alternative pathways for nitrogen excretion. The primary metabolite, phenylacetate, conjugates glutamine in the liver and kidney to form phenylacetylglutamine that is readily excreted in the urine. Patients with urea cycle disorders taking sodium phenylbutyrate have a selective reduction in the plasma concentrations of branched chain amino acids despite adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, this depletion is usually the harbinger of a metabolic crisis. Plasma branched chain amino acids and other essential amino acids were measured in control subjects, untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females, and treated patients with urea cycle disorders (ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency) in the absorptive state during the course of stable isotope studies. Branched chain amino acid levels were significantly lower in treated patients with urea cycle disorders when compared to untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females or control subjects. These results were replicated in control subjects who had low steady-state branched chain amino acid levels when treated with sodium phenylbutyrate. These studies suggested that alternative pathway therapy with sodium phenylbutyrate causes a substantial impact on the metabolism of branched chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders, implying that better titration of protein restriction can be achieved with branched chain amino acid supplementation in these patients who are on alternative pathway therapy.

  19. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry.

  20. Effect of the supplementation of dietary rich phytoestrogens in altering the vitamin D levels in diet induced osteoporotic rat model.

    PubMed

    Chennaiah, S; Vijayalakshmi, V; Suresh, C

    2010-07-01

    Plant-derived estrogen-like compounds such as isoflavones (IF) especially daidzein and genistein are said to be preserving the bone in the osteoporotic conditions. However, it is not known whether a combination of IF and calcium (Ca) supplementation attenuates losses in bone mass and prevents the loss of vitamin D (VD). The present study addresses the role of phytoestrogens (PE) and Ca supplementation in low Ca and low VD diet induced osteoporosis (OSP). Cowpea (CP) which has high amount of the IF was selected to study its effect on diet induced osteoporotic conditions. Female weanling WNIN rats (total of 68) were divided into five groups and fed for five weeks on semisynthetic diet with low Ca (0.15%) and low VD (0.1IU/day/rat) in combination with low (10 mg/kg) or high (25 mg/kg) concentrations of PEs derived from CPIF. The study groups are: (I) normal Ca(0.47%) and normal VD (25IU/day/rat), (II) low Ca+low VD, (III) low Ca+low VD+low CPIF (10 mg/kg diet), (IV) low Ca+low VD+high CPIF (25 mg/kg diet) and (V) low Ca+low VD+17-(-estradiol (3.2 mg/kg diet). After the development of OSP the group II was subgrouped into: (SG I) continued on low Ca+VD, (SG II) low CPIF, (SG III) high CPIF, (SG IV) 17-beta-estradiol and (SG V) normal Ca and VD. Serum 25-VD levels were in the range of 14-38 ng/ml in groups I, III, IV and V, where as the values were very low in the group II (5.8 ng/ml). These were partially reversed upon supplementation of CPIF. The results correlated with altered Ca levels, body weight, bone mineral density and content and other related biochemical parameters. The paper further explains the possibility of protective and therapeutic role of VD in the presence of CPIF in osteoporotic health manifestations. PMID:20362669

  1. Use of folic acid-containing supplements among women of childbearing age--United States, 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-02-27

    Each year in the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies result in spina bifida or anencephaly. Babies born with spina bifida usually survive, often with serious disability, but anencephaly is invariably fatal. The B vitamin folic acid can reduce the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly by at least 50% when taken daily before conception and during early pregnancy. In 1992, the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. This report summarizes findings from a survey conducted during January and February 1997 and indicates that only one third of women of childbearing age consume a supplement containing the recommended amount of folic acid daily.

  2. Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Folic acid (FA) added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicine's recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL) of 1,000 micrograms per day (μg/d) for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA) doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use. Methods During 2005-2008, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related data on dietary supplementation were obtained by interviewing 539 pregnant women enrolled at two obstetrics-care facilities in Durham County, North Carolina. Results Before pregnancy, 51% of women reported FA supplementation and 66% reported this supplementation during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2%-14.6%) of women reported supplementation with FA doses above the TUL of 1,000 μg/day, and a similar proportion reported this intake prenatally. Before pregnancy, Caucasian women were more likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 2.99; 95% = 1.28-7.00), compared to African American women, while women with chronic conditions were less likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.21-0.97). Compared to African American women, Caucasian women were also more likely to report FA intake in doses exceeding the TUL during pregnancy (OR = 5.09; 95%CI = 2.07-12.49). Conclusions Fifty-one percent of women reported some FA intake before and 66% during pregnancy, respectively, and more than one in ten women took FA supplements in doses that exceeded the TUL. Caucasian women were more likely to report high FA intake. A study is ongoing to identify possible genetic and non-genotoxic effects of these high doses. PMID:21255390

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties.

  4. Thermal tolerance and survival of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Gökçe Polat; Pagotto, Franco; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.

  5. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). There was no effect of BCAA supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were unchanged with bed rest but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  6. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2012-10-01

    Piglets with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or with normal birth weight (NBW) were selected to evaluate the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis and mitochondrial function. During gestation, primiparous Yorkshire sows were fed a Control diet (folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or a folic acid-supplemented diet (folic acid 30 mg/kg) with 16 replicates per diet. During the 28-d lactation period, sows were fed a common diet. Compared with NBW piglets, hepatic ATP concentrations and mtDNA contents were decreased in IUGR piglets. Furthermore, IUGR piglets exhibited lower membrane potential and decreased oxygen consumption in liver mitochondria, but these parameters were not affected by maternal folic acid supplementation. Intrauterine growth retardation decreased mRNA expression abundance of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, uncoupling protein 3, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and IV. Impaired antioxidant capacity characterised by increased malondialdehyde content and decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase activity was also observed in IUGR pigs. In IUGR piglets, however, nearly all of these parameters were normalised to the level of NBW piglets when the maternal diet was supplemented with folic acid during pregnancy. Hence, maternal folic acid supplementation was proved to be an effective way to reverse the changes in gene expressions in IUGR pigs, which provided a possible nutritional strategy to improve growth development of IUGR individuals.

  7. Folic acid supplements and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tingting; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Wang, Meilin; Zhu, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk, but conflicting results were reported. We herein performed a meta-analysis based on relevant studies to reach a more definitive conclusion. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before October 2014. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. The results suggested that folic acid treatment was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in the total population (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.22, P = 0.974). Moreover, no statistical effect was identified in further subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounding factors. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation had no effect on colorectal cancer risk. However, this finding must be validated by further large studies.

  8. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation: impact on signaling and relevance to critical illness.

    PubMed

    Mattick, John S A; Kamisoglu, Kubra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Berthiaume, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The changes that occur in mammalian systems following trauma and sepsis, termed systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elicit major changes in carbohydrate, protein, and energy metabolism. When these events persist for too long they result in a severe depletion of lean body mass, multiple organ dysfunction, and eventually death. Nutritional supplementation has been investigated to offset the severe loss of protein, and recent evidence suggests that diets enriched in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may be especially beneficial. BCAAs are metabolized in two major steps that are differentially expressed in muscle and liver. In muscle, BCAAs are reversibly transaminated to the corresponding α-keto acids. For the complete degradation of BCAAs, the α-keto acids must travel to the liver to undergo oxidation. The liver, in contrast to muscle, does not significantly express the branched-chain aminotransferase. Thus, BCAA degradation is under the joint control of both liver and muscle. Recent evidence suggests that in liver, BCAAs may perform signaling functions, more specifically via activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, influencing a wide variety of metabolic and synthetic functions, including protein translation, insulin signaling, and oxidative stress following severe injury and infection. However, understanding of the system-wide effects of BCAAs that integrate both metabolic and signaling aspects is currently lacking. Further investigation in this respect will help rationalize the design and optimization of nutritional supplements containing BCAAs for critically ill patients. PMID:23554299

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation delays the progression of neuroblastoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gleissman, Helena; Segerström, Lova; Hamberg, Mats; Ponthan, Frida; Lindskog, Magnus; Johnsen, John Inge; Kogner, Per

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies have revealed that omega-3 fatty acids have anticancer properties. We have previously shown that the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induces apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells in vitro by mechanisms involving intracellular peroxidation of DHA by means of 15-lipoxygenase or autoxidation. In our study, the effects of DHA supplementation on neuroblastoma tumor growth in vivo were investigated using two complementary approaches. For the purpose of prevention, DHA as a dietary supplement was fed to athymic rats before the rats were xenografted with human neuroblastoma cells. For therapeutic purposes, athymic rats with established neuroblastoma xenografts were given DHA daily by gavage and tumor growth was monitored. DHA levels in plasma and tumor tissue were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. DHA delayed neuroblastoma xenograft development and inhibited the growth of established neuroblastoma xenografts in athymic rats. A revised version of the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program evaluation scheme used as a measurement of treatment response showed that untreated control animals developed progressive disease, whereas treatment with DHA resulted in stable disease or partial response, depending on the DHA concentration. In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with DHA delayed neuroblastoma development, suggesting that DHA could be a potential agent in the treatment of minimal residual disease and should be considered for prevention in selected cases. Treatment results on established aggressive neuroblastoma tumors suggest further studies aiming at a clinical application in children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

  10. Dietary linoleic acid-induced alterations in pro- and anti-nociceptive lipid autacoids

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Amit; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Yang, Jun; Blanchard, Helene; Zamora, Daisy; Loewke, James D; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; Hammock, Bruce D; Taha, Ameer Y

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic idiopathic pain syndromes are major causes of personal suffering, disability, and societal expense. Dietary n-6 linoleic acid has increased markedly in modern industrialized populations over the past century. These high amounts of linoleic acid could hypothetically predispose to physical pain by increasing the production of pro-nociceptive linoleic acid-derived lipid autacoids and by interfering with the production of anti-nociceptive lipid autacoids derived from n-3 fatty acids. Here, we used a rat model to determine the effect of increasing dietary linoleic acid as a controlled variable for 15 weeks on nociceptive lipid autacoids and their precursor n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in tissues associated with idiopathic pain syndromes. Results Increasing dietary linoleic acid markedly increased the abundance of linoleic acid and its pro-nociceptive derivatives and reduced the abundance of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and their anti-nociceptive monoepoxide derivatives. Diet-induced changes occurred in a tissue-specific manner, with marked alterations of nociceptive lipid autacoids in both peripheral and central tissues, and the most pronounced changes in their fatty acid precursors in peripheral tissues. Conclusions The present findings provide biochemical support for the hypothesis that the high linoleic acid content of modern industrialized diets may create a biochemical susceptibility to develop chronic pain. Dietary linoleic acid lowering should be further investigated as part of an integrative strategy for the prevention and management of idiopathic pain syndromes. PMID:27030719

  11. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity. PMID:25846410

  12. Obstructive Heart Defects Associated with Candidate Genes, Maternal Obesity, and Folic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A.; Nick, Todd G.; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L.; Erickson, Stephen W.; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity. PMID:25846410

  13. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity.

  14. Assessment of aquatic resources altered or at risk from acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, O.L.; Miller, R.W.; Armentano, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    This study develops a baseline inventory of aquatic resources (lakes and streams) in the acid-sensitive regions of the eastern United States. The results of the study show 17,000 (+ or - 10-20%) lakes in the 14 acid-sensitive regions. Of these, approximately 9400 (+ or - 20%) are estimated to have alkalinity less than 200 micro-equivalents per liter, a level indicating either sensitivity to acid inputs or existing alteration by these inputs. For streams, a total of 117,000 (+ or - 10%) miles of first- and second-order streams occurs in the 14 regions, of which 60,000 miles (+ or - 20%) can be defined as aquatic resources already altered or seriously at risk. Alkalinity data from unimpacted areas of the Canadian shield that are comparable geologically to the more heavily impacted areas of the US, along with historical time-trend data for alkalinity in the affected areas, have been used to define an acid-altered status for lakes now observed as being in the lowest alkalinity classes. An estimated 3000 lakes and 23,000 miles of stream (+ or - 20%) in the eastern US meet the acid-altered criterion. 30 references, 1 figure, 16 tables.

  15. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population.

  16. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population. PMID:18185493

  17. Trans-11 vaccenic acid dietary supplementation induces hypolipidemic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Lu, Jing; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2008-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid [VA; 18:1(n-9)] is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and is the precursor to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans. Despite VA being the predominant trans monoene in ruminant-derived lipids, very little is known about its nutritional bioactivity, particularly in conditions of chronic metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of VA to improve dyslipidemia, insulin sensitivity, or inflammatory status in obese and insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. The obese rats and age-matched lean littermates were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 1.5% (wt:wt) VA for a period of 3 wk. The incorporation of VA and subsequent conversion to CLA in triglyceride was measured in adipose tissue. Glucose and insulin metabolism were assessed via a conscious adapted meal tolerance test procedure. Plasma lipids as well as serum inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by commercially available assays. VA supplementation did not result in any observable adverse health effects in either lean or obese JCR:LA-cp rats. After 3 wk of feeding, body weight, food intake, and glucose/insulin metabolism did not differ between VA-supplemented and control groups. The incorporation of VA and CLA into adipose triglycerides in obese rats fed VA increased by 1.5-fold and 6.5-fold, respectively, compared with obese rats fed the control diet. The most striking effect was a 40% decrease (P < 0.05) in fasting triglyceride concentrations in VA-treated obese rats relative to obese controls. Serum Il-10 concentration was decreased by VA, regardless of genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term dietary supplementation of 1.5% VA did not result in any detrimental metabolic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats. In contrast, dietary VA had substantial hypo-triglyceridemic effects, suggesting a new bioactivity of this fatty acid that is typically found in ruminant

  18. Microarray analysis reveals higher gestational folic Acid alters expression of genes in the cerebellum of mice offspring-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Chadman, Kathryn K; Brown, W Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube closure. Maternal exposure to a methyl supplemented diet also can alter DNA methylation and gene expression, which may influence the phenotype of offspring. We investigated if higher gestational folic acid (FA) in the diet dysregulates the expression of genes in the cerebellum of offspring in C57BL/6 J mice. One week before gestation and throughout the pregnancy, groups of dams were supplemented with FA either at 2 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of diet. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the genome wide gene expression profile in the cerebellum from day old pups. Our results revealed that exposure to the higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulated expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Several transcription factors, imprinted genes, neuro-developmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder exhibited altered expression levels. These findings suggest that higher gestational FA potentially dysregulates gene expression in the offspring brain and such changes may adversely alter fetal programming and overall brain development. PMID:25629700

  19. Chronic marginal iron intakes during early development in mice alter brain iron concentrations and behavior despite postnatal iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kwik-Uribe, C L; Golub, M S; Keen, C L

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the behavioral and cognitive outcomes associated with chronic marginal iron (Fe) intakes during early development. Offspring (3 males and 3 females/litter) of Swiss-Webster female mice who had been fed a control Fe diet (75 microg Fe/g diet) or marginal Fe diet (14 microg Fe/g diet) for 9 wk before mating were weaned on postnatal (PND) 21. Offspring of marginal Fe dams were fed either the marginal Fe diet (marginal group) or a control diet (replete group) from PND 21 throughout the duration of the study, whereas offspring of control dams consumed the control diet ad libitum (control group). On PND 30, 45 and 60, one male and female per litter underwent grip strength and auditory startle testing. A Morris maze was used to assess cognitive function in males starting at PND 50. Marginal Fe mice consistently demonstrated significantly lower grip strength, which was independent of differences in body weight. In addition, marginal Fe males demonstrated attenuated startle responsiveness, as well as altered performance in the Morris water maze. These differences in performance were found in association with lower brain Fe concentrations. Postnatal Fe supplementation did not reverse all of these disturbances because differences in brain Fe concentrations and maze learning persisted. This study demonstrates that chronic marginal Fe intakes during early development can result in persistent biochemical and behavioral changes in mice.

  20. Enhanced undecylprodigiosin production from Serratia marcescens SS-1 by medium formulation and amino-acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Yu, Wan-Ju; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2005-10-01

    Serratia marcescens Simon Swift-1 (SS-1) was used to produce a prodigiosin-like pigment, undecylprodigiosin (UP), known to have antitumor activities and potential as an anticancer drug. Modified media containing components of Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and selected amino acids were used to improve UP production from S. marcescens SS-1. Optimal culture conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, agitation rate) for UP production were also identified. It was found that S. marcescens SS-1 was able to produce 690 mg l-1 of UP when it was grown with 5 g l-1 yeast extract alone (YE medium) under the optimal culture conditions of 30 degrees C, 200 rpm, and pH 8. The UP production of 690 mg l-1 is nearly 23-fold of that obtained from original LB medium. Addition of amino acids containing pyrrole-like structures further enhanced UP production. Nearly 2 and 1.4 g l-1 of UP was produced when the SS-1 strain was cultivated with YE medium supplemented with proline and histidine (5 g l-1), respectively. Moreover, the addition of aspartic acid (5 g l-1) also resulted in a high UP production of 1.4 g l-1. Optimal dosages of the three amino acids were subsequently determined and the highest UP production (2.5 g l-1) was achieved with the addition of 10 g l-1 of proline. This suggests that the supplementation of amino acids related to the formation of a UP precursor (e.g., pyrrolylpyrromethene) could enhance UP production by the SS-1 strain.

  1. Evidence for altered thiamine metabolism in diabetes: Is there a potential to oppose gluco- and lipotoxicity by rational supplementation?

    PubMed Central

    Pácal, Lukáš; Kuricová, Katarína; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Growing prevalence of diabetes (type 2 as well as type 1) and its related morbidity due to vascular complications creates a large burden on medical care worldwide. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of chronic micro-, macro- and avascular complications mediated by hyperglycemia is of crucial importance since novel therapeutic targets can be identified and tested. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and published data suggest that thiamine metabolism in diabetes is deficient. This review aims to point out the physiological role of thiamine in metabolism of glucose and amino acids, to present overview of thiamine metabolism and to describe the consequences of thiamine deficiency (either clinically manifest or latent). Furthermore, we want to explain why thiamine demands are increased in diabetes and to summarise data indicating thiamine mishandling in diabetics (by review of the studies mapping the prevalence and the degree of thiamine deficiency in diabetics). Finally, we would like to summarise the evidence for the beneficial effect of thiamine supplementation in progression of hyperglycemia-related pathology and, therefore, to justify its importance in determining the harmful impact of hyperglycemia in diabetes. Based on the data presented it could be concluded that although experimental studies mostly resulted in beneficial effects, clinical studies of appropriate size and duration focusing on the effect of thiamine supplementation/therapy on hard endpoints are missing at present. Moreover, it is not currently clear which mechanisms contribute to the deficient action of thiamine in diabetes most. Experimental studies on the molecular mechanisms of thiamine deficiency in diabetes are critically needed before clear answer to diabetes community could be given. PMID:24936250

  2. Evidence for altered thiamine metabolism in diabetes: Is there a potential to oppose gluco- and lipotoxicity by rational supplementation?

    PubMed

    Pácal, Lukáš; Kuricová, Katarína; Kaňková, Kateřina

    2014-06-15

    Growing prevalence of diabetes (type 2 as well as type 1) and its related morbidity due to vascular complications creates a large burden on medical care worldwide. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of chronic micro-, macro- and avascular complications mediated by hyperglycemia is of crucial importance since novel therapeutic targets can be identified and tested. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and published data suggest that thiamine metabolism in diabetes is deficient. This review aims to point out the physiological role of thiamine in metabolism of glucose and amino acids, to present overview of thiamine metabolism and to describe the consequences of thiamine deficiency (either clinically manifest or latent). Furthermore, we want to explain why thiamine demands are increased in diabetes and to summarise data indicating thiamine mishandling in diabetics (by review of the studies mapping the prevalence and the degree of thiamine deficiency in diabetics). Finally, we would like to summarise the evidence for the beneficial effect of thiamine supplementation in progression of hyperglycemia-related pathology and, therefore, to justify its importance in determining the harmful impact of hyperglycemia in diabetes. Based on the data presented it could be concluded that although experimental studies mostly resulted in beneficial effects, clinical studies of appropriate size and duration focusing on the effect of thiamine supplementation/therapy on hard endpoints are missing at present. Moreover, it is not currently clear which mechanisms contribute to the deficient action of thiamine in diabetes most. Experimental studies on the molecular mechanisms of thiamine deficiency in diabetes are critically needed before clear answer to diabetes community could be given.

  3. Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; Dalton, N; Start, K; El-Bishti, M M; Chantler, C

    1980-07-01

    The effects on growth, nitrogen balance, and body composition of a protein-restricted diet supplemented with oral essential amino acids (EAA) were studied in seven children with advanced chronic renal failure. The diet was designed to provide minimum protein requirements for height-age, half in unselected form and half as an EAA supplement. Energy from carbohydrate and fat were increased to give a protein/energy ratio of 1.25 G:100 kcal. Nitrogen balance, studied in five children before and after 6 to 8 months of EAA treatment, was improved in each case. intracellular water (total body water minus bromide space) increased in four children but fell in three children during treatment. No significant improvement in growth, expressed as height or height velocity standard deviation scores in relation to bone age, was observed. Serum urea and urea/creatinine ratio fell after institution of EAA treatment, but the fall was not sustained. Although the EAA preparation proved acceptable to the children, dietary assessments indicated that the desired dietary aims were rarely achieved. It is concluded that, in this pediatric age group, the long-term application of a protein restricted diet with EAA supplements is of limited value. PMID:7395791

  4. Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; Dalton, N; Start, K; El-Bishti, M M; Chantler, C

    1980-07-01

    The effects on growth, nitrogen balance, and body composition of a protein-restricted diet supplemented with oral essential amino acids (EAA) were studied in seven children with advanced chronic renal failure. The diet was designed to provide minimum protein requirements for height-age, half in unselected form and half as an EAA supplement. Energy from carbohydrate and fat were increased to give a protein/energy ratio of 1.25 G:100 kcal. Nitrogen balance, studied in five children before and after 6 to 8 months of EAA treatment, was improved in each case. intracellular water (total body water minus bromide space) increased in four children but fell in three children during treatment. No significant improvement in growth, expressed as height or height velocity standard deviation scores in relation to bone age, was observed. Serum urea and urea/creatinine ratio fell after institution of EAA treatment, but the fall was not sustained. Although the EAA preparation proved acceptable to the children, dietary assessments indicated that the desired dietary aims were rarely achieved. It is concluded that, in this pediatric age group, the long-term application of a protein restricted diet with EAA supplements is of limited value.

  5. The clinical benefits of long-term supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in cystic fibrosis patients - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanssens, L; Thiébaut, I; Lefèvre, N; Malfroot, A; Knoop, C; Duchateau, J; Casimir, G

    2016-05-01

    Effectiveness of omega-3 supplementation in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains controversial. This study sought to evaluate clinical status, exercise tolerance, inflammatory parameters, and erythrocyte fatty acid profile after 1 year of oral omega-3 supplementation in CF patients. Fifteen ΔF508-homozygous patients undergoing chronic azithromycin were randomized to receive omega-3 fish oil supplementation at a dose of 60mg/Kg/day or placebo. In comparison with the previous year, in the supplemented group, the number of pulmonary exacerbations decreased at 12 months (1.7 vs. 3.0, p<0.01), as did the duration of antibiotic therapy (26.5 days vs. 60.0 days, p<0.025). Supplementation significantly increased the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as early as <3 months of administration, with concomitant decreases in arachidonic acid (AA) levels. This pilot study suggests that long-term omega-3 supplementation offers several clinical benefits as to the number of exacerbations and duration of antibiotic therapy in CF patients.

  6. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  7. Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet suppresses the complete pathway of cholesterol synthesis and induces bile acid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Kortner, Trond M; Björkhem, Ingemar; Krasnov, Aleksei; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-06-28

    Plants now supply more than 50 % of protein in Norwegian salmon aquafeeds. The inclusion of plant protein in aquafeeds may be associated with decreased lipid digestibility and cholesterol and bile salt levels, indicating that the replacement of fishmeal with plant protein could result in inadequate supplies of cholesterol in fish. A reduction in feed efficiency, fish growth and pathogen resistance is often observed in parallel to alterations in sterol metabolism. Previous studies have indicated that the negative effects induced by plant components can be attenuated when diets are supplemented with cholesterol. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation (1·5 %) in Atlantic salmon fed a plant-based diet for 77 d. The weights of body, intestines and liver were recorded and blood, tissues, faeces, chyme and bile were sampled for the evaluation of effects on growth, nutrient utilisation and metabolism, and transcriptome and metabolite levels, with particular emphasis on sterol metabolism and organ structure and function. Cholesterol supplementation did not affect the growth or organ weights of Atlantic salmon, but seemed to promote the induction of cholesterol and plant sterol efflux in the intestine while suppressing sterol uptake. Cholesterol biosynthesis decreased correspondingly and conversion into bile acids increased. The marked effect of cholesterol supplementation on bile acid synthesis suggests that dietary cholesterol can be used to increase bile acid synthesis in fish. The present study clearly demonstrated how Atlantic salmon adjusted their metabolic functions in response to the dietary load of cholesterol. It has also expanded our understanding of sterol metabolism and turnover, adding to the existing, rather sparse, knowledge of these processes in fish.

  8. Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet suppresses the complete pathway of cholesterol synthesis and induces bile acid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Kortner, Trond M; Björkhem, Ingemar; Krasnov, Aleksei; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-06-28

    Plants now supply more than 50 % of protein in Norwegian salmon aquafeeds. The inclusion of plant protein in aquafeeds may be associated with decreased lipid digestibility and cholesterol and bile salt levels, indicating that the replacement of fishmeal with plant protein could result in inadequate supplies of cholesterol in fish. A reduction in feed efficiency, fish growth and pathogen resistance is often observed in parallel to alterations in sterol metabolism. Previous studies have indicated that the negative effects induced by plant components can be attenuated when diets are supplemented with cholesterol. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation (1·5 %) in Atlantic salmon fed a plant-based diet for 77 d. The weights of body, intestines and liver were recorded and blood, tissues, faeces, chyme and bile were sampled for the evaluation of effects on growth, nutrient utilisation and metabolism, and transcriptome and metabolite levels, with particular emphasis on sterol metabolism and organ structure and function. Cholesterol supplementation did not affect the growth or organ weights of Atlantic salmon, but seemed to promote the induction of cholesterol and plant sterol efflux in the intestine while suppressing sterol uptake. Cholesterol biosynthesis decreased correspondingly and conversion into bile acids increased. The marked effect of cholesterol supplementation on bile acid synthesis suggests that dietary cholesterol can be used to increase bile acid synthesis in fish. The present study clearly demonstrated how Atlantic salmon adjusted their metabolic functions in response to the dietary load of cholesterol. It has also expanded our understanding of sterol metabolism and turnover, adding to the existing, rather sparse, knowledge of these processes in fish. PMID:24635969

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation decreases very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol secretion in obese men.

    PubMed

    Wong, Annette T Y; Chan, Dick C; Ooi, Esther M M; Ng, Theodore W K; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2013-07-01

    Dysregulated VLDL-TAG (very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol) metabolism in obesity may account for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and increased cardiovascular disease. ω-3 FAEEs (omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters) decrease plasma TAG and VLDL concentrations, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we carried out a 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled study to examine the effect of high-dose ω-3 FAEE supplementation (3.2 g/day) on the metabolism of VLDL-TAG in obese men using intravenous administration of d5-glycerol. We also explored the relationship of VLDL-TAG kinetics with the metabolism of VLDL-apo (apolipoprotein) B-100 and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-apoA-I. VLDL-TAG isotopic enrichment was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Compared with placebo, ω-3 FAEE supplementation significantly lowered plasma concentrations of total (-14%, P<0.05) and VLDL-TAG (-32%, P<0.05), as well as hepatic secretion of VLDL-TAG (-32%, P<0.03). The FCR (fractional catabolic rate) of VLDL-TAG was not altered by ω-3 FAEEs. There was a significant association between the change in secretion rates of VLDL-TAG and VLDL-apoB-100 (r=0.706, P<0.05). However, the change in VLDL-TAG secretion rate was not associated with change in HDL-apoA-I FCR (r=0.139, P>0.05). Our results suggest that the TAG-lowering effect of ω-3 FAEEs is associated with the decreased VLDL-TAG secretion rate and hence lower plasma VLDL-TAG concentration in obesity. The changes in VLDL-TAG and apoB-100 kinetics are closely coupled. PMID:23356247

  10. Long-term post-pneumonectomy pulmonary adaptation following all-trans-retinoic acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Priya; Dane, D. Merrill; McDonough, Paul; Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Estrera, Aaron S.

    2011-01-01

    In adult dogs following right pneumonectomy (PNX) and receiving all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) supplementation for 4 mo, we found modestly enhanced alveolar-capillary growth in the remaining lung without enhanced resting lung function (J Appl Physiol 96: 1080–1089 and 96: 1090–1096, 2004). Since alveolar remodeling progresses beyond this period and the lipid-soluble RA continues to be released from tissue stores, we hypothesized that RA supplementation may exert additional long-term effects. To examine this issue, adult male litter-matched foxhounds underwent right PNX followed by RA supplementation (2 mg/kg po 4 days/wk, n = 6) or placebo (n = 4) for 4 mo. Cardiopulmonary function was measured at rest and during exercise at 4 and 20 mo post-PNX. The remaining lung was fixed under a constant airway pressure for morphometric analysis. Comparing RA treatment to placebo controls, there were no differences in aerobic capacity, cardiopulmonary function, or lung volume at rest or exercise. Alveolar-capillary basal lamina thickness and mean harmonic thickness of air-blood diffusion barrier were 23–29% higher. The prevalence of double-capillary profiles remained 82% higher. Absolute volumes of septal interstitium, collagen fibers, cells, and matrix were 32% higher; the relative volumes of other septal components and alveolar-capillary surface areas expressed as ratios to control values were up to 24% higher. Thus RA supplementation following right PNX modestly and persistently enhanced long-term alveolar-capillary structural dimensions, especially the deposition of interstitial and connective tissue elements, in such a way that caused a net increase in barrier resistance to diffusion without improving lung mechanics or gas exchange. PMID:21109601

  11. Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids increases protein synthesis in children with severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Badaloo, Asha; Wilson, Lorraine; Taylor-Bryan, Carolyn; Chambers, Bentley; Reid, Marvin; Forrester, Terrence; Jahoor, Farook

    2014-05-01

    Although 2 earlier studies reported that aromatic amino acid (AAA) supplementation of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) improved whole-body protein anabolism during the early postadmission (maintenance) phase of rehabilitation, it is not known whether this positive effect was maintained during the catch-up growth and recovery phases of treatment. This study aimed to determine whether supplementation with an AAA cocktail (330 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) vs. isonitrogenous Ala would improve measures of protein kinetics in 22 children, aged 4-31 mo, during the catch-up growth and recovery phases of treatment for SAM. Protein kinetics were assessed by measuring leucine, phenylalanine, and urea kinetics with the use of standard stable isotope tracer methods in the fed state. Supplementation started at the end of the maintenance period when the children were clinically/metabolically stable and continued up to full nutritional recovery. Three experiments were performed: at the end of maintenance (at ∼13 d postadmission), at mid-catch-up growth (at ∼23 d post- admission when the children had replenished 50% of their weight deficit), and at recovery (at ∼48 d postadmission when they had achieved at least 90% weight for length). Children in the AAA group had significantly faster protein synthesis compared with those in the Ala group at mid-catch-up growth (101 ± 10 vs. 72 ± 7 μmol phenylalanine · kg(-1) · h(-1); P < 0.05) and better protein balance at mid-catch-up growth (49 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 2 μmol phenylalanine · kg(-1) · h(-1); P < 0.05) and at recovery (37 ± 8 vs. 11 ± 3 μmol phenylalanine · kg(-1) · h(-1); P < 0.05). We conclude that dietary supplementation with AAA accelerates net protein synthesis in children during nutritional rehabilitation for SAM.

  12. Dietary supplementation with tributyrin alleviates intestinal injury in piglets challenged with intrarectal administration of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Chen, Xing; Wang, Qingjing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Yin, Yulong; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-05-28

    Tributyrin (TBU) is a good dietary source of butyrate and has beneficial effects on the maintenance of normal intestinal morphology. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary TBU supplementation could alleviate intestinal injury in the acetic acid (ACA)-induced porcine model of colitis. A total of eighteen piglets (25 d old) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups (control, ACA and TBU). The control and ACA groups were fed a basal diet and the TBU group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0·1 % TBU. On day 15 of the trial, under anaesthesia, a soft catheter was inserted into the rectum of piglets (20-25 cm from the anus), followed by administration of either saline (control group) or ACA (10 ml of 10 % ACA solution for ACA and TBU groups). On day 22 of the trial, after venous blood samples were collected, piglets were killed to obtain mid-ileum and mid-colon mucosae. Compared with the control group, the ACA group exhibited an increase (P< 0·05) in lymphocyte counts, creatinine, PGE2, and malondialdehyde concentrations and diamine oxidase and inducible NO synthase activities in the plasma and lymphocyte density in the colon and a decrease in insulin concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity, ileal villus height:crypt depth ratios and goblet cell numbers in the colon. These adverse effects of ACA were attenuated by TBU supplementation. Moreover, TBU prevented the ACA-induced increase in caspase-3 levels while enhancing claudin-1 protein and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0·1 % TBU alleviates ACA-induced intestinal injury possibly by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting tight-junction formation and activating EGFR signalling. PMID:24506942

  13. Clay minerals on Mars: Riotinto mining district (Huelva, Spain) as Earth analogue for acidic alteration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, C.; Cuadros, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Nieto, J. M.; Michalski, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Combined satellite and in-situ measurements of Mars surface have detected mineral assemblages indicating processes for which Earth analogues exist. Among them, aluminous clay-sulfate assemblages have been observed, which suggest alteration by acidic fluids. The Riotinto mining district (SW Spain) provides an Earth analogue site for such Martian processes. The parent rocks belong to an Upper Palaeozoic (Late Famennian-Tournaisian) volcano-sedimentary complex including siliciclastic sediments and mafic and felsic volcanics, all of which underwent hydrothermal alteration. The oxidation of an extensive pyrite-rich orebody provided mild to extreme acidic fluxes that leached the surrounding rocks for over 20 million years. The mineral assemblages are strongly dependent on their acidic alteration intensity. The observed mineralogical parageneses and leaching conditions for our sites at Riotinto are consistent with three alteration sequences: i) Mild: containing a range of clay minerals from vermiculite to kaolinite, with a wide variety of crystal order and mixed-layering; ii) Intermediate: containing smectite to kaolinite with jarosite-group phases; iii) Advanced: containing kaolinite, jarosite-group phases, and iron oxides. Our findings suggest that, even within this general scheme, the specific alteration pathways can be different.

  14. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  15. Effects of erucic acid supplemented feeding on chronic doxorubucin toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bozcali, Evin; Süzer, Öner; Gürsoy, Hatice Nilüfer; Atukeren, Pinar; Gümüstas, Koray M

    2009-01-01

    One of the undesired complications of the chemotherapy with doxorubicin is cardiotoxicity. Cardiac effect of erucic acid, which is a member of omega-9 fatty acid, is investigated on doxorubicin treatment in this study. Forty-eight rats were divided into eight groups and each group contained six rats. First group rats were fed with milk. In the third and fifth groups we fed rats with milk supplemented 0.5% and 5% erucic acid respectively. The groups 2, 4, 6 were fed as the groups 1, 3, 5 respectively; we injected 2 mg/kg twice weekly intraperitoneal doxorubicin to these groups whereas we injected isovolumous normal saline to the groups 1, 3, 5. Two other groups (groups 7 and 8) were fed with standard pellet. Group 8 received 2 mg/kg doxorubicin twice weekly; group 7 received normal saline. After 4 weeks hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus perfused by modified Tyrode solution. Surviving rats were significantly less in erucic acid + doxorubicin groups at the end of the treatment period (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between groups for malondialdehyde, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and isolated heart measurements. Concomitant application of erucic acid and doxorubicin showed profound toxicity. PMID:20057977

  16. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-09-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.

  17. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.

  18. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  19. The influence of folic acid supplementation on maternal and fetal bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Maghbooli, Zhila; Najmafshar, Azam; Larijani, Bagher

    2011-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and fetal bone turnover markers and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. In an observational study performed in Tehran University of Medical Sciences related hospitals, 113 healthy pregnant women with gestational age between 8 and 12 weeks and aged between 15 and 42 years were recruited and followed until delivery time. The participants were divided into two groups; women who took 1 mg of folic acid daily supplement from the beginning of the pregnancy until the end of the second trimester entered into group I and women who choose to continue their daily intake of folic acid until the delivery time entered into group II. The two groups were matched based on the maternal anthropometric data, energy, calcium and vitamin D intake. Following the delivery, venous blood samples were collected from mothers and umbilical cords of the neonates. Maternal and fetal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, PTH, osteocalcin (OC), crosslaps and maternal serum level of homocysteine, folate, soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (sRANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), calcium, and phosphate were measured. Measured birth outcome parameters included weight, length, head circumference, appearance, and respiration. With regard to maternal assessment, the serum levels of OC and OPG and folate were significantly higher in group II compared to group I, while the serum levels of RANKL and homocysteine were significantly higher in group I. We did not find significant differences in serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D, PTH, crosslaps, calcium, or phosphate between the two groups. The neonates from mothers recruited in group II had higher (but not significantly) serum level of OC. We observed that the neonates born from mothers in group II had overall better birth outcome parameters and apgar scores compare to the neonates born from mothers in group I. Our results show that daily supplementation of folic

  20. Metabolism and related human risk factors for hepatic damage by usnic acid containing nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Foti, R S; Dickmann, L J; Davis, J A; Greene, R J; Hill, J J; Howard, M L; Pearson, J T; Rock, D A; Tay, J C; Wahlstrom, J L; Slatter, J G

    2008-03-01

    Usnic acid is a component of nutritional supplements promoted for weight loss that have been associated with liver-related adverse events including mild hepatic toxicity, chemical hepatitis, and liver failure requiring transplant. To determine if metabolism factors might have had a role in defining individual susceptibility to hepatotoxicity, in vitro metabolism studies were undertaken using human plasma, hepatocytes, and liver subcellular fractions. Usnic acid was metabolized to form three monohydroxylated metabolites and two regio-isomeric glucuronide conjugates of the parent drug. Oxidative metabolism was mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and glucuronidation was carried out by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and UGT1A3. In human hepatocytes, usnic acid at 20 microM was not an inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A4 relative to positive controls omeprazole, phenobarbital, and rifampicin, respectively. Usnic acid was a relatively weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a potent inhibitor of CYP2C19 (the concentration eliciting 50% inhibition (IC(50)) = 9 nM) and CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 94 nM), with less potent inhibition of CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 1.9 microM) and CYP2C18 (IC(50) = 6.3 microM). Pre-incubation of microsomes with usnic acid did not afford any evidence of time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C19, although evidence of slight time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 (K(I) = 2.79 microM and K(inact) = 0.022 min(-1)) was obtained. In vitro data were used with SimCYP(R)to model potential drug interactions. Based on usnic acid doses in case reports of 450 mg to >1 g day(-1), these in vitro data indicate that usnic acid has significant potential to interact with other medications. Individual characteristics such as CYP1A induction status, co-administration of CYP1A2 inhibitors, UGT1A1 polymorphisms, and related hyperbilirubinaemias, or co-administration of low therapeutic index CYP2C substrates could work alone or in consort with other idiosyncrasy risk factors to

  1. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p < 0.05). The daily output of these vitamins via milk was also greater in cows of the CLA group than in cows of the control group (+36, 50 and 24% for retinol, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p < 0.05). In agreement with higher concentrations of tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration.

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Demin; Li, Hongji; Zhou, Bo; Han, Liqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Guoqing

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  3. Antioxidant supplementation can reduce the survival costs of excess amino acid intake in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Archer, C Ruth; Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Oosthuizen, Vinette; Apostolides, Zeno; Nicolson, Susan W

    2014-12-01

    Over-consuming amino acids is associated with reduced survival in many species, including honeybees. The mechanisms responsible for this are unclear but one possibility is that excessive intake of amino acids increases oxidative damage. If this is the case, antioxidant supplementation may help reduce the survival costs of high amino acid intake. We tested this hypothesis in African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) using the major antioxidant in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We first determined the dose-range of EGCG that improved survival of caged honeybees fed sucrose solution. We then provided bees with eight diets that differed in their ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to carbohydrate (C) (0:1, 1:250, 1:100, 1:75, 1:50, 1:25, 1:10, 1:5 EAA:C) and also in their EGCG dose (0.0 or 0.4 mM). We found that bees fed sucrose only solution survived better than bees fed EAA diets. Despite this, bees preferred a diet that contained intermediate ratios of EAA:C (ca. 1:25), which may represent the high demands for nitrogen of developing nurse bees. EGCG supplementation improved honeybee survival but only at an intermediate dose (0.3-0.5 mM) and in bees fed low EAA diets (1:250, 1:100 EAA:C). That EGCG counteracted the lifespan reducing effects of eating low EAA diets suggests that oxidative damage may be involved in the association between EAAs and lifespan in honeybees. However, that EGCG had no effect on survival in bees fed high EAA diets suggests that there are other physiological costs of over-consuming EAAs in honeybees.

  4. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Asmita; Dangat, Kamini; Kale, Anvita; Sable, Pratiksha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2011-01-01

    Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12) are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12) deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12) deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12) lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05) and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05). When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta. PMID:21423696

  5. A mixed diet supplemented with L-arabinose does not alter glycaemic or insulinaemic responses in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Halschou-Jensen, Kia; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Nielsen, Søren; Bukhave, Klaus; Andersen, Jens R

    2015-01-14

    In addition to a yet-to-be published study showing arabinose to have an inhibiting effect on maltase, in vitro studies have shown L-arabinose to exert an inhibiting effect on small-intestinal sucrase and maltase and the consumption of a sucrose-rich drink containing L-arabinose to exert positive effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses in humans. However, the effects of adding L-arabinose to mixed meals on the indices of glucose control are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the positive effects of L-arabinose added to a sugar drink could be reproduced in subjects consuming a mixed meal containing sucrose and/or starch from wheat flour. A total of seventeen healthy men participated in study 1, a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. In this study, the subjects consumed two different breakfast meals containing sucrose and starch from wheat flour (meal A) or starch from wheat flour (meal B) supplemented with 0, 5 and 10 % L-arabinose by weight after a 12 h fast. A total of six healthy men participated in study 2, a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. In this study, the subjects also consumed meal B served in two different textures and a liquid meal with maltose supplemented with 0 and 20% L-arabinose. In addition, 1·5 g of paracetamol was chosen as an indirect marker to assess gastric emptying. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured regularly for 3 h. The results of the present study showed that the peak plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration or AUC values of glucose, insulin and C-peptide were not altered after consumption of the test meals. Overall, it was not possible to reproduce the beneficial effects of L-arabinose added to sucrose drinks when L-arabinose was mixed in a solid or semi-solid mixed meal. PMID:25400106

  6. A mixed diet supplemented with L-arabinose does not alter glycaemic or insulinaemic responses in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Halschou-Jensen, Kia; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Nielsen, Søren; Bukhave, Klaus; Andersen, Jens R

    2015-01-14

    In addition to a yet-to-be published study showing arabinose to have an inhibiting effect on maltase, in vitro studies have shown L-arabinose to exert an inhibiting effect on small-intestinal sucrase and maltase and the consumption of a sucrose-rich drink containing L-arabinose to exert positive effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses in humans. However, the effects of adding L-arabinose to mixed meals on the indices of glucose control are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the positive effects of L-arabinose added to a sugar drink could be reproduced in subjects consuming a mixed meal containing sucrose and/or starch from wheat flour. A total of seventeen healthy men participated in study 1, a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. In this study, the subjects consumed two different breakfast meals containing sucrose and starch from wheat flour (meal A) or starch from wheat flour (meal B) supplemented with 0, 5 and 10 % L-arabinose by weight after a 12 h fast. A total of six healthy men participated in study 2, a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. In this study, the subjects also consumed meal B served in two different textures and a liquid meal with maltose supplemented with 0 and 20% L-arabinose. In addition, 1·5 g of paracetamol was chosen as an indirect marker to assess gastric emptying. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured regularly for 3 h. The results of the present study showed that the peak plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration or AUC values of glucose, insulin and C-peptide were not altered after consumption of the test meals. Overall, it was not possible to reproduce the beneficial effects of L-arabinose added to sucrose drinks when L-arabinose was mixed in a solid or semi-solid mixed meal.

  7. Retinol kinetics in unsupplemented and vitamin A-retinoic acid supplemented neonatal rats: a preliminary model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Libo; Wray, Amanda E.; Green, Michael H.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) metabolism in neonates is virtually uncharacterized. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model of VA metabolism in unsupplemented and VA-supplemented neonatal rats. On postnatal day 4, pups (n = 3/time) received 11,12-[3H]retinol orally, in either oil (control) or VA combined with retinoic acid (VARA) [VA (∼6 mg/kg body weight) + 10% retinoic acid]. Plasma and tissues were collected at 14 time points up to 14 days after dose administration. VARA supplementation rapidly, but transiently, increased total retinol mass in plasma, liver, and lung. It decreased the peak fraction of the dose in plasma. A multi-compartmental model developed to fit plasma [3H]retinol data predicted more extensive recycling of retinol between plasma and tissues in neonates compared with that reported in adults (144 vs. 12–13 times). In VARA pups, the recycling number for retinol between plasma and tissues (100 times) and the time that retinol spent in plasma were both lower compared with controls; VARA also stimulated the uptake of plasma VA into extravascular tissues. A VARA perturbation model indicated that the effect of VARA in stimulating VA uptake into tissues in neonates is both dramatic and transient. PMID:24711633

  8. Three Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Means-End Problem Solving in 9-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drover, James; Hoffman, Dennis R.; Castaneda, Yolanda S.; Morale, Sarah E.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether feeding infants formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) improves cognitive function of 9-month-olds. Participants included 229 infants from 3 randomized controlled trials. Children received either formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, or a control formula…

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season. PMID:27600962

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season.

  11. Long-term omega-3 fatty acid supplementation prevents expression changes in cochlear homocysteine metabolism and ameliorates progressive hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Partearroyo, Teresa; Vallecillo, Néstor; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Pajares, María A; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients well known for their beneficial effects, among others on cognitive development and maintenance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Previous studies have shown an inverse association between high plasma levels of PUFAs and age-related hearing loss, and the relationship between low serum folate and elevated plasma homocysteine levels and hearing loss. Therefore, we used C57BL/6J mice and long-term omega-3 supplementation to evaluate the impact on hearing by analyzing their auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) thresholds. The omega-3 group showed significantly lower ABR hearing thresholds (~25 dB sound pressure level) and higher DPOAE amplitudes in mid-high frequencies when compared to the control group. These changes did not correlate with alterations between groups in plasma homocysteine or serum folate levels as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and a microbiological method, respectively. Aging in the control group was associated with imbalanced cytokine expression toward increased proinflammatory cytokines as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; these changes were prevented by omega-3 supplementation. Genes involved in homocysteine metabolism showed decreased expression during aging of control animals, and only alterations in Bhmt and Cbs were significantly prevented by omega-3 feeding. Western blotting showed that omega-3 supplementation precluded the CBS protein increase detected in 10-month-old controls but also produced an increase in BHMT protein levels. Altogether, the results obtained suggest a long-term protective role of omega-3 supplementation on cochlear metabolism and progression of hearing loss.

  12. Maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy to a micronutrient-imbalanced diet protects postnatal reduction of brain neurotrophins in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sable, P S; Dangat, K D; Joshi, A A; Joshi, S R

    2012-08-16

    An altered one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acid metabolism during pregnancy can increase the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Our earlier studies have shown that a maternal diet imbalanced with micronutrients like folic acid, vitamin B(12) reduces levels of brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and neurotrophins in the offspring at birth. The present study examines whether these effects can be reversed by a postnatal diet. Pregnant female rats were divided into six treatment groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation was given to the vitamin B(12)-deficient groups. Following delivery, eight dams from each group were randomly shifted back to control and remaining eight continued on the same treatment diet. Plasma homocysteine levels could be normalized by a postnatal control diet. Brain DHA levels were similar in all the groups irrespective of the diet consumed during lactation. Brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were lower in both the vitamin B(12)-deficient groups even after consuming a diet with normal levels of vitamin B(12) during lactation (p<0.05 for all) indicating that the effects of maternal programing with respect to neurotrophins cannot be reversed by a postnatal diet. Our findings for the first time suggest that omega 3 fatty acid supplementation to a micronutrient-imbalanced diet, during pregnancy and lactation protects the levels of BDNF and NGF. This may have significant implications in the development of psychiatric disorders/cognitive deficits in later life. PMID:22579981

  13. Mineral Alteration in Acid-sulfate Fumaroles on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    Recent observations made at Mars by orbiting spacecraft and landers have documented the widespread occurrence of sulfate-rich rocks across the planet. Although the settings and origins of these rocks are likely to be variable, at least some appear to have originated from hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks. In order to place constraints on the chemical and mineralogical processes that might give rise to sulfate-rich rocks in hydrothermal settings on Mars, we are studying of acid-sulfate alteration of basalt in fumarolic environments using a combination of field work, experiments, and numerical modeling. Examination of acid-sulfate altered basaltic cinders from active fumaroles at Cerro Negro volcano in Nicaragua indicates that the initial stage of alteration results predominantly in the formation of amorphous silica, gypsum, and natroalunite/natrojarosite, with minor amounts of iron oxides/oxyhydroxides. Laboratory experimental alteration of basalt cinders by sulfuric acid at 145 °C generated a similar suite of minerals, with amorphous Si-rich gel, anhydrite, and Fe-bearing natroalunite as the primary products, along with minor amounts of Fe oxides/oxyhydroxides and magnesium sulfates. Crystalline silicates, including clay minerals, are not observed in either the field samples or experimental products. During the initial stage of alteration in both field and laboratory samples, igneous phenocrysts decompose rapidly while the glass remains intact. Over time, cations inlcuding Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, and Na are progressively leached from the glass in the field samples, while the glass largely maintains its original morphology despite being composed predominantly of SiO2. Evaluation of the laboratory and field results with numerical geochemical models indicates that formation of the observed alteration products requires that (a) igneous silicate phenocrysts (plagioclase, augite, olivine) react much faster than basaltic glass and (b) there are kinetic inhibitions to the

  14. RNAi knockdown of fatty acid elongase1 alters fatty acid composition in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianghua; Lang, Chunxiu; Wu, Xuelong; Liu, Renhu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Dongqing; Chen, Jinqing; Wu, Guanting

    2015-10-23

    The quality and end-use of oil from oilseed crops is determined by its fatty acid composition. In particular, the relative proportions of erucic and oleic acids are key selection traits for breeders. The goal of our research is to genetically improve the nutritional quality of Brassica napus cultivar CY2, the oil of which is high in erucic acid (about 40%) and low in oleic acid (about 20%). Here, we report the use of a seed-specific napin A promoter to drive the knockdown of BnFAE1 in transgenic CY2. Southern blotting results confirmed the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of BnFAE1 were greatly decreased in BnFAE1-Ri lines compared with the CY2 cultivar. Knockdown of BnFAE1 sharply decreased the levels of erucic acid (less than 3%), largely increased the contents of oleic acid (more than 60%) and slightly increased the polyunsaturated chain fatty acids. Compared with high erucic acid parents, expression of BnFAE1 was dramatically decreased in developing F1 seeds derived from reciprocally crossed BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars. In addition, F1 seeds derived from reciprocal crosses between BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars showed significantly increased oleic acid (more than 52%) and sharply decreased erucic acid (less than 4%), demonstrating that the RNAi construct of BnFAE1 can effectively interfere with the target gene in F1 seeds. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BnFAE1 is a reliable target for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil quality promotion.

  15. Caffeic acid treatment alters the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets and lymphocytes of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Javed; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Gutierres, Jessié; Thomé, Gustavo; Cardoso, Andreia; Zanini, Daniela; Martins, Caroline; Palma, Heloisa Einloft; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Schmatz, Roberta; Leal, Cláudio Alberto Martins; da Costa, Pauline; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of caffeic acid on ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase), Ecto-NPP (nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in platelets and lymphocytes of rats, as well as in the profile of platelet aggregation. Animals were divided into five groups: I (control); II (oil); III (caffeic acid 10 mg/kg); IV (caffeic acid 50 mg/kg); and V (caffeic acid 100 mg/kg). Animals were treated with caffeic acid diluted in oil for 30 days. In platelets, caffeic acid decreased the ATP hydrolysis and increased ADP hydrolysis in groups III, IV and V when compared to control (P<0.05). The 5'-nucleotidase activity was decreased, while E-NPP and ADA activities were increased in platelets of rats of groups III, IV and V (P<0.05). Caffeic acid reduced significantly the platelet aggregation in the animals of groups III, IV and V in relation to group I (P<0.05). In lymphocytes, the NTPDase and ADA activities were increased in all groups treated with caffeic acid when compared to control (P<0.05). These findings demonstrated that the enzymes were altered in tissues by caffeic acid and this compound decreased the platelet aggregation suggesting that caffeic acid should be considered a potentially therapeutic agent in disorders related to the purinergic system.

  16. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  17. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-07

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  18. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  19. Commercially available folic acid supplements and their compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia test for dissolution.

    PubMed

    Sculthorpe, N F; Davies, B; Ashton, T; Allison, S; McGuire, D N; Malhi, J S

    2001-09-01

    A recent report suggested that some folic acid preparations available in the United States failed to meet the specifications for dissolution specified by the US Pharmacopoeia (USP), of 70 per cent drug release in the first hour of testing. The Teratology Society recommends that women of childbearing age should take a daily supplement of 400 microg folic acid when they are trying to conceive, to reduce the risk of foetal neural tube defects. The consequence of this failure to meet the USP requirements may be that an inadequate dose of folate may be absorbed and thus the expected level of protection against neural tube defects not afforded. The purpose of the present study was to examine a number of brands of folic acid (400 microg), available commercially in the United Kingdom, for compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) test for dissolution. Ten tablets (or capsules) from each of 11 brands were tested using dissolution apparatus compliant with BP requirements, using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide as the dissolution medium. The results indicated that four of the brands failed to release 70 per cent of the nominal drug content in the first hour of test and thus did not comply with the test. Two of the seven brands that passed the test went on to release more than 150 per cent of the nominal 400 microg drug content. These results highlight the problems of dose uniformity and the potential health risks of slow dissolution and under-dosing in commercially available folic acid dosage forms.

  20. Folate nutrigenetics: a convergence of dietary folate metabolism, folic acid supplementation, and folate antagonist pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Meshkin, Brian; Blum, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Folate (Vitamin B9, Folic acid, folinic acid, folacin, pteroyglutamic acid) is essential for life-sustaining processes of DNA synthesis, replication, and repair which are naturally present in common foods such as peas, oranges, broccoli, and whole-wheat products. Folate levels have been associated with birth defects, cardiovascular disease, and many other important healthcare issues, which has resulted in government-mandated food fortification to deliver minimum levels of intake. Despite this one-size-fits-all recommendation by governmental regulatory bodies, studies suggest that a genetic predisposition may exist within as much as 67% (combining both the CT and TT alleles) of the population that causes a metabolic folate deficiency. Thus, genetic factors may play an important role in folate levels and metabolism. A substantial body of scientific evidence supports the importance of folate, genes associated with folate, genes associated with anti-folate therapeutics, and thereby a convergence in nutritional genetics or nutrigenetics. This review will comment on the substantial body of scientific evidence demonstrating the relevance for nutrigenetic measurements to guide dietary folate intake and nutritional supplementation with folic acid.

  1. Refsum disease diagnostic marker phytanic acid alters the physical state of membrane proteins of liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, P; Struy, H

    1999-08-27

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid), a branched chain fatty acid accumulating in Refsum disease to high levels throughout the body, induces uncoupling of rat liver mitochondria similar to non-branched fatty acids (e.g. palmitic acid), but the contribution of the ADP/ATP carrier or the aspartate/glutamate carrier in phytanic acid-induced uncoupling is of minor importance. Possible deleterious effects of phytanic acid on membrane-linked energy coupling processes were studied by ESR spectroscopy using rat liver mitochondria and a membrane preparation labeled with the lipid-specific spin probe 5-doxylstearic acid (5-DSA) or the protein-specific spin probe MAL-TEMPO (4-maleimido-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl). The effects of phytanic acid on phospholipid molecular dynamics and on the physical state of membrane proteins were quantified by estimation of the order parameter or the ratio of the amplitudes of the weakly to strongly immobilized MAL-TEMPO binding sites (W/S ratio), respectively. It was found, that phytanic acid (1) increased the mobility of phospholipid molecules (indicated by a decrease in the order parameter) and (2) altered the conformational state and/or the segmental mobility of membrane proteins (indicated by a drastic decrease in the W/S ratio). Unsaturated fatty acids with multiple cis-double bonds (e.g. linolenic or arachidonic acid), but not non-branched FFA (ranging from chain length C10:0 to C18:0), also decrease the W/S ratio. It is hypothesized that the interaction of phytanic acid with transmembrane proteins might stimulate the proton permeability through the mitochondrial inner membrane according to a mechanism, different to a protein-supported fatty acid cycling.

  2. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU) for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg) strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D and interleukin (IL)-5 decreased (P < 0.05) across time in the placebo group. Supplemental vitamin D at 200 IU maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations and increased IL-5 (P < 0.05). Supplemental vitamin D at 4000 IU increased (P < 0.05) serum 25(OH)D without altering IL-5 concentrations. Although serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated (P < 0.05) with muscle strength, muscle strength was not changed by supplemental vitamin D. Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OH)D and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OH)D increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection

  3. Amelioration of altered oxidant/antioxidant balance of Indian water buffaloes with subclinical mastitis by vitamins A, D3, E, and H supplementation.

    PubMed

    Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Mahesh Chandra; Singh, Shanker K; Kumar, Pankaj; Jhambh, Ricky; Singh, Bishwambhar; Bandhyopadhyay, Samiran; Verma, Med Ram

    2013-04-01

    The effect of vitamins A, D3, E, and H supplementation on oxidative stress indices in Indian water buffaloes suffering from subclinical mastitis was investigated. Changes in the total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO), and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in milk were evaluated before and after the supplementation of vitamins A, D3, E, and H. The buffaloes suffering from subclinical mastitis revealed remarkable alterations in the milk oxidants/antioxidants balance shifted towards oxidative status. The buffaloes with subclinical mastitis revealed significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher TOC, NO contents, and CAT activity, while TAC content and GSH-Px activity were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) lower in comparison with the healthy controls. However, SOD activity did not show any significant change. Supplementation of vitamins A, D3, E, and H to these animals revealed significant (P ≤ 0.01) reduction in TOC, NO, and CAT, while a significant (P ≤ 0.01) increase in TAC and GSH-Px activity was also evident. From the present study, it may be concluded that supplementation of these vitamins can help ameliorate the altered milk oxidants/antioxidants balance towards normalcy and, thus, ensue recovery from subclinical mastitis in the Indian water buffaloes.

  4. Effect of Arachidonic Acid-enriched Oil Diet Supplementation on the Taste of Broiler Meat

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H.; Rikimaru, K.; Kiyohara, R.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between the arachidonic acid (AA) content and the taste of broiler meat, the effects of AA-enriched oil (AAO) supplements on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions of thigh meat were evaluated. Four types of oil, including corn oil (CO), a 1:1 mixture of AAO and palm oil (PO) (1/2 AAO), a 1:3 mixture of AAO and PO (1/4 AAO), and a 1:7 mixture of AAO and PO (1/8 AAO) were prepared. Each type of oil was mixed with silicate at a ratio of 7:3, and added to the diet at a final proportion of 5% of fresh matter. Broiler chickens were fed these diets for 1 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups was significantly higher than that of the CO group. The AA content in thigh meat (y, mg/g) increased linearly with increasing dietary AAO content (x, g/100 g of diet), according to the equation y = 0.5674+0.4596× (r2 = 0.8454). The content of other fatty acids was not significantly different among the 4 diet groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the flavor intensity, umami (L-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups were significantly higher than that of the CO group. There were significant positive correlations between AA content in thigh meat and the flavor intensity, total taste intensity, umami, and aftertaste. These data suggest that the taste of broiler meat can be improved by the amount of dietary AA supplementation. PMID:25049636

  5. Bacterially synthesized folate and supplemental folic acid are absorbed across the large intestine of piglets.

    PubMed

    Asrar, Farhan M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2005-10-01

    A large pool of folate exists in the large intestine of humans. Preliminary evidence, primarily in vitro, suggests that this folate may be bioavailable. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that supplemental folic acid and bacterially synthesized folate are absorbed across the large intestine of piglets. The pig was used as an animal model because it resembles the human in terms of folate absorption, at least in the small intestine. A tracer of [3H]-folic acid or [3H]-para-aminobenzoic acid ([3H]-PABA), a precursor of bacterially synthesized folate, was injected into the cecum of 11-day-old piglets. Feces and urine were collected for 3 days. Thereafter, piglets were killed, and livers and kidneys harvested. [3H]-Folate was isolated from biological samples by affinity chromatography using immobilized milk folate binding proteins and counted using a scintillation counter. In piglets injected with [3H]-folic acid, the feces, liver, urine and kidneys accounted for 82.1%, 12.3%, 3.9% and 1.7% of recovered [3H]-folate, respectively. In piglets injected with [3H]-PABA, the amount of recovered bacterially synthesized folate in the feces, liver and urine was 85.1%, 0.4% and 14.6%, respectively. Twenty-three percent and 13% of tritium were recovered in samples examined (liver, kidney, fecal and urine) from piglets injected with [3H]-folic acid and [3H]-PABA, respectively. Using our estimates of [3H]-folic acid absorption and the total and percent monoglutamyl folate content of piglet feces, we predict that at least 18% of the dietary folate requirement for the piglet could be met by folate absorption across the large intestine.

  6. Molecular analysis of microbial community structure in the chicken ileum following organic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Nava, Gerardo M; Attene-Ramos, Matias S; Gaskins, H Rex; Richards, James D

    2009-06-12

    To compensate for possible decreases in animal production due to restrictions on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters, several non-antibiotic alternatives have been investigated. Organic acid supplementation (OAS) of feed or water has shown some promising results for affecting intestinal microbiota and reducing pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, few studies have explored the effects of OAS on microbial communities using objective molecular-based techniques. The aim of the present study was to characterize via 16S rRNA gene-based approaches responses of the intestinal microbiota after OAS in chicks. Newborn chicks were randomly divided in four treatments: (a) control (no antibiotic, no OAS); (b) antibiotic administration (bacitracin MD); (c) organic acid blend dl-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio) butanoic acid [HMTBA]; lactic, and phosphoric acid (HLP); and (d) organic acid blend HMTBA, formic, and propionic acid (HFP). Ileal contents and mucosal scrapings from 7 chicks/treatment/day were taken at 15, 22, and 29 days of age, and genomic DNA was isolated for the molecular analysis of the intestinal microbiota. The data demonstrate that HFP blend treatment for 29 consecutive days affected ileal microbial populations as indicated by community fingerprinting analysis (16S rRNA PCR-DGGE). In parallel, total bacterial and lactobacilli populations were increased by the HFP blend treatment as demonstrated by targeted qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA. In summary, the present data demonstrate that OAS, HFP blend treatment in particular, shifts intestinal microbiota, generates more homogenous and distinct populations, and increases Lactobacillus spp. colonization of the chick ileum. PMID:19269115

  7. 14 CFR 26.47 - Holders of and applicants for a supplemental type certificate-Alterations and repairs to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing structural alteration data approved under a... identify all alterations that affect fatigue critical baseline structure identified under § 26.43(b)(1); (2) For each alteration identified under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, identify any fatigue...

  8. 14 CFR 26.47 - Holders of and applicants for a supplemental type certificate-Alterations and repairs to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing structural alteration data approved under a... identify all alterations that affect fatigue critical baseline structure identified under § 26.43(b)(1); (2) For each alteration identified under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, identify any fatigue...

  9. 14 CFR 26.47 - Holders of and applicants for a supplemental type certificate-Alterations and repairs to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing structural alteration data approved under a... identify all alterations that affect fatigue critical baseline structure identified under § 26.43(b)(1); (2) For each alteration identified under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, identify any fatigue...

  10. New insights into structural alteration of enamel apatite induced by citric acid and sodium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojie; Klocke, Arndt; Mihailova, Boriana; Tosheva, Lubomira; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2008-07-24

    Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and complementary scanning electron microscopy were applied to analyze the surface structure of enamel apatite exposed to citric acid and to investigate the protective potential of fluorine-containing reagents against citric acid-induced erosion. Enamel and, for comparison, geological hydroxylapatite samples were treated with aqueous solutions of citric acid and sodium fluoride of different concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 mol/L for citric acid solutions and from 0.5 to 2.0% for fluoride solutions. The two solutions were applied either simultaneously or consecutively. The citric acid-induced structural modification of apatite increases with the increase in the citric acid concentration and the number of treatments. The application of sodium fluoride alone does not suppress the atomic level changes in apatite exposed to acidic agents. The addition of sodium fluoride to citric acid solutions leads to formation of surface CaF2 and considerably reduces the changes in the apatite P-O-Ca framework. However, the CaF2 globules deposited on the enamel surface seem to be insufficient to prevent the alteration of the apatite structure upon further exposure to acidic agents. No evidence for fluorine-induced recovery of the apatite structure was found.

  11. Genome-wide association study of the plasma triglyceride response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation[S

    PubMed Central

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Guénard, Frédéric; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Barbier, Olivier; Calder, Philip C.; Minihane, Anne Marie; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown a large interindividual variability in plasma TG response to long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation, which may likely be attributable to genetic variability within the populations studied. The objective is to compare the frequency of SNPs in a genome-wide association study between responders (reduction in plasma TG levels ≥0.01 mM) and nonresponders (increase in plasma TG of ≥0 mM) to supplementation. Genomic DNA from 141 subjects who completed a 2-week run-in period followed by 6-week supplementation with 5 g of fish oil daily (1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA daily) were genotyped on Illumina HumanOmni-5-QuadBeadChip. Thirteen loci had frequency differences between responders and nonresponders (P < 1 × 10−5), including SNPs in or near IQCJ-SCHIP1, MYB, NELL1, NXPH1, PHF17, and SLIT2 genes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. This GRS explained 21.53% of the variation in TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation when adjusted for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.0002). Using Fish Oil Intervention and Genotype as a replication cohort, the GRS was able to explain 2% of variation in TG response when adjusted. In conclusion, subjects who decrease their plasma TG levels following n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a different genetic profile than individuals who do not respond. PMID:24847101

  12. Experimental study of acid-sulfate alteration of basalt and implications for sulfate deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Robbins, Mark; Moskowitz, Bruce; Berquó, Thelma S.; Jöns, Niels; Hynek, Brian M.

    2013-04-01

    Acid-sulfate alteration of basalt by SO2-bearing volcanic vapors has been proposed as one possible origin for sulfate-rich deposits on Mars. To better define mineralogical signatures of acid-sulfate alteration, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate alteration pathways and geochemical processes during reaction of basalt with sulfuric acid. Pyroclastic cinders composed of phenocrysts including plagioclase, olivine, and augite embedded in glass were reacted with sulfuric acid at 145 °C for up to 137 days at a range of fluid : rock ratios. During the experiments, the phenocrysts reacted rapidly to form secondary products, while the glass was unreactive. Major products included amorphous silica, anhydrite, and Fe-rich natroalunite, along with minor iron oxides/oxyhydroxides (probably hematite) and trace levels of other sulfates. At the lowest fluid : rock ratio, hexahydrite and an unidentified Fe-silicate phase also occurred as major products. Reaction-path models indicated that formation of the products required both slow dissolution of glass and kinetic inhibitions to precipitation of a number of minerals including phyllosilicates and other aluminosilicates as well as Al- and Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides. Similar models performed for Martian basalt compositions predict that the initial stages of acid-sulfate alteration of pyroclastic deposits on Mars should result in formation of amorphous silica, anhydrite, Fe-bearing natroalunite, and kieserite, along with relict basaltic glass. In addition, analysis of the experimental products indicates that Fe-bearing natroalunite produces a Mössbauer spectrum closely resembling that of jarosite, suggesting that it should be considered an alternative to the component in sulfate-rich bedrocks at Meridiani Planum that has previously been identified as jarosite.

  13. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age. PMID:26890759

  14. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  15. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jayong; Veeramachaneni, Sudipta; Liu, Chun; Mernitz, Heather; Russell, Robert M; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2009-09-01

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby preventing ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation. For 1 month, 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol (36% of the total energy) diet as follows: either ethanol alone (Alc group) or ethanol in combination with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of all-trans-RA (Alc + RA group), 2 mg/kg body weight of VE (Alc + VE group), or both together (Alc + RA + VE group). Control rats were pair-fed a liquid diet with an isocaloric amount of maltodextrin instead of ethanol. The ethanol-fed groups had 3-fold higher hepatic CYP2E1 levels, 50% lower hepatic RA levels, and significantly increased hepatocyte proliferation when compared with the controls. The ethanol-fed rats given VE had more than 4-fold higher hepatic VE concentrations than the ethanol-fed rats without VE, but this did not prevent ethanol induction of CYP2E1, lower hepatic retinoid levels, or hepatocellular hyperproliferation. Furthermore, VE supplementation could not prevent RA catabolism in liver microsomal fractions of the ethanol-fed rats in vitro. These results show that VE supplementation can neither inhibit ethanol-induced changes in RA catabolism nor prevent ethanol-induced hepatocyte hyperproliferation in the rat liver.

  16. Maternal folate deficiency and pregnancy wastage. IV. Effects of folic acid supplements, anticonvulsants, and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, J A; Scott, D E; Whalley, P J

    1971-02-01

    A group of studies on indigent hospital patients were conducted on the role of folate supplements, pregnancy and oral contraceptives in megaloblastic anemia. First 25 pregnant women, given 500 mg iron dextran and 30 mg folic acid for 2-3 months, had 12.4% hemoglogin at delivery, compared with 49 women given only iron who had 12.5% hemoglobin, and 49 untreated women who had 11.3% hemoglobin. Second, plasma folate levels in groups of pregnant women were compared: mean folate was 4.7 ng/ml in 82 normal women, 3.1 in 21 treated epileptics, and about 1.2 in 31 women with megaloblastic anemia. In 77 pregnancies in 43 epileptic women there were no reasons to blame low folate levels for pregnancy wastage since no abruptio placentae or bleeding occurred; and incidence of low birth weight, perinatal death, and prematurity was lower than in the general population. Third, the effect of oral contraceptives on folate levels was observed. Mean plasma folate levels were 8.1 ng/ml in 55 control women, 8.0 in 57 women using the pill, 4.7 in normal women in late pregnancy, and about 1.1 in pregnant women with megaloblastic anemia. Fourth, mean hemoglobin levels rose from 7.6 to 13.4 9m/100 ml within a few weeks in 5 women with gestational megaloblastic anemia after treatment with normal diet, without supplement, and oral contraceptives. One woman with puerperal megaloblastic anemia failed to respond to a regular diet while taking Ovulen, 6 tablets daily. The results suggest that plasma folate levels were neither lower in oral contracepting women nor did the pill prevent the increase in folate in megaloblastic anemia patients treated with diet. Thus the authors concluded that folate supplement is not needed for pill users. PMID:5549181

  17. Effect of saturated fatty acid supplementation on production and metabolism indices in heat-stressed mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Huo, X K; Guo, T J; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Rastani, R R; Baumgard, L H; Li, F D

    2010-09-01

    Experimental objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental saturated fatty acids on production, body temperature indices, and some aspects of metabolism in mid-lactation dairy cows experiencing heat stress. Forty-eight heat-stressed Holstein cows were allocated into 3 groups (n=16/group) according to a completely randomized block design. Three treatment diets consisted of supplemental saturated fatty acids (SFA) at 0 (SFA0), 1.5 (SFA1.5), or 3.0% (SFA3) of dry matter (DM) for 10 wk. Diets were isonitrogenous (crude protein=16.8%) and contained 1.42, 1.46, and 1.49 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM for the SFA0, SFA1.5 and SFA3 diets, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index at 0700, 1400 and 2200 h was 72.2, 84.3, and 76.6, respectively. Rectal temperatures at 1400 h were decreased with fat supplementation. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake (20.1+/-0.02 kg/d), body condition score (2.72+/-0.04), body weight (627+/-16.1 kg), or calculated energy balance (1.32+/-0.83 Mcal/d). Saturated fatty acid supplementation increased milk yield, milk fat content, and total milk solids. Increasing fat supplementation decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (8%) but had no effect on other energetic metabolites or hormones. In summary, supplemental SFA improved milk yield and milk fat content and yield and reduced peak rectal temperatures in mid-lactation heat-stressed dairy cows. This demonstrates the remarkable amount of metabolic heat that is "saved" by energetically replacing fermentable carbohydrates with supplemental SFA.

  18. Amino Acid Supplementation Affects Imprinted Gene Transcription Patterns in Parthenogenetic Porcine Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chi-Hun; Jeong, Young-Hee; Jeong, Yeun-Ik; Kwon, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Taeyoung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Seo, Sang-Kyo; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Hwang, Woo-Suk

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether exogenous amino acids affect gene transcription patterns in parthenogenetic porcine embryos, we investigated the effects of amino acid mixtures in culture medium. Parthenogenetic embryos were cultured in PZM3 medium under four experimental conditions: 1) control (no amino acids except L-glutamine and taurine); 2) nonessential amino acids (NEAA); 3) essential amino acids (EAA); and 4) NEAA and EAA. The rate of development of embryos to the four-cell stage was not affected by treatment. However, fewer (P<0.05) embryos cultured with EAA (12.8%) reached the blastocyst stage as compared with the control group (25.6%) and NEAA group (30.3%). Based on these findings, we identified genes with altered expression in parthenogenetic embryos exposed to medium with or without EAAs. The results indicated that EAA influenced gene expression patterns, particularly those of imprinted genes (e.g., H19, IGF2R, PEG1, XIST). However, NEAAs did not affect impaired imprinted gene expressions induced by EAA. The results also showed that mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) mRNA expression was significantly increased by EAA alone as compared with control cultures, and that the combined treatment with NEAA and EAA did not differ significantly from those of control cultures. Our results revealed that gene transcription levels in porcine embryos changed differentially depending on the presence of EAA or NEAA. However, the changes in the H19 mRNA observed in the parthenogenetic blastocysts expression level was not related to the DNA methylation status in the IGF2/H19 domain. The addition of exogenous amino acid mixtures affected not only early embryonic development, but also gene transcription levels, particularly those of imprinted genes. However, this study did not reveal how amino acids affect expression of imprinted genes under the culture conditions used. Further studies are thus required to fully evaluate how amino acids affect transcriptional regulation in porcine

  19. Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Barak, Otto F; Dujic, Zeljko; Madden, Dennis; Bhopale, Veena M; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-15

    Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role that oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 wk later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47-min dive to 18 m of sea water while breathing air (∼222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2) or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 min (∼40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 min after the 18-m dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation, and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and the total number of microparticles, as well as subgroups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine, increased approximately twofold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high-pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation.

  20. Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Barak, Otto F; Dujic, Zeljko; Madden, Dennis; Bhopale, Veena M; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-15

    Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role that oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 wk later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47-min dive to 18 m of sea water while breathing air (∼222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2) or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 min (∼40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 min after the 18-m dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation, and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and the total number of microparticles, as well as subgroups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine, increased approximately twofold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high-pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation. PMID:26084697

  1. Amino acid supplementation and impact on immune function in the context of exercise.

    PubMed

    Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Krause, Maurício; Newsholme, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Moderate and chronic bouts of exercise may lead to positive metabolic, molecular, and morphological adaptations, improving health. Although exercise training stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their overall intracellular concentration may not reach damaging levels due to enhancement of antioxidant responses. However, inadequate exercise training (i.e., single bout of high-intensity or excessive exercise) may result in oxidative stress, muscle fatigue and muscle injury. Moreover, during the recovery period, impaired immunity has been reported, for example; excessive-inflammation and compensatory immunosuppression. Nutritional supplements, sometimes referred to as immuno-nutrients, may be required to reduce immunosuppression and excessive inflammation. Herein, we discuss the action and the possible targets of key immuno-nutrients such as L-glutamine, L-arginine, branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and whey protein. PMID:25530736

  2. 5-fluoro-orotic acid induces chromosome alterations in genetically manipulated strains of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Wellington, Melanie; Kabir, M Anaul; Rustchenko, Elena

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the occurrence of chromosome alterations in a Candida albicans prototrophic strain 3153A treated with 5-fluoro-orotic acid (5-FOA). In this study we investigated the mutagenic properties of 5-FOA with two derivatives of C. albicans strain CAF4-2 (ura3/ura3), each containing an ectopic copy of URA3 gene (ura3/ ura3 URA3) on a different chromosome. As expected, after the ura3/ura3 URA3 constructs were applied to 5-FOA containing solid medium, the "pop-outs" that lost URA3 appeared. However most of the "pop-outs" acquired various chromosome alterations. Thus constructs exposed to 5-FOA should be examined for chromosome alterations or the use of 5-FOA should be avoided. PMID:17040068

  3. Effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation in high-fat fed mice on lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ system in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Chantal; Pignalosa, Angelica; Wanecq, Estelle; Rancoule, Chloé; Batut, Aurélie; Deleruyelle, Simon; Lionetti, Lillà; Valet, Philippe; Castan-Laurell, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Various studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has beneficial effects on obesity and associated disorders. Apelin, the ligand of APJ receptor also exerts insulin-sensitizing effects especially by improving muscle metabolism. EPA has been shown to increase apelin production in adipose tissue but its effects in muscle have not been addressed. Thus, the effects of EPA supplementation (36 g/kg EPA) in high-fat diet (HFD) (45% fat, 20% protein, 35% carbohydrate) were studied in mice with focus on muscle lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ expression. Compared with HFD mice, HFD+EPA mice had significantly less weight gain, fat mass, lower blood glucose, insulinemia and hepatic steatosis after 10 weeks of diet. In addition, EPA prevented muscle metabolism alterations since intramuscular triglycerides were decreased and β-oxidation increased. In soleus muscles of HFD+EPA mice, apelin and APJ expression were significantly increased compared to HFD mice. However, plasma apelin concentrations in HFD and HFD+EPA mice were similar. EPA-induced apelin expression was confirmed in differentiated C2C12 myocytes but in this model, apelin secretion was also increased in response to EPA treatment. In conclusion, EPA supplementation in HFD prevents obesity and metabolic alterations in mice, especially in skeletal muscle. Since EPA increases apelin/APJ expression in muscle, apelin may act in a paracrine/autocrine manner to contribute to these benefical effects.

  4. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and

  5. Dissolved oxygen alteration of the spectrophotometric analysis and quantification of nucleic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Rupak; Day, Philip J R; Tirelli, Nicola

    2009-04-01

    Nucleic acids are routinely and readily analysed using the A(260)/A(280) ratio, although this method is known to be prone to erroneous results owing to contaminants in solution that absorb at similar wavelengths. The aim of the present review, while highlighting the problems and alternatives of using UV spectrophotometry for nucleic acid measurements, is to bring forth an observational result from our recent studies, namely that DO (dissolved oxygen) and nitrogen can alter the A(260) of aqueous DNA solutions. Our finding is of importance because DO is highly variable between protocols and storage conditions of DNA preparations. The physicochemical nature of the oxygen-DNA interactions is briefly discussed.

  6. Licofelone attenuates quinolinic acid induced Huntington like symptoms: possible behavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations.

    PubMed

    Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2011-03-30

    Cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes are involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. Emerging evidence indicates that cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors prevent neurodegenerative processes and related complications. Therefore, the present study has been designed to explore the neuroprotective potential of licofelone (dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitor) against quinolinic acid induced Huntington like symptom in rats. Intrastriatal administration of quinolinic acid significantly caused reduction in body weight and motor function (locomotor activity, rotarod performance and beam walk test), oxidative defense (as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and decreased endogenous antioxidant enzymes), alteration in mitochondrial enzyme complex (I, II and IV) activities, raised TNF-α level and striatal lesion volume as compared to sham treated animals. Licofelone (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved body weight, locomotor activity, rotarod performance, balance beam walk performance, oxidative defense, mitochondrial enzyme complex activities and attenuated TNF-α level and striatal lesion as compared to control (quinolinic acid). The present study highlights that licofelone attenuates behavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations against quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity and this could be an important therapeutic avenue to ameliorate the Huntington like symptoms. PMID:21237233

  7. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol prevents arsenic-induced protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by arsenic in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadirvel, R; Sundaram, K; Mani, S; Samuel, S; Elango, N; Panneerselvam, C

    2007-12-01

    Contamination of arsenic in drinking water is associated with several human diseases including cancer. It has been reported that oxidative stress plays a vital role in arsenic-induced biochemical and molecular alterations. The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of arsenic-induced oxidative damage to proteins and to DNA and the role of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol in alleviating arsenic-induced damages in experimental rats. A significant increase in the levels of protein oxidation, DNA strand breaks, and DNA-protein cross-links was observed in blood, liver, and kidney of rats exposed to arsenic (100 ppm in drinking water) for 30 days. Co-administration of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol to arsenic-exposed rats showed a substantial reduction in the levels of arsenic-induced oxidative products of protein and DNA. The results of this study support that free radical-mediated toxic manifestations of arsenic and also suggest that ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation can improve the arsenic-induced molecular alterations.

  8. Protective and ameliorative effect of sea buckthorn leaf extract supplementation on lead induced hemato-biochemical alterations in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Rizwana; Raghuwanshi, Pratiksha; Rastogi, Ankur; Koul, Aditi Lal; Khajuria, Pallavi; Ganai, Aafreen Wahid; Kour, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the protective and ameliorative effect of aqueous sea buckthorn leaf extract (SLE) on hemato-biochemical profile in lead intoxicated Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted for 60 days. 36 adult male Wistar rats with a mean body weight of 177.8±12.6 g were divided into five groups and were subjected to various daily oral treatment regimens. Group I served as a negative control receiving only feed and water, Group II (positive control for lead) received lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water, and Group III (positive control for SLE) received SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. Animals in Group IV received a combination of lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water for the first 45 days and SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. throughout the experimental period of 60-day, and in Group V for the last 15 days of the trial after the administration of lead acetate until the first 45 days of the trial to study the protective and ameliorating effects of SLE, respectively. Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital fossa of each rat on 0th, 45th, and 60th day of the experiment for hemato-biochemical analysis including hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. Results: Significantly (p<0.01) lower levels of serum total proteins and albumin, and a significantly (p<0.01) higher serum cholesterol, urea and creatinine levels were observed in Group II (lead intoxicated group) in comparison to Group I (negative control). Administration of SLE at 100 mg/kg body wt. to lead intoxicated Wistar rats resulted in normalization of almost all the biochemical parameters studied in both the treatment Groups, i.e., IV and V (protective and ameliorative). However, the effects were more pronounced in the protective group. No effects of SLE supplementation were observed on Hb levels. PCV levels improved in protective groups, but no effect was observed in ameliorative group

  9. Effect of 6 Weeks of n-3 fatty-acid supplementation on oxidative stress in Judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Massart, Alain; Portier, Hugues; Rouveix, Matthieu; Rosado, Fatima; Bage, Anne S; Gobert, Mylene; Durand, Denys

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of 6 wk of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation on resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in judoists. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or a capsule of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA). Blood samples were collected in preexercise and postexercise conditions (judo-training session), both before and after the supplementation period. The following parameters were analyzed: α-tocopherol, retinol, lag phase , maximum rate of oxidation (Rmax) during the propagating chain reaction, maximum amount of conjugated dienes (CDmax) accumulated after the propagation phase, nitric oxide (NO) and malondyaldehide (MDA) concentrations, salivary glutathione peroxidase activity, and the lipid profile. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day dietary record. A significant interaction effect between supplementation and time (p < .01) on triglycerides was noted, with values significantly lower in the n-3 long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA) group after supplementation than in the placebo group. Significant interaction effects between supplementation and time on resting MDA concentrations and Rmax were found (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively), with elevated values in the n-3 LCPUFA group after supplementation and no change in the placebo group's levels. The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.

  10. Effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementations on serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and serum amyloid A levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Rezazadeh, Mahin; Zeinali, Majid; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods: Male patients (n=80) were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day) or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day) orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared. Results: Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level. Conclusion: Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26693410

  11. Piroxicam attenuates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice.

    PubMed

    C, Jadiswami; H M, Megha; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Potadar, Pandharinath P; B S, Thippeswamy; V P, Veerapur

    2014-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin that produces Huntington's disease like symptoms in both animals and humans. Piroxicam, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, used as anti-inflammatory agent and also known to decrease free oxygen radical production. In this study, the effect of piroxicam was evaluated against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle/piroxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before 3-NP challenge (15 mg/kg, i.p.) regularly for 14 days. Body weights of the mice were measured on alternative days of the experiment. At the end of the treatment schedule, mice were evaluated for behavioral alterations (movement analysis, locomotor test, beam walking test and hanging wire test) and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and catalase). Administration of 3-NP significantly altered the behavioral activities and brain antioxidant status in mice. Piroxicam, at both the tested doses, caused a significant reversal of 3-NP-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice. These findings suggest piroxicam protects the mice against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration. The antioxidant properties of piroxicam may be responsible for the observed beneficial actions. PMID:25191831

  12. The Significance of Acid Alteration in the Los Humeros High-Temperature Geothermal Field, Puebla, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Izquierdo, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field is a high-enthalpy hydrothermal system with more than 40 drilled deep wells, mostly producing high steam fractions at > 300oC. However, although it has a large resource potential, low permeability and corrosive acid fluids have hampered development so that it currently has an installed electrical generating capacity of only 40 MWe. The widespread production of low pH fluids from the reservoir is inconsistent with the marked absence in the reservoir rocks of hydrothermal minerals typical of acid alteration. Instead the hydrothermal alteration observed is typical of that due to neutral to alkaline pH waters reacting with the volcanic rocks of the production zones. Thus it appears that since the reservoir has recently suffered a marked drop in fluid pressure and is in process of transitioning from being water-dominated to being vapor-dominated. However sparse examples of acid leaching are observed locally at depths of about 2 km in the form of bleached, intensely silicified zones, in low permeability and very hot (>350oC) parts of reservoir. Although these leached rocks retain their primary volcanic and pyroclastic textures, they are altered almost entirely to microcrystalline quartz, with some relict pseudomorphs of plagioclase phenocrysts and traces of earlier-formed hydrothermal chlorite and pyrite. These acid-altered zones are usually only some tens of meters thick and deeper rocks lack such silicification. The acid fluids responsible for their formation could either be magmatic volatiles, or could be formed during production (e.g. reaction of water and salts forming hydrogen chloride by hydrolysis at high temperatures). The very high boron content of the fluids produced by the Los Humeros wells suggests that their ultimate source is most likely magmatic gases. However, these acid gases did not react widely with the rocks. We suggest that the silicified zones are forming locally where colder descending waters are encountering

  13. Blood Lead Concentration Is Not Altered by High Dose Vitamin D Supplementation in Children and Young Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Groleau, Veronique; Herold, Rachel A; Schall, Joan I; Wagner, Julia L; Dougherty, Kelly A; Zemel, Babette S; Rutstein, Richard M; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with HIV. METHODS Subjects with HIV (age 8 to 24 yrs) were randomized to vitamin D3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and followed at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in 25D and whole blood lead concentration. This was a secondary analysis of a larger study of vitamin D3 supplementation in children and adolescents with HIV. RESULTS In 44 subjects (75% African American), the baseline mean ± SD serum 25D was 48.3 ± 18.6 nmol/L. 50% of subjects had baseline serum 25D < 50.0 nmol/L. Serum 25D increased significantly with D3 supplementation over the 12 weeks. No subject had a whole blood lead >5.0 μg/dL at baseline or during subsequent visits. Whole blood lead and 25D were not correlated at baseline, and were negatively correlated after 12 weeks of supplementation (p= 0.014). Whole blood lead did not differ between those receiving 4000 IU versus 7000 IU of vitamin D3. CONCLUSION High dose vitamin D3 supplementation and the concomitant increased serum 25D did not result in increased whole blood lead concentration in this sample of children and young adults living in a northeastern urban city. PMID:23059649

  14. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Banerjee, Saumen; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Anemia is a frequent problem in both the primary and secondary health care programs. In contrast, most areas of northeast India are vulnerable to iron toxicity. In the present study, we documented the effect of administration of iron rich water on hemolytic anemia in a Wistar rats' animal model. Hemolytic anemia was induced by phenyl hydrazine through intraperitoneal route and diagnosed by the lowering of blood hemoglobin. After inducing the hemolytic anemia, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6 in four groups) were randomly assigned to 1 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 10 mg/l ferric oxide iron along with 1 mg/ml ascorbic acid administered through drinking water; a control group was treated with iron-free water. The hematological and biochemical parameters, iron levels in liver, spleen, and kidney were estimated after 30 d of treatment. In the group treated with 5 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, a significant increase of serum iron and ferritin, and a decrease of TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were observed without changes in other biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. However, in the group treated with 10 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, hematological changes with significantly higher values for white blood cell count, serum glutamic phospho transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, splenic, and liver iron content, indicate potential toxicity at this supplementation level. Data suggest that the optimum concentration of iron (5 mg/l) and ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.

  15. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; House, James D; O, Karmin

    2015-11-15

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver.

  16. Fatty acid profile of milk and Cacioricotta cheese from Italian Simmental cows as affected by dietary flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; d'Angelo, F; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of adding flaxseed to the diet on the fatty acid profile of the milk of Italian Simmental cows and on the Cacioricotta cheese thereby produced. The experiment involved 24 Italian Simmental cows divided into 2 groups of 12 animals according to the diet fed: a control diet (CO) with no flaxseed supplementation, and a diet supplemented with whole flaxseed (FS). Milk yield and composition was not significantly changed by diet, whereas saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased by flaxseed supplementation. Cows fed flaxseed showed higher percentages of long-chain fatty acids: in particular, linolenic acids, mainly represented by C18:3n-3, and n-3 series were higher in the FS group than in the CO group. The percentage of MUFA was higher by about 12% in FS than in CO, mainly due to the contribution of C18:1 cis-9. The percentage of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk was not significantly changed by flaxseed supplementation. Furthermore, atherogenic and thrombogenic indices were lower by about 30 and 16%, respectively, in the FS group compared with the CO group. The fatty acid profile of Cacioricotta cheese produced using Italian Simmental cow milk showed higher levels of MUFA, PUFA, and n-3, and improved atherogenic and thrombogenic indices in FS than in CO, confirming the ability to transfer beneficial molecules from milk into cheese. In particular, cheese-making technology contributed to the increased CLA content in Cacioricotta cheese. PMID:26851850

  17. Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids increases protein synthesis in children wHh severe acute malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although 2 earlier studies reported that aromatic amino acid (AAA) supplementation of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) improved whole-body protein anabolism during the early postadmission (maintenance) phase of rehabilitation, it is not known whether this positive effect was maintained ...

  18. Effect alteration of methamphetamine by amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1983-02-01

    Effect alterations of methamphetamine by pretreatment of amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice were investigated to confirm a fact that certain amino acids, particularly monosodium L-glutamate, are added to methamphetamine by the street users, and that the amino acids augment the effect of methamphetamine. The ambulatory activity of mouse was measured by a tilting-type round activity cage of 25 cm in diameter. The amino acids or their salts tested were monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate, gamma-amino-butyric acid, L-alanine, L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride. A single administration of each chemical at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg i.p. did not induce a marked change in the ambulatory activity in mice. Methamphetamine 2 mg/kg s.c. induced an increase in the ambulatory activity with a peak at 40 min after the administration, and the increased ambulatory activity persisted for 3 hr. The ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine was augmented by the pretreatment of monosodium L-glutamate and monosodium L-aspartate at 30 min before the methamphetamine administration, while attenuated by the pretreatment of L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride in a dose-dependent manner. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not affect the effect of methamphetamine. Similar augmentation and attenuation in the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine were induced by the pretreatment of sodium bicarbonate 0.9 g/kg i.p. (urinary alkalizer) and ammonium chloride 0.07 g/kg i.p. (urinary acidifier), respectively. The urinary pH level was elevated by the administration of monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate and sodium bicarbonate, and decreased by L-lysine hydrochloride, L-arginine hydrochloride and ammonium chloride. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not elicit a marked change in the urinary pH level. The present experiment confirms the fact in human that monosodium L-glutamate augments the effect of

  19. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  20. A high omega 3 fatty acid diet alters fatty acid composition of heart, liver, kidney, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in swine.

    PubMed

    Otten, W; Wirth, C; Iaizzo, P A; Eichinger, H M

    1993-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles and total lipid contents of two skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, heart, liver and kidney of swine fed a diet rich in omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids (i.e., 5% fish oil) was investigated. These values were compared to those determined for animals which were fed an equal caloric diet low in n-3 fatty acids (i.e., 5% coconut oil). All supplementations were given over a 13-week period. The lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol, trans-esterified and the relative fatty acid methyl-esters concentrations were determined using capillary gas chromatography. The fish oil diet significantly enhanced the relative amounts of n-3 fatty acids (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in all tissues examined. In the heart, liver and kidney, the increases in n-3 fatty acids were compensated by decreases primarily in arachidonic acid, but in the other tissues the contents of lauric and myristic acids were also reduced. In general, the n-3 fatty acid contents were 40-165% higher in the animals fed the fish oil. Supplementation of n-3 fatty acids in swine induced a significant incorporation of these fatty acids throughout the body, however the extent of this incorporation differed between tissues perhaps due to tissue-specific metabolic pathways. PMID:8373137

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy: a potential tool to prevent membrane rupture and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Del Chierico, Federica; Rigon, Giuliano; Vernocchi, Pamela; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Manco, Melania; Signore, Fabrizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-05-07

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are required to maintain the fluidity, permeability and integrity of cell membranes. Maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has beneficial effects, including increased gestational length and reduced risk of pregnancy complications. Significant amounts of ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are transferred from maternal to fetal blood, hence ensuring high levels of DHA in the placenta and fetal bloodstream and tissues. Fetal DHA demand increases exponentially with gestational age, especially in the third trimester, due to fetal development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), a daily intake of DHA is recommended during pregnancy. Omega-3 PUFAs are involved in several anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and anti-oxidative pathways. Several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction, premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and preterm-PROM (pPROM), are associated with placental inflammation and oxidative stress. This pilot study reports on a preliminary evaluation of the significance of the daily DHA administration on PROM and pPROM events in healthy pregnant women. Further extensive clinical trials will be necessary to fully elucidate the correlation between DHA administration during pregnancy and PROM/pPROM occurrence, which is related in turn to gestational duration and overall fetal health.

  2. Determination of omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil supplements using vibrational spectroscopy and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Michael Yemane; Grung, Bjørn; Mjøs, Svein Are

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman spectroscopic techniques combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression (PLSR) to predict concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) in fish oil supplements was investigated. FT-IR spectroscopy predicted EPA (coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.994, standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 2.90%, and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 2.49%) and DHA (R(2) = 0.983, SECV = 2.89%, and SEP = 2.55%) with six to seven PLS factors, whereas a simpler PLS model with two factors was obtained for total n-3 FAs (R(2) = 0.985, SECV = 2.73%, and SEP = 2.75%). Selected regions in the NIR spectra gave models with good performances and predicted EPA (R(2) = 0.979, SECV = 2.43%, and SEP = 3.11%) and DHA (R(2) = 0.972, SECV = 2.34%, and SEP = 2.60%) with four to six PLS factors. Both the whole and selected NIR regions gave simple models (two PLS factors) with similar results (R(2) = 0.997, SECV = 2.18%, and SEP = 1.60%) for total n-3 FAs. The whole and selected regions of Raman spectra provided models with comparable results and predicted EPA (R(2) = 0.977, SECV = 3.18%, and SEP = 2.73%) and DHA (R(2) = 0.966, SECV = 3.31%, and SEP = 2.56%) with seven to eight PLS factors, whereas a simpler model (three PLS factors) with R(2) = 0.993, SECV = 2.82%, and SEP = 3.27% was obtained for total n-3 FAs. The results demonstrated that FT-IR, NIR, and Raman spectroscopy combined with PLSR can be used as simple, fast, and nondestructive methods for quantitative analysis of EPA, DHA, and total n-3 FAs. FT-IR and NIR spectroscopy, in particular, have the potential to be applied in process industries during production of fish oil supplements.

  3. Dietary supplementation of usnic acid, an antimicrobial compound in lichens, does not affect rumen bacterial diversity or density in reindeer.

    PubMed

    Glad, Trine; Barboza, Perry; Mackie, Roderick I; Wright, André-Denis G; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Mathiesen, Svein D; Sundset, Monica A

    2014-06-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) may include large proportions of lichens in their winter diet. These dietary lichens are rich in phenolic secondary compounds, the most well-known being the antimicrobial usnic acid. Previous studies have shown that reindeer host rumen bacteria resistant to usnic acid and that usnic acid is quickly detoxified in their rumen. In the present study, reindeer (n = 3) were sampled before, during, and after usnic acid supplementation to determine the effect on their rumen microbial ecology. Ad libitum intake of usnic acid averaged up to 278 mg/kg body mass. Population densities of rumen bacteria and methanogenic archaea determined by real-time PCR, ranged from 1.36 × 10(9) to 11.8 × 10(9) and 9.0 × 10(5) to 1.35 × 10(8) cells/g wet weight, respectively, and the two populations did not change significantly during usnic acid supplementation (repeated measures ANOVA) or vary significantly between the rumen liquid and particle fraction (paired t test). Rumen bacterial community structure determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis did not change in response to intake of usnic acid. Firmicutes (38.7 %) and Bacteriodetes (27.4 %) were prevalent among the 16S rRNA gene sequences (n = 62) from the DGGE gels, but representatives of the phyla Verrucomicrobia (14.5 %) and Proteobacteria (1.6 %) were also detected. Rapid detoxification of the usnic acid or resistance to usnic acid may explain why the diversity of the dominant bacterial populations and the bacterial density in the reindeer rumen does not change during usnic acid supplementation.

  4. A metabolomic approach to dry eye disorders. The role of oral supplements with antioxidants and omega 3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Martínez-Castillo, Sebastián; Morales, José M.; Monleón, Daniel; Zanon-Moreno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hydrogen-1 nuclei (1H NMR S) to analyze the metabolic profile of reflex tears from patients with dry eye disorders. Methods We performed a prospective case-control study involving 90 participants: 55 patients diagnosed with dry eye syndrome (DESG) and 35 healthy subjects (control group, CG). From the DESG, two subgroups were formed: mild DES (n=22) and moderate DES (n=33). Participants were prescribed an oral nutraceutic supplementation containing antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids to be taken as three capsules per day for 3 months. Reflex tears (20–30 µl) were collected from the tear meniscus of both eyes of each subject with a microglass pipette. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired with a standard one-dimensional pulse sequence with water suppression; 256 free induction decays were collected into 64,000 data points with 14 ppm spectral width. Results Basal tears showed a differential metabolomic profile between groups. Almost 50 metabolites were identified by H cholesterol, N-acetylglucosamine, glutamate, amino-n-butyrate, choline, glucose, and formate were detected before supplementation and choline/acetylcholine after supplementation. The metabolic profile of the tears was statistically different between groups, as well as before and after supplementation. Conclusions Our data indicate that DES induces changes in the tear metabolic profile that can be modified with appropriate oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25999682

  5. The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is activated by alterations of its membrane environment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Kusch, Jana; Lucas, Susana Dias; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological function of BASIC and its mechanism of bile acid activation remain a puzzle. Here we addressed the question whether amphiphilic bile acids activate BASIC by directly binding to the channel or indirectly by altering the properties of the surrounding membrane. We show that membrane-active substances other than bile acids also affect the activity of BASIC and that activation by bile acids and other membrane-active substances is non-additive, suggesting that BASIC is sensitive for changes in its membrane environment. Furthermore based on results from chimeras between BASIC and ASIC1a, we show that the extracellular and the transmembrane domains are important for membrane sensitivity.

  6. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Patients with Diabetes and Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Han, Eugene; Yun, Yujung; Kim, Gyuri; Lee, Yong-Ho; Wang, Hye Jin; Lee, Byung-Wan; Cha, Bong Soo; Kim, Beom Seok; Kang, Eun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation in a wide range of disease condition have been well studied. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of O3FAs on chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in diabetic nephropathy (DN) with hypertriglyceridemia. We investigate whether O3FA supplementation could help maintain renal function in patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Total 344 type 2 diabetic patients with a history of O3FA supplementation for managing hypertriglyceridemia were included. Reduction in urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) were examined. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to the daily O3FA doses. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and urine ACR significantly reduced after O3FA supplementation. Overall, 172 (50.0%) patients did not experience renal function loss, and 125 (36.3%) patients had a GFR with a positive slope. The patients treated with O3FAs at 4g/day showed greater maintenance in renal function than those treated with lower dosages (p < 0.001). This dose dependent effect remains significant after adjustment for multiple variables. O3FA supplementation in diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia shows benefits of reducing albuminuria and maintaining renal function. The effects are dependent on the dose of daily O3FA supplementation.

  7. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Patients with Diabetes and Hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyuri; Lee, Yong-ho; Wang, Hye Jin; Lee, Byung-Wan; Cha, Bong Soo; Kim, Beom Seok

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation in a wide range of disease condition have been well studied. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of O3FAs on chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in diabetic nephropathy (DN) with hypertriglyceridemia. We investigate whether O3FA supplementation could help maintain renal function in patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Total 344 type 2 diabetic patients with a history of O3FA supplementation for managing hypertriglyceridemia were included. Reduction in urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) were examined. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to the daily O3FA doses. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and urine ACR significantly reduced after O3FA supplementation. Overall, 172 (50.0%) patients did not experience renal function loss, and 125 (36.3%) patients had a GFR with a positive slope. The patients treated with O3FAs at 4g/day showed greater maintenance in renal function than those treated with lower dosages (p < 0.001). This dose dependent effect remains significant after adjustment for multiple variables. O3FA supplementation in diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia shows benefits of reducing albuminuria and maintaining renal function. The effects are dependent on the dose of daily O3FA supplementation. PMID:27135947

  8. Effect of genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism on the concentration of serum folate and plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy) in healthy subjects after short-term folic acid supplementation: a randomized, double blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Cabo, Rona; Hernes, Sigrunn; Slettan, Audun; Haugen, Margaretha; Ye, Shu; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, M Azam

    2015-05-01

    Data on the effect of combined genetic polymorphisms, involved in folate metabolism, on the concentration of serum folate after folic acid supplementation are scarce. Therefore, we investigated the impact of seven gene polymorphisms on the concentration of serum folate and p-tHcy in healthy subjects after short-term folic acid supplementation. In a randomized, double blind, crossover study, apparently healthy subjects were given either 0.8 mg folic acid per day (n = 46) or placebo (n = 45) for 14 days. The washout period was 14 days. Fasting blood samples were collected on day 1, 15, 30 and 45. Data on subjects on folic acid supplementation (n = 91) and on placebo (n = 45) were used for the statistical analysis. The concentration of serum folate increased higher in subjects with higher age (53.5 ± 7.0 years) than in subjects with lower age (24.3 ± 3.2 years) after folic acid supplementation (p = 0.006). The baseline concentration of serum folate in subjects with polymorphism combination, reduced folate carrier protein, RFC1-80 GA and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR677 CT+TT, was lower than RFC1-80 AA and MTHFR677 CT+TT (p = 0.002). After folic acid supplementation, a higher increase in the concentration of serum folate was detected in subjects with polymorphism combination RFC1-80 GA and MTHFR677 CC than RFC1-80 GG and MTHFR CT+TT combination (p < 0.0001). The baseline concentration of plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy) was altered by combined polymorphisms in genes associated with folate metabolism. After folic acid supplementation, in subjects with combined polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, MTHFD1-1958 and MTHFR-677 genes, the concentration of p-tHcy was changed (p = 0.002). The combination of RFC1-80 and MTHFR-677 polymorphisms had a profound affect on the concentration of serum folate in healthy subjects before and after folic acid supplementation.

  9. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations in older adults: a dose-response trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Jee, Sun Ha; Charleston, Jeanne; Narrett, Matthew; Appel, Lawrence J

    2010-10-15

    The authors' objective in this study was to estimate the changes in serum folate and homocysteine concentration that resulted from 6 weeks of supplementation with folic acid. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response trial with a parallel-group design was conducted. A total of 133 participants aged 60-90 years (70% female, 19% nonwhite) were assigned to receive 0, 100, 400, 1,000, or 2,000 μg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. Data were collected in the United States between June and September 1996. At baseline, median serum folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations were 5.7 ng/mL (interquartile range (25th-75th percentiles), 4.1-7.8) and 8.3 μmol/L (interquartile range, 7.1-10.0), respectively. As the folic acid dose increased, serum folate levels increased (P-trend < 0.001). There was no dose-response relation with homocysteine level among all participants. In analyses restricted to persons with the lowest serum folate concentration (<4.5 ng/mL) at baseline, there was a trend (P = 0.06) toward decreased homocysteine levels with increasing folic acid dose. In healthy, older adults with adequate folate status, folic acid supplementation is not beneficial for homocysteine reduction. However, for older adults with low serum folate levels, supplementation will improve folate status and may be beneficial for lowering homocysteine concentrations.

  10. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Shidfar, F; Keshavarz, A; Hosseyni, S; Ameri, A; Yarahmadi, S

    2008-01-01

    In order to test whether hyperlipidaemia and glycaemic control can be improved among diabetes patients by dietary supplementation with purified omega-3 fatty acids, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 50 type 2 diabetes patients randomized to 2 g/day purified omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 10 weeks. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly with supplementation relative to placebo (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in ApoB-100 and malondialdehyde compared to baseline values and compared to the control group. Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c.

  11. Effect of amino acid supplementation on protein quality of soy-based infant formulas fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Peace, R W; Botting, H G

    1993-05-01

    The powder forms of soy-based infant formulas obtained from four manufacturers were fed to weanling rats for two weeks, as the sole source of protein in diets containing 8% protein, 20% fat, and adequate amounts of minerals and vitamins. The relative protein efficiency ratio (RPER) and the relative net protein ratio (RNPR) values (casein + methionine = 100) of diets containing unsupplemented formulas were 71-81 and 78-85, respectively. Supplementation of the formula diets with lysine (0.2%), methionine (0.2%), threonine (0.1%) or tryptophan (0.05%) increased the level of the supplemental amino acid in rat serum but generally failed to improve the RPER or RNPR values. Addition of all four essential amino acids to the formula diets, however, caused a marked improvement in their protein quality (RPER or RNPR values = 100). The data suggested that proteins in soy-based formulas could be marginally co-limited in several indispensable amino acids.

  12. Influence of dietary fat source, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid supplementation on sensory quality of dark chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Grau, A; Grimpa, S; Manich, A; Barroeta, A; Codony, R

    2001-06-01

    We studied the influence of dietary fat source and dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and ascorbic acid supplementation on the sensory quality of cooked dark chicken meat stored at -20 C for different periods. Results showed that dietary fat source and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation influenced sensory scores (rancid flavor and aroma and acceptability). Ascorbic acid had no influence on these scores. Thiobarbituric acid values showed a high correlation with sensory scores. In addition, the low levels of alpha-tocopheryl acetate contained in the trace mineral-vitamin mix (20 IU/kg of feed) were enough to prevent rancidity development in cooked dark chicken meat when broilers were fed a saturated fat diet and samples were vacuum-packed and stored at -20 C for 13 mo.

  13. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during a 100-km ultra-marathon--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Mrazek, Claudia; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-marathon running is supposed to increase the parameters of skeletal muscle damage and impair renal function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on skeletal muscle damage and renal function during a 100-km ultra-marathon. Twenty-eight athletes were randomly divided into two groups, one group using branched-chain amino acid supplementation (BCAA) and a control group (CON). The athletes in the BCAA group were supplemented with a total of 50 g of an amino acid concentrate including 20 g of BCAA. The intake of energy, antioxidants and parameters of both skeletal muscle damage and renal function were determined. Race time was not different between BCAA and CON when controlled for the personal best time in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Neither the intake of energy and antioxidants nor the parameters of skeletal muscle damage and renal function were different between BCAA and CON. We concluded that BCAA-supplementation before and during a 100-km ultra-marathon had no effect on performance, skeletal muscle damage or renal function. PMID:23007065

  14. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during a 100-km ultra-marathon--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Mrazek, Claudia; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-marathon running is supposed to increase the parameters of skeletal muscle damage and impair renal function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on skeletal muscle damage and renal function during a 100-km ultra-marathon. Twenty-eight athletes were randomly divided into two groups, one group using branched-chain amino acid supplementation (BCAA) and a control group (CON). The athletes in the BCAA group were supplemented with a total of 50 g of an amino acid concentrate including 20 g of BCAA. The intake of energy, antioxidants and parameters of both skeletal muscle damage and renal function were determined. Race time was not different between BCAA and CON when controlled for the personal best time in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Neither the intake of energy and antioxidants nor the parameters of skeletal muscle damage and renal function were different between BCAA and CON. We concluded that BCAA-supplementation before and during a 100-km ultra-marathon had no effect on performance, skeletal muscle damage or renal function.

  15. Postnatal behavioral and inflammatory alterations in female pups prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Campolongo, Marcos; Lucchina, Luciana; Zappala, Cecilia; Depino, Amaicha Mara

    2016-10-01

    In Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), a bias to a higher incidence in boys than in girls has been reported. With the aim to identify biological mechanisms acting in female animals that could underlie this bias, we used an extensively validated mouse model of ASD: the prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). We found postnatal behavioral alterations in female VPA pups: a longer latency in righting reflex at postnatal day (P) 3, and a delay in the acquisition of the acoustic startle response. We also analyzed the density of glial cells in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, in VPA and control animals. Female VPA pups showed alterations in the density of astrocytes and microglial cells between P21 and P42, with specific dynamics in each brain region. We also found a decrease in histone 3 acetylation in the cerebellum of female VPA pups at P14, suggesting that the changes in glial cell density could be due to alterations in the epigenetic developmental program. Finally, no differences in maternal behavior were found. Our results show that female VPA pups exhibit behavioral and inflammatory alterations postnatally, although they have been reported to have normal levels of sociability in adulthood. With our work, we contribute to the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying different effects of VPA on male and female rodents, and we hope to help elucidate whether there are factors increasing susceptibility to ASD in boys and/or resilience in girls.

  16. Expression of a collagen-binding domain fusion protein: effect of amino acid supplementation, inducer type, and culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Fruchtl, McKinzie; Sakon, Joshua; Beitle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Collagen binding domain fusion proteins are of significant importance because of their potential as therapeutic biomaterials. In this paper, we investigate the production of such therapeutic proteins via fermentation of Escherichia coli on both an undefined medium and a defined medium. Defined media with amino acid supplementation provided higher amounts of therapeutic protein than undefined media with no supplementation. Additionally, utilizing lactose instead of isopropyl-β-d-thio-galactoside (IPTG) for induction and extending batch time yielded higher amounts of the model therapeutic.

  17. Improved working memory but no effect on striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Rajesh; Frankle, William G; Mason, Neale S; Muldoon, Matthew F; Moghaddam, Bita

    2012-01-01

    Studies in rodents indicate that diets deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) lower dopamine neurotransmission as measured by striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) density and amphetamine-induced dopamine release. This suggests that dietary supplementation with fish oil might increase VMAT2 availability, enhance dopamine storage and release, and improve dopamine-dependent cognitive functions such as working memory. To investigate this mechanism in humans, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure VMAT2 availability pre- and post-supplementation of n-3 PUFA in healthy individuals. Healthy young adult subjects were scanned with PET using [(11)C]-(+)-α-dihydrotetrabenzine (DTBZ) before and after six months of n-3 PUFA supplementation (Lovaza, 2 g/day containing docosahexaenonic acid, DHA 750 mg/d and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA 930 mg/d). In addition, subjects underwent a working memory task (n-back) and red blood cell membrane (RBC) fatty acid composition analysis pre- and post-supplementation. RBC analysis showed a significant increase in both DHA and EPA post-supplementation. In contrast, no significant change in [(11)C]DTBZ binding potential (BP(ND)) in striatum and its subdivisions were observed after supplementation with n-3 PUFA. No correlation was evident between n-3 PUFA induced change in RBC DHA or EPA levels and change in [(11)C]DTBZ BP(ND) in striatal subdivisions. However, pre-supplementation RBC DHA levels was predictive of baseline performance (i.e., adjusted hit rate, AHR on 3-back) on the n-back task (y = 0.19+0.07, r(2) = 0.55, p = 0.009). In addition, subjects AHR performance improved on 3-back post-supplementation (pre 0.65±0.27, post 0.80±0.15, p = 0.04). The correlation between n-back performance, and DHA levels are consistent with reports in which higher DHA levels is related to improved cognitive performance. However, the lack of change in [(11)C]DBTZ BP(ND) indicates that

  18. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  19. Altering the fatty acids in milk fat by including canola seed in dairy cattle diets.

    PubMed

    Chichlowski, M W; Schroeder, J W; Park, C S; Keller, W L; Schimek, D E

    2005-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding ground canola seed on the fatty acid profile, yield, and composition of milk from dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (548.3 +/- 11.9 kg body weight and 28 +/- 9 d in lactation) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: Control (CON) or ground canola seed treatment (GCS) with 14% [of diet dry matter (DM)] of the total ration as ground canola seed containing 34% lipid. Diets contained 20% crude protein, but varied in net energy as a result of fat content differences of 2.5% and 6.4% (DM) for CON and GCS, respectively. Diets were composed of corn, corn silage, alfalfa (50:50 ground hay and haylage, DM basis), soybean and blood meal, and vitamins and minerals. Mechanically extruded canola meal was used in the CON diet to adjust for the protein from canola seed in the GCS diet. Cows were housed in tie-stalls and fed and milked twice daily for 10 wk. The inclusion of ground canola seed did not alter DM intake, weight gain, or body condition score of cows. Milk fat from GCS cows had greater proportions of long-chain fatty acids (> or = 18 carbons) and a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. Feeding GCS reduced the proportion of short- and medium-chain fatty acids. Milk fat from cows fed GCS had a greater proportion of vaccenic acid and tended to have a higher proportion of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yields were similar between treatments. The milk fat and protein percentages were lower for GCS cows, but total yield of these components was similar between treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was lower and serum urea nitrogen tended to be lower in cows fed canola seed. Serum glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids were not altered, but serum triglycerides were higher in GCS cows. Ammonia and total volatile fatty acids tended to be lower in ruminal fluid from GCS cows; rumen pH was unchanged. Feeding canola seed to lactating dairy cows resulted in milk

  20. Altered gene expression in human adipose stem cells cultured with fetal bovine serum compared to human supplements.

    PubMed

    Bieback, Karen; Ha, Viet Anh-Thu; Hecker, Andrea; Grassl, Melanie; Kinzebach, Sven; Solz, Hermann; Sticht, Carsten; Klüter, Harald; Bugert, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for innovative cell therapeutic applications. For clinical scale manufacturing regulatory agencies recommend to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) commonly used in MSC expansion media as soon as equivalent alternative supplements are available. We already demonstrated that pooled blood group AB human serum (HS) and thrombin-activated platelet releasate plasma (tPRP) support the expansion of multipotent adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs). Slight differences in size, growth pattern and adhesion prompted us to investigate the level of equivalence by compiling the transcriptional profiles of ASCs cultivated in these supplements. A whole genome gene expression analysis was performed and data verified by polymerase chain reaction and protein analyses. Microarray-based screening of 34,039 genes revealed 102 genes differentially expressed in ASCs cultured with FBS compared to HS or tPRP supplements. A significantly higher expression in FBS cultures was found for 90 genes (fold change ≥2). Only 12 of the 102 genes showed a lower expression in FBS compared to HS or tPRP cultures (fold change ≤0.5). Differences between cells cultivated in HS and tPRP were hardly evident. Supporting previous observations of reduced adhesion of cells cultivated in the human alternatives we detected a number of adhesion and extracellular matrix-associated molecules expressed at lower levels in ASCs cultivated with human supplements. Confirmative assays analyzing transcript or protein expression with selected genes supported these results. Likewise a number of mesodermal differentiation-associated genes were higher expressed in cells grown in FBS. Quantifying adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation lacked to demonstrate a clear correlation to the supplement due to donor-specific variances. Our results emphasize the necessity of comparability studies as they indicate that FBS induces a culture adaptation exceeding that of ex vivo

  1. Effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric symptoms and immune response in HIV-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prabha M.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.; Rao, Satish B.; Udupa, Karthik; Acharya, Sahana D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. Objective: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study. Baseline and follow-up CD4 count, anthropometric measurements, neuropsychiatric assessments, Vitamin B12, and folic acid estimation were done. Results: The prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 27.1% in Group I, 31.9% in Group II, and 23.4% in Group III. The prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency was 8.16% in Group I, 6.12% in Group II, and 4.16% in Group III. HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations were noted to have the lowest mean mini–mental score. After the supplementation of vitamins, anthropometric measurements, MMSE as well as Hamilton depression scores, improved in all the three groups whereas Hamilton anxiety scores improved only in Group III. The CD4 count also improved in Groups I and II after the supplementation of vitamins. Conclusion: Folic acid deficiency was highest among neuropsychiatric patients. The majority of people who had a folic acid deficiency have shown improvement in their neuropsychiatric assessment scores as well as CD4 count after its supplementation. PMID:27365952

  2. Microviscosity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit protoplast membranes is altered by triacontanol and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Shripathi, V; Swamy, G S; Chandrasekhar, K S

    1997-01-31

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit protoplast membranes were probed with diphenylhexatriene (DPH) and pyrene, and also with two different plant growth regulators, triacontanol (TRIA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Fluorescence anisotropies of DPH and pyrene were measured after incorporating them into the membranes. The fluorescence lifetime of membrane-bound pyrene was also measured by using neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser of 35 ps pulses. The microviscosities of the membranes were calculated using the values of fluorescence anisotropy and lifetime. In the presence of TRIA and ABA, there was a sharp decrease in the fluorescence lifetime of pyrene. Similarly, there was also a decrease in the microviscosities of the membranes and increase in the rate of rotation of membrane-bound fluorophore, induced by the plant growth regulators. Furthermore, TRIA or TRIA + ABA could reduce the fluorescence anisotropy of both the fluorophores whereas, ABA decreased the anisotropy of only pyrene. This property of ABA may be due to its confinement to a specific spacial facet in the membrane. Fatty acid analysis indicated that membrane microviscosity fluctuations were not due to altered fatty acid composition alone as it is known that change in lipid-protein interaction would also alter the physical status of the membrane.

  3. Acidification and γ-aminobutyric acid independently alter kairomone-induced behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high pCO2 or low pH alters sensation and behaviour in many marine animals. We show that crab larvae lose their ability to detect and/or process predator kairomones after exposure to low pH over a time scale relevant to diel pH cycles in coastal environments. Previous work suggests that acidification affects sensation and behaviour through altered neural function, specifically the action of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), because a GABA antagonist, gabazine, restores the original behaviour. Here, however, gabazine resulted in a loss of kairomone detection/processing, regardless of pH. Our results also suggest that GABAergic signalling is necessary for kairomone identification in these larvae. Hence, the mechanism for the observed pH effect varies from the original GABA hypothesis. Furthermore, we suggest that this pH effect is adaptive under diel-cycling pH. PMID:27703697

  4. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation