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Sample records for acid supplementation improves

  1. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  2. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial. PMID:27528436

  3. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Banerjee, Saumen; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Anemia is a frequent problem in both the primary and secondary health care programs. In contrast, most areas of northeast India are vulnerable to iron toxicity. In the present study, we documented the effect of administration of iron rich water on hemolytic anemia in a Wistar rats' animal model. Hemolytic anemia was induced by phenyl hydrazine through intraperitoneal route and diagnosed by the lowering of blood hemoglobin. After inducing the hemolytic anemia, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6 in four groups) were randomly assigned to 1 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 10 mg/l ferric oxide iron along with 1 mg/ml ascorbic acid administered through drinking water; a control group was treated with iron-free water. The hematological and biochemical parameters, iron levels in liver, spleen, and kidney were estimated after 30 d of treatment. In the group treated with 5 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, a significant increase of serum iron and ferritin, and a decrease of TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were observed without changes in other biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. However, in the group treated with 10 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, hematological changes with significantly higher values for white blood cell count, serum glutamic phospho transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, splenic, and liver iron content, indicate potential toxicity at this supplementation level. Data suggest that the optimum concentration of iron (5 mg/l) and ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.

  4. Long-term ω-3 fatty acid supplementation induces anti-stress effects and improves learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Miguel Á; Terreros, Gonzalo; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2013-06-14

    Chronic stress leads to secretion of the adrenal steroid hormone corticosterone, inducing hippocampal atrophy and dendritic hypertrophy in the rat amygdala. Both alterations have been correlated with memory impairment and increased anxiety. Supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids improves memory and learning in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ω-3 supplementation on learning and major biological and behavioral stress markers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: 1) Control, 2) Vehicle, animals supplemented with water, and 3) ω-3, rats supplemented with ω-3 (100 mg of DHA+25 mg of EPA). Each experimental group was divided into two subgroups: one of which was not subjected to stress while the other was subjected to a restraint stress paradigm. Afterwards, learning was analyzed by avoidance conditioning. As well, plasma corticosterone levels and anxiety were evaluated as stress markers, respectively by ELISA and the plus-maze test. Restraint stress impaired learning and increased both corticosterone levels and the number of entries into the open-arm (elevated plus-maze). These alterations were prevented by ω-3 supplementation. Thus, our results demonstrate that ω-3 supplementation had two beneficial effects on the stressed rats, a strong anti-stress effect and improved learning.

  5. Improved working memory but no effect on striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Rajesh; Frankle, William G; Mason, Neale S; Muldoon, Matthew F; Moghaddam, Bita

    2012-01-01

    Studies in rodents indicate that diets deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) lower dopamine neurotransmission as measured by striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) density and amphetamine-induced dopamine release. This suggests that dietary supplementation with fish oil might increase VMAT2 availability, enhance dopamine storage and release, and improve dopamine-dependent cognitive functions such as working memory. To investigate this mechanism in humans, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure VMAT2 availability pre- and post-supplementation of n-3 PUFA in healthy individuals. Healthy young adult subjects were scanned with PET using [(11)C]-(+)-α-dihydrotetrabenzine (DTBZ) before and after six months of n-3 PUFA supplementation (Lovaza, 2 g/day containing docosahexaenonic acid, DHA 750 mg/d and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA 930 mg/d). In addition, subjects underwent a working memory task (n-back) and red blood cell membrane (RBC) fatty acid composition analysis pre- and post-supplementation. RBC analysis showed a significant increase in both DHA and EPA post-supplementation. In contrast, no significant change in [(11)C]DTBZ binding potential (BP(ND)) in striatum and its subdivisions were observed after supplementation with n-3 PUFA. No correlation was evident between n-3 PUFA induced change in RBC DHA or EPA levels and change in [(11)C]DTBZ BP(ND) in striatal subdivisions. However, pre-supplementation RBC DHA levels was predictive of baseline performance (i.e., adjusted hit rate, AHR on 3-back) on the n-back task (y = 0.19+0.07, r(2) = 0.55, p = 0.009). In addition, subjects AHR performance improved on 3-back post-supplementation (pre 0.65±0.27, post 0.80±0.15, p = 0.04). The correlation between n-back performance, and DHA levels are consistent with reports in which higher DHA levels is related to improved cognitive performance. However, the lack of change in [(11)C]DBTZ BP(ND) indicates that

  6. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids improve performance and immune response of newly-received feedlot calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental branched-chain AA (BCAA) improved N balance of steers during a simulated pathogen challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental BCAA on growth and health of newly-received feedlot steers. Steers (n = 120; initial BW = 376 ± 5 kg) were blocked by BW a...

  7. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Vazquez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye symptoms caused by chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops in patients with glaucoma. Patients and methods A total of 1,255 patients with glaucoma and dry eye symptoms related to antiglaucoma topical medication participated in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, and multicenter study and were instructed to take three capsules a day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudypio® 1.5 g) for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (graded as 0–3 [none to severe, respectively]), conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, Oxford grading scheme, and intraocular pressure were assessed. Results After 12 weeks of administration of the dietary supplement, all dry eye symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001) (mean 1.3 vs 0.6 for scratching, 1.4 vs 0.7 for stinging sensation, 1.6 vs 0.7 for grittiness, 1.0 vs 0.4 for tired eyes, 1.1 vs 0.5 for grating sensation, and 0.8 vs 0.3 for blurry vision). The Schirmer test scores and the tear breakup time also increased significantly. There was an increase in the percentage of patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease in those grading IV–V. Compliance was recorded in 62.5% of patients. In compliant patients, the mean differences at 12 weeks vs baseline of dry eye symptoms were statistically significant as compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with Brudypio® may be a clinically valuable additional option for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. These results require confirmation with an appropriately designed randomized controlled study. PMID:27103781

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improved lipocentric but not glucocentric markers of insulin sensitivity in hypertriglyceridemic men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with increases in insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from animal intervention studies and human epidemiological studies suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can prevent and reverse IR, but results from huma...

  9. Quercetin supplementation is effective in improving mitochondrial dysfunctions induced by 3-nitropropionic acid: implications in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Sandhir, Rajat; Mehrotra, Arpit

    2013-03-01

    The study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of quercetin supplementation in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced model of Huntington's disease (HD). HD was induced in rats by administering sub-chronic dose of 3-NP, intraperitoneally, twice daily for 17days. Quercetin was supplemented at a dose of 25mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 21days. At the end of treatment, mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial swelling, oxidative stress, neurobehavioral deficits and histopathological changes were analyzed. Quercetin supplementation was able to reverse 3-NP induced inhibition of respiratory chain complexes, restore ATP levels, attenuate mitochondrial oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation and prevent mitochondrial swelling. Quercetin administration also restored the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase along with thiol content in 3-NP treated animals. Beneficial effect of quercetin administration was observed on 3-NP induced motor deficits analyzed by narrow beam walk and footprint analysis. Histopathological analysis of 3-NP treated rats revealed pyknotic nuclei and astrogliosis in striatum, which were reduced or absent in quercetin supplemented animals. Altogether, our results show that quercetin supplementation to 3-NP induced HD animals ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress and neurobehavioral deficits in rats showing potential of this flavonoid in maintaining mitochondrial functions, suggesting a putative role of quercetin in HD management. PMID:23220257

  10. Supplementation with micronutrients in addition to iron and folic acid does not further improve the hematologic status of pregnant women in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Shrestha, Jaibar; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Jiang, Tianan; Wagner, Tracey; Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P

    2003-11-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the main causes of anemia during pregnancy, although other micronutrient deficiencies may play a role. We examined the effects of daily antenatal and postnatal supplementation with four combinations of micronutrients on maternal hematologic indicators in a double-masked randomized controlled community trial. Communities, called sectors, were randomly assigned to supplementation with folic acid (400 microg), folic acid plus iron (60 mg), folic acid plus iron and zinc (30 mg) and folic acid plus iron, zinc and 11 other micronutrients, each at the approximate recommended daily allowance for pregnancy all given with vitamin A as retinol acetate (1000 microg retinol equivalent), or vitamin A alone as the control group. Hemoglobin (Hb) and indicators of iron status were assessed at baseline and at 32 wk of gestation. At 6-wk postpartum, Hb assessment was repeated using a finger stick. Severely anemic women (Hb < 70 g/L) were treated according to WHO recommendations. Folic acid alone had no effect on maternal anemia or iron status. Hb concentrations were 14 g/L, [95% confidence limits (CL), 8.3-19.2], 10.0 g/L (CL, 5.2-14.8) and 9.4 g/L (CL, 4.7-14.1) higher in the groups receiving folic acid plus iron, folic acid plus iron and zinc and folic acid plus iron, zinc and multiple micronutrients, respectively, relative to the control. Anemia in the third trimester was reduced by 54% with folic acid plus iron, by 48% with folic acid plus iron and zinc and by 36% with folic acid plus iron, zinc and multiple micronutrients supplementation, relative to the control (P < 0.05). Thus, the combinations of folic acid plus iron and zinc and folic acid plus iron, zinc and multiple micronutrients provided no additional benefit in improving maternal hematologic status during pregnancy compared with folic acid plus iron. The level of compliance and baseline Hb concentrations modified the effect of iron.

  11. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation in Combination with Voluntary Running Improves Body Composition in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Platt, Kristen M; Charnigo, Richard J; Shertzer, Howard G; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an inexpensive intervention that may be used to reduce obesity and its consequences. In addition, many individuals who regularly exercise utilize dietary supplements to enhance their exercise routine and to accelerate fat loss or increase lean mass. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a popular supplement and have been shown to produce a number of beneficial effects in rodent models and humans. Therefore, we hypothesized that BCAA supplementation would protect against high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and obesity in mice with and without access to exercise. We subjected 80 female C57BL/6 mice to a paradigm of HFD feeding, exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running, and BCAA supplementation in the drinking water for 16 weeks (n = 10 per group). Body weight was monitored weekly, while food and water consumption were recorded twice weekly. During the 5th, 10th, and 15th weeks of treatment, glucose tolerance and body composition were analyzed. Exercise significantly improved glucose tolerance in both control-fed and HFD-fed mice. BCAA supplementation, however, did not significantly alter glucose tolerance in any treatment group. While BCAA supplements did not improve lean to fat mass ratio in sedentary mice, it significantly augmented the effects of exercise on this parameter. PMID:26716948

  12. The Supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Arginine, and Citrulline Improves Endurance Exercise Performance in Two Consecutive Days

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, I-Shiung; Wang, Yi-Wen; Chen, I-Fan; Hsu, Gi-Sheng; Hsueh, Chun-Fang; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system plays a crucial role in fatigue during endurance exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) could reduce cerebral serotonin synthesis by competing with its precursor tryptophan for crossing the blood brain barrier. Arginine and citrulline could prevent excess hyperammonemia accompanied by BCAA supplementation. This study investigated the combination of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline on endurance performance in two consecutive days. Seven male and three female endurance runners ingested 0.17 g·kg-1 BCAA, 0.05 g·kg-1 arginine and 0.05 g·kg-1 citrulline (AA trial) or placebo (PL trial) in a randomized cross-over design. Each trial contained a 5000 m time trial on the first day, and a 10000 m time trial on the second day. The AA trial had significantly better performance in 5000 m (AA: 1065.7 ± 33.9 s; PL: 1100.5 ± 40.4 s) and 10000 m (AA: 2292.0 ± 211.3 s; PL: 2375.6 ± 244.2 s). The two trials reported similar ratings of perceived exertion. After exercise, the AA trial had significantly lower tryptophan/BCAA ratio, similar NH3, and significantly higher urea concentrations. In conclusion, the supplementation could enhance time-trial performance in two consecutive days in endurance runners, possibly through the inhibition of cerebral serotonin synthesis by BCAA and the prevention of excess hyperammonemia by increased urea genesis. Key points The combined supplementation of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline could enhance performance in 5000 m and 10000 m in 2 consecutive days in competitive runners. The supplementation may be helpful in multi-day competitions. The supplemented BCAA may alleviate central fatigue, allowing the subjects to run faster at the same degree of perceived exertion. The hyperammonemia that is usually accompanied with BCAA supplementation may be prevented by arginine and citrulline through increased urea genesis. PMID:27803630

  13. Improvement of development of equine preantral follicles after 6 days of in vitro culture with ascorbic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R G; Lisboa, L A; Silva, C B; Max, M C; Marino, P C; Oliveira, R L; González, S M; Barreiros, T R R; Marinho, L S R; Seneda, M M

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of ascorbic acid (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) in supplemented minimum essential medium (MEM+) on the development of equine preantral follicles that were cultured in vitro for 2 or 6 days. The contralateral ovaries (n = 5) from five mares in seasonal anestrus were collected from a local abattoir. Nine ovarian tissue fragments of approximately 5 × 5 × 1 mm were obtained from each animal. One fragment was immediately fixed and subjected to histologic analysis (control group; Day 0), and the other eight were placed in PBS supplemented with penicillin (200 IU/mL) and streptomycin (200 mg/mL) at 4 °C for 1 hour (during transport to the laboratory). The fragments were cultured in situ for 2 days (D2) or 6 days (D6) in MEM+ or MEM+ plus ascorbic acid at three different concentrations, establishing the following nine groups: control; MEM+ (D2); MEM+ (D6); MEM+ 25 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); MEM+ 25 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6); MEM+ 50 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); MEM+ 50 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6); MEM+ 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); and MEM+ 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6). The preantral follicles were classified according to their stage (primordial, primary, secondary, or antral) and their morphology (normal or abnormal). Slides (n = 951) including 4450 histologic sections were evaluated. Follicles were observed in only 4.85% (216 of 4450) of the histologic sections. Of the 407 follicles evaluated, 120 were in the primordial stage and 287 were in different developmental stages; additionally, 43.5% were morphologically normal. After 6 days of culture, the groups cultured with 50 and 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid differed in terms of follicular development compared with the other groups. On the basis of occurrence of follicular development and the presence of viable follicles, it can be concluded that a positive effect of culture for 6 days in MEM+ supplemented with 50 and 100 μg/mL of

  14. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Su, Lingqia; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V) activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C). Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C), superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C), and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C). Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG) to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA. PMID:27438707

  15. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Su, Lingqia; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V) activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C). Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C), superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C), and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C). Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG) to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA. PMID:27438707

  16. Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid as a dietary selenium supplement to improve the selenium concentration of table eggs.

    PubMed

    Jlali, M; Briens, M; Rouffineau, F; Mercerand, F; Geraert, P-A; Mercier, Y

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a new organic Se [2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA)] with routinely used mineral and organic Se sources (sodium selenite and selenized yeast) on chosen performance criteria and Se deposition in egg and muscle of laying hens. A total of 240 laying hens (40 wk of age) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments for 56 d with 8 replicates of 5 hens per replicate. The 6 treatments were as follows: control group received basal diet without Se supplementation; the second, fourth, and sixth experimental groups (SS-0.2, SY-0.2, and HMSeBA-0.2, respectively) were fed basal diet supplemented with Se at 0.2 mg/kg from sodium selenite, selenized yeast, and HMSeBA, respectively; and the third and fifth experimental groups (SY-0.1, and HMSeBA-0.1, respectively) were fed basal diet supplemented with Se at 0.1 mg/kg from selenized yeast and HMSeBA, respectively. No difference was observed among dietary treatments on feed intake, egg weight, and laying rate. All hens fed the Se-supplemented diets exhibited greater total Se contents in their eggs compared with control hens (P < 0.01). The egg Se concentrations were greater in hens fed organic Se (HMSeBA-0.2, P < 0.01, and SY-0.2, P < 0.01) than those fed the SS-0.2. In addition, hens fed the diet with HMSeBA-0.2 accumulated more Se in their eggs (+28.78%; P < 0.01) and muscles (+28%; P < 0.01) than those fed the diet supplemented with SY-0.2. These results showed the greater ability of HMSeBA to increase Se deposition in eggs and breast muscle of laying hens, which can subsequently lead to greater supply of Se for humans.

  17. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation improves neurologic recovery and attenuates white matter injury after experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hongjian; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Wenting; Huang, Lanting; Wang, Guohua; Liou, Anthony K; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Pengyue; Leak, Rehana K; Wang, Yun; Chen, Jun; Gao, Yanqin

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids is a safe, economical mean of preventive medicine that has shown protection against several neurologic disorders. The present study tested the hypothesis that this method is protective against controlled cortical impact (CCI). Indeed, mice fed with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet for 2 months exhibited attenuated short and long-term behavioral deficits due to CCI. Although ω-3 PUFAs did not decrease cortical lesion volume, these fatty acids did protect against hippocampal neuronal loss after CCI and reduced pro-inflammatory response. Interestingly, ω-3 PUFAs prevented the loss of myelin basic protein (MPB), preserved the integrity of the myelin sheath, and maintained the nerve fiber conductivity in the CCI model. ω-3 PUFAs also directly protected oligodendrocyte cultures from excitotoxicity and blunted the microglial activation-induced death of oligodendrocytes in microglia/oligodendrocyte cocultures. In sum, ω-3 PUFAs elicit multifaceted protection against behavioral dysfunction, hippocampal neuronal loss, inflammation, and loss of myelination and impulse conductivity. The present report is the first demonstration that ω-3 PUFAs protect against white matter injury in vivo and in vitro. The protective impact of ω-3 PUFAs supports the clinical use of this dietary supplement as a prophylaxis against traumatic brain injury and other nervous system disorders. PMID:23801244

  18. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance.

    PubMed

    Häberle, Johannes; Shahbeck, Noora; Ibrahim, Khalid; Schmitt, Bernhard; Scheer, Ianina; O'Gorman, Ruth; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2012-07-25

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition.Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia.In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  19. Six weeks' sebacic acid supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and glucose tolerance in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Membrez, M; Chou, C J; Raymond, F; Mansourian, R; Moser, M; Monnard, I; Ammon-Zufferey, C; Mace, K; Mingrone, G; Binnert, C

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the impact of chronic ingestion of sebacic acid (SA), a 10-carbon medium-chain dicarboxylic acid, on glycaemic control in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Three groups of 15 db/db mice were fed for 6 weeks either a chow diet (Ctrl) or a chow diet supplemented with 1.5 or 15% (SA1.5% and SA15%, respectively) energy from SA. Fasting glycaemia was measured once a week and HbA1c before and after supplementation. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the end of the supplementation. Gene expression was determined by transcriptomic analysis on the liver of the Ctrl and SA15% groups. Results: After 42 days of supplementation, fasting glycaemia and HbA1c were ∼70 and 25% lower in the SA15% group compared with the other groups showing a beneficial effect of SA on hyperglycaemia. During OGTT, plasma glucose area under the curve was reduced after SA15% compared with the other groups. This effect was associated with a tendency for an improved insulin response. In the liver, Pck1 and FBP mRNA were statistically decreased in the SA15% compared with Ctrl suggesting a reduced hepatic glucose output induced by SA. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of SA largely improves glycaemic control in a mouse model of T2D. This beneficial effect may be due to (i) an improved glucose-induced insulin secretion and (ii) a reduced hepatic glucose output. PMID:20977585

  20. α-Linolenic acid supplementation in BioXcell® extender can improve the quality of post-cooling and frozen-thawed bovine sperm.

    PubMed

    Kaka, Asmatullah; Wahid, Haron; Rosnina, Yusoff; Yimer, Nurhusien; Khumran, A M; Sarsaifi, Kazhal; Behan, Atique Ahmed; Kaka, Ubedullah; Ebrahimi, M

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing α-linolenic acid (ALA) into BioXcell(®) extender on post-cooling, post-thawed bovine spermatozoa and post thawed fatty acid composition. Twenty-four semen samples were collected from three bulls using an electro-ejaculator. Fresh semen samples were evaluated for general motility using computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA) whereas morphology and viability with eosin-nigrosin stain. Semen samples extended into BioXcell(®) were divided into five groups to which 0, 3, 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml of ALA were added, respectively. The treated samples were incubated at 37°C for 15 min for ALA uptake by sperm cells before being cooled for 2 h at 5°C. After evaluation, the cooled samples were packed into 0.25 ml straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24 h before thawing and evaluation for semen quality. Evaluation of cooled and frozen-thawed semen showed that the percentages of all the sperm parameters improved with 5 ng/ml ALA supplement. ALA was higher in all treated groups than control groups than control group. In conclusion, 5 ng/ml ALA supplemented into BioXcell(®) extender improved the cooled and frozen-thawed quality of bull spermatozoa.

  1. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids robustly promotes neurovascular restorative dynamics and improves neurological functions after stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hailian; Zhang, Hui; Leak, Rehana K; Shi, Yejie; Hu, Xiaoming; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disease with no satisfactory therapies to preserve long-term neurological function, perhaps due to the sole emphasis on neuronal survival in most preclinical studies. Recent studies have revealed the importance of protecting multiple cell types in the injured brain, such as oligodendrocytes and components of the neurovascular unit, before long-lasting recovery of function can be achieved. For example, revascularization in the ischemic penumbra is critical to provide various neurotrophic factors that enhance the survival and activity of neurons and other progenitor cells, such as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic dietary supplementation with fish oil promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, thereby leading to long-term functional improvements. Mice received dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil for three months before and up to one month after stroke. As expected, dietary n-3 PUFAs significantly increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the brain and improved long-term behavioral outcomes after cerebral ischemia. n-3 PUFAs also robustly improved revascularization and angiogenesis and boosted the survival of NeuN/BrdU labeled newborn neurons up to 35days after stroke injury. Furthermore, these pro-neurogenic effects were accompanied by robust oligodendrogenesis. Thus, this is the first study to demonstrate that chronic dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs is an effective prophylactic measure not only to protect against ischemic injury for the long term but also to actively promote neurovascular restorative dynamics and brain repair. PMID:25771800

  2. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  3. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  4. Acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular but not anabolic responses to amino acids in older men.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bethan E; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna; Limb, Marie C; Williams, John P; Smith, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The anabolic effects of nutrition on skeletal muscle may depend on adequate skeletal muscle perfusion, which is impaired in older people. Cocoa flavanols have been shown to improve flow-mediated dilation, an established measure of endothelial function. However, their effect on muscle microvascular blood flow is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore links between the consumption of cocoa flavanols, muscle microvascular blood flow, and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to nutrition in older men. To achieve this objective, leg blood flow (LBF), muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV), and MPS were measured under postabsorptive and postprandial (intravenous Glamin (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), dextrose to sustain glucose ∼7.5 mmol·L(-1)) conditions in 20 older men. Ten of these men were studied with no cocoa flavanol intervention and a further 10 were studied with the addition of 350 mg of cocoa flavanols at the same time that nutrition began. Leg (femoral artery) blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound, muscle MBV by contrast-enhanced ultrasound using Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, Mass., USA) perflutren contrast agent and MPS using [1, 2-(13)C2]leucine tracer techniques. Our results show that although older individuals do not show an increase in LBF or MBV in response to feeding, these absent responses are apparent when cocoa flavanols are given acutely with nutrition. However, this restoration in vascular responsiveness is not associated with improved MPS responses to nutrition. We conclude that acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular responses to nutrition, independently of modifying muscle protein anabolism.

  5. Acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular but not anabolic responses to amino acids in older men.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bethan E; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna; Limb, Marie C; Williams, John P; Smith, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The anabolic effects of nutrition on skeletal muscle may depend on adequate skeletal muscle perfusion, which is impaired in older people. Cocoa flavanols have been shown to improve flow-mediated dilation, an established measure of endothelial function. However, their effect on muscle microvascular blood flow is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore links between the consumption of cocoa flavanols, muscle microvascular blood flow, and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to nutrition in older men. To achieve this objective, leg blood flow (LBF), muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV), and MPS were measured under postabsorptive and postprandial (intravenous Glamin (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), dextrose to sustain glucose ∼7.5 mmol·L(-1)) conditions in 20 older men. Ten of these men were studied with no cocoa flavanol intervention and a further 10 were studied with the addition of 350 mg of cocoa flavanols at the same time that nutrition began. Leg (femoral artery) blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound, muscle MBV by contrast-enhanced ultrasound using Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, Mass., USA) perflutren contrast agent and MPS using [1, 2-(13)C2]leucine tracer techniques. Our results show that although older individuals do not show an increase in LBF or MBV in response to feeding, these absent responses are apparent when cocoa flavanols are given acutely with nutrition. However, this restoration in vascular responsiveness is not associated with improved MPS responses to nutrition. We conclude that acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular responses to nutrition, independently of modifying muscle protein anabolism. PMID:27120341

  6. Assessment of omega-fatty-acid-supplemented human platelets for potential improvement in long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurti, Chitra; Stewart, Michael W; Cutting, Mary A; Rothwell, Stephen W

    2002-01-15

    Uptake of omega (omega)-3 fatty acids can influence membrane stability and cell mobility. We investigated the effects of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on the hemostatic efficacy of human platelets using an in vivo rabbit bleeding model. In vitro assays such as platelet aggregation, vWF bead-mediated ATP release and platelet adhesion to beads (measured by the residual platelet count [RPC] [free platelet count after reacting with the beads]/[baseline platelet count]x 100=%RPC; a high %RPC indicates reduced platelet function) were conducted on platelets treated with 1% fish oil (omega-3); 2% fish oil emulsion or 1% soy oil (omega-6). Oil treatment of platelets reduced the vWF bead-induced ATP release insignificantly. Addition of omega-3 agents reduced physical reactivity (%RPC) with the vWF beads by a factor of 1.2 (oil) and 1.9 (emulsion). The omega-6 oil enhanced reactivity by a factor of 1.7. After washing to remove excess reagent, platelet resuspension was most efficient with the omega-3 emulsion. Platelet function was higher with the omega-3-treated platelets (%RPC=52.3%, omega-3 oil; 63.3%, omega-3 emulsion vs. 85%, omega-6 oil; 82% untreated platelets). Ethyl-palmitate-treated thrombocytopenic rabbits were infused with human platelets. Survival times of the treated platelets, as monitored by flow cytometry (6.2-8.2 h) were comparable to untreated platelets (8.6 h). In the rabbit kidney injury model, blood loss after infusion of the treated platelets was similar to that of saline-infused rabbits (75.3+/-3.4 g). However, platelets washed prior to infusion reduced blood loss to a value comparable to that of fresh platelets (48.3+/-5 g). Furthermore, the presence of the infused platelets at the injury site was clearly visualized using FITC-tagged anti CD42a antibody. Thus, the omega-3-based agents protect the platelets from damage during the washing procedure as demonstrated in vitro by improved platelet resuspension, low %RPC, high stimulus-responsive ATP secretion

  7. Hydrolyzed protein supplementation improves protein content and peroxidation of skeletal muscle by adjusting the plasma amino acid spectrums in rats after exhaustive swimming exercise: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydrolyzed protein supplementation upon skeletal muscle total protein and peroxidation in rats following exhaustive swimming exercise. Methods Twenty-four rats were randomized to 4 experimental groups (n = 6 per group): control group fed standard diet without exercise (SD), exercise (EX), exercise plus standard diet for 72 hours (EX + SD), and exercise plus standard diet supplemented with hydrolyzed protein (2 g/kg/d) for 72 hours (EX + HP). Immediately following exercise, the EX group was euthanized for collecting plasma and skeletal muscle samples. The EX + SD and EX + HP groups were fed their respective diets for 72 hour still plasma and skeletal muscle collection. Skeletal muscle samples were used to measure levels of total protein (TP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC). Plasma samples were used to analyze the amino acids spectrum. Results Compared with the EX + SD, EX + HP presented the significantly increased TP (P = 0.02) and decreased MDA and PC levels (P = 0.035). MDA was negatively correlated with the methionine levels. Moreover, EX + HP maintained higher levels of plasmaleucine, isoleucine, and methionine than EX + SD, which may be associated with the increased skeletal muscle TP levels observed (P < 0.05). Conclusions These results collectively suggest that hydrolyzed protein supplementation can improve skeletal muscle TP and ameliorate peroxidation damage in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise stress, which may be, at least in part, related with the maintenance of plasma leucine, isoleucine, and methionine levels. PMID:24565110

  8. Combination of soya pulp and Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 improves intestinal bile acid metabolism without impairing the effects of prebiotics in rats fed a cholic acid-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonmi; Yoshitsugu, Reika; Kikuchi, Keidai; Joe, Ga-Hyun; Tsuji, Misaki; Nose, Takuma; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Hara, Hiroshi; Minamida, Kimiko; Miwa, Kazunori; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing. The dietary supplementation of CA mimics the BA environment in diet-induced obesity and ageing. We investigated whether B. coagulans lilac-01 and soya pulp influence both BA metabolism and the maintenance of host health in CA-supplemented diet-fed rats. In CA-fed rats, soya pulp significantly increased the production of secondary BA such as deoxycholic acid and ω-muricholic acids, and soya pulp ingestion alleviated problems related to plasma adiponectin and gut permeability in rats fed the CA diet. The combination of B. coagulans and soya pulp successfully suppressed the increased production of secondary BA in CA-fed rats compared with soya pulp itself, without impairing the beneficial effects of soya pulp ingestion. In conclusion, it is possible that a combination of prebiotics and probiotics can be used to avoid an unnecessary increase in the production of secondary BA in the large intestine without impairing the beneficial functions of prebiotics. PMID:27464459

  9. Combination of soya pulp and Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 improves intestinal bile acid metabolism without impairing the effects of prebiotics in rats fed a cholic acid-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonmi; Yoshitsugu, Reika; Kikuchi, Keidai; Joe, Ga-Hyun; Tsuji, Misaki; Nose, Takuma; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Hara, Hiroshi; Minamida, Kimiko; Miwa, Kazunori; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing. The dietary supplementation of CA mimics the BA environment in diet-induced obesity and ageing. We investigated whether B. coagulans lilac-01 and soya pulp influence both BA metabolism and the maintenance of host health in CA-supplemented diet-fed rats. In CA-fed rats, soya pulp significantly increased the production of secondary BA such as deoxycholic acid and ω-muricholic acids, and soya pulp ingestion alleviated problems related to plasma adiponectin and gut permeability in rats fed the CA diet. The combination of B. coagulans and soya pulp successfully suppressed the increased production of secondary BA in CA-fed rats compared with soya pulp itself, without impairing the beneficial effects of soya pulp ingestion. In conclusion, it is possible that a combination of prebiotics and probiotics can be used to avoid an unnecessary increase in the production of secondary BA in the large intestine without impairing the beneficial functions of prebiotics.

  10. Folic acid supplementation lowers blood arsenic2

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Mary V; Liu, Xinhua; Slavkovich, Vesna; Pilsner, J Richard; Ilievski, Vesna; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Levy, Diane; Alam, Shafiul; Islam, Mominul; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure currently affects >100 million persons worldwide. Methylation of ingested inorganic arsenic (InAs) to monomethylarsonic (MMAs) and dimethylarsinic (DMAs) acids relies on folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and facilitates urinary arsenic elimination. Objective We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation to arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults would increase arsenic methylation and thereby lower total blood arsenic. Design In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated blood concentrations of total arsenic, InAs, MMAs, and DMAs in 130 participants with low plasma folate (<9 nmol/L) before and after 12 wk of supplementation with folic acid (400 μg/d) or placebo. Results MMAs in blood was reduced by a mean ± SE of 22.24 ± 2.86% in the folic acid supplementation group and by 1.24 ± 3.59% in the placebe group (P < 0.0001). There was no change in DMAs in blood; DMAs is rapidly excreted in urine as evidenced by an increase in urinary DMAs (P = 0.0099). Total blood arsenic was reduced by 13.62% in the folic acid supplementation group and by 2.49% in the placebo group (P = 0.0199). Conclusions Folic acid supplementation to participants with low plasma concentrations of folate lowered blood arsenic concentrations, primarily by decreasing blood MMAs and increasing urinary DMAs. Therapeutic strategies to facilitate arsenic methylation, particularly in populations with folate deficiency or hyperhomocysteinemia or both, may lower blood arsenic concentrations and thereby contribute to the prevention of arsenic-induced illnesses. PMID:17921403

  11. Dietary supplementation with glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid improves growth performance and serum parameters in 22- to 35-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Bai, X; Shah, A A; Wen, A Y; Hua, J L; Che, C Y; He, S J; Jiang, J P; Cai, Z H; Dai, S F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed using 360 21-day-old chicks to determine the influences of diet supplementation with glutamine (5 g/kg), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 100 mg/kg) or their combinations on performance and serum parameters exposed to cycling high temperatures. From 22 to 35 days, the experimental groups (2 × 2) were subjected to circular heat stress by exposing them to 30-34 °C cycling, while the positive control group was exposed to 23 °C constant. The blood of broilers was collected to detect serum parameters on days 28 and 35. Compared with the positive control group, the cycling high temperature decreased (p < 0.05) the feed consumption, weight gain and serum total protein (TP), glucose, thyroxine (T4), insulin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamine, GABA and glutamate levels, while increased (p < 0.05) the serum triglyceride (TG), corticosterone (CS), glucagon (GN), creatine kinase (CK), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels during 22-35 days. However, dietary glutamine (5 g/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the feed consumption, weight gain and serum levels of glutamine, TP, insulin and ALP, but decreased (p < 0.05) the serum TG, CK, GOT, NOS and GPT levels. Diet supplemented with GABA also increased (p < 0.05) weight gain and the serum levels of TP, T4, ALP, GABA and glutamine. In addition, the significant interactions (p < 0.05) between glutamine and GABA were found in the feed consumption, weight gain and the serum ALP, CK, LDH, GABA, T3 and T4 levels of heat-stressed chickens. This research indicated that dietary glutamine and GABA improved the antistress ability in performance and serum parameters of broilers under hot environment. PMID:25980810

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Ausdal, Wendy Van

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega-3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid). PMID:19173020

  13. Supplemental Instruction Improves Grades but Not Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oja, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a growing student support service used to offer students peer-guided activities to improve course learning. The current research was conducted to answer two research questions: 1) Do those who participate in SI perform better in their courses than those who do not attend SI? 2) Are those who participate in SI more…

  14. Versazyme supplementation of broiler diets improves market growth performance.

    PubMed

    Odetallah, N H; Wang, J J; Garlich, J D; Shih, J C H

    2005-06-01

    Day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 32 floor pens in a completely randomized block design and grown to 6 wk of age. Birds in experiment 1 were fed 1 of 2 basal diets supplemented with or without a protease containing feed additive, Versazyme (VZ). The 4 treatments were 1) control (C), a corn-soybean meal diet that contained 95% of amino acids recommended by NRC except for threonine and isoleucine; 2) C + 0.1% VZ (wt/wt) (C+) in the starter diet only; 3) high (HP) amino acid diet, a corn-soybean meal diet with 100 to 105% of amino acid recommended by NRC except for threonine and isoleucine; and 4) HP + 0.1% VZ (wt/wt) (HP+) in starter diet only. Supplementing both diets with VZ improved BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 21 d of age and BW at 42 d of age. Cumulative 42-d FCR was only improved in birds fed the HP+ diet. Birds in experiment 2 received the following treatments: 1) HP, 2) HP + 0.1% VZ batch A (wt/wt) (A) in starter diet only, and 3) HP + 0.1% VZ batch B (wt/wt) (B) in starter diet only. Enzyme supplementation improved 22-d BW and FCR. There was no significant difference in BW at 43 d of age. Both A and B improved overall FCR (1.758 and 1.751 vs. 1.79 for A and B vs. HP, respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of starter broiler diets with VZ resulted in improved market growth performance.

  15. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Mariana B.; Judis, María A.; Romero, Ana M.; Avallone, Carmen M.; Bertola, Nora C.

    2014-01-01

    Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA) profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA) content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran) and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF), soybeans flour (SF), or wheat bran (WB) was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF) in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile. PMID:25478592

  16. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  17. Metabolic supplementation with orotic acid and magnesium orotate.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, F L

    1998-09-01

    Orotic acid (OA), a naturally occurring substance, is a key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of pyrimidines. Previous investigations in the heart suggest that orotate can protect recently infarcted hearts against a further ischemic stress and may be beneficial in certain types of experimental cardiomyopathy. At the Hamburg symposium on magnesium orotate, a number of studies of this form of metabolic supplementation were presented that indicate orotic acid and its magnesium salt have a modest beneficial effect on the myocardium under conditions of stress ranging from myocardial infarction to severe physical exercise. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Orotic acid can improve the energy status of the recently infarcted myocardium (rat hearts). (2) Orotic acid may improve myocardial purine and pyrimidine levels by stimulating hepatic release of uridine into the bloodstream, which in turn augments depleted myocardial pyrimidines and purines (rat heart). (3) Orotic acid improves the tolerance of the recently infarcted heart to global ischemia (rats). (4) Magnesium orotate may reduce the severity of chronic myocardial dysfunction and structural damage in cardiomyopathy (cardiomyopathic hamsters). (5) Magnesium orotate may improve exercise tolerance in patients with coronary artery disease and in trained athletes (humans). (6) Magnesium orotate has only a weak inotropic effect, if any, on normal hearts (rats). (7) Further clinical testing is indicated to determine if the effects described could be of significant clinical benefit in the treatment of heart disease. PMID:9794088

  18. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  19. Carbohydrate supplementation improves stroke performance in tennis.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, L; Brouns, F; Hespel, P

    1998-08-01

    The effect of carbohydrate supplementation on stroke quality during prolonged simulated tennis match-play was investigated. Well-trained tennis palyers reported to the test center three times. At each occasion they performed a pretest, consisting of the leuven Tennis Performance Test (LTPT) and a shuttle run (SHR), which they repeated (posttest) after a 2-h strenuous training session. Throughout the test session, they received in a double blind random order either a placebo drink (P), a carbohydrate solution (0.7 gxkg(-1) BWxh(-1); CHO), or CHO plus a dose of caffeine (5 mg per kg BW). Stroke quality was evaluated during the LTPT by means of measurements of error rate, ball velocity, precision of ball placement, and a velocity-precision (VP) and a velocity-precision-error (VPE) index. Pretest scores were similar during P and CHO. During P, compared with the pretest, stroke quality during the posttest deteriorated (P < 0.05) both for the first service and strokes during defensive rallies and for SHR performance. However, compared with P, the increase in error rate and number of nonreached balls indefensive rallies was smaller (P < 0.05) during CHO. Similarily, CHO attenuated (P < 0.05) the increase in error rate and the decrease in both the VP (P < 0.1) and VPE (P < 0.05) indices for the first service upon fatigue. Furthermore, CHO improved posttest SHR performance. Stroke quality and SHR time were similar during CHO alone and during combined CHO plus caffeine administration, both for the pretest and for the pretest and for the posttest. It is concluded that CHO supplementation improves stroke quality during the final stages of prolonged tennis play. The data prove that CHO intake may facilitate the maintenance of physical quality during long-lasting intermittent exercise to fatigue. PMID:9710871

  20. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  1. [Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-07-24

    For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders.

  2. Oral administration of amino acidic supplements improves protein and energy profiles in skeletal muscle of aged rats: elongation of functional performance and acceleration of mitochondrial recovery in adenosine triphosphate after exhaustive exertion.

    PubMed

    Chen Scarabelli, Carol; McCauley, Roy B; Yuan, Zhaokan; Di Rezze, Justin; Patel, David; Putt, Jeff; Raddino, Riccardo; Allebban, Zuhair; Abboud, John; Scarabelli, Gabriele M; Chilukuri, Karuna; Gardin, Julius; Saravolatz, Louis; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

    2008-06-01

    Sarcopenia is an inevitable age-related degenerative process chiefly characterized by decreased synthesis of muscle proteins and impaired mitochondrial function, leading to progressive loss of muscle mass. Here, we sought to probe whether long-term administration of oral amino acids (AAs) can increase protein and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged rats, enhancing functional performance. To this end, 6- and 24-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were divided into 3 groups: group A (6-month-old rats) and group B (24-month-old rats) were used as adult and senescent control group, respectively, while group C (24-month-old rats) was used as senescent treated group and underwent 1-month oral treatment with a mixture of mainly essential AAs. Untreated senescent animals exhibited a 30% reduction in total and fractional protein content, as well as a 50% reduction in ATP content and production, compared with adult control rats (p <0.001). Long-term supplementation with mixed AAs significantly improved protein and high-energy phosphate content, as well as the rate of mitochondrial ATP production, conforming their values to those of adult control animals (p <0.001). The improved availability of protein and high-energy substrates in the gastrocnemius muscle of treated aged rats paralleled a significant enhancement in functional performance assessed by swim test, with dramatic elongation of maximal exertion times compared with untreated senescent rats (p <0.001). In line with these findings, we observed that, after 6 hours of rest following exhaustive swimming, the recovery in mitochondrial ATP content was approximately 70% in adult control rats, approximately 60% in senescent control rats, and normalized in treated rats as compared with animals of the same age unexposed to maximal exertion (p <0.001). In conclusion, nutritional supplementation with oral AAs improved protein and energy profiles in the gastrocnemius of treated rats, enhancing

  3. Copper utilization in humans as affected by amino acid supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Chuang, J.H.; Fox, H.M. )

    1989-02-09

    Earlier work suggests that absorption of copper as well as several other mineral nutrients may be promoted, inhibited or unaffected by the formation of mineral-amino acid complexes. The objective of the current project was to determine effects of low level supplements of selected amino acids on copper utilization. In a series of studies, healthy, human adult subjected received a basal diet with or without test supplements in separate 14-day periods which were arranged according to a randomized, cross-over design. Test amino acids and amounts given per subject per day were as follows; L-arginine, 1.2 g; L-lysine, 1.0 g; L-cystine, 1.0 g and L-methionine, 1.0 g. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools. Fasting blood samples were drawn. Food, urine, feces and blood were analyzed for copper contents using a carbon rod attachment on a Varian atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fecal copper losses were unaffected by used of lysine, tryptophan and methionine supplements but were reduced with use of the arginine and cystine supplements. Urine losses of copper were reduced with used of the lysine and tryptophan supplements, were increased with the methionine and cystine supplements and were unaffected when the arginine supplements were employed. Blood serum copper levels were not significantly affected by use of these supplement although some trends were noted.

  4. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  5. School Improvement Network Directory: 1992 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipe, Linda, Comp.

    This directory supplement provides information about 211 schools (in British Columbia, Department of Defense Dependent Schools--Panama, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Oregon, Pacific Jurisdictions, Washington, and Wyoming) working with the school-based management process Onward to Excellence (OTE), which seeks to…

  6. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA in WP-USA supplements, as compared to the WP-BRA supplements; however, there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  7. Folic acid supplementation for 4 weeks affects liver morphology in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Roncalés, María; Achón, María; Manzarbeitia, Félix; Maestro de las Casas, Carmen; Ramírez, Carmen; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Julia

    2004-05-01

    Several countries have approved universal folic acid (FA) fortification to prevent neural tube defects and/or high homocysteine levels; this has led to a chronic intake of FA. Traditionally, the vitamin is considered to be safe and nontoxic, except for the potential masking of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Recent reports from our laboratories showed several effects of high-dose folate supplementation in rats. In this work, we compared the effect of FA on the liver of weanling (3 wk) and aged (18 mo) male rats fed either a diet supplemented with 40 mg FA/kg diet or a control diet (1 mg FA/kg diet) for 4 wk. FA supplementation did not alter serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, glucose oxidase, total bilirubin, or uric acid. Routine histological staining as well as immunohistochemistry with proliferating cell nuclear antibody for dividing cells, and cytokeratin-8 against bile ductal cells, showed that aged, supplemented rats had the same number of hepatocytes as both control and supplemented weanling rats, and tended to have more (17%, P = 0.07) hepatocytes than aged, control rats. Moreover, the bile duct cells of aged, control rats proliferated and transformed into cholestatic rosettes at a higher frequency than in aged, supplemented rats. The morphology of the liver in weanling rats was similar in both diet groups, and comparable to the supplemented, aged rats, thus indicating that a high intake of FA improves normal liver morphology in livers of aged rats.

  8. Cerebral folate deficiency: life-changing supplementation with folinic acid.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Flemming Juul; Blau, Nenad

    2005-04-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency is characterized by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and a broad spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. A patient with progressive spasticity, gait disturbance, speech difficulties, initially diagnosed as a recessive spastic paraplegia recovered on folinic acid (15-30 mg/day) and her 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in CSF normalized. This report demonstrates the importance of CSF investigation in the diagnosis of cerebral folate deficiency and efficiency of folinic acid (5-formyltetrahydrofolate) supplementation. PMID:15781200

  9. Fermentanomics informed amino acid supplementation of an antibody producing mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Read, Erik K; Bradley, Scott A; Smitka, Tim A; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Lute, Scott C; Brorson, Kurt A

    2013-01-01

    Fermentanomics, or a global understanding of a culture state on the molecular level empowered by advanced techniques like NMR, was employed to show that a model hybridoma culture supplied with glutamine and glucose depletes aspartate, cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, and tyrosine during antibody production. Supplementation with these amino acids prevents depletion and improves culture performance. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the distribution of glycans attached to the IgG3 in cultures supplemented with specific amino acids, arguing that this strategy can be implemented without fear of impact on important product quality attributes. In summary, a targeted strategy of quantifying media components and designing a supplementation strategy can improve bioprocess cell cultures when enpowered by fermentanomics tools.

  10. Dietary Lecithin Supplementation Can Improve the Quality of the M. Longissimus thoracis

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Darryl N.; Blake, Bronwyn L.; Williams, Ian H.; Mullan, Bruce P.; Pethick, David W.; Dunshea, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Meat tenderness and texture can be influenced by the connective tissue content. Dietary lecithin offers a means of improving fat digestibility of pigs and reducing the connective tissue of pork. This feeding study confirmed that dietary lecithin decreased the chewiness and improved the fatty acid composition of pork without impacting on growth performance of pigs. Therefore, dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork. Abstract Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) female pigs (16.4 kg ± 0.94 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin supplementation on growth performance and pork quality. Pigs were randomly allocated to a commercial diet containing either 0, 3, 15 or 75 g lecithin/kg of feed during the grower and finisher growth phase. Pork from pigs consuming the diets containing 15 g and 75 g lecithin/kg had lower hardness (P < 0.001) and chewiness (P < 0.01) values compared to the controls. Dietary lecithin supplementation at 75 g/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05) the linoleic acid and reduced (P < 0.05) the myristic acid levels of pork compared to the control and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. Pigs fed the 75 g/kg lecithin supplemented diet had lower plasma cholesterol (P < 0.05) at slaughter compared to pigs fed the control diet and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork from female pigs. PMID:26610579

  11. Folic acid supplement use is the most significant predictor of folate concentrations in Canadian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; O'Connor, Deborah L; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-04-01

    One-fifth of Canadian women of childbearing age (WCBA) have red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations below those considered optimal for neural tube defect risk reduction (≥906 nmol·L(-1)). Determinants of optimal concentrations have not been examined in a nationally representative sample of Canadian WCBA since food fortification with folic acid was implemented. This study explored correlates of optimal RBC folate concentrations and characteristics of folic acid supplement users in a sample of Canadian WCBA. RBC folate concentrations from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey were assessed in women aged 15 to 45 years (n = 1162). Sociodemographic, behavioural, and clinical determinants of RBC folate ≥906 nmol·L(-1) were examined using univariate and separate multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age and household income. t tests were used to study differences between folic acid supplement users and nonusers. WCBA not taking folic acid supplements were less likely to achieve a RBC folate concentration ≥906 nmol·L(-1) compared with folic acid supplement users (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24, 0.92). Twenty-five percent of WCBA reported folic acid supplement use, and there was a higher percentage of folic acid supplement users in the highest income group. Folic acid supplement users were also more frequent consumers of supplemental vitamin B(12) and of fruit and vegetables (>3 times per day). Folic acid supplement use was the most significant predictor of WCBA achieving optimal RBC folate concentrations. These results indicate a need for targeted strategies to improve compliance with folic acid supplement recommendations among WCBA.

  12. Three Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Means-End Problem Solving in 9-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drover, James; Hoffman, Dennis R.; Castaneda, Yolanda S.; Morale, Sarah E.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether feeding infants formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) improves cognitive function of 9-month-olds. Participants included 229 infants from 3 randomized controlled trials. Children received either formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, or a control formula…

  13. Leucine supplementation improves regeneration of skeletal muscles from old rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcelo G; Silva, Meiricris T; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Moriscot, Anselmo S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miyabara, Elen H

    2015-12-01

    The decreased regenerative capacity of old skeletal muscles involves disrupted turnover of proteins. This study investigated whether leucine supplementation in old rats could improve muscle regenerative capacity. Young and old male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine; then, the muscles were cryolesioned and examined after 3 and 10 days. Leucine supplementation attenuated the decrease in the expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in young and old muscles on day 3 post-injury and promoted an increase in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers from both young and old soleus muscles on day 10 post-injury. This supplementation decreased the levels of ubiquitinated proteins and increased the proteasome activity in young regenerating muscles, but the opposite effect was observed in old regenerating muscles. Moreover, leucine decreased the inflammation area and induced an increase in the number of proliferating satellite cells in both young and old muscles. Our results suggest that leucine supplementation improves the regeneration of skeletal muscles from old rats, through the preservation of certain biological responses upon leucine supplementation. Such responses comprise the decrease in the inflammation area, increase in the number of proliferating satellite cells and size of regenerating myofibers, combined with the modulation of components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  14. Amino acid mixture improves training efficiency in athletes.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Masaru; Sugita, Masaaki; Maruyama, Kimiaki

    2006-02-01

    This review discusses some of the beneficial effects of a dietary amino acid supplement on muscle function, fatigue, and recovery in exercising athletes. The supplement, a mixture of amino acids that included the branched-chain amino acids, arginine and glutamine, was studied chronically at several daily dose levels for extended periods of time (10, 30, and 90 d). Outcome variables included physical measures of muscle strength, fatigue and damage, and blood indices of muscle damage and oxygen-carrying capacity. One beneficial effect of the amino acid supplement was a quicker recovery from the muscle fatigue that followed eccentric exercise training. A dose-response study of the amino acid mixture at 2.2, 4.4, and 6.6 g/d for 1 mo showed that at the highest dose, indices of blood oxygen-carrying capacity were increased and those of muscle damage were decreased at the end of the trial. When the amino acid mixture was given for 90 d to elite rugby players during training at a dose of 7.2 g/d, a blood-component analysis indicated improvements in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Together, the studies suggest that the amino acid supplement contributed to an improvement in training efficiency through positive effects on muscle integrity and hematopoiesis. PMID:16424143

  15. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

  16. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

  17. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, Maria J; Veldhuizen, Maria G; de Araujo, Ivan E; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers.

  18. Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status.

    PubMed

    de Brito-Ashurst, Ione; Varagunam, Mira; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2009-09-01

    Bicarbonate supplementation preserves renal function in experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether the same benefit occurs in humans is unknown. Here, we randomly assigned 134 adult patients with CKD (creatinine clearance [CrCl] 15 to 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and serum bicarbonate 16 to 20 mmol/L to either supplementation with oral sodium bicarbonate or standard care for 2 yr. The primary end points were rate of CrCl decline, the proportion of patients with rapid decline of CrCl (>3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/yr), and ESRD (CrCl <10 ml/min). Secondary end points were dietary protein intake, normalized protein nitrogen appearance, serum albumin, and mid-arm muscle circumference. Compared with the control group, decline in CrCl was slower with bicarbonate supplementation (5.93 versus 1.88 ml/min 1.73 m(2); P < 0.0001). Patients supplemented with bicarbonate were significantly less likely to experience rapid progression (9 versus 45%; relative risk 0.15; 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.40; P < 0.0001). Similarly, fewer patients supplemented with bicarbonate developed ESRD (6.5 versus 33%; relative risk 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.40; P < 0.001). Nutritional parameters improved significantly with bicarbonate supplementation, which was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of progression of renal failure to ESRD and improves nutritional status among patients with CKD.

  19. High Physiological Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dangardt, Frida; Chen, Yun; Gronowitz, Eva; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Friberg, Peter; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14–17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 months each with a six-week washout period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and lipids were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed, and skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and total omega-3 PUFA in muscle phospholipids increased in both sexes. In the females, omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation improved glucose tolerance by 39% (P = 0.04) and restored insulin concentration by 34% (P = 0.02) during IVGTT. Insulin sensitivity improved 17% (P = 0.07). In males, none of these parameters was influenced by omega-3 supplementation. Thus, three months of supplementation of omega-3 LCPUFA improved glucose and insulin homeostasis in obese girls without influencing body weight. PMID:22523671

  20. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    PubMed

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes.

  1. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    PubMed

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes. PMID:21761236

  2. Leucine supplementation improves skeletal muscle regeneration after cryolesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcelo G; Baptista, Igor L; Carlassara, Eduardo O C; Moriscot, Anselmo S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miyabara, Elen H

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to provide further insight into the role of leucine supplementation in the skeletal muscle regeneration process, focusing on myofiber size and strength recovery. Young (2-month-old) rats were subjected or not to leucine supplementation (1.35 g/kg per day) started 3 days prior to cryolesion. Then, soleus muscles were cryolesioned and continued receiving leucine supplementation until 1, 3 and 10 days later. Soleus muscles from leucine-supplemented animals displayed an increase in myofiber size and a reduction in collagen type III expression on post-cryolesion day 10. Leucine was also effective in reducing FOXO3a activation and ubiquitinated protein accumulation in muscles at post-cryolesion days 3 and 10. In addition, leucine supplementation minimized the cryolesion-induced decrease in tetanic strength and increase in fatigue in regenerating muscles at post-cryolesion day 10. These beneficial effects of leucine were not accompanied by activation of any elements of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway in the regenerating muscles. Our results show that leucine improves myofiber size gain and strength recovery in regenerating soleus muscles through attenuation of protein ubiquitination. In addition, leucine might have therapeutic effects for muscle recovery following injury and in some muscle diseases.

  3. Effects of extruded linseed supplementation on n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk and cheese from ewes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Bach, A; Luna, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of extruded linseed on animal performance and fatty acid (FA) profile of ewe milk for the production of n-3 FA- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched cheeses. A Manchega ewe flock (300 animals) receiving a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet was divided into 3 groups supplemented with 0, 6, and 12 g of extruded linseed/100 g of dry matter for the control, low, and high extruded linseed diets, respectively. Bulk and individual milk samples from 5 dairy ewes per group were monitored at 7, 14, 28, 45, and 60 d following supplementation. Manchego cheeses were made with bulk milk from the 3 treatment groups. Milk yield increased in dairy ewes receiving extruded linseed. Milk protein, fat, and total solids contents were not affected by linseed supplementation. Milk contents of alpha-linolenic acid increased from 0.36 with the control diet to 1.91% total FA with the high extruded linseed diet. Similarly, cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 rose from 0.73 to 2.33% and its precursor in the mammary gland, trans-11 C18:1, increased from 1.55 to 5.76% of total FA. This pattern occurred with no significant modification of the levels of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10 cis-12 C18:2 FA. Furthermore, the high extruded linseed diet reduced C12:0 (-30%), C14:0 (-15%) and C16:0 (-28%), thus significantly diminishing the atherogenicity index of milk. The response to linseed supplementation was persistently maintained during the entire study. Acceptability attributes of n-3-enriched versus control cheeses ripened for 3 mo were not affected. Therefore, extruded linseed supplementation seems a plausible strategy to improve animal performance and nutritional quality of dairy lipids in milk and cheese from ewes. PMID:19700673

  4. Maternal zinc supplementation improves spatial memory in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2012-06-01

    A large body of evidence supports an opinion that adequate dietary zinc is essential for prenatal and postnatal brain development. Behavioural effects of maternal supplementation with ZnSO(4) were analysed in rat pups with the Morris water task performance, a hole board and a T-maze. Wistar females during pregnancy and lactation received a drinking water solution of ZnSO(4) at doses of 16 mg/kg (group Zn16) or 32 mg/kg (group Zn32). Behavioural tests were conducted on the 4-week-old male rat pups. Zinc concentration in the serum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of offsprings was determined by means of atomic absorption techniques. The Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test revealed an increase of climbing in the Zn16 group in comparison to the control group (Con) and the Zn32 group during the hole board test. ANOVA for repeated measures showed a significant memory improvement in both supplemented groups compared to the control in the probe trial on day 5 of the water maze test. ZnSO(4) treatment significantly elevated zinc levels in the rat serum. Follow-up data on brain content of zinc in the hippocampus revealed significant differences between the groups and in supplemented groups correlated with crossings above the original platform position. These findings suggest that pre- and postnatal zinc supplementation may improve cognitive development in rats.

  5. Glutamine supplementation does not improve protein synthesis rate by the jejunal mucosa of the malnourished rat.

    PubMed

    Tannus, Andrea Ferreira S; Darmaun, Dominique; Ribas, Durval F; Oliveira, José Eduardo D; Marchini, Julio Sergio

    2009-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that glutamine, a conditionally essential amino acid, improves nitrogen balance, acts as a stimulant of protein synthesis, and decreases proteolysis in myopathic children. In contrast, other studies have shown no beneficial effect of glutamine supplementation on burn victims or critically ill patients. Nonetheless, we hypothesized that glutamine supplementation would increase the fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR) in the jejunal mucosa of malnourished male Wistar rats. Thus, the objective of the present study was to test the effect of daily oral glutamine supplementation (0.42 g kg(-1) d(-1) for 14 days) on the FSR of the jejunal mucosa of healthy and malnourished rats. A 4-hour kinetic study with l-[1-(13)C]leucine was subsequently performed, and jejunal biopsies were obtained 1.5 cm from the Treitz angle and analyzed. Malnourished rats showed a 25% weight loss and increased urinary nitrogen excretion. Plasma amino acid concentration did not differ between groups. (13)C enrichment in plasma and jejunal cells was higher in the malnourished groups than in the healthy group. The FSR (percent per hour) was similar for the control and experimental groups (P > .05), with a mean range of 22%/h to 27%/h. Oral glutamine supplementation alone did not induce higher protein incorporation by the jejunal mucosa in malnourished rats, regardless of total food intake or the presence or absence of glutamine supplementation.

  6. Leucine supplementation improves muscle protein synthesis in elderly men independently of hyperaminoacidaemia

    PubMed Central

    Rieu, Isabelle; Balage, Michèle; Sornet, Claire; Giraudet, Christophe; Pujos, Estelle; Grizard, Jean; Mosoni, Laurent; Dardevet, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and whole body protein kinetics in elderly individuals. Twenty healthy male subjects (70 ± 1 years) were studied before and after continuous ingestion of a complete balanced diet supplemented or not with leucine. A primed (3.6 μmol kg−1) constant infusion (0.06 μmol kg−1 min−1) of l-[1-13C]phenylalanine was used to determine whole body phenylalanine kinetics as well as fractional synthesis rate (FSR) in the myofibrillar fraction of muscle proteins from vastus lateralis biopsies. Whole body protein kinetics were not affected by leucine supplementation. In contrast, muscle FSR, measured over the 5-h period of feeding, was significantly greater in the volunteers given the leucine-supplemented meals compared with the control group (0.083 ± 0.008 versus 0.053 ± 0.009% h−1, respectively, P < 0.05). This effect was due only to increased leucine availability because only plasma free leucine concentration significantly differed between the control and leucine-supplemented groups. We conclude that leucine supplementation during feeding improves muscle protein synthesis in the elderly independently of an overall increase of other amino acids. Whether increasing leucine intake in old people may limit muscle protein loss during ageing remains to be determined. PMID:16777941

  7. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  8. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. PMID:27472154

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  10. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects. PMID:27757381

  11. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-01

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (p<0.01) and both of them were less so after taurine was supplemented (p<0.01). 2) Transmission electron microscopy revealed that brain cortex structures were sparse IUGR rats, showing many scattered apoptotic cells, decreased numbers of synapses, lower glial cell proliferation, and fewer neurons, more sparsely arranged, while these factors were significantly improved with taurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (p<0.001). 4) The results of immunohistochemistry showed that antenatal taurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (p<0.001). It can be concluded that it IUGR has a significant detrimental influence on the development of fetal rat brains, and antenatal supplement of taurine can significantly improve the IUGR

  12. Impact of folic acid supplementation on single- and double-stranded RNA degradation in human colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jevtoci-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Langerholc, Tomaz; Jonovic, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Sufficient intake of folic acid is necessary for normal embryogenesis, fetal, and neonatal development. Folic acid facilitates nucleic acid internalization, and protects cellular DNA from nuclease degradation. Human milk contains enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, and antibodies, along with macrophages, that protect against infections and allergies. However, little to no information is available on the effects of folic acid supplementation on degradation of nucleic acids in human milk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the RNase activity (free and inhibitor-bound) in colostrum and mature milk, following folic acid supplementation. The study design included a total of 59 women, 27 of whom received 400 μg of folic acid daily periconceptionally and after. Folic acid supplementation increased the free RNase and polyadenylase activity following lactation. However, the increased RNase activity was not due to de novo enzyme synthesis, as the inhibitor-bound (latent) RNase activity was significantly lower and disappeared after one month. Folic acid reduced RNase activity by using double-stranded RNA as substrate. Data suggests that folic acid supplementation may improve viral RNAs degradation and mRNA degradation, but not dsRNA degradation, preserving in this way the antiviral defense.

  13. Fatty acid profile and proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells after conjugated linoleic acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are in focus of dairy cattle research because of its milk fat reducing effects. Little is known about the impact of CLA on immune function in dairy cows. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of a long term supplementation of dairy cows with CLA on the fatty acid profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their proliferation ex vivo. Results The supplementation of dairy cows with either 100 g/d of a control fat preparation (CON, n = 15), 50 g/d of the control fat preparation and 50 g/d CLA supplement – containing 12.0% cis-9, trans-11 and 11.9% trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acid methyl esters – (CLA-50, n = 15) or 100 g/d of the CLA supplement (CLA-100, n = 16) did not influence the major fatty acids (C18:0, C16:0, cis-9 C18:1, cis-9, cis-12 C18:2, cis-5, cis-8, cis-11, cis-14 C20:4) in the lipid fraction of PBMC. The proportion of trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acids was increased in both CLA supplemented groups, but there was no effect on the cis-9, trans-11 isomer. Furthermore, the proportion of trans-9 C18:1 and cis-12 C24:1 was reduced in the CLA-100 group. The mitogen stimulated cell proliferation was not influenced by CLA feeding. Conclusion CLA supplementation influenced the FA profile of some minor FA in PBMC, but these changes did not lead to differences in the mitogen induced activation of the cells. PMID:22668674

  14. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; Kim, G. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  15. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  16. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2012-10-01

    Piglets with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or with normal birth weight (NBW) were selected to evaluate the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis and mitochondrial function. During gestation, primiparous Yorkshire sows were fed a Control diet (folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or a folic acid-supplemented diet (folic acid 30 mg/kg) with 16 replicates per diet. During the 28-d lactation period, sows were fed a common diet. Compared with NBW piglets, hepatic ATP concentrations and mtDNA contents were decreased in IUGR piglets. Furthermore, IUGR piglets exhibited lower membrane potential and decreased oxygen consumption in liver mitochondria, but these parameters were not affected by maternal folic acid supplementation. Intrauterine growth retardation decreased mRNA expression abundance of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, uncoupling protein 3, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and IV. Impaired antioxidant capacity characterised by increased malondialdehyde content and decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase activity was also observed in IUGR pigs. In IUGR piglets, however, nearly all of these parameters were normalised to the level of NBW piglets when the maternal diet was supplemented with folic acid during pregnancy. Hence, maternal folic acid supplementation was proved to be an effective way to reverse the changes in gene expressions in IUGR pigs, which provided a possible nutritional strategy to improve growth development of IUGR individuals.

  17. Phenylalanine supplementation improves the phenylalanine profile in tyrosinaemia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C J; Van Wyk, K G; Leonard, J V; Clayton, P T

    2000-11-01

    Tyrosinaemia types I and II are caused by enzyme deficiencies in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. Successful treatment is possible with the novel enzyme inhibitor NTBC in tyrosinaemia type I and with dietary tyrosine and phenylalanine restriction in both conditions. This is achieved with a low natural protein intake and a supplementary amino acid formula that is phenylalanine- and tyrosine-free. Patients on this regimen had been noted, periodically, to have very low plasma phenylalanine concentrations (<20 micromol/L). The tyrosine and phenylalanine profiles in six patients were measured. Five of the six patients had very low concentrations of phenylalanine during the later half of the day. The response to phenylalanine supplementation was assessed and supplementing the diet with phenylalanine 30-40 mg/kg per day resulted in normal concentrations throughout the day. Possible complications of hypophenylalaninaemia and potential preventive treatment strategies are discussed. Further studies are needed to investigate the longer-term clinical and biochemical consequences of phenylalanine supplementation.

  18. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and energy metabolism in rats supplemented with chlorogenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Zhou, Yan; Wen, Yanmei; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Assaad, Houssein; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) supplementation on serum and hepatic metabolomes in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either CGA (60 mg/kg body weight) or distilled water (control) for 4 weeks. Growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, and hepatic morphology were measured. Additionally, serum and liver tissue extracts were analyzed for metabolomes by high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and multivariate statistics. CGA did not affect rat growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, or hepatic morphology. However, supplementation with CGA decreased serum concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, succinate, citrate, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, while increasing serum concentrations of glycine and hepatic concentrations of glutathione. These results suggest that CGA supplementation results in perturbation of energy and amino acid metabolism in rats. We suggest that glycine and glutathione in serum may be useful biomarkers for biological properties of CGA on nitrogen metabolism in vivo. PMID:24927697

  19. Association of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and infant bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Dorris, Stacy L; Mitchel, Edward F; Hartert, Tina V; Cooper, William O; Tylavsky, Frances A; Dupont, William; Hartman, Terryl J; Carroll, Kecia N

    2014-04-15

    Viral bronchiolitis affects 20%-30% of infants; because there is no known effective treatment, it is important to identify risk factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. Although adequate folate intake during the periconceptional period prevents neural tube defects, animal data suggest that higher supplementation may be a risk factor for child respiratory diseases. Using a population-based retrospective cohort of 167,333 women and infants, born in 1995-2007 and enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program, we investigated the association between the filling of folic acid-containing prescriptions and infant bronchiolitis. We categorized women into the following 4 groups in relation to the first trimester: "none" (no prescription filled), "first trimester only," "after first trimester," and "both" (prescriptions filled both during and after the first trimester). Overall, 21% of infants had a bronchiolitis diagnosis, and 5% were hospitalized. Most women filled their first prescriptions after the fifth to sixth weeks of pregnancy, and most prescriptions contained 1,000 µg of folic acid. Compared with infants born to women in the "none" group, infants born to women in the "first trimester only" group had higher relative odds of bronchiolitis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22) and greater severity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22). This study's findings contribute to an understanding of the implications of prenatal nutritional supplement recommendations for infant bronchiolitis.

  20. Folic acid supplementation and IVF pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Murto, T; Skoog Svanberg, A; Yngve, A; Nilsson, T K; Altmäe, S; Wånggren, K; Salumets, A; Stavreus-Evers, A

    2014-06-01

    Folic acid supplements are commonly used by infertile women which leads to a positive folate status. However, the effect of folic acid supplements on pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility has not been well investigated. This study evaluated folic acid supplement use and folate status in women with unexplained infertility in relation to IVF pregnancy outcome. In addition, use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile, nonpregnant control women. Women with unexplained infertility used significantly more folic acid supplements and had higher median total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women (both P < 0.001). Women with unexplained infertility also had significantly higher median plasma folate and lower median plasma homocysteine concentrations than fertile women (both P < 0.001), but folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility. In conclusion, folic acid supplementation or good folate status did not have a positive effect on pregnancy outcome following infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Folate is one of the B vitamins which has been suggested to be related to infertility. Folic acid is an artificial form of folate which is commonly used in dietary supplements. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to increase folate concentrations and decrease concentrations of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid supplementation is commonly used by infertile women, but the effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, folic acid supplement use and folate status (concentrations of folate and homocysteine) in women with unexplained infertility were evaluated in relation to pregnancy outcome. In addition, the use of folic acid supplements and folate

  1. Maternal choline supplementation: a nutritional approach for improving offspring health?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyin; West, Allyson A; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-05-01

    The modulatory role of choline on the fetal epigenome and the impact of in utero choline supply on fetal programming and health are of great interest. Studies in animals and/or humans suggest that maternal choline supplementation during pregnancy benefits important physiologic systems such as offspring cognitive function, response to stress, and cerebral inhibition. Because alterations in offspring phenotype frequently coincide with epigenetic modifications and changes in gene expression, maternal choline supplementation may be a nutritional strategy to improve lifelong health of the child. Future studies are warranted to elucidate further the effect of choline on the fetal epigenome and to determine the level of maternal choline intake required for optimal offspring physiologic function. PMID:24680198

  2. Maternal choline supplementation: a nutritional approach for improving offspring health?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyin; West, Allyson A; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-05-01

    The modulatory role of choline on the fetal epigenome and the impact of in utero choline supply on fetal programming and health are of great interest. Studies in animals and/or humans suggest that maternal choline supplementation during pregnancy benefits important physiologic systems such as offspring cognitive function, response to stress, and cerebral inhibition. Because alterations in offspring phenotype frequently coincide with epigenetic modifications and changes in gene expression, maternal choline supplementation may be a nutritional strategy to improve lifelong health of the child. Future studies are warranted to elucidate further the effect of choline on the fetal epigenome and to determine the level of maternal choline intake required for optimal offspring physiologic function.

  3. Responses to n-3 fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of gestating gilts, and lactating and weaned sows.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Patterson, J L; Webel, S K; Spencer, J D; Cameron, A C; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-05-01

    Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P

  4. Hydrogen Supplementation of Preservation Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takuya; Onuma, Kenji; Kuzuno, Jun; Ujihira, Masanobu; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Sakai, Rina; Takaso, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Allogenic osteochondral tissue (OCT) is used for the treatment of large cartilage defects. Typically, OCTs collected during the disease-screening period are preserved at 4°C; however, the gradual reduction in cell viability during cold preservation adversely affects transplantation outcomes. Therefore, improved storage methods that maintain the cell viability of OCTs are needed to increase the availability of high-quality OCTs and improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether long-term hydrogen delivery to preservation solution improved the viability of rat OCTs during cold preservation. Hydrogen-supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution both significantly improved the cell viability of OCTs during preservation at 4°C for 21 days compared to nonsupplemented media. However, the long-term cold preservation of OCTs in DMEM containing hydrogen was associated with the most optimal maintenance of chondrocytes with respect to viability and morphology. Our findings demonstrate that OCTs preserved in DMEM supplemented with hydrogen are a promising material for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:25506061

  5. Choline supplementation alters some amino acid concentrations with no change in homocysteine in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, Belal; Schall, Joan I; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria; Bennett, Michael J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2016-05-01

    The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months. We hypothesized that choline supplementation would result in lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in children with CF. At baseline, dietary protein intake was high and the amino acid profile was within laboratory reference ranges in most participants. Alanine and cysteine were elevated in 24% and 36% of participants, respectively. Children with baseline alanine above reference range had improved weight, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Low homocysteine was found in 62% of children 11 years and older. After 3 and 12 months, there was no effect of choline supplementation on methionine or homocysteine status. Compared with placebo, choline supplementation resulted in increased glycine and decreased threonine, histidine, valine, and total branch chained amino acids at 12 months. In conclusion, daily choline supplementation with LYM-X-SORB did not alter methionine-homocysteine metabolism but did result in alterations in other amino acids in children with CF and PI.

  6. Omega—3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, Elizabeth; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the value of Omega—3 (n—3) fatty acid supplementation for treatment of ADHD remains high. No prior meta-analysis has examined whether ADHD is associated with alterations in blood lipid levels and meta-analyses of supplementation have reached conflicting conclusions. Methods We report two new meta-analyses. Study 1 examined blood levels of Omega—3 fatty acids in relation to ADHD. Study 2 examined a larger sample of randomized intervention trials than previously reported. Results Study 1 included 9 studies (n = 586) and found lower overall blood levels of n—3 in individuals with ADHD versus controls (g = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26–0.59; p < .001). Study 2 included 16 studies (n = 1408) and found that n—3 supplementation improved ADHD composite symptoms; using the best available rating and reporter (g = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.15–0.37; p < .001). Supplementation showed reliable effects on hyperactivity by parent and teacher report, but reliable effects for inattention only by parent report. Conclusions Omega—3 levels are reduced in children with ADHD. Dietary supplementation appears to create modest improvements in symptoms. There is sufficient evidence to consider Omega—3 fatty acids as a possible supplement to established therapies. However it remains unclear whether such intervention should be confined to children with below normal blood levels. PMID:25181335

  7. Folic acid supplementation during early hepatocarcinogenesis: cellular and molecular effects.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Carlos Eduardo Andrade; Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; de Souza, Camila Alexandre Soares; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Paiva, Sérgio Alberto Rupp; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2011-11-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation during carcinogenesis is controversial. Considering the impact of liver cancer as a public health problem and mandatory FA fortification in several countries, the role of FA supplementation in hepatocarcinogenesis should be elucidated. We evaluated FA supplementation during early hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats received daily 0.08 mg (FA8 group) or 0.16 mg (FA16 group) of FA/100 g body weight or water (CO group, controls). After a 2-week treatment, animals were subjected to the "resistant hepatocyte" model of hepatocarcinogenesis (initiation with diethylnitrosamine, selection/promotion with 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial hepatectomy) and euthanized after 8 weeks of treatment. Compared to the CO group, the FA16 group presented: reduced (p < 0.05) number of persistent and increased (p < 0.05) number of remodeling glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL); reduced (p < 0.05) cell proliferation in persistent GST-P positive PNL; decreased (p < 0.05) hepatic DNA damage; and a tendency (p < 0.10) for decreased c-myc expression in microdissected PNL. Regarding all these parameters, no differences (p > 0.05) were observed between CO and FA8 groups. FA-treated groups presented increased hepatic levels of S-adenosylmethionine but only FA16 group presented increased S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between experimental groups regarding apoptosis in persistent and remodeling GST-P positive PNL, and global DNA methylation pattern in microdissected PNL. Altogether, the FA16 group, but not the FA8 group, presented chemopreventive activity. Reversion of PNL phenotype and inhibition of DNA damage and of c-myc expression represent relevant FA cellular and molecular effects.

  8. Three targets of branched-chain amino acid supplementation in the treatment of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan

    2010-05-01

    The article explains the pathogenesis of disturbances in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in various forms of hepatic injury and it is suggested that the main cause of decrease in plasma BCAA concentration in liver cirrhosis is hyperammonemia. Three possible targets of BCAA supplementation in hepatic disease are suggested: (1) hepatic encephalopathy, (2) liver regeneration, and (3) hepatic cachexia. The BCAA may ameliorate hepatic encephalopathy by promoting ammonia detoxification, correction of the plasma amino acid imbalance, and by reduced brain influx of aromatic amino acids. The influence of BCAA supplementation on hepatic encephalopathy could be more effective in chronic hepatic injury with hyperammonemia and low concentrations of BCAA in blood than in acute hepatic illness, where hyperaminoacidemia frequently develops. The favorable effect of BCAA on liver regeneration and nutritional state of the body is related to their stimulatory effect on protein synthesis, secretion of hepatocyte growth factor, glutamine production and inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Presumably the beneficial effect of BCAA on hepatic cachexia is significant in compensated liver disease with decreased plasma BCAA concentrations, whereas it is less pronounced in hepatic diseases with inflammatory complications and enhanced protein turnover. It is concluded that specific benefits associated with BCAA supplementation depend significantly on the type of liver disease and on the presence of inflammatory reaction. An important task for clinical research is to identify groups of patients for whom BCAA treatment can significantly improve the health-related quality of life and the prognosis of hepatic disease. PMID:20071143

  9. Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24842467

  10. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Eng, Y.; Olumese, F. E.; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1β level was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the diabetic control and supplement treated groups. The liver lipogenic enzyme activities were not significantly altered among the groups. These results suggest that phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation. PMID:24454345

  11. Pilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Elliot D; Kushner, Laura J; Kramer, Neil; Kazandjian, Gregory

    2003-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been demonstrated in vitro and in many disease states, in particular in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The benefit of n-3 PUFA supplementation has been documented in animal models of periodontal inflammation and a trend towards reduced inflammation has been seen in human experimental gingivitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PUFA supplementation, by administration of fish oil as a source of the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and borage oil as a source of the n-6 PUFA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), to adults with periodontitis. Thirty adult human subjects with periodontitis were administered either fish oil 3000 mg daily; borage oil 3000 mg daily; fish oil 1500 and borage oil 1500 mg daily, or placebo. The modified gingival index, the plaque index (PI), periodontal probing depths and beta-glucuronidase levels in gingival crevicular fluid were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Improvement in gingival inflammation was observed in subjects treated with borage oil (P<0.016), with a trend apparent in subjects treated with fish oil or a combination of PUFA. There was no statistically significant improvement in PI, although a trend was apparent in those receiving borage oil. Improvement in probing depth was seen in those subjects treated with either fish oil alone or borage oil alone, but statistical significance was only seen for the comparison of borage oil and placebo (P<0.044). No change was seen in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) beta-glucuronidase levels. The use of borage oil supplementation, a source of the n-6 PUFA, GLA, can have beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation. n-6 PUFA supplementation seemed to offer more impressive results than either n-3 PUFA supplementation or the combination of lower doses of the two supplements. Additional studies will be necessary to more fully assess the

  12. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  13. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  14. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2-24 h post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16-24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2 and 24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16-24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects.

  15. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2–24 hours post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16–24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2–24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16–24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. PMID:25541501

  16. Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids increases protein synthesis in children wHh severe acute malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although 2 earlier studies reported that aromatic amino acid (AAA) supplementation of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) improved whole-body protein anabolism during the early postadmission (maintenance) phase of rehabilitation, it is not known whether this positive effect was maintained ...

  17. Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation and its effects on ammonemia and performance under thermoneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Saulo Rodrigo Alves e Silva; Lima, Rafaela Carvalho Pereira; França, Thássia Casado Lima; Herculano, Edla de Azevedo; Rodrigues, Daniela Souza Araújo; Gouveia, Marcos Guilherme de Sousa; Cameron, L C; Prado, Eduardo Seixas

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of cerebral function, fatigue and disturbance in cognitive-motor performance can be caused by hyperammonemia and/or hot environmental conditions during exercise. Exercise-induced hyperammonemia can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA) to improve exercise tolerance. In the present study, we evaluated KAAA supplementation on ammonia metabolism and cognitive-motor performance after high-intensity exercise under a low heat stress environment. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for 2 d and were divided into two groups, KAAA (KEx) or placebo (CEx) supplementation. The athletes performed a 2 h cycling session followed by a maximum test (MAX), and blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise. Cognitive-motor tasks were performed before and after the protocol, and the exhaustion time was used to evaluate physical performance. The hydration status was also evaluated. The CEx group showed a significant increase (∼ 70%) in ammonia concentration at MAX, which did not change in the KEx group. The non-supplemented group showed a significant increase in uremia. Both the groups had a significant increase in blood urate concentrations at 120 min, and an early significant increase from 120 min was observed in the CEx group. There was no change in the glucose concentrations of the two groups. A significant increase in lactate was observed at the MAX moment in both groups. There was no significant difference in the exhaustion times between the groups. No changes were observed in the cognitive-motor tasks after the protocol. We suggest that KAAA supplementation decreases ammonia concentration during high-intensity exercise but does not affect physical or cognitive-motor performances under a low heat stress environment. PMID:26679329

  18. L-tryptophan supplementation does not improve running performance.

    PubMed

    Stensrud, T; Ingjer, F; Holm, H; Strømme, S B

    1992-08-01

    In 1988 Segura and Ventura (14) reported that 1.2 g of L-Tryptophan (L-TRY) supplementation increased total exercise time by 49.4% when the subjects were running at 80% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). In human performance research, acute improvements of that category are rather uncommon. Both for this reason and because ingestion of purified L-TRY may have adverse effects, it seemed pertinent to repeat the investigation of Segura and Ventura. Forty-nine well-trained male runners, aged 18-44, with an average maximal aerobic power of 66 (57-78) ml.kg-1.min-1, participated in a randomized double blind placebo (P) study. Each subject underwent four trials on the treadmill. The first two served as learning experience, including measurement of VO2max and anaerobic threshold. During the last two trials the subjects ran until exhaustion at a speed corresponding to 100% of their VO2max-first an initial trial and then after receiving a total of 1.2 g L-TRY or P over a 24 hour period prior to the run. No significant difference between the improvements in the L-TRY and P group could be demonstrated. It is concluded that oral L-TRY supplementation does not enhance running performance. PMID:1428380

  19. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). There was no effect of BCAA supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were unchanged with bed rest but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  20. Fatty acid profiles, growth, and immune responses of neonatal lambs fed milk replacer and supplemented with fish oil or safflower oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets supplemented with long-chain, n-3 (e.g., marine fish oil) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have improved the health and performance of neonatal and growing animals. This study was conducted with lambs that were orphaned at approximately 1 day of age to determine whether supplementing milk re...

  1. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Phesatcha, K; Wanapat, M

    2016-08-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  2. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Phesatcha, K.; Wanapat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  3. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation: a new indication for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tam, Carolyn; McKenna, Kate; Goh, Y Ingrid; Klieger-Grossman, Chagit; O'Connor, Deborah L; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2009-06-01

    The role of periconceptional folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) has been well established. Maternal red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration is inversely associated with NTD risk, and concentrations above 906 nmol/L are associated with a low risk of NTDs. Current guidelines call for a minimum of 0.4 mg of folic acid per day for all women who could become pregnant and higher levels of supplementation for women with a family history of NTDs or risk factors associated with NTDs. However, there is variability in supplement adherence and lack of knowledge of conditions that may elevate folate requirements or NTD risk. Therefore, guidance provided to the population as a whole may be inappropriate for individual women. Current data show that a significant proportion of women of childbearing age have RBC folate concentrations below 906 nmol/L, rendering a higher-than-baseline risk for NTDs. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of RBC folate could be used to identify these women and to help them improve their folate status, thus reducing their risk for having a child with an NTD.This review describes the evolution of the evidence for TDM of RBC folate and preliminary experience with TDM in a population of 12 women who were planning a pregnancy and who were being treated with an atypical antipsychotic.

  4. Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the pre-workout supplement Assault™ (MusclePharm, Denver, CO, USA) on upper and lower body muscular endurance, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, and choice reaction time in recreationally-trained males. Subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness, and focus were measured to examine associations between psychological factors and human performance. Methods Twelve recreationally-trained males participated in a 3-week investigation (mean +/- SD, age: 28 +/- 5 y, height: 178 +/- 9 cm, weight: 79.2 +/- 15.7 kg, VO2max: 45.7 +/- 7.6 ml/kg/min). Subjects reported to the human performance laboratory on three separate occasions. All participants completed a baseline/familiarization day of testing that included a maximal graded exercise test for the determination of aerobic capacity (VO2max), one-rep maximum (1-RM) for bench and leg press to determine 75% of 1-RM, choice reaction tests, and intermittent critical velocity familiarization. Choice reaction tests included the following: single-step audio and visual, one-tower stationary protocol, two-tower lateral protocol, three-tower multi-directional protocol, and three-tower multi-directional protocol with martial arts sticks. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest either the supplement (SUP) or the placebo (PL) during Visit 2. Subjects were provided with the cross-over treatment on the last testing visit. Testing occurred 20 min following ingestion of both treatments. Results Significant (p < 0.05) main effects for the SUP were observed for leg press (SUP: 13 ± 6 reps, PL: 11 ± 3 reps), perceived energy (SUP: 3.4 ± 0.9, PL: 3.1 ± 0.8), alertness (SUP: 4.0 ± 0.7, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), focus (SUP: 4.1 ± 0.6, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), choice reaction audio single-step (SUP: 0.92 ± 0.10 s, PL: 0.97 ± 0.11 s), choice reaction multi-direction 15 s (SUP: 1.07 ± 0.12 s, PL: 1.13 ± 0.14 s), and multi-direction for 30 s (SUP: 1.10 ± 0.11 s, PL: 1.14 ± 0.13 s

  5. Folic Acid Supplementation Stimulates Notch Signaling and Cell Proliferation in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Huang, Guo-wei; Zhang, Xu-mei; Ren, Da-lin; X. Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14–16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation (4 mg/l above baseline, Folate-L) and high folic acid supplementation (40 mg/l above baseline, Folate-H). NSCs were identified by their expression of immunoreactive nestin and proliferating cells by incorporation of 5'bromo-2'deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was also assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Notch signaling was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses of the expression of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). Supplementation of NSCs with folic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch1 and Hes5. Folic acid supplementation also stimulated NSC proliferation dose-dependently. Embryonic NSCs respond to folic acid supplementation with increased Notch signaling and cell proliferation. This mechanism may mediate the effects of folic acid supplementation on neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system. PMID:20838574

  6. Core symptoms of autism improved after vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feiyong; Wang, Bing; Shan, Ling; Xu, Zhida; Staal, Wouter G; Du, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. Among the environmental factors, vitamin D3 (cholecaliferol) seems to play a significant role in the etiology of ASD because this vitamin is important for brain development. Lower concentrations of vitamin D3 may lead to increased brain size, altered brain shape, and enlarged ventricles, which have been observed in patients with ASD. Vitamin D3 is converted into 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the liver. Higher serum concentrations of this steroid may reduce the risk of autism. Importantly, children with ASD are at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, possibly due to environmental factors. It has also been suggested that vitamin D3 deficiency may cause ASD symptoms. Here, we report on a 32-month-old boy with ASD and vitamin D3 deficiency. His core symptoms of autism improved significantly after vitamin D3 supplementation. This case suggests that vitamin D3 may play an important role in the etiology of ASD, stressing the importance of clinical assessment of vitamin D3 deficiency and the need for vitamin D3 supplementation in case of deficiency. PMID:25511123

  7. Core symptoms of autism improved after vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feiyong; Wang, Bing; Shan, Ling; Xu, Zhida; Staal, Wouter G; Du, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. Among the environmental factors, vitamin D3 (cholecaliferol) seems to play a significant role in the etiology of ASD because this vitamin is important for brain development. Lower concentrations of vitamin D3 may lead to increased brain size, altered brain shape, and enlarged ventricles, which have been observed in patients with ASD. Vitamin D3 is converted into 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the liver. Higher serum concentrations of this steroid may reduce the risk of autism. Importantly, children with ASD are at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, possibly due to environmental factors. It has also been suggested that vitamin D3 deficiency may cause ASD symptoms. Here, we report on a 32-month-old boy with ASD and vitamin D3 deficiency. His core symptoms of autism improved significantly after vitamin D3 supplementation. This case suggests that vitamin D3 may play an important role in the etiology of ASD, stressing the importance of clinical assessment of vitamin D3 deficiency and the need for vitamin D3 supplementation in case of deficiency.

  8. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  9. Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; Dalton, N; Start, K; El-Bishti, M M; Chantler, C

    1980-07-01

    The effects on growth, nitrogen balance, and body composition of a protein-restricted diet supplemented with oral essential amino acids (EAA) were studied in seven children with advanced chronic renal failure. The diet was designed to provide minimum protein requirements for height-age, half in unselected form and half as an EAA supplement. Energy from carbohydrate and fat were increased to give a protein/energy ratio of 1.25 G:100 kcal. Nitrogen balance, studied in five children before and after 6 to 8 months of EAA treatment, was improved in each case. intracellular water (total body water minus bromide space) increased in four children but fell in three children during treatment. No significant improvement in growth, expressed as height or height velocity standard deviation scores in relation to bone age, was observed. Serum urea and urea/creatinine ratio fell after institution of EAA treatment, but the fall was not sustained. Although the EAA preparation proved acceptable to the children, dietary assessments indicated that the desired dietary aims were rarely achieved. It is concluded that, in this pediatric age group, the long-term application of a protein restricted diet with EAA supplements is of limited value. PMID:7395791

  10. Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; Dalton, N; Start, K; El-Bishti, M M; Chantler, C

    1980-07-01

    The effects on growth, nitrogen balance, and body composition of a protein-restricted diet supplemented with oral essential amino acids (EAA) were studied in seven children with advanced chronic renal failure. The diet was designed to provide minimum protein requirements for height-age, half in unselected form and half as an EAA supplement. Energy from carbohydrate and fat were increased to give a protein/energy ratio of 1.25 G:100 kcal. Nitrogen balance, studied in five children before and after 6 to 8 months of EAA treatment, was improved in each case. intracellular water (total body water minus bromide space) increased in four children but fell in three children during treatment. No significant improvement in growth, expressed as height or height velocity standard deviation scores in relation to bone age, was observed. Serum urea and urea/creatinine ratio fell after institution of EAA treatment, but the fall was not sustained. Although the EAA preparation proved acceptable to the children, dietary assessments indicated that the desired dietary aims were rarely achieved. It is concluded that, in this pediatric age group, the long-term application of a protein restricted diet with EAA supplements is of limited value.

  11. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia-A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Guo, Yanfang; Rodger, Marc; White, Ruth Rennicks; Yang, Qiuying; Smith, Graeme N; Perkins, Sherry L; Walker, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurrence of PE between women with folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and women without were compared. Multiple logistic regression was used in the estimation of the independent effect of supplementation of folic acid. Additional analyses assessing the effect of low RBC and serum folate and dose-response relationship were performed. Analyses were performed in all study participants, and then in high risk and low risk sub-groups, respectively. A total of 7,669 participants were included in the final analysis. Ninety five percent of the study participants were taking folic acid supplementation in early second trimester. The rate of PE was lower in the supplementation group than in the no supplementation group, and the difference was statistically significant in high risk women. Similar patterns of associations were observed in analysis by RBC and serum folate levels and in dose-response analysis. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy may reduce PE risk in pregnant women, especially in those women with increased risk of developing PE.

  12. Developmental omega-3 supplementation improves motor skills in juvenile-adult rats.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Addolorata; Borracci, Pietro; Renna, Giuseppe; Giustino, Arcangela; Latronico, Tiziana; Riccio, Paolo; Carratù, Maria Rosaria

    2009-10-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are critical for brain growth spurt during both foetal and postnatal period. They play important roles in the expression of genes regulating cell differentiation and neuronal growth, as well as in the development of synaptic processing of neural cell interaction. Foetus and placenta are dependent on maternal supply for their growth and development, and supplemented infants show significantly greater mental and psychomotor scores. In particular, it has been shown that if mothers take omega-3 supplements, their babies are smarter and better physically coordinated. On these grounds, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in the Sprague-Dawley rat, the effects of perinatal treatment with omega-3 on motor activity, motor coordination, motor learning and memory. From gestational day 8 throughout the lactation period, dams received either an emulsion of 0.05g/kg body weight omega-3 in fruit juice, or an emulsion of 1g/kg body weight omega-3 in fruit juice or just the fruit juice (control). Omega-3 formula was made of 27% docosahexaenoic acid and 53% eicosapentaenoic acid. On the day of birth (postnatal day 1), all pups were weighed, and then randomly culled to eight pups per litter. Pups were weaned at 21 days of age. One male pup per litter from each litter (control, n=6; omega-3 0.05g/kg, n=5; omega-3 1g/kg, n=6) was used. Both control and treated rats were tested for (i) locomotor activity using the open field paradigm, (ii) motor coordination and motor learning using the rotarod/accelerod task and (iii) memory using the passive avoidance paradigm. Rats were tested on postnatal day 21 and re-tested on postnatal day 90. As a result, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation significantly improved motor coordination. In particular, the latency to fall at the first speed was significantly increased in the treated rats as compared to the control animals. This benefit was observed with both doses at each

  13. Effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on preeclampsia: the folic acid clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi Wu; Champagne, Josee; Rennicks White, Ruth; Coyle, Doug; Fraser, William; Smith, Graeme; Fergusson, Dean; Walker, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 8(0/7) and 16(6/7) weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  14. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry.

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy alters neonatal behavior in sheep.

    PubMed

    Capper, Judith L; Wilkinson, Robert G; Mackenzie, Alexander M; Sinclair, Liam A

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine whether supplementation of pregnant ewes with long-chain (n-3) fatty acids present in fish oil, in combination with dietary vitamin E, would alter neonatal behavior in sheep. Twin- (n=36) and triplet- (n=12) bearing ewes were allocated at d 103 of gestation to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 1 of 2 fat sources [Megalac, a calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate or a fish oil mixture, high in 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3)] and 1 of 2 dietary vitamin E concentrations (50 or 500 mg/kg) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Feeding fish oil increased gestation length by 2 d and increased the proportion of 22:6(n-3) within neonatal plasma by 5.1-fold and brain by 10%, whereas brain 20:5(n-3) was increased 5-fold. Supranutritional dietary vitamin E concentrations decreased the latency of lambs to stand in ewes fed fish oil but not Megalac, whereas latency to suckle was decreased from 43 to 34 min by fish oil supplementation. Supplementation with fish oil also substantially decreased the secretion rate (mL/h) of colostrum and the yield (g/h) of fat and protein. We conclude that supplementation of ewes with fish oil decreases the latency to suckle, increases gestation length and the 22:6(n-3):20:4(n-6) ratio in the neonatal brain, and may improve lamb survival rate. However, further work is required to determine how to mitigate the negative effects of fish oil on colostrum production.

  16. Effect of saturated fatty acid supplementation on production and metabolism indices in heat-stressed mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Huo, X K; Guo, T J; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Rastani, R R; Baumgard, L H; Li, F D

    2010-09-01

    Experimental objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental saturated fatty acids on production, body temperature indices, and some aspects of metabolism in mid-lactation dairy cows experiencing heat stress. Forty-eight heat-stressed Holstein cows were allocated into 3 groups (n=16/group) according to a completely randomized block design. Three treatment diets consisted of supplemental saturated fatty acids (SFA) at 0 (SFA0), 1.5 (SFA1.5), or 3.0% (SFA3) of dry matter (DM) for 10 wk. Diets were isonitrogenous (crude protein=16.8%) and contained 1.42, 1.46, and 1.49 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM for the SFA0, SFA1.5 and SFA3 diets, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index at 0700, 1400 and 2200 h was 72.2, 84.3, and 76.6, respectively. Rectal temperatures at 1400 h were decreased with fat supplementation. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake (20.1+/-0.02 kg/d), body condition score (2.72+/-0.04), body weight (627+/-16.1 kg), or calculated energy balance (1.32+/-0.83 Mcal/d). Saturated fatty acid supplementation increased milk yield, milk fat content, and total milk solids. Increasing fat supplementation decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (8%) but had no effect on other energetic metabolites or hormones. In summary, supplemental SFA improved milk yield and milk fat content and yield and reduced peak rectal temperatures in mid-lactation heat-stressed dairy cows. This demonstrates the remarkable amount of metabolic heat that is "saved" by energetically replacing fermentable carbohydrates with supplemental SFA.

  17. Effect of amino acid supplementation on protein quality of soy-based infant formulas fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Peace, R W; Botting, H G

    1993-05-01

    The powder forms of soy-based infant formulas obtained from four manufacturers were fed to weanling rats for two weeks, as the sole source of protein in diets containing 8% protein, 20% fat, and adequate amounts of minerals and vitamins. The relative protein efficiency ratio (RPER) and the relative net protein ratio (RNPR) values (casein + methionine = 100) of diets containing unsupplemented formulas were 71-81 and 78-85, respectively. Supplementation of the formula diets with lysine (0.2%), methionine (0.2%), threonine (0.1%) or tryptophan (0.05%) increased the level of the supplemental amino acid in rat serum but generally failed to improve the RPER or RNPR values. Addition of all four essential amino acids to the formula diets, however, caused a marked improvement in their protein quality (RPER or RNPR values = 100). The data suggested that proteins in soy-based formulas could be marginally co-limited in several indispensable amino acids.

  18. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  19. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  20. Effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric symptoms and immune response in HIV-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prabha M.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.; Rao, Satish B.; Udupa, Karthik; Acharya, Sahana D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. Objective: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study. Baseline and follow-up CD4 count, anthropometric measurements, neuropsychiatric assessments, Vitamin B12, and folic acid estimation were done. Results: The prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 27.1% in Group I, 31.9% in Group II, and 23.4% in Group III. The prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency was 8.16% in Group I, 6.12% in Group II, and 4.16% in Group III. HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations were noted to have the lowest mean mini–mental score. After the supplementation of vitamins, anthropometric measurements, MMSE as well as Hamilton depression scores, improved in all the three groups whereas Hamilton anxiety scores improved only in Group III. The CD4 count also improved in Groups I and II after the supplementation of vitamins. Conclusion: Folic acid deficiency was highest among neuropsychiatric patients. The majority of people who had a folic acid deficiency have shown improvement in their neuropsychiatric assessment scores as well as CD4 count after its supplementation. PMID:27365952

  1. Effects of essential fatty acid supplementation in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Helen; Granger, Nicolas; Wood, James; Skelly, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    The effects of essential fatty acid supplementation (EFA) on the control of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs were investigated in a blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Fifteen dogs were treated with triple purified Ω-3 oil containing 400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 250 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 22 mg vitamin E per 1.5 mL at a dose of 1.5 mL/10 kg once daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 12 week placebo period of supplementation with olive oil. Owners recorded seizure frequency and severity and any adverse events. EFA supplementation did not reduce seizure frequency or severity in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

  2. Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids increases protein synthesis in children with severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Badaloo, Asha; Wilson, Lorraine; Taylor-Bryan, Carolyn; Chambers, Bentley; Reid, Marvin; Forrester, Terrence; Jahoor, Farook

    2014-05-01

    Although 2 earlier studies reported that aromatic amino acid (AAA) supplementation of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) improved whole-body protein anabolism during the early postadmission (maintenance) phase of rehabilitation, it is not known whether this positive effect was maintained during the catch-up growth and recovery phases of treatment. This study aimed to determine whether supplementation with an AAA cocktail (330 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) vs. isonitrogenous Ala would improve measures of protein kinetics in 22 children, aged 4-31 mo, during the catch-up growth and recovery phases of treatment for SAM. Protein kinetics were assessed by measuring leucine, phenylalanine, and urea kinetics with the use of standard stable isotope tracer methods in the fed state. Supplementation started at the end of the maintenance period when the children were clinically/metabolically stable and continued up to full nutritional recovery. Three experiments were performed: at the end of maintenance (at ∼13 d postadmission), at mid-catch-up growth (at ∼23 d post- admission when the children had replenished 50% of their weight deficit), and at recovery (at ∼48 d postadmission when they had achieved at least 90% weight for length). Children in the AAA group had significantly faster protein synthesis compared with those in the Ala group at mid-catch-up growth (101 ± 10 vs. 72 ± 7 μmol phenylalanine · kg(-1) · h(-1); P < 0.05) and better protein balance at mid-catch-up growth (49 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 2 μmol phenylalanine · kg(-1) · h(-1); P < 0.05) and at recovery (37 ± 8 vs. 11 ± 3 μmol phenylalanine · kg(-1) · h(-1); P < 0.05). We conclude that dietary supplementation with AAA accelerates net protein synthesis in children during nutritional rehabilitation for SAM.

  3. High dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy: are we sure it is safe?

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2015-04-01

    Most experts agree that folic acid supplementation is a key preconception intervention, particularly in women with epilepsy who take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Primary prevention of neural tube defect through folic acid supplementation results in reduction of risk in an otherwise healthy population. The current folic acid supplementation recommendation is that all women of childbearing potential be supplemented with at least 0.4 mg of folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. It is recommended that all women with epilepsy and of childbearing potential be supplemented with folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. However, considering the potential significant drug-drug interactions between high doses of folic acid and some AEDs in patients with epilepsy and also with the emerging evidence from animal studies that high levels of folic acid throughout gestation may have adverse effects on fetal brain development, it is not suggested to advocate high dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy until more information is available about its appropriate, safe and optimal dosing. PMID:25891927

  4. High dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy: are we sure it is safe?

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2015-04-01

    Most experts agree that folic acid supplementation is a key preconception intervention, particularly in women with epilepsy who take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Primary prevention of neural tube defect through folic acid supplementation results in reduction of risk in an otherwise healthy population. The current folic acid supplementation recommendation is that all women of childbearing potential be supplemented with at least 0.4 mg of folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. It is recommended that all women with epilepsy and of childbearing potential be supplemented with folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. However, considering the potential significant drug-drug interactions between high doses of folic acid and some AEDs in patients with epilepsy and also with the emerging evidence from animal studies that high levels of folic acid throughout gestation may have adverse effects on fetal brain development, it is not suggested to advocate high dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy until more information is available about its appropriate, safe and optimal dosing.

  5. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    PubMed

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  6. Nonsteroidal management of canine pruritus: chlorpheniramine and a fatty acid supplement (DVM Derm Caps) in combination, and the fatty acid supplement at twice the manufacturer's recommended dosage.

    PubMed

    Scott, D W; Miller, W H

    1990-10-01

    Forty-three dogs having pruritus associated with atopy, flea bite hypersensitivity, and idiopathy were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment protocols. Twenty-three dogs received chlorpheniramine in combination with a fatty acid supplement (DVM Derm Caps). Twenty dogs received the fatty acid supplement at twice the manufacturer's recommended dosage. All 43 dogs were known to be unresponsive to chlorpheniramine and the manufacturer's recommended dosage of the fatty acid supplement when either drug was used alone. Pruritus was satisfactorily controlled in 34.8% of the dogs in the chlorpheniramine--DVM Derm Caps protocol. No dog in the double DVM Derm Caps protocol showed a beneficial response. Side effects were uncommon and mild with either protocol.

  7. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production.

  8. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  9. Antioxidant supplementation can reduce the survival costs of excess amino acid intake in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Archer, C Ruth; Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Oosthuizen, Vinette; Apostolides, Zeno; Nicolson, Susan W

    2014-12-01

    Over-consuming amino acids is associated with reduced survival in many species, including honeybees. The mechanisms responsible for this are unclear but one possibility is that excessive intake of amino acids increases oxidative damage. If this is the case, antioxidant supplementation may help reduce the survival costs of high amino acid intake. We tested this hypothesis in African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) using the major antioxidant in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We first determined the dose-range of EGCG that improved survival of caged honeybees fed sucrose solution. We then provided bees with eight diets that differed in their ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to carbohydrate (C) (0:1, 1:250, 1:100, 1:75, 1:50, 1:25, 1:10, 1:5 EAA:C) and also in their EGCG dose (0.0 or 0.4 mM). We found that bees fed sucrose only solution survived better than bees fed EAA diets. Despite this, bees preferred a diet that contained intermediate ratios of EAA:C (ca. 1:25), which may represent the high demands for nitrogen of developing nurse bees. EGCG supplementation improved honeybee survival but only at an intermediate dose (0.3-0.5 mM) and in bees fed low EAA diets (1:250, 1:100 EAA:C). That EGCG counteracted the lifespan reducing effects of eating low EAA diets suggests that oxidative damage may be involved in the association between EAAs and lifespan in honeybees. However, that EGCG had no effect on survival in bees fed high EAA diets suggests that there are other physiological costs of over-consuming EAAs in honeybees.

  10. Enhanced undecylprodigiosin production from Serratia marcescens SS-1 by medium formulation and amino-acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Yu, Wan-Ju; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2005-10-01

    Serratia marcescens Simon Swift-1 (SS-1) was used to produce a prodigiosin-like pigment, undecylprodigiosin (UP), known to have antitumor activities and potential as an anticancer drug. Modified media containing components of Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and selected amino acids were used to improve UP production from S. marcescens SS-1. Optimal culture conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, agitation rate) for UP production were also identified. It was found that S. marcescens SS-1 was able to produce 690 mg l-1 of UP when it was grown with 5 g l-1 yeast extract alone (YE medium) under the optimal culture conditions of 30 degrees C, 200 rpm, and pH 8. The UP production of 690 mg l-1 is nearly 23-fold of that obtained from original LB medium. Addition of amino acids containing pyrrole-like structures further enhanced UP production. Nearly 2 and 1.4 g l-1 of UP was produced when the SS-1 strain was cultivated with YE medium supplemented with proline and histidine (5 g l-1), respectively. Moreover, the addition of aspartic acid (5 g l-1) also resulted in a high UP production of 1.4 g l-1. Optimal dosages of the three amino acids were subsequently determined and the highest UP production (2.5 g l-1) was achieved with the addition of 10 g l-1 of proline. This suggests that the supplementation of amino acids related to the formation of a UP precursor (e.g., pyrrolylpyrromethene) could enhance UP production by the SS-1 strain.

  11. Three Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Means-End Problem Solving in Nine-Month Olds

    PubMed Central

    Drover, James R.; Hoffman, Dennis R.; Castañeda, Yolanda S.; Morale, Sarah E.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether feeding infants formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) improves cognitive function of 9-month olds. Participants included 229 infants from 3, randomized controlled trials. Children received either formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, or a control formula beginning at 1 to 5 d (12 month feeding study), or following 6 weeks (6-week weaning study) or 4 to 6 months of breastfeeding (4-to 6-month weaning study). Infants were assessed with a two-step problem solving task. In the 12-month feeding and 6-week weaning studies, supplemented children had more intentional solutions (successful task completions) and higher intention scores (goal-directed behaviors) than controls. These results suggest that LCPUFA-supplementation improves means-end problem solving. PMID:19765006

  12. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-01-29

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness.

  13. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R.; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness. PMID:26840330

  14. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-02-01

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness. PMID:26840330

  15. Enriched branched-chain amino acid formula versus a casein-based supplement in the treatment of cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Christie, M L; Sack, D M; Pomposelli, J; Horst, D

    1985-01-01

    An orally administered branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) rich supplement (T), Travasorb-Hepatic was compared to a casein based supplement (E), Ensure, in a randomized double-blind cross-over study in eight malnourished, stable cirrhotics unable to achieve a daily dietary protein intake of 1.0 g/kg. Doses of antiportal systemic encephalopathy drugs remained constant and a baseline 1000 kcal, 40 g dietary protein intake was encouraged. To this diet, supplemental protein was added in daily 20-g increments to a maximum of 60 g supplemental protein. Mental status, asterixis, and number connection tests were assessed daily and an antiportal systemic encephalopathy index calculated. There was no significant difference in the mean intake of dietary protein (T, 33.7 +/- 4.0 g; E, 26.7 +/- 10.8 g), supplemental protein (T, 43.1 +/- 8.3 g; E, 47.9 +/- 7.1 g), or N2 balance (T, 4.2 +/- 3.7 g; E, 3.4 +/- 4.4) between treatment trials. The antiportal systemic encephalopathy index improved on E, with no significant change in the BCAA:aromatic acid molar ratio. This ratio improved on T (1.02 +/- 2.0 to 2.7 +/- 1.1), but was not accompanied by improvement in the antiportal systemic encephalopathy index. The improved protein tolerance in both groups was not further increased by a highly enriched BCAA formula compared to one with a moderate BCAA content from a natural dietary protein source. Thus, both conventional casein-based supplements and enriched BCAA formulas are well tolerated and can be safely and effectively used as an integral part of diet therapy.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:27138439

  18. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children. PMID:19772683

  19. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children.

  20. Pregnancy intentions and folic acid supplementation exemplars: findings from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Roxanne; Volkman, Julie E; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Weisman, Carol S; Chase, Gary A; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2009-06-01

    One Healthy People 2010 objective is that 80% of women in the United States start a pregnancy with optimal levels of folic acid. This often requires women to use folic acid supplements preconceptionally to get adequate levels. Efforts to achieve the objective have resulted in a suboptimal floor effect at less than 50% of women. We advance a framework based on exemplification theory, identifying supplementation as an additive action in which two role models exemplify folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age able to become pregnant (n = 1,258). The women were participants in Phase I of the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study (CePAWHS). One exemplar identified represents the positive habits aligned with supplementers considering a pregnancy sometime in their future, while the other resides in the exemplification of positive habits aligned with supplementers not considering a pregnancy sometime in their future but still able to become pregnant. Among women not considering a future pregnancy, daily green salad consumption, weekly fish consumption, having had a health care visit in the past year, and having had any ob/gyn visit in the past 2 years resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use in a multivariable model. In the same model, an increase in age resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use. Among women considering a future pregnancy, not smoking cigarettes, having higher levels of psychosocial stress, and having higher levels of interaction social support resulted in increased odds of folic acid supplement use in a multivariable model. In the same model, those who have had a health care visit in the past year, as well as those who have received pregnancy planning counseling, were also more likely to use a folic acid supplement. Implications for strategic communication are considered.

  1. Trans-11 vaccenic acid dietary supplementation induces hypolipidemic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Lu, Jing; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2008-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid [VA; 18:1(n-9)] is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and is the precursor to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans. Despite VA being the predominant trans monoene in ruminant-derived lipids, very little is known about its nutritional bioactivity, particularly in conditions of chronic metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of VA to improve dyslipidemia, insulin sensitivity, or inflammatory status in obese and insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. The obese rats and age-matched lean littermates were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 1.5% (wt:wt) VA for a period of 3 wk. The incorporation of VA and subsequent conversion to CLA in triglyceride was measured in adipose tissue. Glucose and insulin metabolism were assessed via a conscious adapted meal tolerance test procedure. Plasma lipids as well as serum inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by commercially available assays. VA supplementation did not result in any observable adverse health effects in either lean or obese JCR:LA-cp rats. After 3 wk of feeding, body weight, food intake, and glucose/insulin metabolism did not differ between VA-supplemented and control groups. The incorporation of VA and CLA into adipose triglycerides in obese rats fed VA increased by 1.5-fold and 6.5-fold, respectively, compared with obese rats fed the control diet. The most striking effect was a 40% decrease (P < 0.05) in fasting triglyceride concentrations in VA-treated obese rats relative to obese controls. Serum Il-10 concentration was decreased by VA, regardless of genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term dietary supplementation of 1.5% VA did not result in any detrimental metabolic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats. In contrast, dietary VA had substantial hypo-triglyceridemic effects, suggesting a new bioactivity of this fatty acid that is typically found in ruminant

  2. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on recurrent colorectal adenoma, we conduc...

  3. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; House, James D; O, Karmin

    2015-11-15

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver.

  4. Fatty acid profile of milk and Cacioricotta cheese from Italian Simmental cows as affected by dietary flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; d'Angelo, F; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of adding flaxseed to the diet on the fatty acid profile of the milk of Italian Simmental cows and on the Cacioricotta cheese thereby produced. The experiment involved 24 Italian Simmental cows divided into 2 groups of 12 animals according to the diet fed: a control diet (CO) with no flaxseed supplementation, and a diet supplemented with whole flaxseed (FS). Milk yield and composition was not significantly changed by diet, whereas saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased by flaxseed supplementation. Cows fed flaxseed showed higher percentages of long-chain fatty acids: in particular, linolenic acids, mainly represented by C18:3n-3, and n-3 series were higher in the FS group than in the CO group. The percentage of MUFA was higher by about 12% in FS than in CO, mainly due to the contribution of C18:1 cis-9. The percentage of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk was not significantly changed by flaxseed supplementation. Furthermore, atherogenic and thrombogenic indices were lower by about 30 and 16%, respectively, in the FS group compared with the CO group. The fatty acid profile of Cacioricotta cheese produced using Italian Simmental cow milk showed higher levels of MUFA, PUFA, and n-3, and improved atherogenic and thrombogenic indices in FS than in CO, confirming the ability to transfer beneficial molecules from milk into cheese. In particular, cheese-making technology contributed to the increased CLA content in Cacioricotta cheese. PMID:26851850

  5. Long-term post-pneumonectomy pulmonary adaptation following all-trans-retinoic acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Priya; Dane, D. Merrill; McDonough, Paul; Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Estrera, Aaron S.

    2011-01-01

    In adult dogs following right pneumonectomy (PNX) and receiving all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) supplementation for 4 mo, we found modestly enhanced alveolar-capillary growth in the remaining lung without enhanced resting lung function (J Appl Physiol 96: 1080–1089 and 96: 1090–1096, 2004). Since alveolar remodeling progresses beyond this period and the lipid-soluble RA continues to be released from tissue stores, we hypothesized that RA supplementation may exert additional long-term effects. To examine this issue, adult male litter-matched foxhounds underwent right PNX followed by RA supplementation (2 mg/kg po 4 days/wk, n = 6) or placebo (n = 4) for 4 mo. Cardiopulmonary function was measured at rest and during exercise at 4 and 20 mo post-PNX. The remaining lung was fixed under a constant airway pressure for morphometric analysis. Comparing RA treatment to placebo controls, there were no differences in aerobic capacity, cardiopulmonary function, or lung volume at rest or exercise. Alveolar-capillary basal lamina thickness and mean harmonic thickness of air-blood diffusion barrier were 23–29% higher. The prevalence of double-capillary profiles remained 82% higher. Absolute volumes of septal interstitium, collagen fibers, cells, and matrix were 32% higher; the relative volumes of other septal components and alveolar-capillary surface areas expressed as ratios to control values were up to 24% higher. Thus RA supplementation following right PNX modestly and persistently enhanced long-term alveolar-capillary structural dimensions, especially the deposition of interstitial and connective tissue elements, in such a way that caused a net increase in barrier resistance to diffusion without improving lung mechanics or gas exchange. PMID:21109601

  6. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Shidfar, F; Keshavarz, A; Hosseyni, S; Ameri, A; Yarahmadi, S

    2008-01-01

    In order to test whether hyperlipidaemia and glycaemic control can be improved among diabetes patients by dietary supplementation with purified omega-3 fatty acids, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 50 type 2 diabetes patients randomized to 2 g/day purified omega-3 fatty acids or placebo for 10 weeks. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly with supplementation relative to placebo (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in ApoB-100 and malondialdehyde compared to baseline values and compared to the control group. Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effect on serum lipid levels, ApoA-I, glucose, insulin and HbA1c.

  7. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Interventions and Supplements to Improve Performance during Athletic Training.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Daniela; Negro, Massimo; Arcelli, Enrico; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous positive effects of physical exercise, some negative physiological changes occur in long-lasting heavy training with transient dysfunction of the immune system, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. This is the case of elite athletes, who train intensively to compete at the highest levels. However, these athletes can counteract the negative effects of heavy training, reducing acute and chronic inflammations and supporting the immune system, with nutritional and supplementation countermeasures. For this purpose, macronutrient manipulation with an appropriate use of certain supplements can be considered as an intervention to reduce exercise-induced immune changes and inflammatory risk. For example, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation may promote such immune responses in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, micronutrients play an important role in immune function; in particular, the antioxidant capacity of several dietary micronutrients (e.g., tocopherols, docosahexaenoate, and flavonoids) is very interesting to support the endogenous antioxidant defense systems of the athletes, counterbalancing the negative effects of oxidative damage due to free radicals. Some of these nutrients have potential anti-inflammatory properties as assessed by the attenuated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Key Teaching Points: Long-lasting heavy training plan and competition can lead to chronic immune suppression in athletes, increasing infection risk. Chronic exercise increases mobilization of neutrophils, decreases mobilization of lymphocytes, and decreases the absolute and relative numbers of neutrophils at rest. Nutritional deficiencies alter the immuno-system and increase infection risk. Nutrition can influence exercise-induced immune suppression. Elite athletes competing at the highest levels can benefit from nutritional and supplementation support to improve immunity and reduce acute and chronic inflammations. PMID

  8. Chem I Supplement: Emphasis on Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education Staff

    1977-01-01

    Provides supplementary notes on acids and bases suitable for secondary school chemistry instruction, including acidity in solid and natural waters, acidity balance in body chemistry, acid and basic foods, pH values of common fluids, examples of drugs, and commercial preparation of nitric acid. (SL)

  9. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception. PMID:26627544

  10. Taurine supplementation of a premature formula improves fat absorption in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Galeano, N F; Darling, P; Lepage, G; Leroy, C; Collet, S; Giguère, R; Roy, C C

    1987-07-01

    The predominance of taurine (Tau) conjugated over glycine conjugated bile acids in infants fed human milk as opposed to those on formulas without added Tau could account for a more complete absorption of fat. Fifteen low birth weight infants were randomized to either Enfamil Premature or to Enfamil Premature added with 40 mumol/dl of Tau and compared to a third group made up of nine low birth weight infants fed their own mother's preterm milk. Formulas and human milk were fed according to tolerance and constituted the sole nutrition for 3 months. A metabolic study was carried out at 3 wk of age and control of growth was done periodically. Urinary Tau excretion (mumol/dl) was very low (p less than 0.001) in the group fed Enfamil Premature (0.3 +/- 0.1) when compared to the values obtained in infants supplemented with Tau (51.6 +/- 12.5) and in those on human milk (36.3 +/- 7.9). Infants supplemented with Tau (92.5 +/- 1.2) had a coefficient of fat absorption which was higher (p less than 0.05) than the unsupplemented group (87.5 +/- 7.9) and comparable to the human milk-fed group (91.6 +/- 1.4). The effect was more pronounced on the saturated fatty acids and varied inversely with their individual water solubility. There was no effect of Tau on nitrogen retention and growth was identical in the three groups. These data show that the addition of Tau to formula had no effect on growth but improved the absorption of fat especially saturated fatty acids which require higher concentrations of bile acids to form mixed micelles.

  11. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations in older adults: a dose-response trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Jee, Sun Ha; Charleston, Jeanne; Narrett, Matthew; Appel, Lawrence J

    2010-10-15

    The authors' objective in this study was to estimate the changes in serum folate and homocysteine concentration that resulted from 6 weeks of supplementation with folic acid. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response trial with a parallel-group design was conducted. A total of 133 participants aged 60-90 years (70% female, 19% nonwhite) were assigned to receive 0, 100, 400, 1,000, or 2,000 μg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. Data were collected in the United States between June and September 1996. At baseline, median serum folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations were 5.7 ng/mL (interquartile range (25th-75th percentiles), 4.1-7.8) and 8.3 μmol/L (interquartile range, 7.1-10.0), respectively. As the folic acid dose increased, serum folate levels increased (P-trend < 0.001). There was no dose-response relation with homocysteine level among all participants. In analyses restricted to persons with the lowest serum folate concentration (<4.5 ng/mL) at baseline, there was a trend (P = 0.06) toward decreased homocysteine levels with increasing folic acid dose. In healthy, older adults with adequate folate status, folic acid supplementation is not beneficial for homocysteine reduction. However, for older adults with low serum folate levels, supplementation will improve folate status and may be beneficial for lowering homocysteine concentrations.

  12. Supplementation of dairy cow diets with calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and nicotinic acid in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P S; Murphy, M R; Clark, J H

    1992-04-01

    Forty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments 15 d postpartum according to milk yield during wk 2 postpartum to examine the effects of supplementing niacin, Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids, and their interaction. Treatments were control, niacin (12 g/d), Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids (3% of dietary DM), or a combination of niacin and Ca salts. On d 99 postpartum, all cows were fed the control treatment for 2 wk to evaluate residual effects. Milk and FCM yields, blood plasma NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and apparent total tract hemicellulose digestibility were increased; milk protein percentage, milk SNF percentage, and blood plasma glucose concentrations were reduced by treatments containing the Ca soaps. Niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield but reduced blood plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. During the residual period, in which all cows received the control treatment, milk yield and plasma NEFA concentration remained elevated, milk protein and SNF contents remained depressed, and milk fat content was reduced for cows previously supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids. Methionine and phenylalanine uptakes by the mammary gland were enhanced by niacin supplementation. Results indicated that dairy cattle in early lactation yielded more milk when their diets were supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids and that niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield.

  13. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

  14. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  15. Vitamin C supplementation does not improve hypoxia-induced erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Daniel; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxia induces reactive oxygen species production. Supplements with antioxidant mixtures can compensate for the decline in red cell membrane stability following intermittent hypobaric hypoxia by decreasing protein and lipid oxidation. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with vitamin C is implicated in the regulation of erythropoiesis and in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and also whether antioxidant supplementation prevents the oxidative stress associated to intermittent hypoxia. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: normoxia control (n=6), normoxia + vitamin C (n=6), hypoxia control (12 h pO(2) 12%/12 h pO(2) 21%) (n=6), and hypoxia + vitamin C (n=6). Animals were supplemented with vitamin C at a dose of 250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 21 days. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocytes, erythropoietin, and oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde and protein oxidation in plasma were analyzed at two different time points: basal sample (day zero) and final sample (day 21). Similar RBC, Hb, Hct, and Epo increments were observed in both hypoxic groups regardless of the vitamin C supplementation. There was no change on MDA levels after intermittent hypoxic exposure in any experimental group. However, we found an increase in plasma protein oxidation in both hypoxic groups. Vitamin C does not affect erythropoiesis and protein oxidation in rats submitted to intermittent hypoxic exposure. PMID:23270444

  16. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P < 0.05). For DPAn-3 the higher level was also found in muscle and gonad of abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P < 0.05). Elongase 2 expression was markedly higher in the muscle of abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P < 0.05), followed by the diet containing 2% FO supplement. For ∆6 desaturase, significantly higher expression was observed in muscle of abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  17. Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Dienke J; Oranje, Bob; Veerhoek, E Sanne; Van Diepen, Rosanne M; Weusten, Juliette MH; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique GM; Eilander, Ans; Hoeksma, Marco; Durston, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common child psychiatric disorders, and is often treated with stimulant medication. Nonpharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms and cognitive control in young boys with and without ADHD. A total of 40 boys with ADHD, aged 8–14 years, and 39 matched, typically developing controls participated in a 16-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants consumed 10 g of margarine daily, enriched with either 650 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) each or placebo. Baseline and follow-up assessments addressed ADHD symptoms, fMRI of cognitive control, urine homovanillic acid, and cheek cell phospholipid sampling. EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children. Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo. There was no effect of EPA/DHA supplementation on cognitive control or on fMRI measures of brain activity. This study shows that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces symptoms of ADHD, both for individuals with ADHD and typically developing children. This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462). PMID:25790022

  18. Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bos, Dienke J; Oranje, Bob; Veerhoek, E Sanne; Van Diepen, Rosanne M; Weusten, Juliette Mh; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique Gm; Eilander, Ans; Hoeksma, Marco; Durston, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common child psychiatric disorders, and is often treated with stimulant medication. Nonpharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms and cognitive control in young boys with and without ADHD. A total of 40 boys with ADHD, aged 8-14 years, and 39 matched, typically developing controls participated in a 16-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants consumed 10 g of margarine daily, enriched with either 650 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) each or placebo. Baseline and follow-up assessments addressed ADHD symptoms, fMRI of cognitive control, urine homovanillic acid, and cheek cell phospholipid sampling. EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children. Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo. There was no effect of EPA/DHA supplementation on cognitive control or on fMRI measures of brain activity. This study shows that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces symptoms of ADHD, both for individuals with ADHD and typically developing children. This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462).

  19. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group) or olive oil (placebo group) for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i) perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii) sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii) night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S) urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95). A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62%) and active (65%) group (p = 0.52). The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497 PMID:20569455

  20. Relationship between body weight and level of fat supplementation on fatty acid digestion in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, A; Mendoza, G D; Vásquez, C; Zinn, R A

    2003-11-01

    Eight Holstein steers with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a split-plot design experiment to evaluate the interaction of body weight (175 vs. 370 kg) and level of fat supplementation (0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow grease) on characteristics of digestion and feeding value of fat in finishing diets. Dry matter intake was restricted to 2% of BW. There were no interactions between BW and level of fat supplementation (P > 0.10) on ruminal or total-tract digestion. Level of supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) ruminal digestion of OM and NDF, and increased (linear, P < 0.05) ruminal N efficiency. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and N. There tended to be an interaction (P < 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal starch digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation increased postruminal digestion of starch in heavier steers but did not affect starch digestion in lighter steers. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal fatty acid digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal fatty acid digestion, which was due to a decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal digestion of C16:0 and C18:0. Supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) total-tract digestion of OM and NDF. The estimated NEm (Mcal/kg) of yellow grease averaged (linear, P < 0.01) 6.02, 5.70, and 5.06 for the 3, 6, and 9% of level supplementation, respectively. We conclude that intestinal fatty acid digestion (FAD, %) is a predictable function (r2 = 0.89; P < 0.01) of total fatty acid intake per unit body weight (FAI, g/kg BW): FAD = 87.560 - 8.591FAI. Depressions in fatty acid digestion with increasing level of intake were due primarily to decreased intestinal absorption of palmitic and stearic acid. Level of fatty acids intake did not appreciably affect intestinal absorption of unsaturated fatty acid. Changes

  1. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism. PMID:27338456

  2. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-06-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  3. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism. PMID:27338456

  4. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages. PMID:25162760

  5. Amino acid supplementation and impact on immune function in the context of exercise.

    PubMed

    Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Krause, Maurício; Newsholme, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Moderate and chronic bouts of exercise may lead to positive metabolic, molecular, and morphological adaptations, improving health. Although exercise training stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their overall intracellular concentration may not reach damaging levels due to enhancement of antioxidant responses. However, inadequate exercise training (i.e., single bout of high-intensity or excessive exercise) may result in oxidative stress, muscle fatigue and muscle injury. Moreover, during the recovery period, impaired immunity has been reported, for example; excessive-inflammation and compensatory immunosuppression. Nutritional supplements, sometimes referred to as immuno-nutrients, may be required to reduce immunosuppression and excessive inflammation. Herein, we discuss the action and the possible targets of key immuno-nutrients such as L-glutamine, L-arginine, branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and whey protein. PMID:25530736

  6. Improvement of whole crop rice silage nutritive value and rumen degradability by molasses and urea supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote

    2013-11-01

    Whole crop rice was harvested 120 days after planting and chopped to 2-3-cm length for silage making. The whole crop rice silage (WCRS) was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 6 × 5 factorial arrangement, in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplementation at M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 %, and the second was urea (U) supplementation at U0, U0.5, U1.0, U1.5, and U2.0 % of the crop dry mater (DM), respectively. After 45 days of ensiling, temperature, pH, chemical composition, and fermentation end products of the silages were measured. Ten U and M treatment combinations of WCRS were subsequently selected to study rumen degradability by nylon bag technique. The results showed that temperature and pH of the silages linearly increased with U supplementation level, while total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetic acid (C2) and propionic acid (C3) decreased. In contrast, increasing level of M supplementation decreased WCRS temperature and pH, whereas TVFA, C2, and C3 concentrations increased dramatically. Both M and U supplementation increased concentration of butyric acid (C4). Dry matter, organic matter (OM), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the silages were not influenced by either M or U supplementation. Increasing U supplementation increased crude protein (CP) content, while M level did not show any effect. Furthermore, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in silage was decreased by both M and U supplementation. The results of the in situ study showed that M and U supplementation increased both ruminal DM and OM degradation. The water-soluble fraction (a) was the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and lowest in U0M0. Increasing M and U supplementation levels increased the potentially degradable fraction (b) of both DM and OM. Total rumen degradable fraction (a + b) was highest in WCRS U1.5M3, whereas OM degradability was

  7. Improvement of whole crop rice silage nutritive value and rumen degradability by molasses and urea supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote

    2013-11-01

    Whole crop rice was harvested 120 days after planting and chopped to 2-3-cm length for silage making. The whole crop rice silage (WCRS) was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 6 × 5 factorial arrangement, in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplementation at M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 %, and the second was urea (U) supplementation at U0, U0.5, U1.0, U1.5, and U2.0 % of the crop dry mater (DM), respectively. After 45 days of ensiling, temperature, pH, chemical composition, and fermentation end products of the silages were measured. Ten U and M treatment combinations of WCRS were subsequently selected to study rumen degradability by nylon bag technique. The results showed that temperature and pH of the silages linearly increased with U supplementation level, while total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetic acid (C2) and propionic acid (C3) decreased. In contrast, increasing level of M supplementation decreased WCRS temperature and pH, whereas TVFA, C2, and C3 concentrations increased dramatically. Both M and U supplementation increased concentration of butyric acid (C4). Dry matter, organic matter (OM), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the silages were not influenced by either M or U supplementation. Increasing U supplementation increased crude protein (CP) content, while M level did not show any effect. Furthermore, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in silage was decreased by both M and U supplementation. The results of the in situ study showed that M and U supplementation increased both ruminal DM and OM degradation. The water-soluble fraction (a) was the highest in WCRS U1.5M3 and lowest in U0M0. Increasing M and U supplementation levels increased the potentially degradable fraction (b) of both DM and OM. Total rumen degradable fraction (a + b) was highest in WCRS U1.5M3, whereas OM degradability was

  8. Effect of Arachidonic Acid-enriched Oil Diet Supplementation on the Taste of Broiler Meat

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H.; Rikimaru, K.; Kiyohara, R.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between the arachidonic acid (AA) content and the taste of broiler meat, the effects of AA-enriched oil (AAO) supplements on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions of thigh meat were evaluated. Four types of oil, including corn oil (CO), a 1:1 mixture of AAO and palm oil (PO) (1/2 AAO), a 1:3 mixture of AAO and PO (1/4 AAO), and a 1:7 mixture of AAO and PO (1/8 AAO) were prepared. Each type of oil was mixed with silicate at a ratio of 7:3, and added to the diet at a final proportion of 5% of fresh matter. Broiler chickens were fed these diets for 1 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups was significantly higher than that of the CO group. The AA content in thigh meat (y, mg/g) increased linearly with increasing dietary AAO content (x, g/100 g of diet), according to the equation y = 0.5674+0.4596× (r2 = 0.8454). The content of other fatty acids was not significantly different among the 4 diet groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the flavor intensity, umami (L-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups were significantly higher than that of the CO group. There were significant positive correlations between AA content in thigh meat and the flavor intensity, total taste intensity, umami, and aftertaste. These data suggest that the taste of broiler meat can be improved by the amount of dietary AA supplementation. PMID:25049636

  9. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  10. Folic Acid Supplementation Adversely Affects Chemosensitivity of Colon Cancer Cells to 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Lisa; Yang, Michael; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Streutker, Catherine J; Grin, Andrea; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Folic acid (FA) fortification and widespread supplemental use have significantly increased folate status in North America. Furthermore, >50% of colorectal cancer patients use FA supplement. The increased folate status may interfere with cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effect of FA supplementation on chemosensitivity of human colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using a xenograft model. Mice harboring human HCT116 colon cancer xenografts were randomized to receive the control, or 4× or 12.5× supplemental levels of FA. Within each diet group, mice were randomized to receive 5-FU+leucovorin or saline and xenograft growth and characteristics were determined. The expression of genes involved in folate metabolism and cancer treatment was determined. FA supplementation and 5-FU significantly interacted to influence xenograft growth (P < 0.007). At the control level, 5-FU significantly inhibited the growth of the xenografts (P < 0.0001). However, at the 4× supplemental level, 5-FU-treated xenografts grew faster than untreated xenografts (P = 0.048) while at the 12.5× supplemental level, 5-FU exhibited no effect. Cell proliferation, degree of necrosis, and expression of the selected genes did not significantly differ by the supplemental levels of FA. Our data suggest that FA supplementation may be detrimental to 5-FU chemotherapy of colon cancer and pose public health concern.

  11. Response of milk fatty acid composition to dietary supplementation of soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid, or both.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Schoonmaker, J P; Bradford, B J; Beitz, D C

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six Holstein cows were blocked by parity and allotted by stage of lactation to 6 treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; free acid or calcium salt), or both, on CLA content of milk. Diets were fed for 4 wk and are as follows: (1) control, (2) control + 5% soy oil, (3) control + 1% CLA, (4) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2, (5) control + 1% CLA + 4% soy oil, and (6) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2 + 4% soy oil. Rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, blood fatty acid concentrations, milk yield, and milk composition were measured weekly or biweekly. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. Dietary supplementation of soy oil or CLA had no effect on daily milk yield, milk protein concentration and production, or milk lactose concentration and production. Supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids as soy oil, CLA, or Ca(CLA)2 increased total fatty acid concentration in plasma, decreased milk fat concentration and production, and had no effect on rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations. The weight percentage of CLA in milk was increased from 0.4 to 0.7% with supplementation of 1% CLA, to 1.2% with supplementation of soy oil, and to 1.3% with supplementation of 1% CLA plus soy oil. Supplementation with Ca(CLA)2 or Ca(CLA)2 + soy oil increased the CLA content of milk fat to 0.9 and 1.4%, respectively. In summary, adding 5% soy oil was as effective as supplementing CLA, Ca(CLA)2, or a combination of 1% CLA (free acid or calcium salt) + 4% soy oil at increasing CLA concentrations in milk fat. Feeding CLA as the calcium salt resulted in greater concentrations of CLA in milk fat than did feeding CLA as the free acid. Dietary supplementation of 5% soy oil or 4% soy oil + 1% CLA as the free acid or the calcium salt increased the yield of CLA in milk.

  12. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-08-24

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  13. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index. PMID:26305244

  14. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age. PMID:26890759

  15. Influence of different systems for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not.

  16. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  17. Effect of reduced dietary protein and supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid product on broiler performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Costa, P; Alves, S P; Benevides, W S; Bessa, R J B; Lemos, J P C; Pinto, R M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2014-01-01

    1. Chicken breast meat is a lean meat due to its low content of intramuscular fat (IMF) resulting in an overall lower acceptability by consumers due to a decrease in juiciness, flavour and increased chewiness. Recently, studies performed in pigs suggested the possibility of increasing IMF by decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) content, an effect possibly mediated through an increased lipogenesis. 2. Dietary supplementation with lipids rich in omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) may modulate an increase in the content of these fatty acids in meat from monogastric animals and, thus, promote the daily intake of n-3 LC-PUFA by humans. 3. LC-PUFA are very susceptible to oxidation, resulting in off-flavours that affect meat quality and consumers' acceptability. 4. This trial was conducted to assess the effect of reducing dietary CP, from 21% to 17%, on chicken's meat IMF content and, simultaneously, to evaluate if a complementary supplementation with a proprietary n-3 LC-PUFA source (DHA Gold™) could improve meat quality. These effects were assessed by measuring productive performance and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and fatty acid profile. 5. A reduction in CP content of broiler diets, from 21% to 17%, balanced for lysine, improved performance while it was not sufficient to increase IMF content in chicken meat. In contrast, DHA Gold™ supplementation had a positive impact both in broiler productive parameters and in meat fatty acid profile. 6. In addition, incorporation of 7.4% of DHA Gold™ in the diet promoted carcass yield but negatively affected chicken meat acceptability by consumers, due to a decrease of meat oxidative stability. 7. Overall the data suggest that neither a dietary supplementation with DHA Gold™ nor a reduction in CP have a direct positive effect in the levels of IMF present in broiler meat. PMID:25277689

  18. Amino acid supplementation decreases plasma and liver triglycerides in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bui, Quynh-Uyen T.; Tissier, Sandrine; Cree, Melanie G.; Rønsen, Ola; Morio, Beatrice; Ferrando, Arny A.; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of AA supplementation on plasma, liver and muscle lipid concentrations and insulin sensitivity in elderly. Methods Twelve impaired glucose tolerant elderly (67.0 ± 5.6 (SD) years, 7 females, 5 males) ingested 11 g of essential AA + arginine twice a day for 16 weeks, after a 7 week control run in. Diet and activity were not otherwise modified. Plasma lipid concentrations and oral glucose tolerance were measured every 4th week, and tissue lipid concentrations (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) every 8th week. Results No changes in plasma lipids were observed during the control run-in. AA supplementation lowered plasma triglyceride (TG) (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.048) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (P < 0.001) concentrations. Plasma TG dropped ~20% from the initial value of 1.45 ± 0.18 (SE) mmol/l (128 ± 16 mg/dl), with greatest decrease in the subjects starting out with highest concentrations (r = −0.83). Similarly, liver fat content (liver TG/intralipid standard) decreased ~50% from the initial value of 0.34 ± 0.06 (P = 0.021; n = 9), with greatest decrease in the subjects that initially had highest values (r = −0.86). Intramuscular fat content and insulin sensitivity did not change. Conclusion Diet supplementation with AA lowers plasma TG, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations, and liver lipid content in impaired glucose tolerant elderly. AA supplementation may have a potential role in treatment of hypertriglyceridemia or hepatic steatosis. PMID:19041223

  19. Cornu cervi pantotrichum supplementation improves exercise performance and protects against physical fatigue in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Kan, Nai-Wen; Chao, Hui-Ling; Ho, Chin-Shan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2014-01-01

    Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP) is a well-known yang-invigorating agent used in traditional Chinese medicine that can nourish the blood, tonify qi, and invigorate bones and tendons with multifunctional bioactivities. However, evidence on the effects of CCP on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of ethanolic extract from CCP on ergogenic and antifatigue functions following a physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from four groups (n=8 per group) were orally administered CCP for 14 days at 0, 2054, and 4108 mg/kg/day, and were respectively designated as the vehicle, CCP-1X, and CCP-2X groups. The physical performance and antifatigue function were evaluated using forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as serum levels of lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after a 15-min swimming exercise. The results indicated that CCP-1X supplementation significantly improved grip strength; reduced fatigue-associated biochemical indices, including lactate and ammonia levels; and ameliorated skeletal muscle injury induced by acute exercise challenge. A trend analysis revealed that CCP supplementation significantly increased grip strength and dose-dependently reduced serum alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, triacylglycerol, and glucose levels in healthy mice. Therefore, CCP is a potential agent with an antifatigue pharmacological effect. PMID:24739929

  20. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study.

  1. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study. PMID:25665795

  2. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health.

  3. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health. PMID:26317447

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid and gamma-linolenic acid on acne vulgaris: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Hong, Jong Soo; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jang, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and histological changes induced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid in acne vulgaris. A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were allocated to either an omega-3 fatty acid group (2,000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), a γ-linoleic acid group (borage oil containing 400 mg γ-linoleic acid), or a control group. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linoleic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Patient subjective assessment of improvement showed a similar result. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for interleukin-8. No severe adverse effect was reported. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients. PMID:24553997

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid and gamma-linolenic acid on acne vulgaris: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Hong, Jong Soo; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jang, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and histological changes induced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid in acne vulgaris. A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were allocated to either an omega-3 fatty acid group (2,000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), a γ-linoleic acid group (borage oil containing 400 mg γ-linoleic acid), or a control group. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linoleic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Patient subjective assessment of improvement showed a similar result. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for interleukin-8. No severe adverse effect was reported. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients.

  6. Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older women.

    PubMed

    Gotshalk, Lincoln A; Kraemer, William J; Mendonca, Mario A G; Vingren, Jakob L; Kenny, Anne M; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Fragala, Maren S; Volek, Jeff S

    2008-01-01

    Muscle power and strength decrease with age leading to reduced independence and increased health risk from falls. Creatine supplementation can increase muscle power and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 7 days of creatine supplementation on body composition, muscular strength, and lower-body motor functional performance in older women. Thirty 58-71 year old women performed three test sessions (T1-T3) each separated by one week. Each session consisted of one repetition maximum tests for bench press and leg press, and isometric hand-grip, tandem gait, upper-body ergometer, and lower-body ergometer tests. Following T2, subjects were assigned to a creatine monohydrate (0.3 g kg body mass(-1) for 7 days) (CR: 63.31 +/- 1.22 year, 160.00 +/- 1.58 cm, 67.11 +/- 4.38 kg) or a placebo (PL: 62.98 +/- 1.11 year, 162.25 +/- 2.09 cm, 67.84 +/- 3.90 kg) supplementation group. CR significantly (P < 0.05) increased bench press (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg), leg press (5.2 +/- 1.8 kg), body mass (0.49 +/- 0.04 kg) and fat free mass (0.52 +/- 0.05) and decreased completion time on the functional tandem gait tests from T2-T3. No significant changes were found for PL on any of the measured variables. No adverse side-effects were reported by either group. Short-term creatine supplementation resulted in an increase in strength, power, and lower-body motor functional performance in older women without any adverse side effects.

  7. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p < 0.01) NGF in the cortex but not BDNF levels although the cognition was impaired (p < 0.01). In contrast, in the BDO group, higher NGF levels were observed in the hippocampus and animals demonstrated improved (p < 0.01) cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p < 0.05). These animals showed more reference and working memory errors (p < 0.01) as compared to the control group. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p < 0.01) levels of DHA and NGF in the hippocampus, higher BDNF in both hippocampus and cortex and improved cognitive performance. Our findings have implications for fortification of foods with vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development.

  8. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p < 0.01) NGF in the cortex but not BDNF levels although the cognition was impaired (p < 0.01). In contrast, in the BDO group, higher NGF levels were observed in the hippocampus and animals demonstrated improved (p < 0.01) cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p < 0.05). These animals showed more reference and working memory errors (p < 0.01) as compared to the control group. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p < 0.01) levels of DHA and NGF in the hippocampus, higher BDNF in both hippocampus and cortex and improved cognitive performance. Our findings have implications for fortification of foods with vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development. PMID:27569259

  9. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased ( P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

  10. Effect of daily food supplementation with essential fatty acids on canine semen quality.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, A A; da Cunha, I C N; Ederli, B B; Albernaz, A P; Quirino, C R

    2009-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important membrane components that influence membrane integrity and fluidity. In the present study, the effect of oral supplementation for 60 days with essential fatty acids (omega 3, 6 and 9) and vitamin E on canine semen quality was evaluated. Sixteen dogs were selected for the experiment; eight were used as the control group and eight received the fatty acid supplemented diet for 60 days. Semen samples were taken every 15 days during the entire experimental period and were analyzed for volume (ml), motility (%), vigour (0-5), concentration (x10(6)/ml), morphology of spermatozoa (%), plasma membrane integrity (%; using the hyposmotic swelling test) and thermoresistance (motility and vigour after 4 h at 38 degrees C). We concluded that, daily supplementation with omega 3, omega 6 and omega 9 fatty acids, together with vitamin E, for a period of 60 days, significantly increased the semen volume of the treated group after 15 days of supplementation; the vigour and concentration of spermatozoa were superior after the first month of supplementation, while the percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa decreased and the cells were protected against thermal stress.

  11. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future.

  12. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future. PMID:16466091

  13. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  14. Efficacy of a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel as a tear film supplement: a masked controlled study.

    PubMed

    Williams, David L; Mann, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness.

  15. Efficacy of a Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel as a Tear Film Supplement: A Masked Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness. PMID:24914681

  16. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  17. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  18. PAKs supplement improves immune status and body composition but not muscle strength in resistance trained individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mixed formula supplements are very popular among recreational and professional weightlifters. They are usually known as PAKs and they are supposed to have a synergistic effect of their different nutrients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic (4 weeks) PAKS supplementation in combination with strength training on body composition, immune status and performance measures in recreationally trained individuals with or without PAKs supplementation. Methods: Twelve male subjects (Placebo n = 6 and PAKs supplement n = 6) were recruited for this study. The body composition, one maximum strength repetition tests and immune status were assessed before and after 4 week supplementation. Our data showed that, 4 week PAK supplementation associated with strength exercise not was effective in change strength than compared with placebo group. However, we observed that, PAK supplement was able to improve immune status and reduced body composition when compared with placebo group. These results indicate that, a mixed formula supplement is able to improve immune status and body composition but not maximum strength in recreational strength trained subjects in a 4 weeks period. PMID:21059194

  19. Dolomite supplementation improves bone metabolism through modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Nagasawa, Sakae; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Michio

    2005-01-01

    Dolomite, a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg (CO3)2), is used as a food supplement that supplies calcium and magnesium. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with osteoporosis is a matter of controversy. We examined the effects of daily supplementation with dolomite on calcium metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Dolomite was administered daily to OVX rats for 9 weeks. The same amount of magnesium chloride as that supplied by the dolomite was given to OVX rats as a positive control. Histological examination revealed that ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone and increased adipose tissues in the femoral metaphysis. Dolomite or magnesium supplementation failed to improve these bone histological features. Calcium content in the femora was decreased in OVX rats. Neither calcium nor magnesium content in the femora in OVX rats was significantly increased by dolomite or magnesium administration. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was significantly increased in OVX rats, and was not affected by the magnesium supplementation. Serum concentrations of magnesium were increased, and those of calcium were decreased, in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. However, there was a tendency toward decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and increased calcitonin secretion in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and osteocalcin levels were significantly increased in the supplemented OVX rats. These results suggest that increased magnesium intake improves calcium metabolism in favor of increasing bone formation, through the modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion.

  20. Dolomite supplementation improves bone metabolism through modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Nagasawa, Sakae; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Michio

    2005-01-01

    Dolomite, a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg (CO3)2), is used as a food supplement that supplies calcium and magnesium. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with osteoporosis is a matter of controversy. We examined the effects of daily supplementation with dolomite on calcium metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Dolomite was administered daily to OVX rats for 9 weeks. The same amount of magnesium chloride as that supplied by the dolomite was given to OVX rats as a positive control. Histological examination revealed that ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone and increased adipose tissues in the femoral metaphysis. Dolomite or magnesium supplementation failed to improve these bone histological features. Calcium content in the femora was decreased in OVX rats. Neither calcium nor magnesium content in the femora in OVX rats was significantly increased by dolomite or magnesium administration. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was significantly increased in OVX rats, and was not affected by the magnesium supplementation. Serum concentrations of magnesium were increased, and those of calcium were decreased, in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. However, there was a tendency toward decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and increased calcitonin secretion in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and osteocalcin levels were significantly increased in the supplemented OVX rats. These results suggest that increased magnesium intake improves calcium metabolism in favor of increasing bone formation, through the modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion. PMID:15750692

  1. Protein quality of supplements and meal replacements. Amino acids and calculated indicators of protein quality.

    PubMed

    Marable, N L; Hinners, M L; Hardison, N W; Kehrberg, N L

    1980-09-01

    The amino acid composition of several types of dietary supplements and meal replacements was measured and compared with label values when available and to published values for egg. Calculated indicators of protein quality, such as chemical score, protein calorie:total calorie ratio, individual essential amino acid:total essential amino acid ratio, and total essential amino acid:total amino acid ratio were also compared for products, egg, and the estimated pattern of adult requirements. Predigested liquid protein products were notably lower in protein quality than other products. All non-predigested products compared favorably with egg in terms of protein quality, but were more expensive and had no advantages over regular meals in terms of protein quality as reducing aids or protein supplements.

  2. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  3. Effect of supplemental folic acid on valproic acid-induced embryotoxicity and tissue zinc levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D K; Grafton, T F; Dial, S L; Gehring, T A; Siitonen, P H

    1995-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-convulsant drug known to cause spina bifida in humans. Administration of the vitamin, folic acid, has been shown to decrease the recurrence and possibly also the occurrence of neural tube defects, primarily spina bifida, in humans. Additionally, treatment with a derivative (folinic acid) of folic acid has been reported to decrease the frequency of VPA-induced exencephaly in mice treated with the drug in vivo. A protective effect by folinic acid has not been observed in vitro. The purpose of this investigation was to reexamine the ability of folinic acid to decrease the incidence of VPA-induced neural tube defects in vivo. We also examined the effect of increased intake of folic acid on zinc levels in various maternal and embryonic tissues. Folinic acid, whether administered by intraperitoneal injection or in osmotic mini-pumps, did not decrease the number of mouse fetuses with VPA-induced exencephaly. Dietary supplementation with 10-20 times the daily required intake of folic acid in rodents also failed to decrease the embryotoxicity of VPA. Such dietary supplementation had no effect on zinc levels in maternal liver, brain, or kidney, nor in embryonic tissues. These results indicate that folic acid is not able to reverse the embryotoxicity induced by the anticonvulsant, that there is no apparent effect of high dietary folate intake on maternal or embryonic zinc levels and suggest that folate is probably not involved in the mechanism of VPA-induced embryotoxicity. PMID:8838251

  4. The micronutrient supplements, zinc sulphate and folic acid, did not ameliorate sperm functional parameters in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Raigani, M; Yaghmaei, B; Amirjannti, N; Lakpour, N; Akhondi, M M; Zeraati, H; Hajihosseinal, M; Sadeghi, M R

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of folic acid and zinc sulphate supplementation on the improvement of sperm function in subfertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. Eighty-three OAT men participated in a 16-week intervention randomised, double-blind clinical trial with daily treatment of folic acid (5 mg day(-1) ) and zinc sulphate (220 mg day(-1) ), or placebo. Before and after treatment, semen and blood samples were obtained for determining sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, sperm viability, sperm mitochondrial function, sperm chromatin status using toluidine blue, aniline blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining; and semen and blood folate, zinc, B12 , total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Sperm concentration (×10(6)  ml(-1) ) increased in subfertile men receiving the combined treatment of folic acid and zinc sulphate and also in the group receiving only folic acid treatment; however, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.056 and P = 0.05, respectively). Sperm chromatin integrity (%) increased significantly in subfertile men receiving only zinc sulphate treatment (P = 0.048). However, this improvement in sperm quality was not significant after adjusting placebo effect. This study showed that zinc sulphate and folic acid supplementation did not ameliorate sperm quality in infertile men with severely compromised sperm parameters, OAT. Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder, and also nutritional factors play an important role in results of administration of supplementation on sperm parameters. However, these results should be confirmed by multiple studies in larger populations of OAT men.

  5. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid–sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4‐1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3‐ to 5‐fold higher in Northern China and 3‐fold higher in India. A recent population‐based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with

  6. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid--a case report.

    PubMed

    Terre'Blanche, Gisella; van der Walt, Mietha M; Bergh, Jacobus J; Mienie, Lodewyk J

    2011-08-26

    This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD). The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA). Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO) and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC). Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  7. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD). The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA). Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO) and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC). Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels. PMID:21871076

  8. The proteomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose conditions with amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Wright, Phillip C

    2008-11-01

    Ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose (VHG) media with an amino acid supplement was investigated. Amino acid supplementation led to positive cell responses, including reduced lag time and increased cell viability in VHG media. A quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was used to understand how amino acid supplemented S. cerevisiae responds to high osmotic conditions. iTRAQ data revealed that most proteins involved in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated under high glucose shock. Reactivation of amino acid metabolism was also observed at the end of the lag phase. The relative abundance of most identified proteins, including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis proteins, and heat-shock proteins, remained unchanged in the hours immediately following application of glucose shock. However, the expression of these proteins increased significantly at the end of the lag phase. Furthermore, the up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen biosynthesis proteins, first maintaining then latterly increasing glycolysis pathway activity was also observed. This was verified by enhanced ethanol yields at 10 and 12 h (0.43 and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose) compared to 2 h (0.32 g ethanol/g glucose). These data combined with relevant metabolite measurements demonstrates that enhanced ethanol fermentation under VHG conditions can be achieved with the aid of amino acid supplementation.

  9. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  10. Mango Supplementation Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Shirley F; Meister, Maureen; Mahmood, Maryam; Eldoumi, Heba; Peterson, Sandra; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Clarke, Stephen L; Payton, Mark; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango (Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometrics, body composition, and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Twenty obese adults (11 males and 9 females) ages 20- to 50-years old, received 10 g/day of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and body composition were assessed at baseline and final visits of the study. After 12 weeks, mango supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in both male (−4.45 mg/dL, P = 0.018) and female (−3.56 mg/dL, P = 0.003) participants. In addition, hip circumference was reduced in male (−3.3 cm, P = 0.048) but not in female participants. However, there were no significant changes in body weight or composition in either gender. Our findings indicate that regular consumption of freeze-dried mango by obese individuals does not negatively impact body weight but provides a positive effect on fasting blood glucose. PMID:25210462

  11. Effects of supplemental protein on acid-base status and calcium metabolism of nonlactating Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Beede, D K

    1990-11-01

    The objective was to study effects of 11, 15, and 19% dietary CP on acid-base status, Ca balance, and metabolic responses to intravenous infusion of disodium EDTA. Dietary protein content was increased by supplementation of hydrolyzed feather meal and distillers dried grains with solubles to a concentrate combined with cottonseed hulls (40:60). Six nonlactating, nonpregnant multiparous Jersey cows (average 6.7 yr old) were used in two balanced 3 x 3 Latin squares with 24-d periods. Increasing supplemental CP decreased blood base excess, urinary titratable base, and net base excretion, but increased urinary ammonium excretion. Calcium excretion and balance were not affected by supplemental CP. Analysis to detect heterogeneity of regression showed that response of plasma EDTA-free Ca to EDTA infusion over time was not different among treatments. Increasing supplemental protein induced mild acidosis but did not affect Ca balance or responses to Ca removal from blood (via EDTA infusion) of non-lactating cows.

  12. Role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of neural tube defects: physicians yet unaware!

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A; Kumhar, G Das; Harit, D; Faridi, M M A

    2010-09-01

    Folic acid supplementation is important in the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD). The study was conducted to assess the awareness amongst physicians regarding the role of Folic Acid (FA) in the prevention of NTD. Physicians were interviewed regarding the awareness of FA dose, timing of supplementation and knowledge about its role in prevention of neural tube defects using a semistructured questionnaire. Among 202 physicians interviewed (48 pediatricians, 54 obstetricians, 100 recently qualified medical graduates) overall awareness about FA was present in 92.07%, similar in three groups (P > 0.05). Only 47.52% were aware of preconception administration, 61.38% about dose of supplementation and 11.88% about recurrence rate of NTD. Only 15 (7.4%) knew all these. Regarding the etiology of NTDs only 26.7% said both FA and genetic factors are involved. Though majority were aware that folic acid has a role in prevention of NTDs, their knowledge about timing and dose of supplementation was lacking. Hence attempts should be made to increase the awareness regarding prevention of NTD's by FA supplementation at a proper time.

  13. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  14. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  15. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  16. High dose of maternal folic acid supplementation is associated to infant asthma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Jiang, Liwen; Bi, Meirong; Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Youqing; He, Chuan; Yao, Yao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation had a positive effect on preventing neural tube defects (NTDs), but its effects in infant asthma remained unclear. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted with outpatients between March 2010 and March 2011 including 150 onset infant asthma cases and 212 controls, together with a meta-analysis involving 14,438 participants, was performed. The association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of infant asthma was not significant either in the meta-analysis (OR = 1.06, 95% CI =0.99-1.14) or in the case-control study (OR = 0.72, 95% CI =0.37-1.39). However, quantitative analysis of the supplementation dose demonstrated that the risk of infant asthma significantly increased for the infants whose mother were with high-dose supplementation (>72,000 µg•d; OR = 3.16, 95% CI =1.15-8.71) after adjusting for confounding factors in the case-control study. Meanwhile, the risk of infant asthma significantly decreased for the infants whose mother were with low-dose supplementation (<36,000 µg•d; OR = 0.36, 95% CI =0.17-0.77). A high dose of folic acid supplementation for mother during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of infant asthma, whereas supplementation with a relatively low-dose was associated with a decreased risk of infant asthma. These findings should be further investigated in a large population.

  17. Folic acid supplemented goat milk has beneficial effects on hepatic physiology, haematological status and antioxidant defence during chronic Fe repletion.

    PubMed

    Alférez, María J M; Rivas, Emilio; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; Serrano-Reina, Jose A; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to asses the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets, either normal or Fe-overloaded and folic acid supplement on some aspects of hepatic physiology, enzymatic antioxidant defence and lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and erythrocyte of control and anaemic rats after chronic Fe repletion. 160 male Wistar rats were placed on 40 d in two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving low Fe diet. Lately, the rats were fed with goat and cow milk-based diets during 30 d, with normal-Fe content or Fe-overload and either with normal folic or folic acid supplemented. Fe-overload increased plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels when cow milk was supplied. Dietary folate supplementation reduced plasma transaminases levels in animals fed goat milk with chronic Fe overload. A remarkable increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the animals fed cow milk. Dietary folate supplement lead to a decrease on the activity of this enzyme in all the tissues studied with both milk-based diets. A concomitant increment in catalase was also observed. The increase in lipid peroxidation products levels in rats fed cow milk with Fe-overload, suggest an imbalance in the functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. In conclusion, dietary folate-supplemented goat milk reduces both plasma transaminases levels, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect and has beneficial effects in situation of Fe-overload, improving the antioxidant enzymes activities and reducing lipid peroxidation.

  18. Folic acid supplemented goat milk has beneficial effects on hepatic physiology, haematological status and antioxidant defence during chronic Fe repletion.

    PubMed

    Alférez, María J M; Rivas, Emilio; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; Serrano-Reina, Jose A; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to asses the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets, either normal or Fe-overloaded and folic acid supplement on some aspects of hepatic physiology, enzymatic antioxidant defence and lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and erythrocyte of control and anaemic rats after chronic Fe repletion. 160 male Wistar rats were placed on 40 d in two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving low Fe diet. Lately, the rats were fed with goat and cow milk-based diets during 30 d, with normal-Fe content or Fe-overload and either with normal folic or folic acid supplemented. Fe-overload increased plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels when cow milk was supplied. Dietary folate supplementation reduced plasma transaminases levels in animals fed goat milk with chronic Fe overload. A remarkable increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the animals fed cow milk. Dietary folate supplement lead to a decrease on the activity of this enzyme in all the tissues studied with both milk-based diets. A concomitant increment in catalase was also observed. The increase in lipid peroxidation products levels in rats fed cow milk with Fe-overload, suggest an imbalance in the functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. In conclusion, dietary folate-supplemented goat milk reduces both plasma transaminases levels, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect and has beneficial effects in situation of Fe-overload, improving the antioxidant enzymes activities and reducing lipid peroxidation. PMID:25394837

  19. Effect of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on the Participation of Vasodilator Factors in Aorta from Orchidectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S.; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) against cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Vascular tone regulation is largely mediated by endothelial factors whose release is modulated by sex hormones. Since the incidence of cardiovascular pathologies has been correlated with decreased levels of sex hormones, the aim of this study was to analyze whether a diet supplemented with the specific PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could prevent vascular changes induced by an impaired gonadal function. For this purpose, control and orchidectomized rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) sunflower oil or with 3% (w/w) sunflower oil plus 2% (w/w) DHA. The lipid profile, the blood pressure, the production of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO), and the redox status of biological samples from control and orchidectomized rats, fed control or DHA-supplemented diet, were analyzed. The vasodilator response and the contribution of NO, prostanoids and hyperpolarizing mechanisms were also studied. The results showed that orchidectomy negatively affected the lipid profile, increased the production of prostanoids and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased NO production and the antioxidant capacity, as well as the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the vasodilator responses. The DHA-supplemented diet of the orchidectomized rats decreased the release of prostanoids and ROS, while increasing NO production and the antioxidant capacity, and it also improved the lipid profile. Additionally, it restored the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms by activating potassium. Since the modifications induced by the DHA-supplemented diet were observed in the orchidectomized, but not in the healthy group, DHA seems to exert cardioprotective effects in physiopathological situations in which vascular dysfunction exists. PMID:26540339

  20. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  1. Effect of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on the Participation of Vasodilator Factors in Aorta from Orchidectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Diva M; Navarro, Rocío; Del Campo, Lara; Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) against cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Vascular tone regulation is largely mediated by endothelial factors whose release is modulated by sex hormones. Since the incidence of cardiovascular pathologies has been correlated with decreased levels of sex hormones, the aim of this study was to analyze whether a diet supplemented with the specific PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could prevent vascular changes induced by an impaired gonadal function. For this purpose, control and orchidectomized rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) sunflower oil or with 3% (w/w) sunflower oil plus 2% (w/w) DHA. The lipid profile, the blood pressure, the production of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO), and the redox status of biological samples from control and orchidectomized rats, fed control or DHA-supplemented diet, were analyzed. The vasodilator response and the contribution of NO, prostanoids and hyperpolarizing mechanisms were also studied. The results showed that orchidectomy negatively affected the lipid profile, increased the production of prostanoids and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased NO production and the antioxidant capacity, as well as the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the vasodilator responses. The DHA-supplemented diet of the orchidectomized rats decreased the release of prostanoids and ROS, while increasing NO production and the antioxidant capacity, and it also improved the lipid profile. Additionally, it restored the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms by activating potassium. Since the modifications induced by the DHA-supplemented diet were observed in the orchidectomized, but not in the healthy group, DHA seems to exert cardioprotective effects in physiopathological situations in which vascular dysfunction exists.

  2. Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-12-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis. PMID:25653995

  3. Cancer risk with folic acid supplements: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wien, Tale Norbye; Pike, Eva; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Staff, Annetine; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Klemp, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore if there is an increased cancer risk associated with folic acid supplements given orally. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies of folic acid supplementation in humans reporting cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality. Studies on folic acid fortification of foods were not included. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, clinical trial registries and hand-searching of key journals. Results From 4104 potential references, 19 studies contributed data to our meta-analyses, including 12 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-analysis of the 10 RCTs reporting overall cancer incidence (N=38 233) gave an RR of developing cancer in patients randomised to folic acid supplements of 1.07 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.14) compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Meta-analyses of six RCTs reporting prostate cancer incidence showed an RR of prostate cancer of 1.24 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49) for the men receiving folic acid compared to controls. No significant difference in cancer incidence was shown between groups receiving folic acid and placebo/control group, for any other cancer type. Total cancer mortality was reported in six RCTs, and a meta-analysis of these did not show any significant difference in cancer mortality in folic acid supplemented groups compared to controls (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30). None of the observational studies addressed mortality. Conclusions A meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed a borderline significant increase in frequency of overall cancer in the folic acid group compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Prostate cancer was the only cancer type found to be increased after folic acid supplementation (meta-analyses of six RCTs). Prospective studies of cancer development in populations where food is fortified with folic acid could indicate whether

  4. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children.

  5. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. PMID:21840465

  6. Improving food choices among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program recipients.

    PubMed

    You, Wen; Mitchell, Paul D; Nayga, Rodolfo M

    2012-07-01

    We used a principal-agent framework to examine the feasibility of two proposed modifications to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program with the goal of encouraging healthier food choices among program participants. Specifically, we analyzed two types of contract: a restricted contract and an incentive contract. The restricted contract did not allow the purchase of unhealthy foods with program benefits, but compensated participants by increasing total benefits. The incentive contract provided increased benefits that varied according to the percentage of healthy foods purchased with program benefits. The theoretical results revealed the mechanisms for the two alternative contracts, the conditions under which each would be effective, and the key empirical questions to be examined for future policy analysis.

  7. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL USE OF FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTS AND RISK OF AUTISM IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Surén, Pål; Roth, Christine; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Haugen, Margaretha; Hornig, Mady; Hirtz, Deborah; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W. Ian; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Smith, George Davey; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Susser, Ezra; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Context Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and the subsequent risk of autistic disorder in children. Design, Setting, and Patients The study sample of 85,176 was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002–08. By the end of follow-up on March 31st, 2012, the age range was 3.3–10.2 years and the mean age 6.4 years. The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy. The start of pregnancy was defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASD were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a logistic regression analysis. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education level, year of birth, and parity. Main Outcome Measure Specialist-confirmed diagnosis of autistic disorder. Results To date, 114 children in the study sample have been diagnosed with autistic disorder. In children whose mothers took folic acid, 0.10% (64/61,042) had autistic disorder, compared with 0.21% (50/24,134) in those unexposed to folic acid. The adjusted OR for autistic disorder in children of folic acid users was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41–0.90). Similar analyses for prenatal fish oil supplements showed no such association with autistic disorder, even though fish oil use was associated with the same maternal characteristics as folic acid use. Conclusion Prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception were associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder in the MoBa cohort. PMID:23403681

  8. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...

  9. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, E T; Prokoski, K; Horn, D; Viott, A D; Santos, T C; Fernandes, J I M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. coli challenged broilers supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and threonine. Six hundred male broilers at one d of age from the Cobb strain were utilized. The design was completely randomized using a 2×3 factorial design (unchallenged and challenged and 3 diets). A commercial diet was used as a control and 2 other diets were formulated with glutamine (1.5 and 3% Aminogut®), arginine (1 and 2% L-Arginine), and threonine (1 and 2% L-threonine). The animals that consumed diets supplemented with amino acids presented better (P<0.05) feed conversion in the period from one to 42 d of age. The ability of cell proliferation and the villus:crypt ratio in response to enteric challenge were greater (P<0.05) for broilers that received diets supplemented with amino acids. High levels of amino acids in the experimental feeds reflected in greater protein levels in poultry house litter, and they did not interfere with ammonia production. The supplementation of diets with trophic amino acids can positively contribute to the regeneration and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa in broilers and to the maintenance of zootechnical performance when submitted to enteric challenges.

  10. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  11. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  12. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old) immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine. PMID:22691230

  13. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Delany, C; McDonnell, R; Robson, M; Corcoran, S; Fitzpatrick, C; De La Harpe, D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  14. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard B; Vitetta, Luis; Rooy, Cindy Van; Harris, Elizabeth V; Young, Joanna M; Frampton, Christopher M; Sali, Avni; Nastasi, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Dietary interventions may have the potential to counter age-related cognitive decline. Studies have demonstrated an improvement in age-related cognitive impairment in animals after supplementation with plant extracts containing flavonoids but there are few human studies. This double-blind, controlled study examined the effects on cognitive performance of a 5 week supplementation with Enzogenol Pinus radiata bark extract containing flavonoids, in 42 males aged 50-65 years, with a body mass index >25. Participants were supplemented for 5 weeks either with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, or with vitamin C only. A battery of computerized cognitive tests was administered, and cardiovascular and haematological parameters were assessed prior to and following supplementation. The speed of response for the spatial working memory and immediate recognition tasks improved after supplementation with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, whereas vitamin C alone showed no improvements. A trend in a reduction of systolic blood pressure was observed with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, but not with vitamin C alone. The blood safety parameters were unchanged. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of supplementation with Enzogenol on cognition in older individuals. Larger studies are needed to ascertain its potential as a preventive treatment for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:18683195

  15. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation reduces SERCA Ca2+ transport efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Bombardier, Eric; Irvine, Thomas; Metherel, Adam H; Stark, Ken D; Duhamel, Todd; Rush, James W E; Green, Howard J; Tupling, A Russell

    2015-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the efficiency and increase the energy consumption of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump and mitochondrial electron transport chain by promoting Na(+) and H(+) membrane permeability, respectively. In skeletal muscle, the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are major contributors to resting metabolic rate. Whether DHA can affect SERCA efficiency remains unknown. Here, we examined the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with DHA would reduce Ca(2+) transport efficiency of the SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle. Total lipids were extracted from enriched sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes that were isolated from red vastus lateralis skeletal muscles of rats that were either fed a standard chow diet supplemented with soybean oil or supplemented with DHA for 8 weeks. The fatty acid composition of total SR membrane lipids and the major phospholipid species were determined using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). After 8 weeks of DHA supplementation, total SR DHA content was significantly elevated (control, 4.1 ± 1.0% vs. DHA, 9.9 ± 1.7%; weight percent of total fatty acids) while total arachidonic acid was reduced (control, 13.5 ± 0.4% vs. DHA-fed, 9.4 ± 0.2). Similar changes in these fatty acids were observed in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol, altogether indicating successful incorporation of DHA into the SR membranes post-diet. As hypothesized, DHA supplementation reduced SERCA Ca(2+) transport efficiency (control, 0.018 ± 0.0002 vs. DHA-fed, 0.014 ± 0.0009) possibly through enhanced SR Ca(2+) permeability (ionophore ratio: control, 2.8 ± 0.2 vs. DHA-fed, 2.2 ± 0.3). Collectively, our results suggest that DHA may promote skeletal muscle-based metabolism and thermogenesis through its influence on SERCA.

  16. Improvement of β-Carotene Bioaccessibility from Dietary Supplements Using Excipient Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    The influence of excipient nanoemulsions on β-carotene bioaccessibility from commercial dietary supplements (tablets or soft gels) was studied employing an in vitro gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. Excipient nanoemulsions were formulated from long or medium chain triglycerides (LCT or MCT) to determine the impact of lipid type on carotenoid bioaccessibility. Dietary supplements were tested using the GIT model in the absence or presence of excipient nanoemulsions. β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (0.3%) or soft gels (2.4%) was low when tested in isolation. LCT nanoemulsions greatly improved β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (20%) and slightly improved it from soft gels (5%), whereas MCT nanoemulsions only slightly improved bioaccessibility. These results were attributed to the ability of large carotenoid molecules to be incorporated into large mixed micelles formed by LCT digestion but not by small ones formed by MCT digestion. Our results indicate that excipient nanoemulsions have considerable potential for improving nutraceutical bioavailability from dietary supplements. PMID:27198626

  17. Dietary supplements of folic acid during lactation: effects on the performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Matte, J J

    1998-05-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid administered from 4 wk prepartum to 305 d of lactation on lactational performance. Sixty-three Holstein cows were assigned to 22 blocks of 3 cows according to lactation number, milk production, and body weight (BW). Within each block, cows received 0, 2, or 4 mg of folic acid/kg of BW per d. Dietary supplements of folic acid increased serum and milk folates but affected milk production and composition of primiparous and multiparous cows differently. Supplementary folic acid had little effect on milk production and composition of primiparous cows, except that milk production decreased during the first 100 d of lactation. However, during a complete lactation (3 to 305 d after calving), supplementary folic acid was associated with increased milk production by multiparous cows (8284 +/- 560, 8548 +/- 380, and 8953 +/- 191 kg for cows fed diets supplemented with 0, 2, and 4 mg of folic acid/kg of BW per d, respectively). The percentage of ash in milk was decreased for cows fed the highest amount of dietary folic acid. During the first 100 d of lactation, supplementary folic acid was associated with a lower concentration of nonprotein nitrogen in the milk of multiparous cows. The present study confirms results obtained previously, suggesting that, although the supply of folates from an unsupplemented diet and the ruminal microflora is sufficient to avoid a deficiency in folic acid, supplementary folic acid may increase the milk production of cows in the second lactation or greater.

  18. High Dosage Folic Acid Supplementation, Oral Cleft Recurrence and Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Félix, Têmis Maria; Goco, Norman; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Souza, Josiane; Pereira, Rui; Padovani, Carla; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence and fetal growth. Patients and Methods: The study included 2,508 women who were at-risk for oral cleft recurrence and randomized into two folic acid supplementation groups: 0.4 and 4 mg per day before pregnancy and throughout the first trimester. The infant outcome data were based on 234 live births. In addition to oral cleft recurrence, several secondary outcomes were compared between the two folic acid groups. Cleft recurrence rates were also compared to historic recurrence rates. Results: The oral cleft recurrence rates were 2.9% and 2.5% in the 0.4 and 4 mg groups, respectively. The recurrence rates in the two folic acid groups both separately and combined were significantly different from the 6.3% historic recurrence rate post the folic acid fortification program for this population (p = 0.0009 when combining the two folic acid groups). The rate of cleft lip with palate recurrence was 2.9% in the 0.4 mg group and 0.8% in the 4 mg group. There were no elevated fetal growth complications in the 4 mg group compared to the 0.4 mg group. Conclusions: The study is the first double-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT) to study the effect of high dosage folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence. The recurrence rates were similar between the two folic acid groups. However, the results are suggestive of a decrease in oral cleft recurrence compared to the historic recurrence rate. A RCT is still needed to identify the effect of folic acid on oral cleft recurrence given these suggestive results and the supportive results from previous interventional and observational studies, and the study offers suggestions for such future studies. The results also suggest that high dosage folic acid does not compromise fetal growth. PMID:23380913

  19. Effect of folic acid supplementation on homocysteine concentration and association with training in handball players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strenuous physical activity can alter the status of folic acid, a vitamin directly associated with homocysteine (Hcy); alterations in this nutrient are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Handball players are a population at risk for nutrient deficiency because of poor dietary habits. Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate nutritional status for macronutrients and folic acid in members of a high-performance handball team, and determine the effect of a nutritional intervention with folic acid supplementation and education. Design A total of 14 high-performance handball players were monitored by recording training time, training intensity (according to three levels of residual heart rate (RHR): <60%, 60%–80% and >80%), and subjective perceived exertion (RPE) during a 4-month training period. Nutritional, laboratory and physical activity variables were recorded at baseline (Week 0), after 2 months of dietary supplementation with 200 μg folic acid (50% of the recommended daily allowance) (Week 8) and after 2 months without supplementation (Week 16). We compared training load and analyzed changes in plasma concentrations of Hcy before and after the intervention. Results Bivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy and folic acid concentrations (r = −0.84) at Week 8, reflecting a significant change in Hcy concentration (P < 0.05) as a result of hyperhomocysteinemia following the accumulation of high training loads. At Week 16 we observed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy concentration and training time with an RHR <60%, indicating that aerobic exercise avoided abrupt changes in Hcy and may thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular accidents in high-performance athletes. Conclusion Integral monitoring and education are needed for practitioners of handball sports to record their folic acid status, a factor that directly affects Hcy metabolism. Folic acid

  20. Vitamin D supplement improved testicular function in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chenzhao; Wang, Qinzhu; Hao, Yue; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Lina; du, Mengmeng; Li, Wen; Wu, Yang; Guo, Feng; Ma, Siyuan; Huang, Fengjuan; Qin, Guijun

    2016-04-22

    This study was designed to investigate the role that 1,25(OH)2D3 plays against testicular lesion in diabetic rats and try to find its possible mechanism of the steroidogenesis and the spermatogenesis. In diabetic rats, prolonged hyperglycemia evaluated inflammatory cytokines, damaged sperm production function and redox balance, diminished serum testosterone. After treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 at two different doses respectively for 12 months, all the alternations were effectively normalized. 1,25(OH)2D3 showed inhibitory effect on excessive inflammatory biomarkers and adjusted the expression reproductive genes and testicular androgen synthesis. It also upregulated Bcl-2 expression, decreased Bax and COX-2 expression and inhibited active caspase cascade (caspase 8 and caspase 3), which may preserved the testicular cells under diabetic condition. It revealed that vitamin D supplement may protect the cells through suppressing inflammation factors and alleviating cell apoptotic death, as well as upregulating the expression of genes related to reproductive and testosterone synthesis. PMID:27003251

  1. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and fat metabolism in rats with L-tryptophan supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Wen, Yanmei; Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-12-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is an important precursor for several neurotransmitters and metabolic regulators, which play a vital role in regulating nutrient metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tryptophan supplementation on the biochemical profiles, intestinal structure, liver structure and serum metabolome in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either tryptophan at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight per day or saline (control group) for 7 days. TRP supplementation had a tendency to decrease the body weight of rats (P > 0.05). The levels of urea and CHO in serum were decreased in the TRP-supplemented group rats compared with control group rats (P < 0.05). TRP supplementation increased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum compared to control group rats (P < 0.05). Metabolic effects of tryptophan supplementation include: (1) increases in the serum concentrations of lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrulline, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and albumin, and decreases in the concentrations of serum branched-chain amino acid (isoleucine, valine and leucine); (2) decreases in the serum concentrations of formate and nitrogenous products (trimethylamine, TMAO, methylamine and dimethylamine), and in the contraction of trimethylamine in feces; (3) decreases in serum levels of lipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, together with the elevated ratio of acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate. The results indicate that tryptophan supplementation reduced the catabolism of dietary amino acids and promoted protein synthesis in rats, promoted the oxidation of fatty acid and reduced fat deposition in the body of rats. PMID:25139634

  2. Meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat from broilers supplemented with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Islam, Md Manirul; Bostami, A B M Rubayet; Mun, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ye-Jin; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2015-12-01

    The effects of diets supplemented with four levels (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) of pomegranate by-product (PB) on meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of broiler meat were evaluated. The crude protein and moisture contents increased, whereas ether extract in breast and thigh meat and cholesterol in breast meat decreased in response to dietary PB supplementation (p<0.05). In breast and thigh meat, the sum of saturated fatty acids was lower, while the sum of mono-unsaturated and n-3 fatty acids were higher, alongside lower n-6/n-3 ratio in the 1.0% and 2.0% PB supplemented group (p<0.05). The TBARS values and pH of breast and thigh meat were reduced in the PB supplemented groups (p<0.05). Overall, the results presented herein indicate that supplementation of diets with up to 2% pomegranate by-products improved the meat composition, fatty acid profile and reduced lipid oxidation of broiler meat. PMID:26041221

  3. Meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat from broilers supplemented with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Islam, Md Manirul; Bostami, A B M Rubayet; Mun, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ye-Jin; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2015-12-01

    The effects of diets supplemented with four levels (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) of pomegranate by-product (PB) on meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of broiler meat were evaluated. The crude protein and moisture contents increased, whereas ether extract in breast and thigh meat and cholesterol in breast meat decreased in response to dietary PB supplementation (p<0.05). In breast and thigh meat, the sum of saturated fatty acids was lower, while the sum of mono-unsaturated and n-3 fatty acids were higher, alongside lower n-6/n-3 ratio in the 1.0% and 2.0% PB supplemented group (p<0.05). The TBARS values and pH of breast and thigh meat were reduced in the PB supplemented groups (p<0.05). Overall, the results presented herein indicate that supplementation of diets with up to 2% pomegranate by-products improved the meat composition, fatty acid profile and reduced lipid oxidation of broiler meat.

  4. Effect of corn supplementation of grass finishing of Holstein bulls on fatty acid composition of meat lipids.

    PubMed

    Rosa, H J D; Rego, O A; Silva, C C G; Alves, S P; Alfaia, C M M; Prates, J A M; Bessa, R J B

    2014-08-01

    Finishing Holstein young bulls exclusively on pasture generally results in very lean carcass and meat, but corn supplementation is expected to simultaneously improve carcass traits and intramuscular lipids (IML). The expected increase in IML would allow for a larger 18:2c9,t11 (CLA) deposition in meat without affecting the n-3 PUFA present in LM phospholipids (PL). Holstein bulls (n = 33) with initial BW of 423 ± 52.4 kg reared exclusively on pasture were assigned to 1 of 3 finishing period (85 d) diets: finished exclusively on pasture (P0) or finished on pasture and individually supplemented with 4 (P4) or 8 kg/d (P8) of ground corn. Final BW (546 ± 56.3 kg) was not affected (P > 0.05) by corn supplementation, but ADG increased (P < 0.01) with the increasing corn supplementation level from 1.23 kg/d for P0 to 1.44 kg/d for P4 and to 1.67 kg/d for P8. Subcutaneous fat depth in P0 bulls was 0.8 mm and increased (P < 0.001) in both P4 (2.9 mm) and P8 (2.7 mm) bulls, but no difference (P = 0.73) was observed between P4 and P8 bulls. Similarly, the IML increased with corn supplementation, from 1.84 g/100 g muscle in P0 to 2.96 in P4 and to 3.24 in P8, but no difference (P = 0.55) was found between P4 and P8 bulls. Corn supplementation decreased (P < 0.01) 18:1t11 in neutral lipids (NL) but not 18:2c9,t11 (P > 0.34). The 18:1t10 (mg/g total NL fatty acid [FA] ± SEM) were 2.5 ± 0.13 in P0, 5.5 ± 1.68 in P4, and 14.8 ± 3.18 in P8 bulls, being greater in P8 compared with P4 (P = 0.02). Total FA in muscle PL and SFA were unaffected, but increasing corn supplementation resulted (P < 0.001) in an increase of 18:2n-6 in PL by replacement of mostly the 18:1c9 and 18:3n-3. Notably, the total number of cis double bonds present in FA of PL remained constant (P = 0.74) with corn supplementation. Compared with P0, corn supplementation maintained (P > 0.05) the high n-3 PUFA content in meat (mg/100 g meat) and increased the 18:2c9,t11 (P = 0.028) and 18:1c9 (P < 0.001). However

  5. Folic Acid Supplementation and Cardiac and Stroke Mortality among Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Leung, June; Larive, Brett; Dwyer, Johanna; Hibberd, Patricia; Jacques, Paul; Rand, William

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess whether use of folic acid vitamin supplements reduces cardiac and stroke mortality in hemodialysis patients. Further, we examined whether consumption of folic acid from vitamin supplements greater than 1000 μg compared to standard 1000 μg, and 1000 μg compared to either lower dose or no consumption were associated with reduced cardiac and stroke mortality risk. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, a randomized clinical trial examining dialysis treatment regimens over three years follow-up. Participants: One thousand eight hundred and forty-six hemodialysis patients previously participating in the HEMO study. Interventions None Main Outcome Measure Cardiac and stroke mortality. Results From time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regression models, folic acid consumption from vitamin supplements, above or below the standard 1000 μg dose was not associated with decrease or increase in cardiac mortality (P = 0.53 above vs. standard dose and P = 0.46, below vs. standard dose). There was also no association between folic acid consumption and mortality from stroke (P = 0.27, above vs. standard dose and P = 0.64, below vs. standard dose). Conclusion Consumption of higher than the standard 1000 μg prescribed dose of folic acid was not beneficial in reducing cardiac or stroke mortality in hemodialysis patients. Similarly, consumption of lower than standard dose was not associated with an increase in either cardiac or stroke mortality. PMID:20303789

  6. Meta-analysis and meta-regression of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mocking, R J T; Harmsen, I; Assies, J; Koeter, M W J; Ruhé, H G; Schene, A H

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation has been proposed as (adjuvant) treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present meta-analysis, we pooled randomized placebo-controlled trials assessing the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on depressive symptoms in MDD. Moreover, we performed meta-regression to test whether supplementation effects depended on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid dose, their ratio, study duration, participants' age, percentage antidepressant users, baseline MDD symptom severity, publication year and study quality. To limit heterogeneity, we only included studies in adult patients with MDD assessed using standardized clinical interviews, and excluded studies that specifically studied perinatal/perimenopausal or comorbid MDD. Our PubMED/EMBASE search resulted in 1955 articles, from which we included 13 studies providing 1233 participants. After taking potential publication bias into account, meta-analysis showed an overall beneficial effect of omega-3 PUFAs on depressive symptoms in MDD (standardized mean difference=0.398 (0.114-0.682), P=0.006, random-effects model). As an explanation for significant heterogeneity (I(2)=73.36, P<0.001), meta-regression showed that higher EPA dose (β=0.00037 (0.00009-0.00065), P=0.009), higher percentage antidepressant users (β=0.0058 (0.00017-0.01144), P=0.044) and earlier publication year (β=-0.0735 (-0.143 to 0.004), P=0.04) were significantly associated with better outcome for PUFA supplementation. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed. In conclusion, present meta-analysis suggested a beneficial overall effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation in MDD patients, especially for higher doses of EPA and in participants taking antidepressants. Future precision medicine trials should establish whether possible interactions between EPA and antidepressants could provide targets to improve antidepressant response and its prediction. Furthermore, potential

  7. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  8. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on male reproductive system during exposure to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazhagan, G.; Riar, S. S.; Kain, A. K.; Bardhan, Jaya; Thomas, Pauline

    1989-09-01

    Two groups of male rats were exposed to simulated altitudes of 6060 m and 7576 m for 6 h/day for 7 days (intermittent exposure). In two additional groups of animals exposed to the same altitude, 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) was fed daily for 5 days prior to the exposure period and also during the exposure period. Rats that did not receive AA showed loss of body weight and weight of reproductive organs after exposure. Sex organs showed atrophy on histological examination and there was a deterioration in spermatozoal quality. There was an increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase, and decrease in protein, sialic acid and glyceryl phosphorylcholine content in various reproductive tissues after exposure. All the above changes in histology and biochemical composition could be partially prevented by AA supplementation. AA supplementation can therefore protect the male reproductive system from deleterious effects of hypoxia. The probable mechanism of action of AA is discussed.

  9. Pilot study of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ibegbulam, Obike; Duru, Augustine; Ocheni, Sunday; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Umar, Garba; Asinobi, Isaac; Madu, Anazoeze; Okoye, Augustine; Nwagha, Tessy; Oguonu, Uche; Uamai, Ify; Agwu, Obineche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anike, Uche; Agu, Kingsley; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Herrada, Sagrario

    2011-07-01

    In a previous retrospective study, it was observed that the greater the amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood, the lesser the number of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and the higher the steady state haemoglobin level. SCD causes ischaemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation; which can be ameliorated by a metabolite of DHA that down-regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes. The objectives of this prospective pilot study were to evaluate the effects of DHA and EPA supplements in SCD, and test the hypothesis that these effects are mediated partly by reducing inflammation. Oral DHA and EPA supplements were given to 16 SCD patients for 6 months. We then compared pre- and post-supplementation values of number of crisis, steady state Hb, plasma unconjugated bilirubin and three indices of inflammation: plasma interleukin-6, blood neutrophil and platelet counts. There was a significant reduction in the plasma level of unconjugated bilirubin, and the number of sickle cell crisis; but not in the markers of inflammation. The pilot data suggest that DHA and EPA supplements reduce the number of crisis and steady state haemolysis in SCD; but provide no evidence that these effects are mediated by reducing inflammation.

  10. Nicotinic acid supplementation in the context of alcoholic liver injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2014-07-01

    Li and colleagues (2014) in this issue report that dietary nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation ameliorates ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but a deficiency does not worsen injury induced by alcohol alone. The authors further present some mechanistic insights into the protective role of NA supplementation. Results of this and other previous studies in the context of alcoholic liver injury raise one important question as to what should be an adequate dose of NA that will provide the maximum benefit to hepatic and extrahepatic tissues and with minimum adverse effects.

  11. Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acid Composition in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice- a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Tamara; Ranic, Marija; Bulajic, Predrag; Milicevic, Miroslav; Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional and immunological status of patients with obstructive jaundice is usually severely altered, with high mortality rates. The n-3 polyunsaturate fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), posess potent immunomodulatory activities. Thus, our aim was to compare the plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of these patients with healthy subjects, as well as before and after 7 days preoperative supplementation with high doses of EPA (0.9 g per day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3, 0.6 g per day). We found impaired FA status in obstructive jaundice patients, especially EPA, DHA and PUFA, but significantly increased content of total n-3 FA, 22:5 n-3 FA and particularly EPA, which increased more than 3 fold, after 7 days supplementation. In addition, the n6/n3 ratio significantly decreased from 14.24 to 10.24, demonstrating severely improved plasma phospholipid profile in these patients after the intervention. PMID:19902030

  12. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P < 0.05), eggshell thickness, eggshell relative weight, and egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P < 0.01). Moreover, PA dietary supplementation resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of broken eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the number of downgraded eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period. PMID:22991559

  13. Effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex on gut integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sanz Fernandez, M V; Pearce, S C; Gabler, N K; Patience, J F; Wilson, M E; Socha, M T; Torrison, J L; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes livestock health and productivity and both may in part be mediated by reduced intestinal integrity. Dietary zinc improves a variety of bowel diseases, which are characterized by increased intestinal permeability. Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs. Crossbred gilts (43±6 kg BW) were ad libitum fed one of three diets: (1) control (ZnC; 120 ppm Zn as ZnSO4; n=13), (2) control+100 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn220; containing a total of 220 ppm Zn; n=14), and (3) control+200 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn320; containing a total of 320 ppm Zn; n=16). After 25 days on their respective diets, all pigs were exposed to constant HS conditions (36°C, ∼50% humidity) for either 1 or 7 days. At the end of the environmental exposure, pigs were euthanized and blood and intestinal tissues were harvested immediately after sacrifice. As expected, HS increased rectal temperature (P⩽0.01; 40.23°C v. 38.93°C) and respiratory rate (P⩽0.01; 113 v. 36 bpm). Pigs receiving ZnAA tended to have increased rectal temperature (P=0.07; +0.27°C) compared with ZnC-fed pigs. HS markedly reduced feed intake (FI; P⩽0.01; 59%) and caused BW loss (2.10 kg), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatment. Fresh intestinal segments were assessed ex vivo for intestinal integrity. As HS progressed from days 1 to 7, both ileal and colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) decreased (P⩽0.05; 34% and 22%, respectively). This was mirrored by an increase in ileal and colonic permeability to the macromolecule dextran (P⩽0.01; 13- and 56-fold, respectively), and increased colonic lipopolysaccharide permeability (P⩽0.05; threefold) with time. There was a quadratic response (P⩽0.05) to increasing ZnAA on ileal TER, as it was improved (P⩽0.05; 56%) in Zn220-fed pigs compared with ZnC. This study demonstrates that HS progressively compromises the intestinal

  14. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689

  15. Improvements in growth following iron supplementation in young Kenyan school children.

    PubMed

    Latham, M C; Stephenson, L S; Kinoti, S N; Zaman, M S; Kurz, K M

    1990-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether provision of oral supplementary iron to primary school children in Kenya would improve their growth. Children in the two lowest grades who satisfied study criteria were allocated to either an iron-supplementation group (n = 29) or a placebo group (n = 26). At the baseline before intervention the groups did not differ significantly in age, sex ratio, prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminthic infections, most anthropometric measurements or hemoglobin levels. Although the study lasted for 32 weeks, children only took iron or placebos on school days thus omitting weekends and school holidays. Examination at the end of the study showed that the iron-supplemented children had grown significantly more in terms of weight, weight for height, arm circumference and skinfold thickness compared with the placebo group. Hemoglobin levels had also improved significantly. We conclude that where iron deficiency anemia and undernutrition are prevalent in children, iron supplementation will improve growth and hemoglobin levels.

  16. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice.

  17. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice. PMID:26868582

  18. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned.

  19. Arginine and glutamine supplementation to culture media improves the performance of various channel catfish immune cells.

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Mwangi, Waithaka; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2012-05-01

    Specific components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems of channel catfish were evaluated after supplementation of culture media with arginine (ARG) and/or glutamine (GLN). Primary cell cultures of head-kidney macrophages (MØ) were used for phagocytic and bactericidal assays against Edwardsiella ictaluri. Additionally, proliferation assays were conducted with naïve peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) exposed to non-specific mitogens. To indirectly assess amino acid utilization of both MØ and PBL, amino acid levels, with emphasis on ARG and GLN, were evaluated in the basal medium before and after activation or mitogenic exposure. After bactericidal and proliferation assays, the sum of the media free amino acid pool significantly (P < 0.05) decreased 23% and 45%, respectively. Glutamine levels in medium decreased by 38% and ARG by 18% during the bactericidal assay. Also, decreases of 52 and 46% from initial values were found after the proliferation assay for GLN and ARG, respectively. Macrophage phagocytosis and killing ability was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by ARG supplementation to culture media regardless of GLN supplementation. Proliferation of naïve T- and B-lymphocytes upon mitogenic exposure was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by supplementing ARG and GLN to the media, but limited synergistic effects were observed. These results suggest that in vitro, ARG and GLN are important substrates and immunomodulators of both innate and adaptive responses in fish leukocytes, and further highlights the potential use of ARG and GLN as immunonutrients in aquafeeds.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

  1. Dietary folic acid activates AMPK and improves insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation in dietary rodent models of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buettner, R; Bettermann, I; Hechtl, C; Gäbele, E; Hellerbrand, C; Schölmerich, J; Bollheimer, L C

    2010-10-01

    The AMP activated kinase plays an important role in metabolic control, and pharmacologic enhancement of AMPK activity is used to improve insulin resistance. We hypothesized that high dose of folic acid supplementation might improve insulin sensitivity and hepatic inflammation and examined this by a dietary intervention in (a) the high fat fed rat model of the metabolic syndrome, which shows sole hepatic steatosis as well as (b) in rats fed with a high cholesterol, high cholate diet inducing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male Wistar rats were fed with folic acid supplemented (40 mg/kg) high fat diet [based on lard, fat content 25% (wt/wt)] or NASH inducing diet (containing 15% fat, 1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% sodium cholate). Metabolic profiling was performed by measuring the animals' visceral fat pads, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and adipokines as well as in vivo insulin tolerance tests. Hepatic steatosis and inflammation were analyzed semiquantitatively by histological analysis. Folic acid supplementation reduced visceral obesity and improved plasma adiponectin levels. In vivo insulin sensitivity was improved, and in HF-FA rats folic acid increased activation of hepatic AMPK. Further, folic acid supplementation improved hepatic inflammation in animals fed with NASH-inducing diet. Dietary folic acid improved parameters of insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation in rodent models. This might be due to an increased AMK activation.

  2. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  3. The effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Aliasghari, Fereshte; Beigi, Mohammad Ali Babaei; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most serious cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological studies indicated that dyslipidemia is the major risk factor of CVD. Dyslipidemia can be modified either by proper lifestyle or medical intervention or by the combination of both. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and ω3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis patient. Materials and Methods: This study was a 2-month clinical randomized trial. Ninety atherosclerotic patients with angiographically diagnosed coronary atherosclerosis who were referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from February to march 2011 were selected if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The participants were randomly classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA or 1 920 mg/d ω3 or placebo for 2 months. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol were measured before and after the intervention. This study was a two-month clinical randomized trial. Results: Data were analyzed using SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, version19). Although CLA did not appear to have a significant effect on TG, ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level. Consumption of CLA and ω3 supplementation did not significantly affect HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol. Conclusions: ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level but CLA and ω3 did not show significant changes in other indices of lipid profile in atherosclerotic patients. PMID:24600599

  4. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3) Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Bosco, Gerardo; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A.; Camporesi, Enrico; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state. PMID:25689563

  5. A Dietary Supplement Containing Chlorophytum Borivilianum and Velvet Bean Improves Sleep Quality in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Cameron G.; Alleman, Rick J.; Bell, Zach W.; Bloomer, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Impaired sleep quality is commonplace within industrialized societies, as evidenced by the increasing number of prescription sleep aids available. Certain herbal preparations have been suggested to provide a natural benefit to sleep; however, limited controlled data are available documenting this benefit. In the present study we tested the effect of an experimental dietary supplement, containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean, on sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Methods Eighteen healthy and active men and women, with evidence of impaired sleep quality, consumed the supplement daily for 28 days. The PSQI was administered before and after the intervention period. As indicators of safety, resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured, and a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lipid panel were determined. Results Sleep quality was influenced by the supplement, as evidenced by an improvement in every category of the PSQI questionnaire (P < 0.05), with most category scores improving approximately 50% from pre to post intervention. No adverse outcomes were noted with use of the supplement, as indicated by no change in resting heart rate, blood pressure, or any bloodborne parameter. Conclusions An investigational dietary supplement containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean improves sleep quality in men and women. Additional placebo controlled trials are needed to corroborate these findings in individuals with self-reported sleeping difficulty. PMID:22778558

  6. Does Short-Term Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Influence Brain Hippocampus Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter-3?

    PubMed

    Sopian, Nur Farhana Ahmad; Ajat, Mokrish; Shafie, Nurul' Izzati; Noor, Mohd Hezmee Mohd; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Ahmad, Hafandi

    2015-01-01

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been recognized to improve brain cognitive function. Deficiency leads to dysfunctional zinc metabolism associated with learning and memory impairment. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of short-term dietary omega-3 fatty acids on hippocampus gene expression at the molecular level in relation to spatial recognition memory in mice. A total of 24 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed a standard pellet as a control group (CTL, n = 6), standard pellet added with 10% (w/w) fish oil (FO, n = 6), 10% (w/w) soybean oil (SO, n = 6) and 10% (w/w) butter (BT, n = 6). After 3 weeks on the treatment diets, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. The hippocampus gene expression was determined using a real-time PCR. The results showed that 3 weeks of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improved cognitive performance along with the up-regulation of α-synuclein, calmodulin and transthyretin genes expression. In addition, dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency increased the level of ZnT3 gene and subsequently reduced cognitive performance in mice. These results indicate that the increased the ZnT3 levels caused by the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids produced an abnormal zinc metabolism that in turn impaired the brain cognitive performance in mice. PMID:26184176

  7. Does Short-Term Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Influence Brain Hippocampus Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter-3?

    PubMed

    Sopian, Nur Farhana Ahmad; Ajat, Mokrish; Shafie, Nurul' Izzati; Noor, Mohd Hezmee Mohd; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Ahmad, Hafandi

    2015-07-13

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been recognized to improve brain cognitive function. Deficiency leads to dysfunctional zinc metabolism associated with learning and memory impairment. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of short-term dietary omega-3 fatty acids on hippocampus gene expression at the molecular level in relation to spatial recognition memory in mice. A total of 24 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed a standard pellet as a control group (CTL, n = 6), standard pellet added with 10% (w/w) fish oil (FO, n = 6), 10% (w/w) soybean oil (SO, n = 6) and 10% (w/w) butter (BT, n = 6). After 3 weeks on the treatment diets, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. The hippocampus gene expression was determined using a real-time PCR. The results showed that 3 weeks of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improved cognitive performance along with the up-regulation of α-synuclein, calmodulin and transthyretin genes expression. In addition, dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency increased the level of ZnT3 gene and subsequently reduced cognitive performance in mice. These results indicate that the increased the ZnT3 levels caused by the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids produced an abnormal zinc metabolism that in turn impaired the brain cognitive performance in mice.

  8. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  9. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  10. DNA methylation in Folbp1 knockout mice supplemented with folic acid during gestation.

    PubMed

    Finnell, Richard H; Spiegelstein, Ofer; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Triplett, Aleata; Pogribny, Igor P; Melnyk, Stepan; James, Jill S

    2002-08-01

    Periconceptional folic acid supplementation has been shown to prevent up to 70% of neural tube and other birth defects in humans; however, the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we tested whether defective intracellular folate transport, as achieved by inactivation of the murine folate-binding protein 1 (Folbp1), affects global DNA methylation in the liver and brain from gestational day (GD) 15 embryos. Complete Folbp1 inactivation is embryolethal but can be reversed by maternal folinic acid (FA) supplementation, and thus we also tested the effect of FA supplementation on DNA methylation in Folbp1 fetuses. Overall, the extent of global DNA methylation seems to be similar across all genotypes in unsupplemented control Folbp1 mice; however, explicit conclusions regarding Folbp1(-/-) fetuses were not possible because only a single living unsupplemented fetus was viable at GD 15. FA supplementation induced global DNA hypomethylation across all genotypes. FA-induced hypomethylation is most likely due to its ability to inhibit the enzyme glycine hydroxymethyltransferase, thereby inhibiting the homocysteine remethylation cycle necessary to regenerate S-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor for DNA methyltransferases. Our hypothesis was that due to defective folate transport in Folbp1(-/-) embryos and fetuses, DNA would be hypomethylated, thereby altering the temporal expression of critical genes necessary for normal embryonic development. However, these results suggest that an extended examination of changes in DNA methylation prior to GD 15 is required to unequivocally prove or disprove the hypothesis. PMID:12163711

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25019084

  12. The enrichment of eggs with folic acid through supplementation of the laying hen diet.

    PubMed

    House, J D; Braun, K; Ballance, D M; O'Connor, C P; Guenter, W

    2002-09-01

    In light of evidence supporting a need for humans to increase their dietary folate intakes, experiments were conducted to evaluate the extent to which egg folate levels could be increased. In Study 1, Hyline W36 hens (n = 6/diet) received a barley-based diet, containing 0 or 10 mg/kg of crystalline folic acid, to establish the potential for folate incorporation into table eggs. In Study 2, 70 hens were divided into seven treatment groups (n = 10 hens/diet) and received diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 mg folic acid/kg diet. In Study 3, 64 hens received the barley-based diet with or without 4 mg folic acid/kg diet. Eggs were collected and stored for 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 d, prior to folate determinations. The folate content of eggs was determined by HPLC for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (the sole form of folate in egg yolk). Results from Study 1 showed that a 10 mg/kg inclusion of folic acid increased folate incorporation into egg yolk (41.0 +/- 0.7 microg /egg) over that of an unsupplemented diet (17.5 +/- 0.7 microg /egg; P = 0.0001). In Study 2, the response of egg folate to dietary folic acid supplementation was saturable, with 90% of maximal egg folate levels established at approximately 4 mg folic acid/ kg diet. Results from Study 3 showed that folate levels are stable, in control and fortified eggs, during 28 d of storage at 4 C. In terms of its nutritional value, one large egg collected from a folic acid-supplemented hen provided approximately 12.5% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adult humans (RDA = 400 mg/d).

  13. Influences of carbohydrate plus amino acid supplementation on differing exercise intensity adaptations in older persons: skeletal muscle and endocrine responses.

    PubMed

    Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys Leopoldine; Breen, Leigh; Stewart, Claire E

    2010-06-01

    Losses in physiological function in healthy ageing occur partly as a consequence of reduced protein intake and partly as a consequence of less than 30-min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The current study aimed to compare the effects of two different intensities of resistance training in healthy older adults, whose habitual dietary intake was supplemented with carbohydrate and amino acid preparations. We hypothesised that although intensive exercise with appropriate carbohydrate and amino acid supplementation would result in the most profound impact on in vivo markers of healthy physiologic and endocrine functions in previously sedentary older individuals, the effectiveness of the less intense exercise prescription with supplementation would also result in beneficial adaptations over and above findings of previous studies on low intensity exercise alone. Twenty-nine older adults (out of 32) completed the study after being randomly assigned to low (SUP_LowR, i.e., approximately 40% 1RM; n = 16) versus high resistance training (SUP_HighR, i.e., approximately 80% 1RM; n = 13) for 12 weeks. A carbohydrate supplement was ingested immediately before and during every exercise session and an amino acid cocktail was ingested post-exercise. Neither intervention significantly impacted upon body composition assessed using: Body mass index, waist/hip ratio and bioelectric impedance. Muscle strength increased similarly in the two groups with the SUP_HighR protocol showing 46 +/- 8%, 10.8 +/- 4.4% and 26.9 +/- 4.9% (P < 0.01) improvements in 1-RM strength, unilateral and bilateral knee extension torque, respectively, compared with 39 +/- 2%, 9.4 +/- 3.7% and 29.5 +/- 8.2% (P < 0.01) increments in the same measures in the SUP_LowR group. Lean muscle thickness however, showed a greater benefit of the SUP_LowR protocol (8.7 +/- 3.9% increase, P < 0.05) compared with the SUP_HighR protocol, which elicited no significant change. In terms of functional abilities, only

  14. Optimization of hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids production from sugarcane filter cake: Effects of urea supplementation and sodium hydroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Batista, Karla; Weinrich, Sören; Sträuber, Heike; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Different methods for optimization the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sugarcane filter cake (FC) with a special focus on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were studied. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment at different concentrations was investigated in batch experiments and the cumulative methane yields fitted to a dual-pool two-step model to provide an initial assessment on AD. The effects of nitrogen supplementation in form of urea and NaOH pretreatment for improved VFA production were evaluated in a semi-continuously operated reactor as well. The results indicated that higher NaOH concentrations during pretreatment accelerated the AD process and increased methane production in batch experiments. Nitrogen supplementation resulted in a VFA loss due to methane formation by buffering the pH value at nearly neutral conditions (∼ 6.7). However, the alkaline pretreatment with 6g NaOH/100g FCFM improved both the COD solubilization and the VFA yield by 37%, mainly consisted by n-butyric and acetic acids.

  15. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    PubMed

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability).

  16. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  17. Use of dietary supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2005.

    PubMed

    2005-09-30

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Daily periconceptional consumption of 400 mug of folic acid, as recommended by the Public Health Service (PHS) since 1992, reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. The Food and Drug Administration ordered mandatory fortification with folic acid of U.S. cereal grain products, beginning in 1998. However, despite a 26% reduction in NTDs, not all women of childbearing age receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the number of women who take dietary supplements containing 400 mug of folic acid daily remains an important component of NTD prevention. This report summarizes results from the 2005 March of Dimes Gallup survey, which determined a decrease in the proportion of childbearing-aged women who reported taking folic acid in dietary supplements daily, from 40% in 2004 to 33% in 2005, returning to a level consistent with that reported during 1995-2003. These results emphasize the need for innovative programs to increase folic acid consumption to further reduce NTDs.

  18. [Lipid peroxidation in cardiac mitochondrial fraction of rats exposed to different supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Shmarakov, I O; Marchenko, M M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) used at different ratios of w-6/w-3 was studied on the content of primary (diene conjugates, DC; triene conjugates, TC), secondary (ketodienes, CD; coupled trienes, CT; TBA-active products) and terminal (Schiff bases) lipid peroxidation products (LPO) and generation of superoxide anion-radical in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. It was shown that diet supplementation with high doses of w-6 or w-3 PUFAs increased the content of primary, secondary and terminal LPO in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. Llipid peroxidation was accompanied by the intensification of superoxide anion-radical generation in rat heart mitochondrial fraction. During diet consumption with the PUFAs leading factor affecting the intensity of lipoperoxidation in rat heart mitochondria is fatty acid composition, rather than the level of their saturation.

  19. Effect of forage type with or without corn supplementation on animal performance, beef fatty acid composition, and palatability.

    PubMed

    Wright, A M; Andrae, J G; Rosso, C Fernandez; Miller, M C; Pavan, E; Bridges, W; Duckett, S K

    2015-10-01

    Thirty-two steers were used to examine forage type (legumes [ and ] vs. grasses [ and ]) with or without individual corn grain supplementation (0 vs. 0.75% of live weight [LW]/d) on beef fatty acid composition and palatability. In each year, steers ( = 16/yr) were randomly assigned to forage type ( = 8/forage type per yr) and to supplementation treatments within forage type ( = 4/supplementation treatment/forage type per yr). Forage types (grasses vs. legumes) were replicated in 2 paddocks of perennial and annual forage type pastures. A mixed model was developed with forage type, corn grain supplementation, and the 2-way interaction as fixed effects and 2 different error terms, one for testing forage and another for testing grain supplement and grain supplement × forage interaction. Corn grain supplementation increased ( = 0.01) ADG by 0.29 kg/d and final LW by 13 kg. Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage (DP), and KPH were greater ( < 0.05) for steers supplemented with corn grain. Carcasses from steers grazing legumes had greater ( = 0.04) DP compared with carcasses from steers grazing grasses. Alpha-linolenic acid concentration was higher ( < 0.05) in LM of steers grazing legumes than in LM of steers grazing grasses, both without supplementation. Supplementation decreased ( < 0.05) linolenic acid levels for both forage types; however, the magnitude of this reduction was greater for legumes than for grasses. The ratio of -6 to -3 PUFA was greater ( = 0.03) in the LM of corn grain-supplemented steers than in the LM of nonsupplemented steers. Supplementation of corn grain decreased ( < 0.05) the percentage of odd-chain fatty acids and increased ( < 0.05) the percentage of MUFA in the LM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were not altered ( > 0.05) by forage type, supplementation, or the 2-way interaction. Beef finished on legumes had greater concentrations of -3 PUFA, whereas beef supplemented with corn grain had a greater ratio of -6 to -3 fatty acids. On a

  20. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  1. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; P<0.001) and postpartum (95% CI: 6.803-18.14; P<0.001), respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of women in the cohort were not meeting the EU recommendation for DHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations. PMID:25804267

  2. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; P<0.001) and postpartum (95% CI: 6.803-18.14; P<0.001), respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of women in the cohort were not meeting the EU recommendation for DHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations.

  3. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Jin, L.; Wen, Q. N.; Kopparapu, N. K.; Liu, J.; Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Y. G.

    2016-01-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  4. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Wen, Q N; Kopparapu, N K; Liu, J; Liu, X L; Zhang, Y G

    2016-02-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established.

  5. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na(+)/K(+) Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na(+) influx and K(+) efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na(+) influx and K(+) leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  6. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  7. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks.

  8. Rational design of medium supplementation strategy for improved influenza viruses production based on analyzing nutritional requirements of MDCK Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ding; Xia-Hou, Kang; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song; Luo, Jian; Chen, Ze

    2014-12-12

    Influenza vaccine production using cell culture technology has become popular nowadays. However, to meet the ever increasing demand of influenza vaccine, it is prerequisite to improve the yield of influenza virus in cells. To achieve this, in the present study, the nutritional requirements of MDCK cells in the virus production process were analyzed and a nutrient-feeding strategy was developed accordingly. Based on the consumption rates and corresponding concentration optimization, glucose and fast metabolized amino acids were supplemented into the maintaining medium at the time of infection. Compared with the non-supplemented culture, the average cell specific death rate during 0-48 h post-infection was 0.013 h(-1), which was 40.91% lower in the nutrient-supplemented culture. Total virus titer, HA antigen protein concentration and cell-specific virus yield were (1.88±0.23)×10(3) HA units/50μL, 11.70±0.22 μg/mL and (10.06±1.16)×10(3) virions/cell, respectively, which were 84.04±22.50%, 31.46±2.87% and 86.64±25.81% higher than those in the control, respectively. These data showed that the appropriate supplementation of nutrients during virus production process could reduce cell death, and improve cell-specific virus yield and total influenza virus output. This study laid foundation for the development of cell culture technology for influenza vaccine production.

  9. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Katherine E.; Newsham, Katherine R.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  10. Supplemented base medium containing Amburana cearensis associated with FSH improves in vitro development of isolated goat preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, B B; Macedo, T J S; Santos, J M S; Barberino, R S; Menezes, V G; Müller, M C; Almeida, J R G S; Figueiredo, J R; Matos, M H T

    2016-09-15

    The effects of Amburana cearensis ethanolic extract, with or without addition of a mix of supplements associated or not with FSH, on in vitro morphology and development of caprine secondary follicles were evaluated. In experiment 1, isolated follicles (250 μm in diameter) were cultured for 12 days in alpha-modified minimal essential medium (α-MEM) alone (control) or in medium composed of different concentrations of A. cearensis extract (Amb 0.1; 0.2, or 0.4 mg/mL). In experiment 2, culture media were α-MEM or Amb 0.2 mg/mL (both without supplements), or these same media supplemented with BSA, insulin, transferrin, selenium, glutamine, hypoxanthine, and ascorbic acid (referred as α-MEM(+) and Amb 0.2(+), respectively), or these last groups also supplemented with sequential FSH (100 ng/mL from Day 0 to Day 6; 500 ng/mL from Day 6 to Day 12), constituting groups α-MEM(+) + FSH and Amb 0.2(+) + FSH. At the end of culture in experiment 1, control medium (α-MEM) and Amb 0.2 mg/mL had higher percentages (P < 0.05) of morphologically normal follicles and percentage of fully grown oocytes, i.e., oocyte greater than 110 μm, compared to the other A. cearensis extract concentrations. In experiment 2, all supplemented media had higher percentages (P < 0.05) of normal follicles and antrum formation than nonsupplemented media. In addition, follicles cultured in Amb 0.2(+) + FSH showed an average increase in diameter higher (P < 0.05) than the other treatments. Oocytes cultured in both treatments supplemented with FSH showed greater glutathione and active mitochondria levels than nonsupplemented media but similar to the other treatments. In conclusion, A. cearensis extract (0.2 mg/mL) added by supplements and FSH improves follicular growth. Therefore, it can be an alternative culture medium for goat preantral follicle development. PMID:27287468

  11. 75 FR 54285 - Improvements to the Supplemental Security Income Program-Heroes Earnings Assistance and Relief...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... in the Federal Register at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background We are revising our... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 RIN 0960-AD78 Improvements to the Supplemental Security Income...

  12. Iodine plus n-3 fatty acid supplementation augments rescue of postnatal neuronal abnormalities in iodine-deficient rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Mohan, Vishwa; Modi, Dinesh R; Sinha, Rohit A; Rastogi, Leena; Kumar, Praveen; Godbole, Madan M

    2013-08-01

    High prevalence of hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient (ID) mothers has serious implications for mental health of the progeny. Independent supplementation of iodine and n-3 fatty acids (FA) markedly improves growth and cognitive performance of school children. Discerning effects of n-3 FA and iodine on the developing cerebellum have not been ascertained. The present study investigates effects of these two micronutrients separately as well as together in an ID rat model. We studied the effects of these micronutrients on progeny of ID dams by instituting the following supplementation diets: (1) low-iodine diet (LID), (2) LID+potassium iodide (KI), (3) LID+n-3 FA and (4) LID+KI+n-3 FA. Pups were investigated for morphological and biochemical parameters at the peak of cerebellar histogenesis on postnatal day (P) 16 and for neurobehavioural as well as motor coordination parameters at P40. Results indicate that n-3 FA alone, without improvement in circulating thyroid hormone (TH), significantly improves functional, morphological and biochemical indices of the developing cerebellum. Further, results show that co-supplementation with iodine and n-3 FA rescues not only the loss of neurotrophic support, but also salvages motor coordination, memory and learning. This additive effect results in significantly improving neurotrophic support and seems to be mediated by parallel significant increase in TH receptor (TR)α and normalisation of TRβ, retinoic orphan receptor α and p75 neurotrophin receptor, as well as noteworthy prevention of apoptotic cell death and strengthening of anti-oxidative defence. The overall results indicate important mitigating role that n-3 FA may play in enhancing TH nuclear receptor-mediated signalling in the developing cerebellum. PMID:23312094

  13. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  14. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  15. Selective decrease of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate content in macrophages by high supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jérôme; Zemski Berry, Karin A; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Geloën, Alain; Murphy, Robert C; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Lagarde, Michel; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid (PL) preferentially found in late endosomal membranes, where it forms specialized lipid domains. Recently, using cultured macrophages treated with anti-BMP antibody, we showed that BMP-rich domains are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. We had previously stressed the high propensity of BMP to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared with other PUFAs. Because phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was reported as a precursor for BMP synthesis in RAW macrophages, we examined the effects of PG supplementation on both FA composition and amount of BMP in this cell line. Supplementation with dioleoyl-PG (18:1/18:1-PG) induced BMP accumulation, together with an increase of oleate proportion. Supplementation with high concentrations of didocosahexaenoyl-PG (22:6/22:6-PG) led to a marked enrichment of DHA in BMP, resulting in the formation of diDHA molecular species. However, the amount of BMP was selectively decreased. Similar effects were observed after supplementation with high concentrations of nonesterified DHA. Addition of vitamin E prevented the decrease of BMP and further increased its DHA content. Supplementation with 22:6/22:6-PG promoted BMP accumulation with an enhanced proportion of 22:6/22:6-BMP. DHA-rich BMP was significantly degraded after cell exposure to oxidant conditions, in contrast to oleic acid-rich BMP, which was not affected. Using a cell-free system, we showed that 22:6/22:6-BMP is highly oxidizable and partially protects cholesterol oxidation, compared with 18:1/18:1-BMP. Our data suggest that high DHA content in BMP led to specific degradation of this PL, possibly through the diDHA molecular species, which is very prone to peroxidation and, as such, a potential antioxidant in its immediate vicinity. PMID:18809971

  16. Antioxidant supplementation of boar spermatozoa from different fractions of the ejaculate improves cryopreservation: changes in sperm membrane lipid architecture.

    PubMed

    Peña, F J; Johannisson, A; Wallgren, M; Rodriguez Martinez, H

    2004-05-01

    Previous studies have shown sperm quality after cryopreservation differs depending on the fraction of seminal plasma the boar spermatozoa are contained in. Thus, spermatozoa contained in the first 10 ml of the sperm-rich fraction (portion I) withstand handling procedures (extension, handling and freezing/thawing) better than those contained in the latter part of a fractionated ejaculate (second portion of the sperm-rich fraction and the post-spermatic fraction; portion II). The present study evaluated whether an exogenous antioxidant, the water-soluble vitamin E analogue Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), could, when added to the freezing extender in a split-sample design trial, improve the post-thaw viability and membrane quality of this particular portion of the ejaculate, with particular attention to the status of the plasma membrane. Using a split-sample design, the initial changes in the fluidity status of the sperm plasmalemma after thawing were measured by flow cytometry (FC) after loading with Merocyanine-540 and YO-PRO-1. The FC-derived data revealed a clear ejaculate portion-dependent effect of the antioxidant supplementation. While no beneficial effect of the antioxidant supplementation was visible in spermatozoa from portion I, more spermatozoa with intact membranes were observed in the supplemented samples of portion II, suggesting the protective effect of vitamin E is dependent of the portion of the boar ejaculate considered. PMID:15460106

  17. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  18. Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wandrag, L; Brett, S J; Frost, G; Hickson, M

    2015-08-01

    Muscle wasting during critical illness impairs recovery. Dietary strategies to minimise wasting include nutritional supplements, particularly essential amino acids. We reviewed the evidence on enteral supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites in the critically ill and in muscle wasting illness with similarities to critical illness, aiming to assess whether this intervention could limit muscle wasting in vulnerable patient groups. Citation databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, the meta-register of controlled trials and the Cochrane Collaboration library, were searched for articles from 1950 to 2013. Search terms included 'critical illness', 'muscle wasting', 'amino acid supplementation', 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', 'chronic heart failure', 'sarcopenia' and 'disuse atrophy'. Reviews, observational studies, sport nutrition, intravenous supplementation and studies in children were excluded. One hundred and eighty studies were assessed for eligibility and 158 were excluded. Twenty-two studies were graded according to standardised criteria using the GRADE methodology: four in critical care populations, and 18 from other clinically relevant areas. Methodologies, interventions and outcome measures used were highly heterogeneous and meta-analysis was not appropriate. Methodology and quality of studies were too varied to draw any firm conclusion. Dietary manipulation with leucine enriched essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and creatine warrant further investigation in critical care; EAA has demonstrated improvements in body composition and nutritional status in other groups with muscle wasting illness. High-quality research is required in critical care before treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:24807079

  19. Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wandrag, L; Brett, S J; Frost, G; Hickson, M

    2015-08-01

    Muscle wasting during critical illness impairs recovery. Dietary strategies to minimise wasting include nutritional supplements, particularly essential amino acids. We reviewed the evidence on enteral supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites in the critically ill and in muscle wasting illness with similarities to critical illness, aiming to assess whether this intervention could limit muscle wasting in vulnerable patient groups. Citation databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, the meta-register of controlled trials and the Cochrane Collaboration library, were searched for articles from 1950 to 2013. Search terms included 'critical illness', 'muscle wasting', 'amino acid supplementation', 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', 'chronic heart failure', 'sarcopenia' and 'disuse atrophy'. Reviews, observational studies, sport nutrition, intravenous supplementation and studies in children were excluded. One hundred and eighty studies were assessed for eligibility and 158 were excluded. Twenty-two studies were graded according to standardised criteria using the GRADE methodology: four in critical care populations, and 18 from other clinically relevant areas. Methodologies, interventions and outcome measures used were highly heterogeneous and meta-analysis was not appropriate. Methodology and quality of studies were too varied to draw any firm conclusion. Dietary manipulation with leucine enriched essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and creatine warrant further investigation in critical care; EAA has demonstrated improvements in body composition and nutritional status in other groups with muscle wasting illness. High-quality research is required in critical care before treatment recommendations can be made.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected folic acid on rumen fermentation, degradability and excretion of urinary purine derivatives in growing steers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Liu, Qiang; Guo, Gang; Huo, WenJie; Ma, Le; Zhang, YanLi; Pei, CaiXia; Zhang, ShuanLin; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary addition of rumen-protected folic acid (RPFA) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, enzyme activity and the relative quantity of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in growing beef steers. Eight rumen-cannulated Jinnan beef steers averaging 2.5 years of age and 419 ± 1.9 kg body weight were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four treatments comprised supplementation levels of 0 (Control), 70, 140 and 210 mg RPFA/kg dietary dry matter (DM). On DM basis, the ration consisted of 50% corn silage, 47% concentrate and 3% soybean oil. The DM intake (averaged 8.5 kg/d) was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP) and net energy for growth was not affected by treatments. In contrast, increasing RPFA supplementation increased average daily gain and the concentration of total volatile fatty acid and reduced ruminal pH linearly. Furthermore, increasing RPFA supplementation enhanced the acetate to propionate ratio and reduced the ruminal ammonia N content linearly. The ruminal effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre from corn silage and CP from concentrate improved linearly and was highest for the highest supplementation levels. The activities of cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase and α-amylase linearly increased, but carboxymethyl-cellulase and protease were not affected by the addition of RPFA. The relative quantities of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased linearly. With increasing RPFA supplementation levels, the excretion of urinary purine derivatives was also increased linearly. The present results indicated that the supplementation of RPFA improved ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, activities of microbial enzymes and the relative quantity of the ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. According to the conditions of this

  1. Dietary L-glutamine supplementation improves pregnancy outcome in mice infected with type-2 porcine circovirus.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Luo, Wei; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yu, Xinglong; Fang, Jun; Li, Teijun; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes reproductive failure in swine. As glutamine can enhance immune function in animals, this study was conducted with mice to test the hypothesis that dietary glutamine supplementation will improve pregnancy outcome in PCV2-infected dams. Beginning on day 0 of gestation, mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with 1.0% L-glutamine or 1.22% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control). All mice were infected with PCV2 (2000 TCID50) on day 10 of gestation. On day 17 of gestation, six mice from each group were euthanized to obtain maternal tissues and fetuses for hematology and histopathology tests. The remaining mice continued to receive their respective diets supplemented with 1.0% L-glutamine or 1.22% L-alanine through lactation. The PCV2 virus was present in maternal samples (serum and lung) of most mice in the control group but was not detected in the glutamine-supplemented mice. Dietary glutamine supplementation reduced abortion, decreased fetal deaths, and enhanced neonatal survival. The glutamine treatment also reduced concentrations of interleukin-6, while increasing concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein, in the maternal serum of mice. Furthermore, glutamine supplementation attenuated microscopic lesions in maternal tissues (lung, spleen, and liver). Collectively, these results indicate that dietary glutamine supplementation is beneficial for ameliorating reproductive failure in virus-infected mice. The findings support the notion that gestating dams require adequate amounts of dietary glutamine for the optimal survival and growth of embryos, fetuses, and neonates, and have important implications for nutritional support of mammals (including swine and humans) during gestation and lactation.

  2. Calcium and Magnesium Supplementation Improves Serum OPG/RANKL in Calcium-Deficient Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2010-10-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been reported to result in increases in bone resorption through changes in the cytokine system, such as decreases in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations and increases in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) concentrations. However, there are few data about the effects of Mg supplementation on OPG and RANKL. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Mg supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), serum OPG, and RANKL in ovariectomized (OVX) rats relative to calcium (Ca) intake levels. Fifty-five Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into the following five groups and fed for 12 weeks as indicated: sham-operated control group (sham), OVX Ca-deficient group (OLCa, 0.1% Ca and 0.05% Mg), OVX Ca-deficient and Mg-supplemented group (OLCaMg, 0.1% Ca and 0.1% Mg), OVX Ca-adequate group (OACa, 0.5% Ca and 0.05% Mg), and OVX Ca-adequate and Mg-supplemented group (OACaMg, 0.5% Ca and 0.1% Mg). The BMD of the lumbar spine, femur, and tibia in the OVX groups was significantly lower than that in the sham group. The OVX group with an adequate-Ca diet showed significantly higher BMC of the lumbar spine compared to the low Ca-diet group regardless of Mg supplementation. The OACaMg group had significantly higher levels of OPG and OPG/RANKL ratio than did the OLCa group. From the above results, it is still unclear whether Mg supplementation can improve bone mineral status, while Mg supplementation with an adequate-Ca diet resulted in a change in cytokines that may promote bone formation.

  3. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    PubMed

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  4. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, S. K.; Rath, N. C.; Packialakshmi, B.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Huff, G. R.; Donoghue, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  5. The effect of subchronic supplementation with folic acid on homocysteine induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Rasic-Markovic, A; Rankov-Petrovic, B; Hrncic, D; Krstic, D; Colovic, M; Macut, Dj; Djuric, D; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2015-06-01

    Influence of folic acid on the CNS is still unclear. Folate has a neuroprotective effect, while on the other hand excess folate can exacerbate seizures in epileptics. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of subchronic administration of folic acid on behavioural and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of DL homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase in different brain regions was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: 1. Controls (C, 0.9% NaCl); 2. DL homocysteine-thiolactone 8.0 mmol/kg (H); 3. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid 5 mg/kg for 7 days (F) and 4. Subchronic supplementation with F + single dose of H (FH). Seizure behaviour was assessed by incidence, latency, number and intensity of seizure episodes. Seizure severity was described by a descriptive scale with grades 0-4. For EEG recordings, three gold-plated recording electrodes were implanted into the skull. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid did not affect seizure incidence, median number of seizure episodes and severity in FH, comparison with H (p > 0.05). The majority of seizure episodes in all groups were of grade 2. There were no significant differences in lethal outcomes at 24 h upon H injection in the FH vs. H group. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase was significantly increased in almost all examined structures in the FH vs. H group. Subchronic folic acid administration did not exacerbate H induced seizures and completely recovered the activity of ATPases.

  6. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-04-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that folic acid-containing multivitamins may markedly reduce the risk of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. We examined whether maternal supplementation with folic acid alone during early pregnancy can prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. The data are from a large population-based cohort study established to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation in China. We selected participants who were registered in 2 southern provinces, had exact information on folic acid use, and were not affected by chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus before 20 weeks gestation. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for the effects of the main potential confounders, including age, body mass index, education, occupation, parity, and multiple births. The study size had 99.9% power (α=0.05) to detect a decrease of 10% over the unexposed rate of 9.4% for gestational hypertension. Among the 193 554 women (47.9% took folic acid, 52.1% did not), the overall incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.7% and 2.5% for women who took folic acid, and 9.4% and 2.4% for women who did not use it. The adjusted risk ratio associated with folic acid use was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11) for gestational hypertension and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.18) for preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that daily consumption of 400 μg folic acid alone during early pregnancy cannot prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

  7. Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in high-fat diet fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xue-Wei; Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported the favorable effect of leucine supplementation on insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity. However, whether or not leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity remains unclear. Design Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% leucine for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, serum leptin level was measured by ELISA, and leptin receptor (ObR) in the hypothalamus was examined by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of ObR and leptin-signaling pathway in adipose tissues were detected by western blot. Results No significant differences in body weight and food/energy intake existed among the four groups. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower, and ObR expression in the hypothalamus and adipose tissues was significantly higher in the three leucine groups than in the control group. These phenomena suggested that leptin sensitivity was improved in the leucine groups. Furthermore, the expressions of JAK2 and STAT3 (activated by ObR) were significantly higher, and that of SOCS3 (inhibits leptin signaling) was significantly lower in the three leucine groups than in the control group. Conclusions Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in rats on HFD likely by promoting leptin signaling. PMID:26115673

  8. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    TOORANG, Fatemeh; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; DJALALI, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes. Results: A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation. Conclusion: Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity. PMID:27141496

  9. Improvement of texture properties and flavor of frozen dough by carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li; Gao, Hong; Guo, Xiao Na; Yao, Hui Yuan

    2007-11-14

    The effects of concentrated carrot protein (CCP) containing 15.4% (w/w) carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein on texture properties of frozen dough and volatile compounds of crumb were studied. CCP supplementation lowered the freezable water content of the dough, resulting in some beneficial effects including holding loaf volume steadily and making the dough softer and steadier during frozen storage. Furthermore, SPME-GC-MS analysis showed CCP supplementation did not give any negative influences on volatile compounds of crumb and gave a pleasant aroma felt like Michelia alba DC from trans-caryophyllene simultaneously. Combining our previous results that CCP supplementation improves the fermentation capacity of the frozen dough, CCP could be used as a beneficial additive for frozen dough processing. PMID:17935294

  10. High-dose folic acid supplementation alters the human sperm methylome and is influenced by the MTHFR C677T polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Aarabi, Mahmoud; San Gabriel, Maria C; Chan, Donovan; Behan, Nathalie A; Caron, Maxime; Pastinen, Tomi; Bourque, Guillaume; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Zini, Armand; Trasler, Jacquetta

    2015-11-15

    Dietary folate is a major source of methyl groups required for DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that is actively maintained and remodeled during spermatogenesis. While high-dose folic acid supplementation (up to 10 times the daily recommended dose) has been shown to improve sperm parameters in infertile men, the effects of supplementation on the sperm epigenome are unknown. To assess the impact of 6 months of high-dose folic acid supplementation on the sperm epigenome, we studied 30 men with idiopathic infertility. Blood folate concentrations increased significantly after supplementation with no significant improvements in sperm parameters. Methylation levels of the differentially methylated regions of several imprinted loci (H19, DLK1/GTL2, MEST, SNRPN, PLAGL1, KCNQ1OT1) were normal both before and after supplementation. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) revealed a significant global loss of methylation across different regions of the sperm genome. The most marked loss of DNA methylation was found in sperm from patients homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, a common polymorphism in a key enzyme required for folate metabolism. RRBS analysis also showed that most of the differentially methylated tiles were located in DNA repeats, low CpG-density and intergenic regions. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that methylation of promoter regions was altered in several genes involved in cancer and neurobehavioral disorders including CBFA2T3, PTPN6, COL18A1, ALDH2, UBE4B, ERBB2, GABRB3, CNTNAP4 and NIPA1. Our data reveal alterations of the human sperm epigenome associated with high-dose folic acid supplementation, effects that were exacerbated by a common polymorphism in MTHFR. PMID:26307085

  11. Linoleic acid supplementation results in increased arachidonic acid and eicosanoid production in CF airway cells and in cftr−/− transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Munir M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Andersson, Charlotte; Bhutta, Abdul Q.; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Laposata, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF leads to increased levels of arachidonate-derived proinflammatory metabolites and that this process is exacerbated by increasing linoleic acid levels in the diet. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of linoleic acid supplementation on downstream proinflammatory biomarkers in two CF models: 1) in vitro cell culture model using 16HBE14o− sense [wild-type (WT)] and antisense (CF) human airway epithelial cells; and 2) in an in vivo model using cftr−/− transgenic mice. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and IL-8 and eicosanoids were measured by ELISA. Neutrophils were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from knockout mice following linoleic acid supplementation and exposure to aerosolized Pseudomonas LPS. Linoleic acid supplementation increased arachidonic acid levels in CF but not WT cells. IL-8, PGE2, and PGF2α secretion were increased in CF compared with WT cells, with a further increase following linoleic acid supplementation. cftr−/− Mice supplemented with 100 mg of linoleic acid had increased arachidonic acid levels in lung tissue associated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the airway compared with control mice. These findings support the hypothesis that increasing linoleic acid levels in the setting of loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function leads to increased arachidonic acid levels and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:20656894

  12. Folic acid supplementation rescues anomalies associated with knockdown of parkin in dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Saurabh; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Yadav, Amarish Kumar; Srikrishna, Saripella

    2015-05-01

    parkin loss associated early-onset of Parkinson's disease, involves mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as the plausible decisive molecular mechanisms in disease pathogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction involves several up/down regulation of gene products, one of which being p53 is found to be elevated. Elevated p53 is involved in mitochondrial mediated apoptosis of neuronal cells in Parkinson's patients who are folate deficient as well. The present study therefore attempts to examine the effect of Folic acid (FA) supplementation in alleviation of anomalies associated with parkin knockdown using RNAi approach, specific to Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Drosophila model system. Here we show that FA supplementation provide protection against parkin RNAi associated discrepancies, thereby improves locomotor ability, reduces mortality and oxidative stress, and partially improves Zn levels. Further, metabolic active cell status and ATP levels were also found to be improved thereby indicating improved mitochondrial function. To corroborate FA supplementation in mitochondrial functioning further, status of p53 and spargel was checked by qRT-PCR. Here we show that folic acid supplementation enrich mitochondrial functioning as depicted from improved spargel level and lowered p53 level, which was originally vice versa in parkin knockdown flies cultured in standard media. Our data thus support the potential of folic acid in alleviating the behavioural defects, oxidative stress, augmentation of zinc and ATP levels in parkin knock down flies. Further, folic acid role in repressing mitochondrial dysfunction is encouraging to further explore its possible mechanistic role to be utilized as potential therapeutics for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25824034

  13. Supplemental dietary fat and ruminally protected amino acids for lactating Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Karunanandaa, K; Goodling, L E; Varga, G A; Muller, L D; McNeill, W W; Cassidy, T W; Lykos, T

    1994-11-01

    Eight Jersey cows receiving a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate on a DM basis were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of added fat (3.4% of dietary DM) and ruminally protected AA (8 g of Met and 24 g of Lys daily) on yield and composition of milk. Treatments were 1) basal control, 2) added fat, 3) added AA, and 4) fat plus AA. Compared with no added fat, fat supplementation increased 4% FCM yield (24.7 vs. 23.0 kg/d) and milk fat yield (1.05 vs. .97 kg), depressed milk protein content (3.58 vs. 3.74%), and altered fatty acid composition of milk. Blood triglyceride and NEFA were elevated (34.4 vs. 29.5 mg/dl and 175.1 vs. 143.7 microeq/L, respectively) by added fat. Supplementation with AA elevated blood Lys, Met, and urea N without increasing milk protein yield. Increase in blood NEFA was further augmented by fat plus AA supplementation, but no changes in concentrations of Lys or Met in blood were found. Addition of AA did not alleviate the depression of milk protein content when supplemental fat was added to the diet for Jersey cows.

  14. Single-laboratory validated method for determination of nordihydroguaiaretic acid in chaparral-containing dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Gay, Martha L; Musser, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) occurs naturally in chaparral (Larrea tridentate Coville), a plant which commonly grows in the Southwest United States and has been used for medicinal purposes by Native Americans indigenous to that region. In addition to its traditional use as a tea, manufacturers of dietary supplements have marketed chaparral-containing products in a variety of formulations. Because of the hepatotoxicity of NDGA, and its occurrence in regulated products, we have developed a method for the determination of NDGA in dietary supplements and have tested this method in several dietary supplement formulations. Products were extracted with 80% methanol, filtered, and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. NDGA was detected and determined with both a diode array detector and negative-ion electrospray. Fragmentation in the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was obtained by collisional activation of the [M-H](-) ion. Collisional activation produced sufficient fragmentation to provide unambiguous identification. Lack of a stable isotope labeled internal standard has led us to compare quantitations based on UV detection with quantitations based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Presence of NDGA was confirmed in several dietary supplement products. Quantitative results from the 2 detection methods were comparable for most products. The limit of quantitation using MS/MS was lower and fewer interferences were observed, although UV detection provided better linearity.

  15. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  16. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  17. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  18. γ-Tocopherol-rich supplementation additively improves vascular endothelial function during smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Ballard, Kevin D; Barker, Tyler; Rogers, Victoria E; Parker, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation persist years after smoking cessation thereby limiting the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). Although short-term smoking cessation improves VEF, no studies have examined co-therapy of antioxidants in combination with smoking cessation to improve VEF. We hypothesized that improvements in γ-tocopherol (γ-T) status during smoking cessation would improve VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone by decreasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in otherwise healthy smokers (22 ± 1 years; mean ± SEM) who quit smoking for 7 days with placebo (n=14) or γ-T-rich supplementation (n=16; 500 mg γ-T/day). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), cotinine, and biomarkers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and inflammation were measured before and after 7 days of smoking cessation. Smoking cessation regardless of supplementation similarly decreased plasma cotinine, whereas γ-T-rich supplementation increased plasma γ-T by seven times and its urinary metabolite γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman by nine times (P<0.05). Smoking cessation with γ-T-rich supplementation increased FMD responses by 1.3% (P<0.05) beyond smoking cessation alone (4.1 ± 0.6% vs 2.8 ± 0.3%; mean ± SEM). Although plasma malondialdehyde decreased similarly in both groups (P<0.05), plasma oxidized LDL and urinary F2-isoprostanes were unaffected by smoking cessation or γ-T-rich supplementation. Plasma TNF-α and myeloperoxidase decreased (P<0.05) only in those receiving γ-T-rich supplements and these were inversely related to FMD (P<0.05; R=-0.46 and -0.37, respectively). These findings demonstrate that short-term γ-T-rich supplementation in combination with smoking cessation improved VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone in young smokers, probably by decreasing the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α and myeloperoxidase.

  19. Application of peanut butter to improve fatty acid composition of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Kapopara, M B; Patel, V H

    2010-06-01

    Biscuits prepared with different levels of hydrogenated fat (vanaspati) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) butter (PB) (100:00, 75:25, 50;50, 25;75, 00:100) were evaluated for their fatty acid composition and textural property. Saturated fatty acids like myristic, palmitic, stearic acids were higher in control biscuits (100% vanaspati), which decreased with increasing proportion of PB in the experimental biscuits. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were lowest in control biscuits and it gradually increased upon incorporation of PB. The hardness of biscuits also increased with increasing proportion of PB. Overall sensory quality of experimental biscuits improved when 50% vanaspati replaced by PB in the standard biscuits recipe. Biscuits prepared with 50% supplementation of PB had better fatty acid composition with balanced oil quality and also had a greater acceptability by sensory evaluation panel.

  20. Effects of dietary flax seed and sunflower seed supplementation on normal canine serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and skin and hair coat condition scores.

    PubMed

    Rees, C A; Bauer, J E; Burkholder, W J; Kennis, R A; Dunbar, B L; Bigley, K E

    2001-04-01

    This prospective study involved supplementing 18 normal dogs with flax seed (FLX) and sunflower seed (SUN) and evaluating their effects on skin and hair coat condition scores and serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations. Skin and hair coat were evaluated in a double-blinded fashion using a numeric scoring system and serum PUFA concentrations were determined. Our hypothesis was that changes in serum PUFA concentrations are associated with improvements in skin and hair coat and that serum PUFA would provide an objective method for making dietary fatty acid supplement recommendations. Although a numerical improvement was found in hair coat quality in both groups, this improvement was not sustained beyond 28 days. The relative per cent of 18:3n-3 concentrations in serum phospholipids increased in the FLX treated dogs but these concentrations remained unchanged in the SUN treated dogs. Also, elevations in relative per cent of 18:2n-6 concentrations in serum phospholipids were seen in the FLX group. The ratio of serum polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids also showed a transient increase. These increases preceded the peak skin condition score peak value by approximately 14 days. It was concluded that a 1-month supplementation with either flax seed or sunflower seed in dogs provides temporary improvement in skin and hair coat. These changes appeared to be associated with increased serum 18 carbon PUFA.

  1. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  2. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  3. Improvement of bone formation biomarkers after 1-year consumption with milk fortified with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, and selected vitamins.

    PubMed

    Martin-Bautista, Elena; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; Fonolla, Juristo; Quesada, Miguel; Poyatos, Antonio; Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that the replacement of regular milk with fortified milk in hyperlipidemic adults for 1 year would improve bone biomarkers. The fortified milk contained eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oils, oleic acid, vitamins A, B(6), and E, as well as folic acid. We believe that the fortified milk will improve the blood fatty acid profile and vitamin status in subjects to benefit bone health biomarkers. From the 84 patients who accepted to participate, 11 of these were excluded for the presence of metabolic diseases and 1 was excluded for noncompliance with the protocol. Seventy-two hyperlipidemic patients (35-65 years) were randomly divided between 2 study groups. The supplement group (E; n = 39) consumed 0.5 L/d of fortified milk that contained fish oil, oleic acid, and vitamins. The control group (C; n = 33) consumed 0.5 L/d of semiskimmed milk containing the same amount of total fat. Blood samples were taken at T(0), T(3), T(6), and T(12) months to determine plasma fatty acids, vitamins B(6), E, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum folate, calcium, soluble osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteocalcin, parathormone, type I collagen carboxy-terminal telopeptide, and malondialdehyde. After 1 year, the E group showed a significant increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (42%), docosahexaenoic acid (60%), vitamin B6 (38%), OPG (18%), RANKL (7%), OPG/RANKL (10%), red blood cell folate (21%), serum folate (53%), calcium (4%), vitamin D (11%), and osteocalcin (22%). Dietary supplementation with the fortified milk drink improved nutritional status and bone formation markers in adult hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:20579524

  4. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp-seed and evening-primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Baradaran, Behzad; Ali, Torbati Mohammad; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils in multiple sclerosis patients. To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and correlate it with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at baseline after 6 months intervention in MS patients by gas chromatography, in this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into three groups: "Group A" that received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot nature diet. "Group B" received olive oil and "Group C" received the co-supplemented oils. The results showed that the mean follow-up was 180 ± 2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25 ± 8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80 ± 4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. After 6 months, EDSS, Immunological parameters and the erythrocyte cell membrane with regard to specific fatty acids showed improvement in the group A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention. We concluded that Hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils caused an increase PUFAs in MS patients and improvement in the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids composition. This could be an indication of restored plasma stores, and a reflection of disease severity reduction.

  5. Effect of extender and amino acid supplementation on sperm quality of cooled-preserved Andalusian donkey (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Ortiz, I; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two commercially available liquid stallion semen extenders for the preservation of Andalusian donkey semen at 5°C for up to 72h, and to evaluate the effect of amino acid addition on sperm quality of cooled donkey semen. In addition, this study investigated the effect of seasons on semen characteristics of Andalusian jackasses. Throughout a year, 50 ejaculates were collected from ten adult donkeys and a complete semen evaluation was performed immediately after collection. In Experiment 1, semen samples (n=32) were pooled, divided into two aliquots, and cooled in either Gent(®) A or INRA 96(®). In Experiment 2, pooled semen samples (n=9) were cooled in Gent A(®) supplemented with 0 (as control), 20, 40, or 60mM for each glutamine, proline, or taurine. Fresh semen and chilled samples were assessed for sperm motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Sperm motility variables were greater (P<0.05) in Gent(®) A than in INRA 96(®). The presence of glutamine, proline, or taurine in Gent(®) A improved (P<0.001) the motility of Andalusian donkey spermatozoa. Differences (P<0.05) in some sperm variables were observed among seasons. In conclusion, Gent(®) A maintained sperm motility characteristics after 72h of cold storage to a greater extent than INRA 96(®). Moreover, motility was greater when Gent(®) A supplemented at different concentrations of amino acids than Gent(®) A with no supplementation. An effect of seasons on the semen quality of the Andalusian donkey was demonstrated.

  6. Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: A preliminary dietary supplementation trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG) ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS) in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults. Methods A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women) with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years) were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results After adjusting for sex and age, the MetS incidence rate (standard error, p value) decreased by 7.1% (3.7%, 0.920), 9.5% (4.3%, 0.451), 19.0% (5.7%, 0.021), 16.7% (5.4%, 0.047), 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) and 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) at visit 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 compared to that at baseline (visit 1), respectively. The decrease in incidence rate was highest at the end of the three-month supplementation period and it was significantly different from that at baseline (p = 0.021). The difference remained significant at end of the 4th month (one month after the cessation of supplementation) (p = 0.047) but the effect diminished at the 5th and 6th months after baseline. The waist circumference also significantly decreased after the supplementation (p < 0.05). The WBG supplementation was generally well-tolerated. Conclusion This is the first report to show that WBG improved MetS in human which provides a firm base for further randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of WBG

  7. The effect of dietary supplements of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Younger, K M

    1981-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary supplements of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides were studied in vegans and in omnivores. 2. A supplement of 18:3 omega 3 led to an increase in 20:5 omega 3 but was less effective than one of 20:5 omega 3 + 22:6 omega 3.

  8. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in atherosclerotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hassan Eftekhari, Mohammad; Aliasghari, Fereshte; Babaei-Beigi, Mohammad Ali; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and disability in Iranian people. Inflammation and oxidative processes are key components of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on inflammation markers and oxidative stress in atherosclerotic patients. METHODS This study was a two-month clinical, randomized trial. 90 volunteers who referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) from February to March 2011 and had the inclusion criteria of this study were selected. Participants were classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA, 1920 mg/d ω-3, or placebo for 2 months. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured before and after supplementation. RESULTS The hs-CRP level decreased significantly in both the omega-3 and CLA group (P < 0.05). IL-6 reduced significantly in the ω-3 group, but the reduction of IL-6 levels in the CLA group was not significant. GPx increased in the CLA and omega-3 groups (P < 0.05). MDA level decreased significantly in both omega-3 and CLA groups (P < 0.05). Comparison between the groups indicates a significant change in CRP levels in the ω-3 group relative to the control group. However, other indices did not cause any significant change in the ω-3 and CLA groups in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSION Diet supplementation with CLA and ω-3 can have a beneficial effect on some indices of inflammatory and oxidative stress. PMID:24575132

  9. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future. PMID:22259192

  10. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  11. Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, Robert; Nash, Tiffany A; Shidler, Marcelle D; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2010-03-01

    Concord grape juice contains polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signalling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure and vascular pathology in individuals with CVD, and consumption of such flavonoid-containing foods is associated with a reduced risk for dementia. In addition, preliminary animal data have indicated improvement in memory and motor function with grape juice supplementation, suggesting potential for cognitive benefit in ageing humans. In this initial investigation of neurocognitive effects, we enrolled twelve older adults with memory decline but not dementia in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with Concord grape juice supplementation for 12 weeks. We observed significant improvement in a measure of verbal learning and non-significant enhancement of verbal and spatial recall. There was no appreciable effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms and no effect on weight or waist circumference. A small increase in fasting insulin was observed for those consuming grape juice. These preliminary findings suggest that supplementation with Concord grape juice may enhance cognitive function for older adults with early memory decline and establish a basis for more comprehensive investigations to evaluate potential benefit and assess mechanisms of action. PMID:20028599

  12. Timing of magnesium supplementation administered through drinking water to improve fresh and stored pork quality.

    PubMed

    Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T

    2004-05-01

    Thirty-two pigs were used to determine the timing effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation given through drinking water on pork quality. Pigs (16 barrows and 16 gilts) were individually penned, provided 2.7 kg of feed (0.12% Mg) daily (as-fed basis), and allowed free access to water via a nipple waterer for the duration of the study. After 5 d of adjustment, pigs (120 +/- 0.8 kg BW) were allotted randomly by weight and sex to 900 mg/L of supplemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate in drinking water for -6, -4, -2, or 0 d relative to slaughter. The LM and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed 24 h postmortem. Retail display storage was simulated for 8 d, and the LM was vacuum-packaged for 25 or 50 d at 4 degrees C. Magnesium did not affect the pH of the LM at either 45 min (P = 0.15) or 24 h postmortem (P = 0.23). However, the pH of the SM at 24 h postmortem tended to be greater (P = 0.08) for pigs consuming Mg for 2 d than for those not supplemented. Fluid loss after 8 d of storage was less (P < 0.05) in the LM of pigs supplemented with Mg for 6 d than in those without supplementation. Furthermore, fluid loss from the SM of pigs provided supplemental Mg for 2 d, but not for 4 or 6 d, was lower (P < 0.05) on each day of retail display than the SM of unsupplemented pigs. Minolta L*, a*, and b* color measurements of the LM during display storage were not (P > 0.10) affected by Mg supplementation. However, Mg supplementation for 2 or 4 d decreased paleness (lower L* value) after 25 d (P < 0.05), but not 50 d (P > 0.10) of vacuum-packaged storage. Magnesium addition for 2 d decreased the extent of oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of the LM after 4 d of display storage compared with 0 d of Mg (P < 0.05). Oxidation of the SM during 8 d of display storage increased linearly (P < 0.05) as duration of supplementation increased from 2 to 6 d but did not differ (P = 0.22) from 0 d of Mg supplementation. Although the response to Mg supplementation

  13. Timing of magnesium supplementation administered through drinking water to improve fresh and stored pork quality.

    PubMed

    Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T

    2004-05-01

    Thirty-two pigs were used to determine the timing effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation given through drinking water on pork quality. Pigs (16 barrows and 16 gilts) were individually penned, provided 2.7 kg of feed (0.12% Mg) daily (as-fed basis), and allowed free access to water via a nipple waterer for the duration of the study. After 5 d of adjustment, pigs (120 +/- 0.8 kg BW) were allotted randomly by weight and sex to 900 mg/L of supplemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate in drinking water for -6, -4, -2, or 0 d relative to slaughter. The LM and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed 24 h postmortem. Retail display storage was simulated for 8 d, and the LM was vacuum-packaged for 25 or 50 d at 4 degrees C. Magnesium did not affect the pH of the LM at either 45 min (P = 0.15) or 24 h postmortem (P = 0.23). However, the pH of the SM at 24 h postmortem tended to be greater (P = 0.08) for pigs consuming Mg for 2 d than for those not supplemented. Fluid loss after 8 d of storage was less (P < 0.05) in the LM of pigs supplemented with Mg for 6 d than in those without supplementation. Furthermore, fluid loss from the SM of pigs provided supplemental Mg for 2 d, but not for 4 or 6 d, was lower (P < 0.05) on each day of retail display than the SM of unsupplemented pigs. Minolta L*, a*, and b* color measurements of the LM during display storage were not (P > 0.10) affected by Mg supplementation. However, Mg supplementation for 2 or 4 d decreased paleness (lower L* value) after 25 d (P < 0.05), but not 50 d (P > 0.10) of vacuum-packaged storage. Magnesium addition for 2 d decreased the extent of oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of the LM after 4 d of display storage compared with 0 d of Mg (P < 0.05). Oxidation of the SM during 8 d of display storage increased linearly (P < 0.05) as duration of supplementation increased from 2 to 6 d but did not differ (P = 0.22) from 0 d of Mg supplementation. Although the response to Mg supplementation

  14. A diet with lactosucrose supplementation ameliorates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Xiaoli; Huang, Xiaoliu; Li, Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shiqiang; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation contributes to an increased risk of colon cancer. Lactosucrose (LS), a kind of functional trisaccharide, can modulate immunity and promote microbe growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LS on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats. Rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: the normal group, TNBS group, LS group, and salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) group for five weeks. LS supplementation ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. LS supplementation increased IL-10 production and suppressed the secretion of IL-12 in the colon, as compared to the TNBS group. LS decreased the production of TLR-2 protein and nuclear NF-κB p65 protein, as well as mRNA levels, as compared with colitic rats. These results indicate that chronic feeding of LS inhibited TNBS-induced chronic inflammation. LS has potential nutraceutical intervention to combat colitis.

  15. Effects of Supplemental Liquid DL-methionine Hydroxy Analog Free Acid in Diet on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Functions of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kaewtapee, C.; Krutthai, N.; Bunchasak, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analog free acid (DL-MHA) on growth performance and gastrointestinal conditions of piglets. One hundred and eighty crossbred barrow piglets (Large White×Landrace, body weight: 12.48±0.33 kg) were divided into three groups with ten replications of six piglets each. Piglets received DL-MHA in diet at a concentration of 0 (control group), 0.15%, or 0.24%. The results indicated that increasing the standardized ileal digestible (SID) of sulfur amino acids (SAA) to lysine (SID SAA:Lys) ratio by supplementation of DL-MHA tended to increase (quadratic; p<0.10) weight gain and ADG, and showed slightly greater (linear; p<0.10) gain:feed ratio. The pH in the diet and cecum linearly decreased (p<0.01), whereas pH in colon had a quadratic response (p<0.01) with increasing supplementation of DL-MHA. By greater supplementation of DL-MHA, the population of Lactobacillus spp. in rectum was likely to increase (quadratic; p<0.10), but Escherichia coli population in the diet was reduced (quadratic; p<0.05). Acetic acid concentration and total short-chain fatty acids in cecum linearly increased (p<0.05), whereas valeric acid in cecum quadratically increased (p<0.05) with increasing DL-MHA levels. Moreover, the villous height of the jejunum quadratically increased (p<0.01) as the supplementation of DL-MHA was increased. It is concluded that the addition of DL-MHA in diet improved the growth performance and the morphology of gastrointestinal tract of piglets. PMID:26954213

  16. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  17. Interaction of exercise training and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tom R; Liu, Ying; Linden, Melissa A; Rector, R Scott

    2007-06-01

    The effect of combining omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation and exercise training treatment on postprandial lipemia (PPL) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of n-3 FA and exercise training in attenuating PPL after a high-fat meal. Previously sedentary, overweight, subjects (n=22; 12 women, 10 men, BMI 26.6+/-0.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: n-3 FA supplementation alone (FO, n=10) or n-3 FA supplementation plus exercise training (FO+ExTr, n=12). Both groups consumed 4 g/d n-3 FA, and one group also exercise trained for 45 min/d, 5d/week of brisk walking and (or) jogging at 60% VO2 max. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, subjects performed a baseline PPL and a PPL following a single session of exercise (ExPPL). PPL was assessed by triglyceride (TG) area under the curve (AUC) and peak TG response (TGpeak). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare results from treatments for baseline and exercise trials. FO alone reduced PPL and Ex PPL, and FO+ExTr attenuated the ExPPL response measured as total AUC and TGpeak. There was no significant main effect for group or group by time interaction for baseline PPL or ExPPL. Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C (i.e., subfraction 2) concentrations were significantly increased in the FO+ExTr group after the treatments. These results suggest that n-3 FA supplementation reduced PPL in sedentary subjects. Exercise training has no interference or additive effects with n-3 FA supplementation in attenuating PPL, but combined treatments may be additive in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:17510682

  18. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, James A.; Clendenon, Sherry G.; Ratcliffe, Don R.; Fielding, Stephen M.; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid signaling caused by embryonic ethanol. Retinoic acid deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100 mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with retinoic acid at a low concentration (10−9 M) and 100 mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100 mM ethanol alone. The rescue phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10−9 M retinoic acid alone (retinoic acid toxicity) than to untreated or 100 mM ethanol treated embryos. Retinoic acid rescues defects caused by 100 mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e. g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by retinoic acid supplement. PMID:20036484

  19. Effects of fatty acid supplements on milk yield and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). The SAT treatment did not change milk fat concentration, but UNS linearly decreased milk fat in cannulated cows and tended to decrease milk fat in noncannulated cows compared with control. Milk fat depression with UNS corresponded to increased concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Milk fat profile was similar for SAT and control, but UNS decreased concentration of short- and medium-chain FA. Digestible energy intake tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS in cannulated and noncannulated cows. Increasing unsaturated FS linearly increased empty body weight and net energy gain in cannulated cows, whereas increasing saturated FS linearly increased plasma insulin. Efficiency of conversion of digestible energy to milk tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS for cannulated cows only. Addition of SAT provided little benefit to production and energy balance, whereas UNS decreased energy intake and milk energy yield.

  20. New insights in nutritional management and amino acid supplementation in urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate is used in the pharmacological treatment of urea cycle disorders to create alternative pathways for nitrogen excretion. The primary metabolite, phenylacetate, conjugates glutamine in the liver and kidney to form phenylacetylglutamine that is readily excreted in the urine. Patients with urea cycle disorders taking sodium phenylbutyrate have a selective reduction in the plasma concentrations of branched chain amino acids despite adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, this depletion is usually the harbinger of a metabolic crisis. Plasma branched chain amino acids and other essential amino acids were measured in control subjects, untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females, and treated patients with urea cycle disorders (ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency) in the absorptive state during the course of stable isotope studies. Branched chain amino acid levels were significantly lower in treated patients with urea cycle disorders when compared to untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females or control subjects. These results were replicated in control subjects who had low steady-state branched chain amino acid levels when treated with sodium phenylbutyrate. These studies suggested that alternative pathway therapy with sodium phenylbutyrate causes a substantial impact on the metabolism of branched chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders, implying that better titration of protein restriction can be achieved with branched chain amino acid supplementation in these patients who are on alternative pathway therapy.

  1. Use of folic acid-containing supplements among women of childbearing age--United States, 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-02-27

    Each year in the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies result in spina bifida or anencephaly. Babies born with spina bifida usually survive, often with serious disability, but anencephaly is invariably fatal. The B vitamin folic acid can reduce the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly by at least 50% when taken daily before conception and during early pregnancy. In 1992, the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. This report summarizes findings from a survey conducted during January and February 1997 and indicates that only one third of women of childbearing age consume a supplement containing the recommended amount of folic acid daily.

  2. Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Folic acid (FA) added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicine's recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL) of 1,000 micrograms per day (μg/d) for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA) doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use. Methods During 2005-2008, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related data on dietary supplementation were obtained by interviewing 539 pregnant women enrolled at two obstetrics-care facilities in Durham County, North Carolina. Results Before pregnancy, 51% of women reported FA supplementation and 66% reported this supplementation during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2%-14.6%) of women reported supplementation with FA doses above the TUL of 1,000 μg/day, and a similar proportion reported this intake prenatally. Before pregnancy, Caucasian women were more likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 2.99; 95% = 1.28-7.00), compared to African American women, while women with chronic conditions were less likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.21-0.97). Compared to African American women, Caucasian women were also more likely to report FA intake in doses exceeding the TUL during pregnancy (OR = 5.09; 95%CI = 2.07-12.49). Conclusions Fifty-one percent of women reported some FA intake before and 66% during pregnancy, respectively, and more than one in ten women took FA supplements in doses that exceeded the TUL. Caucasian women were more likely to report high FA intake. A study is ongoing to identify possible genetic and non-genotoxic effects of these high doses. PMID:21255390

  3. Acute respiratory infections prevent improvement of vitamin A status in young infants supplemented with vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Alvarez, J O; Wahed, M A; Islam, M A; Habte, D; Khaled, M A

    1996-03-01

    At immunization contact, 165 infants 2.5 mo old were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mg vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) or placebo. Three doses were given at monthly intervals with each diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and oral polio (DPT/OPV) immunization dose. The diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) morbidity was similar in the vitamin A and placebo groups. However, the duration (days per child-year, mean +/- SD) of ARI was less in the vitamin A group compared with placebo group (27.6 +/- 17.1 vs. 40.8 +/- 22.7; P = 0.005). Fasting retinol concentrations were measured at entry and in 61 infants, the relative dose response (RDR) test was done 1 mo after the third dose of vitamin A. Eighty-five percent of the infants had serum retinol concentration < 0.70 mol/L at entry. After 3 mo the serum retinol levels improved significantly in both groups, and in the vitamin A-supplemented group the serum retinol concentration was significantly better than that in the placebo group (P= 0.02). However, 61% of the infants remained deficient despite vitamin A supplementation. Among vitamin A-supplemented infants only, diarrhea and ARI morbidity during the 3-mo period were compared in children with normal versus children with abnormal RDR at the end of the supplementation period. The ARI episodes were more frequent in the supplemented infants who remained vitamin A deficient at the end of the 3 mo (P = 0.027). Also, the cumulative duration (days, mean +/- SD) of fever and cough was 5.0 +/- 2.8 in the normal versus 11.2 +/- 6.0 in the deficient group (P = 0.04). The results of this study suggest that a large proportion of infants remain vitamin A deficient even after large dose vitamin A supplementation because of frequent respiratory infections, particularly those accompanied by fever. PMID:8598547

  4. Folate supplementation during pregnancy improves offspring cardiovascular dysfunction induced by protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Christopher; Brawley, Lee; Anthony, Frederick W; Dance, Caroline S; Dunn, Rebecca; Jackson, Alan A; Poston, Lucilla; Hanson, Mark A

    2006-05-01

    Dietary protein restriction in the rat compromises the maternal cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and leads to raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in the offspring. In this study we have hypothesized that dietary folate supplementation of the low-protein diet will improve maternal vascular function and also restore offspring cardiovascular function. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either a control (18% casein) or protein-restricted (9% casein) diet +/-5 mg/kg folate supplement. Function of isolated maternal uterine artery and small mesenteric arteries from adult male offspring was assessed, systolic blood pressure recorded, and offspring thoracic aorta levels of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase mRNA measured. In the uterine artery of late pregnancy dams, vasodilatation to vascular endothelial growth factor was attenuated in the protein-restricted group but restored with folate supplementation, as was isoprenaline-induced vasodilatation (P<0.05). In male offspring, protein restriction during pregnancy led to raised systolic blood pressure (P<0.01), impaired acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation (P<0.01), and reduced levels of endothelial NO synthase mRNA (P<0.05). Maternal folate supplementation during pregnancy prevented this elevated systolic blood pressure associated with a protein restriction diet. With folate supplementation, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and endothelial NO synthase mRNA levels were not significantly different from either the control or protein-restricted groups. Maternal folate supplementation of the control diet had no effect on blood pressure or vasodilatation. This study supports the hypothesis that folate status in pregnancy can influence fetal development and, thus, the risks of cardiovascular disease in the next generation. The concept of developmental origins of adult disease focuses predominately on fetal life but must also include a role for maternal cardiovascular function. PMID:16585422

  5. Dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides increases short-chain fatty acids but decreases protein-derived catabolites in the intestinal luminal content of weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Li; Kong, Xiang-Feng; Lian, Guo-Qi; Blachier, Francois; Geng, Mei-Mei; Yin, Yu-Long

    2014-09-01

    The improvement of gut health and function with prebiotic supplements after weaning is an active area of research in pig nutrition. The present study was conducted to test the working hypothesis that medium-term dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) can affect the gut ecosystem in terms of microbiota composition, luminal bacterial short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and intestinal expression of genes related to intestinal immunity and barrier function. Ten Huanjiang mini-piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Each group received a standard diet containing either dietary supplementation with 0.5% corn starch (control group) or 0.5% SBOS (experimental group). The results showed that dietary supplementation with SBOS increased the diversity of intestinal microflora and elevated (P < .05) the numbers of some presumably beneficial intestinal bacteria (e.g., Bifidobacterium sp, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and Roseburia). Soybean oligosaccharide supplementation also increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acid in the intestinal lumen, and it reduced (P < .05) the numbers of bacteria with pathogenic potential (e.g., Escherichia coli, Clostridium, and Streptococcus) and the concentration of several protein-derived catabolites (e.g., isobutyrate, isovalerate, and ammonia). In addition, SBOS supplementation increased (P < .05) expression of zonula occludens 1 messenger RNA, and it decreased (P < .05) expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 8 messenger RNA in the ileum and colon. These findings suggest that SBOS supplementation modifies the intestinal ecosystem in weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets and has potentially beneficial effects on the gut.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties.

  7. Thermal tolerance and survival of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Gökçe Polat; Pagotto, Franco; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.

  8. A randomized, double-masked study to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in meibomian gland dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Oleñik, Andrea; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Alejandre-Alba, Nicolás; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysfunction of the meibomian gland (MG) is among the most frequent causes of ophthalmological symptoms. The inflammation seen in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is part of its pathogenesis, and evidence of the antioxidant-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids suggests this to be an appropriate treatment for MGD. Objective We aimed to assess the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids versus placebo, in improving the symptoms and signs of MGD. Methods We conducted a randomized and double-mask trial of 3 months duration. We enrolled 61 patients who presented with symptomatic MGD and no tear instability (defined as tear breakup time [TBUT] <10 seconds). Participants were randomly assigned to two homogeneous subgroups. For patients in group A, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus a placebo oral agent. For patients in group B, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus oral supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. We performed the following tests: (1) TBUT; (2) Schirmer I test; (3) Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI©; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA); (4) MG expression; (5) evaluation of lid margin inflammation; and (6) interpalpebral and corneal dye staining. Results After 3 months of evaluation, the mean OSDI, TBUT, lid margin inflammation, and MG expression presented improvement from the baseline values, in group B (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively). The Schirmer test results were also improved and statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion Oral omega-3 fatty acids, 1.5 grams per day, may be beneficial in the treatment of MGD, mainly by improving tear stability. PMID:24039409

  9. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition and CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with different oil sources.

    PubMed

    Badee, Ghlailat; Hidaka, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    Quality food for human consumption will always be the aim for animal producers. Quantity and composition of fat deposits (fatty acid profile) strongly influences meat quality in ruminants, especially via increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, which is known to have beneficial anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and cholesterol reduction properties for human health. Awassi lambs are one of the main and most consumed meat sources in the Middle East area; however, studies addressing the fat content of CLA and methods to enhance its concentrations in this breed are still rare. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding two different oil sources (soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at two levels (1.8 and 3%)) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of fat in Awassi lambs. Oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance or carcass characteristics, while fatty acid composition changed according to the site of extraction. CLA concentrations were increased in the tail fat deposit, with 1.8% SBO and in intermuscular fat deposit with 3% SFO. Intermuscular fat is the one most naturally consumed by humans, serving to improve food quality.

  10. Effect of thyroxine supplementation on the response to perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gutshall, D.M.; Pilcher, G.D.; Langley, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) is a member of a family of perfluorinated carboxylic acids that have found widespread commercial applications as lubricants, surfactants, wetting agents and corrosion inhibitors. The effects of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) supplementation on perfluoro-n-decanoic acid- (PFDA) induced decreases in food consumption, body weight, and body temperature were examined. A dose-response study was carried out with 50-, 100-, 200-, or 250-{mu}g/kg ip doses of T{sub 4} for 7 d prior to PFDA administration, and daily dosing with T{sub 4} was continued for an additional 30 d. From this study a T{sub 4} dose of 200 {mu}g/kg was chosen, and subsequent experiments were conducted with this dose. Supplementation with T{sub 4} at 200 {mu}g/kg daily alleviated the hypophagia but not the severe weight loss and hypothermia produced by PFDA treatment. Their results suggest that some component of the thyroid axis plays a role in feeding behavior. In addition, the PFDA-induced wasting syndrome and hypothermia appear to be unrelated to changes in serum thyroid hormones. The unexpected observation that severe weight loss occurred in the presence of essentially normal food intake suggests that PFDA alters basic cellular metabolic processes.

  11. Folic acid supplements and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tingting; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Wang, Meilin; Zhu, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk, but conflicting results were reported. We herein performed a meta-analysis based on relevant studies to reach a more definitive conclusion. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before October 2014. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. The results suggested that folic acid treatment was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in the total population (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.22, P = 0.974). Moreover, no statistical effect was identified in further subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounding factors. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation had no effect on colorectal cancer risk. However, this finding must be validated by further large studies.

  12. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation: impact on signaling and relevance to critical illness.

    PubMed

    Mattick, John S A; Kamisoglu, Kubra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Berthiaume, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The changes that occur in mammalian systems following trauma and sepsis, termed systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elicit major changes in carbohydrate, protein, and energy metabolism. When these events persist for too long they result in a severe depletion of lean body mass, multiple organ dysfunction, and eventually death. Nutritional supplementation has been investigated to offset the severe loss of protein, and recent evidence suggests that diets enriched in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may be especially beneficial. BCAAs are metabolized in two major steps that are differentially expressed in muscle and liver. In muscle, BCAAs are reversibly transaminated to the corresponding α-keto acids. For the complete degradation of BCAAs, the α-keto acids must travel to the liver to undergo oxidation. The liver, in contrast to muscle, does not significantly express the branched-chain aminotransferase. Thus, BCAA degradation is under the joint control of both liver and muscle. Recent evidence suggests that in liver, BCAAs may perform signaling functions, more specifically via activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, influencing a wide variety of metabolic and synthetic functions, including protein translation, insulin signaling, and oxidative stress following severe injury and infection. However, understanding of the system-wide effects of BCAAs that integrate both metabolic and signaling aspects is currently lacking. Further investigation in this respect will help rationalize the design and optimization of nutritional supplements containing BCAAs for critically ill patients. PMID:23554299

  13. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A − V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  14. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation delays the progression of neuroblastoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gleissman, Helena; Segerström, Lova; Hamberg, Mats; Ponthan, Frida; Lindskog, Magnus; Johnsen, John Inge; Kogner, Per

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies have revealed that omega-3 fatty acids have anticancer properties. We have previously shown that the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induces apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells in vitro by mechanisms involving intracellular peroxidation of DHA by means of 15-lipoxygenase or autoxidation. In our study, the effects of DHA supplementation on neuroblastoma tumor growth in vivo were investigated using two complementary approaches. For the purpose of prevention, DHA as a dietary supplement was fed to athymic rats before the rats were xenografted with human neuroblastoma cells. For therapeutic purposes, athymic rats with established neuroblastoma xenografts were given DHA daily by gavage and tumor growth was monitored. DHA levels in plasma and tumor tissue were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. DHA delayed neuroblastoma xenograft development and inhibited the growth of established neuroblastoma xenografts in athymic rats. A revised version of the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program evaluation scheme used as a measurement of treatment response showed that untreated control animals developed progressive disease, whereas treatment with DHA resulted in stable disease or partial response, depending on the DHA concentration. In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with DHA delayed neuroblastoma development, suggesting that DHA could be a potential agent in the treatment of minimal residual disease and should be considered for prevention in selected cases. Treatment results on established aggressive neuroblastoma tumors suggest further studies aiming at a clinical application in children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

  15. Effect of essential fatty acid and zinc supplementation during pregnancy on birth intervals, neonatal piglet brain myelination, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality.

    PubMed

    Vallet, J L; Rempel, L A; Miles, J R; Webel, S K

    2014-06-01

    Omega fatty acids and zinc contribute to physiological pathways that could affect the farrowing process, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and postweaning return to estrus. To determine effects of omega fatty acids and zinc on these reproductive traits, gilts were mated and fed either a control diet, a diet supplemented with 1.09% Gromega, a diet supplemented with 0.07% zinc sulfate, or a diet supplemented with both Gromega and zinc sulfate from d 80 of gestation until farrowing. Farrowings were video recorded to obtain birth intervals for each piglet, and the number of live and stillborn piglets was recorded. On d 1 after farrowing, piglets were weighed, and the smallest piglet in each litter was sacrificed. A blood sample was collected to measure the immunoglobulin immunocrit ratio, and brain, cerebellum, brain stem, full and empty stomach (to calculate stomach content weight), and heart weights were recorded. Because myelination of specific brain regions may affect preweaning mortality, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord tissues were measured for content of myelin basic proteins and myelin lipids. For remaining piglets, survival to weaning and weaning weights were recorded. Results indicated a weak positive correlation (r = 0.23, P < 0.05) between immunocrit values and brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein. There was also a Gromega × zinc supplementation interaction (P < 0.05) on brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein in which the combined treatment was greater than the control or each supplement alone. Zinc treatment decreased stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing and subsequent preweaning survival of low birth weight piglets. Gromega increased overall stillbirth rate and increased the stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing. There were no relationships between myelin measurements and preweaning survival. In conclusion, combined Gromega and zinc supplementation appeared to improve myelination, but zinc alone improved

  16. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity. PMID:25846410

  17. Obstructive Heart Defects Associated with Candidate Genes, Maternal Obesity, and Folic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A.; Nick, Todd G.; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L.; Erickson, Stephen W.; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity. PMID:25846410

  18. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity.

  19. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population.

  20. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population. PMID:18185493

  1. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Thomas L.; Gann, Joshua J.; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K.; Song, Joon J.; Willoughby, Darryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) combined with phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9)] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9)] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10)] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants’ body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003), lean mass (p = 0.008), rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011)], and lower-body strength (p < 0.001), but no significant interactions were present (p > 0.05). Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%), lean mass (71.3%), RF CSA (92.2%), and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial). When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass. Key points In response to eight weeks resistance training and PLC and PA (375 mg and 250 mg) supplementation, similar increases in lower-body muscle strength occurred in all three groups; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. In response to eight weeks resistance training and PLC and PA (375 mg and 250 mg) supplementation, similar increases in lean mass occurred in all three groups; however, the increases were

  2. Supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alice dos Santos; Bandeira, Luana Graziella; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Romana-Souza, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation with olive and fish oils reverses the effects of stress on behavioral activities and adrenal activation. However, previous studies have not shown whether supplementation with olive and fish oil could inhibit the effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing. Thus, this study investigated the effects of supplementation with fish or olive oil on cutaneous healing in stressed mice. Mice were subjected to rotational stress and treated with olive or fish oil daily until euthanasia. An excisional lesion was created on each mouse, and 14 days later, the lesions were analyzed. In addition, murine skin fibroblasts were exposed to elevated epinephrine levels plus olive oil, and fibroblast activity was evaluated. In the in vivo studies, administration of olive oil, but not fish oil, inhibited stress-induced reduction in wound contraction, reepithelialization, hydroxyproline levels, and blood vessel density. Stress-induced increases in vascular endothelial growth factor expression and the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils were reversed only by olive oil. Both oils reversed stress-induced increase in catecholamine levels and oxidative damage. In in vitro studies, olive oil treatment reversed the reduction in fibroblast migration and collagen deposition and the increase in lipid peroxidation induced by epinephrine. In conclusion, supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in chronically stressed mice.

  3. Sericin supplementation improves semen freezability of buffalo bulls by minimizing oxidative stress during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sikka, P; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    The variety of mammalian cells has been successfully cryopreserved by use of the silk protein sericin due to its strong free-radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to examine the protective role of sericin on buffalo spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Semen of four breeding bulls was collected twice a week using artificial vagina technique. The ejaculates of four bulls were pooled, divided into five equal fractions, diluted with the extender supplemented with different concentrations of sericin (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5 and 2%) and then cryopreserved. Post-thawed motility was objectively assessed by computer assisted sperm analyzer. Sperm plasma membrane integrity was assessed by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in frozen-thawed extended seminal plasma by spectrophotometry. The extender supplemented with 0.25, 0.5 and 1% sericin resulted in the higher sperm motility and GPx acivity. Furthermore, plasma membrane integrity and SOD activity were found to be higher (P<0.05) in group supplemented with 0.25 and 0.5% sericin (P<0.05). The MDA concentration was found to be significantly lower (P<0.05) in 0.25 and 0.5% sericin treated groups than control and other treated groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of 0.25-0.5% sericin in semen extender improves frozen-thawed semen quality through protecting sperm from oxidative stress.

  4. Dietary supplementation with carnosine improves antioxidant capacity and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ma, X Y; Jiang, Z Y; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T; Zhou, G L

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) supplementation on antioxidant capacity and meat quality of pigs. 72 pigs approximately 60 kg were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg carnosine per kg diet for 8 weeks. Carnosine supplementation did not affect growth performance and carcass traits of pigs. However, the addition of 100 mg carnosine per kg diet increased pH value of muscle at 45 min, 24 h and 48 h postmortem. It also decreased drip loss at 48 h postmortem and increased redness value of muscle at 45 min postmortem (p < 0.05). The addition of 100 mg carnosine per kg diet enhanced glycogen concentration and Ca-ATPase activity at 24 and 48 h postmortem, and reduced malondialdehyde and carbonyl protein complexes concentrations in muscle at 24 h postmortem (p < 0.05). The addition of 100 mg carnosine per kg diet increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in plasma, liver or muscle, as well as SOD and GSH-Px genes expression in muscle (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings indicate that carnosine supplementation improves antioxidant capacity and meat quality of pigs. PMID:20626506

  5. Implementing preventive iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in some Western Pacific countries: possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smitasiri, Suttilak; Solon, Florentino S

    2005-12-01

    Lack of effective implementation mechanisms is identified as a major obstacle in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. This paper discusses experiences gained from implementing iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The understanding of contextual elements is proposed as a foundation for planning interventions. Moreover, it is suggested that a social marketing framework should provide a way of thinking about how to influence related behaviors. The application of a social marketing framework applied using a "5 P's" approach: public relations and collaboration, product, price, place, and promotion, is described, as well as enabling factors (possibilities) and inhibiting factors (challenges) of this approach. Although a program to improve iron nutrition among women of reproductive age may not be simple to implement, it is essential to enhancing health, human development, and economic advancement in developing countries.

  6. Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Langius, Jacqueline A E; Smit, Egbert F; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Paul, Marinus A; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), (n-3) fatty acids from fish oil, have immune-modulating effects and may improve nutritional status in cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing multimodality treatment. In a double-blind experiment, 40 patients with stage III NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 2 cans/d of a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids (2.0 g EPA + 0.9 g DHA/d) or an isocaloric control supplement. EPA in plasma phospholipids, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), body weight, fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and inflammatory markers were assessed. Effects of intervention were analyzed by generalized estimating equations and expressed as regression coefficients (B). The intervention group (I) had a better weight maintenance than the control (C) group after 2 and 4 wk (B = 1.3 and 1.7 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a better FFM maintenance after 3 and 5 wk (B = 1.5 and 1.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a reduced REE (B = -16.7% of predicted; P = 0.01) after 3 wk, and a trend for a greater MUAC (B = 9.1; P = 0.06) and lower interleukin-6 production (B = -27.9; P = 0.08) after 5 wk. After 4 wk, the I group had a higher energy and protein intake than the C group (B = 2456 kJ/24 h, P = 0.03 and B = 25.0 g, P = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids beneficially affects nutritional status during multimodality treatment in patients with NSCLC.

  7. Taurine supplementation of plant derived protein and n-3 fatty acids are critical for optimal growth and development of cobia, Rachycentron canadum.

    PubMed

    Watson, Aaron M; Barrows, Frederic T; Place, Allen R

    2013-09-01

    We examined growth performance and the lipid content in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed a taurine supplemented (1.5 %), plant protein based diet with two fish oil replacements. The first fish oil replacement was a thraustochytrid meal (TM + SOY) plus soybean oil (~9 % CL) and the second was a canola oil supplemented with the essential fatty acids (EFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (~8 % CL). The diet using the thraustochytrid meal plus soybean oil performed equivalently to the fish oil diet; both resulting in significantly higher growth rates, lower feed conversion ratios, and higher survival than the supplemented canola oil diet, even though all three diets were similar in overall energy and met known protein and lipid requirements for cobia. The poor performance of the canola oil diet was attributed to insufficient addition of EFA in the supplemented canola oil source. Increasing levels of EFA in the supplemented canola oil above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1) would likely improve results with cobia. When fish fed either of the fish oil replacement diets were switched to the fish oil control diet, fatty acid profiles of the fillets were observed to transition toward that of the fish oil diet and could be predicted based on a standard dilution model. Based on these findings, a formulated diet for cobia can be produced without fish products providing 100 % survivorship, specific growth rates greater than 2.45 and feed conversion ratios less than 1.5, as long as taurine is added and EFA levels are above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1).

  8. Folic acid supplementation dysregulates gene expression in lymphoblastoid cells--implications in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Mohammed A; Kuizon, Salomon; Cardona, Juan; Azher, Tayaba; Murakami, Noriko; Pullarkat, Raju K; Brown, W Ted

    2011-09-01

    For over a decade, folic acid (FA) supplementation has been widely prescribed to pregnant women to prevent neural tube closure defects in newborns. Although neural tube closure occurs within the first trimester, high doses of FA are given throughout pregnancy, the physiological consequences of which are unknown. FA can cause epigenetic modification of the cytosine residues in the CpG dinucleotide, thereby affecting gene expression. Dysregulation of crucial gene expression during gestational development may have lifelong adverse effects or lead to neurodevelopmental defects, such as autism. We have investigated the effect of FA supplementation on gene expression in lymphoblastoid cells by whole-genome expression microarrays. The results showed that high FA caused dysregulation by ≥ four-fold up or down to more than 1000 genes, including many imprinted genes. The aberrant expression of three genes (FMR1, GPR37L1, TSSK3) was confirmed by Western blot analyses. The level of altered gene expression changed in an FA concentration-dependent manner. We found significant dysregulation in gene expression at concentrations as low as 15 ng/ml, a level that is lower than what has been achieved in the blood through FA fortification guidelines. We found evidence of aberrant promoter methylation in the CpG island of the TSSK3 gene. Excessive FA supplementation may require careful monitoring in women who are planning for, or are in the early stages of pregnancy. Aberrant expression of genes during early brain development may have an impact on behavioural characteristics. PMID:21867686

  9. Chronic leucine supplementation improves lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jun; Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Tong, Xing; Yin, Xue-Bin; Yuan, Lin-Xi; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Leucine supplementation has been reported to improve lipid metabolism. However, lipid metabolism in adipose tissues and liver has not been extensively studied for leucine supplementation in mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). Design C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow diet, HFCD, HFCD supplemented with 1.5% leucine (HFCD+1.5% Leu group) or 3% leucine (HFCD+3% Leu group) for 24 weeks. The body weight, peritoneal adipose weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride in serum and liver, and serum adipokines were analyzed. In addition, expression levels of proteins associated with hepatic lipogenesis, adipocyte lipolysis, and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning were determined. Results Mice in the HFCD group developed obesity and deteriorated lipid metabolism. Compared with HFCD, leucine supplementation lowered weight gain and TC levels in circulation and the liver without changing energy intake. The decrease in body fat was supported by histological examination in the WAT and liver. Furthermore, serum levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were significantly decreased by supplemented leucine. At the protein level, leucine potently decreased the hepatic lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase) and corresponding upstream proteins. In epididymal WAT, the reduced expression levels of two major lipases by HFCD, namely phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, were reversed when leucine was supplemented. Uncoupling protein 1, β3 adrenergic receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator-1α, and fibroblast growth factor 21 were involved in the thermogenic program and WAT browning. Leucine additionally upregulated their protein expression in both WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue. Conclusion This study demonstrated that chronic leucine supplementation reduced the body weight and improved the lipid profile of

  10. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid improves viability of artificial RBCs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Hee; Yoon, Kang Jun; Lim, Key-Hwan; Um, Yun Jung; Cho, Jin Gu; Jo, Young Joon; Park, Sang Gyu

    2016-09-30

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known to prevent apoptosis through the Bax pathway and to promote neovascularization by enhancing the mobilization of stem cells, their differentiation. This study was performed to investigate the effect of TUDCA on erythropoiesis in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Since erythropoiesis of CD34(+) HSCs is divided into four phases, the total cell number, viable cell number, cell viability, cell morphology, and expressed erythroid markers in each phase were examined. The number of viable control cells and their viability did not differ from those of the TUDCA-treated cells in phase I and II. However, TUDCA increased cell viability compared to the control in phases III and IV. Cell distribution differed that the immature erythroid cell number was higher for the TUDCA-treated cells than for the control cells until phase III, but all developed into RBCs in the last. The final RBC number and viability was significantly higher in TUDCA-treated cells compared to the control cells. Taken together, we suggest that TUDCA addition to cell cultures for artificial RBC production could be used as a new protocol for improving the viability of RBCs. PMID:27596970

  11. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid improves viability of artificial RBCs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Hee; Yoon, Kang Jun; Lim, Key-Hwan; Um, Yun Jung; Cho, Jin Gu; Jo, Young Joon; Park, Sang Gyu

    2016-09-30

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known to prevent apoptosis through the Bax pathway and to promote neovascularization by enhancing the mobilization of stem cells, their differentiation. This study was performed to investigate the effect of TUDCA on erythropoiesis in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Since erythropoiesis of CD34(+) HSCs is divided into four phases, the total cell number, viable cell number, cell viability, cell morphology, and expressed erythroid markers in each phase were examined. The number of viable control cells and their viability did not differ from those of the TUDCA-treated cells in phase I and II. However, TUDCA increased cell viability compared to the control in phases III and IV. Cell distribution differed that the immature erythroid cell number was higher for the TUDCA-treated cells than for the control cells until phase III, but all developed into RBCs in the last. The final RBC number and viability was significantly higher in TUDCA-treated cells compared to the control cells. Taken together, we suggest that TUDCA addition to cell cultures for artificial RBC production could be used as a new protocol for improving the viability of RBCs.

  12. The clinical benefits of long-term supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in cystic fibrosis patients - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanssens, L; Thiébaut, I; Lefèvre, N; Malfroot, A; Knoop, C; Duchateau, J; Casimir, G

    2016-05-01

    Effectiveness of omega-3 supplementation in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains controversial. This study sought to evaluate clinical status, exercise tolerance, inflammatory parameters, and erythrocyte fatty acid profile after 1 year of oral omega-3 supplementation in CF patients. Fifteen ΔF508-homozygous patients undergoing chronic azithromycin were randomized to receive omega-3 fish oil supplementation at a dose of 60mg/Kg/day or placebo. In comparison with the previous year, in the supplemented group, the number of pulmonary exacerbations decreased at 12 months (1.7 vs. 3.0, p<0.01), as did the duration of antibiotic therapy (26.5 days vs. 60.0 days, p<0.025). Supplementation significantly increased the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as early as <3 months of administration, with concomitant decreases in arachidonic acid (AA) levels. This pilot study suggests that long-term omega-3 supplementation offers several clinical benefits as to the number of exacerbations and duration of antibiotic therapy in CF patients.

  13. Application of retinoic acid improves form and function of tissue engineered corneal construct.

    PubMed

    Abidin, Fadhilah Z; Gouveia, Ricardo M; Connon, Che J

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid has recently been shown to control the phenotype and extracellular matrix composition of corneal stromal cells cultured in vitro as monolayers. This study set out to investigate the effects of retinoic acid on human corneal keratocytes within a 3D environment. Human corneal keratocytes were encapsulated in collagen gels, which were subsequently compressed under load, and cultured in serum-free media supplemented with 10 µM retinoic acid or DMSO vehicle for 30 days. Cell proliferation was quantified on selected days, while the expression of several important keratocytes markers was evaluated at day 30 using RT-PCR and immunoblotting. The weight and size of the collagen constructs were measured before and after hydration and contraction analyses. Retinoic acid enhanced keratocyte proliferation until day 30, whereas cells in control culture conditions showed reduced numbers after day 21. Both gene and protein expressions of keratocyte-characteristic proteoglycans (keratocan, lumican and decorin), corneal crystallins and collagen type I and V were significantly increased following retinoic acid supplementation. Retinoic acid also significantly reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteases 1, 3 and 9 while not increasing α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin expression. Furthermore, these effects were also correlated with the ability of retinoic acid to significantly inhibit the contractility of keratocytes while allowing the build-up of corneal stromal extracellular matrix within the 3D constructs. Thus, retinoic acid supplementation represents a promising strategy to improve the phenotype of 3D-cultured keratocytes, and their usefulness as a model of corneal stroma for corneal biology and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:26496651

  14. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P < .05) 28- and 70-d ADG and DMI and increased (P < .05) 28-d efficiency (kg of gain/100 kg of feed). Replacing urea with CB did not improve (P > .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P < .05) 28-d efficiency. The growth rate of steers at 28 and 70 d was correlated to a greater degree with ME intake (r2 = .83 and .85, respectively) rather than MAA supply, suggesting that the MAA supply was not first-limiting for growth. The source of supplemental protein fed during d 0 through 70 had no effect (P > .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P < .05) 175-d ADG compared with feeding urea, SP, or CB. Increasing supplemental true protein tended to linearly increase ADG and DMI at 28 and 70 d, but overall, ADG, DMI, and efficiency were not affected (P

  15. Teachers' Perspectives of Ways to Improve an Elementary School's Supplemental Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, JoAnn M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve students' reading abilities, an elementary school staff decided to supplement the regular curriculum with a free Internet reading program. To promote student participation in the supplemental program, the media specialist designed the Gumball Reading Program, which included student requirements and rewards. The requirements…

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids in the gravid pig uterus as affected by maternal supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Brazle, A E; Johnson, B J; Webel, S K; Rathbun, T J; Davis, D L

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of maternal fatty acid supplementation to alter conceptus and endometrial fatty acid composition. In Exp. 1, treatments were 1) the control, a corn-soybean meal diet; 2) flax, the control diet plus ground flax (3.75% of diet); and 3) protected fatty acids (PFA), the control plus a protected fish oil source rich in n-3 PUFA (Gromega, JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN; 1.5% of diet). Supplements replaced equal parts of corn and soybean meal. When gilts reached 170 d of age, PG600 (PMSG and hCG, Intervet USA, Millsboro, DE) was injected to induce puberty, and dietary treatments (n = 8/treatment) were initiated. When detected in estrus, gilts were artificially inseminated. On d 40 to 43 of gestation, 7 gilts in the control treatment, 8 gilts in the PFA treatment, and 5 gilts in the flax treatment were pregnant and were slaughtered. Compared with the control treatment, the flax treatment tended to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5n-3) in fetuses (0.14 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/g of dry tissue; P = 0.055), whereas gilts receiving PFA had more (P < 0.05) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6n-3) in their fetuses (5.23 vs. 4.04 +/- 0.078 mg/g) compared with gilts fed the control diet. Both the flax and PFA diets increased (P < 0.05) DHA (0.60, 0.82, and 0.85 +/- 0.078 mg/g for the control, flax, and PFA diet, respectively) in the chorioallantois. In the endometrium, EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3) were increased by the flax diet (P < 0.001; P < 0.05), whereas gilts receiving PFA had increased DHA (P < 0.001). The flax diet selectively increased EPA, and the PFA diet selectively increased DHA in the fetus and endometrium. In Exp. 2, gilts were fed diets containing PFA (1.5%) or a control diet beginning at approximately 170 of age (n = 13/treatment). A blood sample was collected after 30 d of treatment, and gilts were artificially inseminated when they were approximately 205 d old. Conceptus and endometrial samples were collected on

  17. Dietary supplementation with tributyrin alleviates intestinal injury in piglets challenged with intrarectal administration of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Chen, Xing; Wang, Qingjing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Yin, Yulong; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-05-28

    Tributyrin (TBU) is a good dietary source of butyrate and has beneficial effects on the maintenance of normal intestinal morphology. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary TBU supplementation could alleviate intestinal injury in the acetic acid (ACA)-induced porcine model of colitis. A total of eighteen piglets (25 d old) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups (control, ACA and TBU). The control and ACA groups were fed a basal diet and the TBU group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0·1 % TBU. On day 15 of the trial, under anaesthesia, a soft catheter was inserted into the rectum of piglets (20-25 cm from the anus), followed by administration of either saline (control group) or ACA (10 ml of 10 % ACA solution for ACA and TBU groups). On day 22 of the trial, after venous blood samples were collected, piglets were killed to obtain mid-ileum and mid-colon mucosae. Compared with the control group, the ACA group exhibited an increase (P< 0·05) in lymphocyte counts, creatinine, PGE2, and malondialdehyde concentrations and diamine oxidase and inducible NO synthase activities in the plasma and lymphocyte density in the colon and a decrease in insulin concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity, ileal villus height:crypt depth ratios and goblet cell numbers in the colon. These adverse effects of ACA were attenuated by TBU supplementation. Moreover, TBU prevented the ACA-induced increase in caspase-3 levels while enhancing claudin-1 protein and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0·1 % TBU alleviates ACA-induced intestinal injury possibly by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting tight-junction formation and activating EGFR signalling. PMID:24506942

  18. A Review of Clinical Trials Conducted With Oral, Multicomponent Dietary Supplements for Improving Photoaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Jay; Le Moigne, Anne; Dispensa, Lisa; Buchner, Larry

    2015-12-01

    Although the FDA does not require documentation of efficacy of dietary supplements, prospective clinical studies, including randomized controlled trials, have been conducted with individual micronutrients alone and in combination with other ingredients for promoting skin health. Proposed mechanisms include antioxidation, anti-inflammation, photoprotection, collagen formation, reductions in matrix metalloproteinases, and other effects on photoaging. Literature searches were conducted to identify clinical trials assessing multicomponent dietary supplement formulations on photoaging outcomes. Sixteen studies of various nutrient and non-nutrient ingredients, including essential micronutrients (vitamins, minerals), plant extracts (polyphenols, carotenoids), and marine- or animal-derived ingredients, were identified. Studies were single center, 2-12 months in duration, primarily enrolled women, and evaluated numerous outcomes, including investigator/subject assessments and instrumental/objective measures. Methods to control for potential confounders were implemented in some studies, including limiting sun exposure, cosmetic procedures, and changes in dietary habits/body weight. Given the range of different products, clinical/methodologic heterogeneity, insufficient detail in reporting, and lack of comparable outcome measures, quantitative analysis of results was not possible. Results of individual studies revealed significant improvements from baseline for the dietary supplement group(s) on ≥ 1 endpoint across all studies; significant differences from placebo were observed in 7 of 12 controlled studies (although only 1 study designated a prospectively defined primary endpoint). Most products had only been tested in 1 study; confirmatory studies were rarely conducted per the publicly available literature. Meaningful assessment of dietary supplements, which typically contain nutrients found in the diet, requires unique methodologic considerations and endpoints

  19. A Review of Clinical Trials Conducted With Oral, Multicomponent Dietary Supplements for Improving Photoaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Jay; Le Moigne, Anne; Dispensa, Lisa; Buchner, Larry

    2015-12-01

    Although the FDA does not require documentation of efficacy of dietary supplements, prospective clinical studies, including randomized controlled trials, have been conducted with individual micronutrients alone and in combination with other ingredients for promoting skin health. Proposed mechanisms include antioxidation, anti-inflammation, photoprotection, collagen formation, reductions in matrix metalloproteinases, and other effects on photoaging. Literature searches were conducted to identify clinical trials assessing multicomponent dietary supplement formulations on photoaging outcomes. Sixteen studies of various nutrient and non-nutrient ingredients, including essential micronutrients (vitamins, minerals), plant extracts (polyphenols, carotenoids), and marine- or animal-derived ingredients, were identified. Studies were single center, 2-12 months in duration, primarily enrolled women, and evaluated numerous outcomes, including investigator/subject assessments and instrumental/objective measures. Methods to control for potential confounders were implemented in some studies, including limiting sun exposure, cosmetic procedures, and changes in dietary habits/body weight. Given the range of different products, clinical/methodologic heterogeneity, insufficient detail in reporting, and lack of comparable outcome measures, quantitative analysis of results was not possible. Results of individual studies revealed significant improvements from baseline for the dietary supplement group(s) on ≥ 1 endpoint across all studies; significant differences from placebo were observed in 7 of 12 controlled studies (although only 1 study designated a prospectively defined primary endpoint). Most products had only been tested in 1 study; confirmatory studies were rarely conducted per the publicly available literature. Meaningful assessment of dietary supplements, which typically contain nutrients found in the diet, requires unique methodologic considerations and endpoints

  20. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27315139

  2. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  3. Effects of erucic acid supplemented feeding on chronic doxorubucin toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bozcali, Evin; Süzer, Öner; Gürsoy, Hatice Nilüfer; Atukeren, Pinar; Gümüstas, Koray M

    2009-01-01

    One of the undesired complications of the chemotherapy with doxorubicin is cardiotoxicity. Cardiac effect of erucic acid, which is a member of omega-9 fatty acid, is investigated on doxorubicin treatment in this study. Forty-eight rats were divided into eight groups and each group contained six rats. First group rats were fed with milk. In the third and fifth groups we fed rats with milk supplemented 0.5% and 5% erucic acid respectively. The groups 2, 4, 6 were fed as the groups 1, 3, 5 respectively; we injected 2 mg/kg twice weekly intraperitoneal doxorubicin to these groups whereas we injected isovolumous normal saline to the groups 1, 3, 5. Two other groups (groups 7 and 8) were fed with standard pellet. Group 8 received 2 mg/kg doxorubicin twice weekly; group 7 received normal saline. After 4 weeks hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus perfused by modified Tyrode solution. Surviving rats were significantly less in erucic acid + doxorubicin groups at the end of the treatment period (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between groups for malondialdehyde, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and isolated heart measurements. Concomitant application of erucic acid and doxorubicin showed profound toxicity. PMID:20057977

  4. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-09-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.

  5. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens.

  6. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  7. The influence of folic acid supplementation on maternal and fetal bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Maghbooli, Zhila; Najmafshar, Azam; Larijani, Bagher

    2011-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and fetal bone turnover markers and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. In an observational study performed in Tehran University of Medical Sciences related hospitals, 113 healthy pregnant women with gestational age between 8 and 12 weeks and aged between 15 and 42 years were recruited and followed until delivery time. The participants were divided into two groups; women who took 1 mg of folic acid daily supplement from the beginning of the pregnancy until the end of the second trimester entered into group I and women who choose to continue their daily intake of folic acid until the delivery time entered into group II. The two groups were matched based on the maternal anthropometric data, energy, calcium and vitamin D intake. Following the delivery, venous blood samples were collected from mothers and umbilical cords of the neonates. Maternal and fetal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, PTH, osteocalcin (OC), crosslaps and maternal serum level of homocysteine, folate, soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (sRANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), calcium, and phosphate were measured. Measured birth outcome parameters included weight, length, head circumference, appearance, and respiration. With regard to maternal assessment, the serum levels of OC and OPG and folate were significantly higher in group II compared to group I, while the serum levels of RANKL and homocysteine were significantly higher in group I. We did not find significant differences in serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D, PTH, crosslaps, calcium, or phosphate between the two groups. The neonates from mothers recruited in group II had higher (but not significantly) serum level of OC. We observed that the neonates born from mothers in group II had overall better birth outcome parameters and apgar scores compare to the neonates born from mothers in group I. Our results show that daily supplementation of folic

  8. Metabolism and related human risk factors for hepatic damage by usnic acid containing nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Foti, R S; Dickmann, L J; Davis, J A; Greene, R J; Hill, J J; Howard, M L; Pearson, J T; Rock, D A; Tay, J C; Wahlstrom, J L; Slatter, J G

    2008-03-01

    Usnic acid is a component of nutritional supplements promoted for weight loss that have been associated with liver-related adverse events including mild hepatic toxicity, chemical hepatitis, and liver failure requiring transplant. To determine if metabolism factors might have had a role in defining individual susceptibility to hepatotoxicity, in vitro metabolism studies were undertaken using human plasma, hepatocytes, and liver subcellular fractions. Usnic acid was metabolized to form three monohydroxylated metabolites and two regio-isomeric glucuronide conjugates of the parent drug. Oxidative metabolism was mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and glucuronidation was carried out by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and UGT1A3. In human hepatocytes, usnic acid at 20 microM was not an inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A4 relative to positive controls omeprazole, phenobarbital, and rifampicin, respectively. Usnic acid was a relatively weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 and a potent inhibitor of CYP2C19 (the concentration eliciting 50% inhibition (IC(50)) = 9 nM) and CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 94 nM), with less potent inhibition of CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 1.9 microM) and CYP2C18 (IC(50) = 6.3 microM). Pre-incubation of microsomes with usnic acid did not afford any evidence of time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C19, although evidence of slight time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 (K(I) = 2.79 microM and K(inact) = 0.022 min(-1)) was obtained. In vitro data were used with SimCYP(R)to model potential drug interactions. Based on usnic acid doses in case reports of 450 mg to >1 g day(-1), these in vitro data indicate that usnic acid has significant potential to interact with other medications. Individual characteristics such as CYP1A induction status, co-administration of CYP1A2 inhibitors, UGT1A1 polymorphisms, and related hyperbilirubinaemias, or co-administration of low therapeutic index CYP2C substrates could work alone or in consort with other idiosyncrasy risk factors to

  9. Maternal dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation attenuates fetal growth restriction and enhances pulmonary function in a newborn mouse model of perinatal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Velten, Markus; Britt, Rodney D; Heyob, Kathryn M; Tipple, Trent E; Rogers, Lynette K

    2014-03-01

    The preterm infant is often exposed to maternal and neonatal inflammatory stimuli and is born with immature lungs, resulting in a need for oxygen therapy. Nutritional intervention with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 6.3 g/kg of diet) has been shown to attenuate inflammation in various human diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that maternal DHA supplementation during late gestation and lactation attenuated hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mouse pups. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation to the dam would reduce hyperoxic lung injury and growth deficits in a more severe model of systemic maternal inflammation, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neonatal hyperoxia exposure. On embryonic day 16, dams were placed on DHA (6.3 g DHA/kg diet) or control diets and injected with saline or LPS. Diets were maintained through weaning. At birth, pups were placed in room air or hyperoxia for 14 d. Improvements in birth weight (P < 0.01), alveolarization (P ≤ 0.01), and pulmonary function (P ≤ 0.03) at 2 and 8 wk of age were observed in pups exposed to perinatal inflammation and born to DHA-supplemented dams compared with control diet-exposed pups. These improvements were associated with decreases in tissue macrophage numbers (P < 0.01), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression (P ≤ 0.05), and decreases in soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products concentrations (P < 0.01) at 2 and 8 wk. Furthermore, DHA supplementation attenuated pulmonary fibrosis, which was associated with the reduction of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 8 (P ≤ 0.03) and collagen mRNA (P ≤ 0.05), and decreased collagen (P < 0.01) and vimentin (P ≤ 0.03) protein concentrations. In a model of severe inflammation, maternal DHA supplementation lessened inflammation and improved lung growth in the offspring. Maternal supplementation with DHA may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce neonatal inflammation.

  10. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p < 0.05). The daily output of these vitamins via milk was also greater in cows of the CLA group than in cows of the control group (+36, 50 and 24% for retinol, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p < 0.05). In agreement with higher concentrations of tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Demin; Li, Hongji; Zhou, Bo; Han, Liqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Guoqing

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  12. Folic Acid Supplementation Mitigates Alzheimer's Disease by Reducing Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shuai; Ji, Lu; Wu, Tianfeng; Ji, Yong; Zhou, Yuying; Zhang, Meilin; Xu, Weili; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Low serum folate levels can alter inflammatory reactions. Both phenomena have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of folic acid on AD itself is unclear. We quantified folate supplementation's effect on inflammation and cognitive function in patients with AD over the course of 6 months. Methods. Patients newly diagnosed with AD (age > 60 years; n = 121; mild to severe; international criteria) and being treated with donepezil were randomly assigned into two groups with (intervention group) or without (control group) supplemental treatment with folic acid (1.25 mg/d) for 6 months. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered to all patients at baseline and follow-up, and blood samples were taken before and after treatment. We quantified serum folate, amyloid beta (Aβ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), plasma homocysteine (Hcy), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and the mRNA levels of presenilin (PS), IL-6, and TNFα in leukocytes. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures mixed model. Results. The mean MMSE was slightly increased in the intervention group compared to that in the control group (P < 0.05). Posttreatment, plasma SAM and SAM/SAH levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05), while Aβ40, PS1-mRNA, and TNFα-mRNA levels were lower in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was also higher in the intervention group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Folic acid is beneficial in patients with AD. Inflammation may play an important role in the interaction between folic acid and AD. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003246. PMID:27340344

  13. Retinol kinetics in unsupplemented and vitamin A-retinoic acid supplemented neonatal rats: a preliminary model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Libo; Wray, Amanda E.; Green, Michael H.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) metabolism in neonates is virtually uncharacterized. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model of VA metabolism in unsupplemented and VA-supplemented neonatal rats. On postnatal day 4, pups (n = 3/time) received 11,12-[3H]retinol orally, in either oil (control) or VA combined with retinoic acid (VARA) [VA (∼6 mg/kg body weight) + 10% retinoic acid]. Plasma and tissues were collected at 14 time points up to 14 days after dose administration. VARA supplementation rapidly, but transiently, increased total retinol mass in plasma, liver, and lung. It decreased the peak fraction of the dose in plasma. A multi-compartmental model developed to fit plasma [3H]retinol data predicted more extensive recycling of retinol between plasma and tissues in neonates compared with that reported in adults (144 vs. 12–13 times). In VARA pups, the recycling number for retinol between plasma and tissues (100 times) and the time that retinol spent in plasma were both lower compared with controls; VARA also stimulated the uptake of plasma VA into extravascular tissues. A VARA perturbation model indicated that the effect of VARA in stimulating VA uptake into tissues in neonates is both dramatic and transient. PMID:24711633

  14. An improved general amino acid replacement matrix.

    PubMed

    Le, Si Quang; Gascuel, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    Amino acid replacement matrices are an essential basis of protein phylogenetics. They are used to compute substitution probabilities along phylogeny branches and thus the likelihood of the data. They are also essential in protein alignment. A number of replacement matrices and methods to estimate these matrices from protein alignments have been proposed since the seminal work of Dayhoff et al. (1972). An important advance was achieved by Whelan and Goldman (2001) and their WAG matrix, thanks to an efficient maximum likelihood estimation approach that accounts for the phylogenies of sequences within each training alignment. We further refine this method by incorporating the variability of evolutionary rates across sites in the matrix estimation and using a much larger and diverse database than BRKALN, which was used to estimate WAG. To estimate our new matrix (called LG after the authors), we use an adaptation of the XRATE software and 3,912 alignments from Pfam, comprising approximately 50,000 sequences and approximately 6.5 million residues overall. To evaluate the LG performance, we use an independent sample consisting of 59 alignments from TreeBase and randomly divide Pfam alignments into 3,412 training and 500 test alignments. The comparison with WAG and JTT shows a clear likelihood improvement. With TreeBase, we find that 1) the average Akaike information criterion gain per site is 0.25 and 0.42, when compared with WAG and JTT, respectively; 2) LG is significantly better than WAG for 38 alignments (among 59), and significantly worse with 2 alignments only; and 3) tree topologies inferred with LG, WAG, and JTT frequently differ, indicating that using LG impacts not only the likelihood value but also the output tree. Results with the test alignments from Pfam are analogous. LG and a PHYML implementation can be downloaded from http://atgc.lirmm.fr/LG.

  15. Combined carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves competitive endurance exercise performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Andrew J; Murgatroyd, Scott R; McNab, Alison; Whyte, Laura J; Easton, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that adding protein (PRO) to a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement can improve thermoregulatory capacity, exercise performance and recovery. However, no study has investigated these effects in a competitive sporting context. This study assessed the effects of combined CHO-PRO supplementation on physiological responses and exercise performance during 8 days of strenuous competition in a hot environment. Twenty-eight cyclists participating in the TransAlp mountain bike race were randomly assigned to fitness-matched placebo (PLA 76 g L(-1) CHO) or CHO-PRO (18 g L(-1) PRO, 72 g L(-1) CHO) groups. Participants were given enough supplements to allow ad libitum consumption. Physiological and anthropometric variables were recorded pre- and post-exercise. Body mass decreased significantly from race stage 1 to 8 in the PLA group (-0.75 ± 0.22 kg, P = 0.01) but did not change in the CHO-PRO group (0.42 ± 0.42 kg, P = 0.35). Creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were substantially elevated during the race, but were not different between groups (P = 0.82, P = 0.44, respectively). Urine osmolality was significantly higher in the CHO-PRO versus the PLA group (P = 0.04) and the rise in tympanic temperature from pre- to post-exercise was significantly less in CHO-PRO versus PLA (P = 0.01). The CHO-PRO group also completed the 8 stages significantly quicker than the PLA group (2,277 ± 127 vs. 2,592 ± 68 min, respectively, P = 0.02). CHO-PRO supplementation therefore appears to prevent body mass loss, enhance thermoregulatory capacity and improve competitive exercise performance despite no effect on muscle damage.

  16. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese.

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season. PMID:27600962

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season.

  19. Improved Blood Biomarkers but No Cognitive Effects from 16 Weeks of Multivitamin Supplementation in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of multivitamin supplementation in older adults on cognitive function and associated blood biomarkers. In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy women (n = 68) and men (n = 48) aged 55–65 years were supplemented daily for 16 weeks with women’s and men’s formula multivitamin supplements. Assessments at baseline and post-supplementation included computerised cognitive tasks and blood biomarkers relevant to cognitive aging. No cognitive improvements were observed after supplementation with either formula; however, several significant improvements were observed in blood biomarkers including increased levels of vitamins B6 and B12 in women and men; reduced C-reactive protein in women; reduced homocysteine and marginally reduced oxidative stress in men; as well as improvements to the lipid profile in men. In healthy older people, multivitamin supplementation improved a number of blood biomarkers that are relevant to cognition, but these biomarker changes were not accompanied by improved cognitive function. PMID:25996285

  20. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Neural Substrates: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Pagani, Marco; Caporali, Paola; Galbusera, Alberto; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM) volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills), and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social) and emotional (anxiety and coping) abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study) C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy. PMID:26973513

  1. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Neural Substrates: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Pagani, Marco; Caporali, Paola; Galbusera, Alberto; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM) volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills), and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social) and emotional (anxiety and coping) abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study) C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy. PMID:26973513

  2. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  3. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-07

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  4. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  5. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    PubMed Central

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Several biological changes occur during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation which is associated with a high susceptibility of health disorders. Nicotinic acid, as feed additive, is suggested to balance catabolic metabolism of periparturient dairy cows by attenuating lipolysis and impact production performance. This study provides information of the biological changes occurring around parturition with special emphasis on differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Present results showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in dairy cows which were similar in body condition score. Nicotinic acid supplementation did not reveal any effect. Abstract The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of

  6. Commercially available folic acid supplements and their compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia test for dissolution.

    PubMed

    Sculthorpe, N F; Davies, B; Ashton, T; Allison, S; McGuire, D N; Malhi, J S

    2001-09-01

    A recent report suggested that some folic acid preparations available in the United States failed to meet the specifications for dissolution specified by the US Pharmacopoeia (USP), of 70 per cent drug release in the first hour of testing. The Teratology Society recommends that women of childbearing age should take a daily supplement of 400 microg folic acid when they are trying to conceive, to reduce the risk of foetal neural tube defects. The consequence of this failure to meet the USP requirements may be that an inadequate dose of folate may be absorbed and thus the expected level of protection against neural tube defects not afforded. The purpose of the present study was to examine a number of brands of folic acid (400 microg), available commercially in the United Kingdom, for compliance with the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) test for dissolution. Ten tablets (or capsules) from each of 11 brands were tested using dissolution apparatus compliant with BP requirements, using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide as the dissolution medium. The results indicated that four of the brands failed to release 70 per cent of the nominal drug content in the first hour of test and thus did not comply with the test. Two of the seven brands that passed the test went on to release more than 150 per cent of the nominal 400 microg drug content. These results highlight the problems of dose uniformity and the potential health risks of slow dissolution and under-dosing in commercially available folic acid dosage forms.

  7. Folate nutrigenetics: a convergence of dietary folate metabolism, folic acid supplementation, and folate antagonist pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Meshkin, Brian; Blum, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Folate (Vitamin B9, Folic acid, folinic acid, folacin, pteroyglutamic acid) is essential for life-sustaining processes of DNA synthesis, replication, and repair which are naturally present in common foods such as peas, oranges, broccoli, and whole-wheat products. Folate levels have been associated with birth defects, cardiovascular disease, and many other important healthcare issues, which has resulted in government-mandated food fortification to deliver minimum levels of intake. Despite this one-size-fits-all recommendation by governmental regulatory bodies, studies suggest that a genetic predisposition may exist within as much as 67% (combining both the CT and TT alleles) of the population that causes a metabolic folate deficiency. Thus, genetic factors may play an important role in folate levels and metabolism. A substantial body of scientific evidence supports the importance of folate, genes associated with folate, genes associated with anti-folate therapeutics, and thereby a convergence in nutritional genetics or nutrigenetics. This review will comment on the substantial body of scientific evidence demonstrating the relevance for nutrigenetic measurements to guide dietary folate intake and nutritional supplementation with folic acid.

  8. Amelioration of sodium valproate-induced neural tube defects in mouse fetuses by maternal folic acid supplementation during gestation.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, R; Shafiullah, M Mohamed

    2003-03-01

    Infants of epileptic women treated with valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy have a higher risk of developing spina bifida than those of the general population. VPA induces exencephaly in experimental animal embryos. But the pathogenetic mechanism remains rather elusive. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) in general accentuate pregnancy-imposed fall in maternal folate levels. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is reported to protect embryos from developing neural tube defects (NTD). Conflicting results have been reported by experimental studies that attempted to alleviate VPA-induced NTD by folic acid. Our objectives were to determine the critical developmental stages and an effective dose of folic acid for the prevention of VPA-induced exencephaly in mouse fetuses. A single teratogenic dose of 400 mg/kg of VPA was administered to TO mice on gestation day (GD) 7 or 8. It was followed by (1) a single dose of 12 mg/kg of FA (folinic acid) or (2) 3 doses of FA 4 mg/kg each. In experiment (3), FA (4 mg/kg) was administered thrice daily starting on GD 5 and continued through GD 10. These animals received VPA on GD 7 or 8. VPA and B12 concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The single heavy dose of FA had no rescue effect on NTD. Three divided doses of FA on GD 7 and continuous dosing of FA from GD 5 through GD 10 substantially reduced the VPA-induced exencephaly in the fetuses. In the later experiments, the neural folds elevated faster than the non-supplemented group. VPA considerably reduced maternal plasma folate and B12 concentrations. The heavy dose of FA only moderately improved vitamin levels. Three divided doses of FA elevated the vitamin levels slightly better but it was the prolonged dosing of FA that was associated with sustained elevation of plasma levels higher than the control levels and acceleration of neural tube closure thus accounting for the pronounced protection against VPA-induced NTD development. These data suggest that plasma levels of

  9. Effects of Chromium Methionine Supplementation on Blood Metabolites and Fatty Acid Profile of Beef during Late Fattening Period in Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Byong-Wan; Ohh, Sang-Jip; Sung, Kyung Il

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) chelate supplementation on blood metabolites and fatty acid profile of beef from Holstein steers during late fattening period. Fifteen Holstein steers were allotted randomly into two groups including the control (non Cr-Met feeding, NCM, ave. body weight [BW] = 483±25.7 kg) and the treatment (Cr-Met feeding for 4 months, 4CM, ave. BW = 486±27.5 kg) group. The feeding amount of Cr-Met to animals was limited to 400 ppb/cow/d and was supplemented to total mixed ration. No difference in blood albumin, alkaline phosphatase, urea-nitrogen, calcium, creatine, glucose, total protein, triglyceride, and cholesterol were observed between the treatment groups (p>0.05). The level of high density lipoprotein was higher in the 4CM group than the NCM group, whereas low density lipoprotein was lower in the 4CM group (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition (caprate, laurate, myristate, pentadecanoate, palmitate, palmitoleate, margarate, cis-11 heptadodecanoate, stearate, oleate, trans-vaccenate, linoleate, cis-11 eicosenoate, docosa hexaenoic acid, and docosa pentaenoic acid) of the beef showed no difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The arachidonic acid level tended to be higher in the 4CM than the NCM group (p = 0.07). Cr-Met had no influence (p>0.05) on the ratio of saturated, unsaturated, unsaturated/saturated, monounsaturated/saturated and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids whereas the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the 4CM group was comparatively higher than the NCM group (p<0.05). This study concluded that feeding Cr-Met supplementation in 400 ppb/d to Holstein steers for 4 months during late fattening period can improve some blood metabolites and beef quality by increasing PUFA and gamma-linoleate compositions of beef. PMID:26950869

  10. Folic Acid Supplementation Ameliorates Oxidative Stress, Metabolic Functions and Developmental Anomalies in a Novel Fly Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Saurabh; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Yadav, Amarish Kumar; Srikrishna, Saripella

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in parkin cause early-onset Parkinson's disease. Studies involving Drosophila model have emphasised mitochondrial dysfunction as a critical event in disease pathogenesis. In this context, we employed a novel recessive allele of parkin, park (c00062) , for the current study. The piggyBac insertion at 3rd intron of parkin in park (c00062) was confirmed by PCR. Homozygous park (c00062) has diminished levels of truncated parkin transcript with no detectable protein as confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The homozygous park (c00062) displayed severe developmental anomalies involving reduced body size, ~45 % pupal lethality, high mortality with locomotory defect, elevated oxidative stress, low metabolic active cell status with low mitochondrial respiration as reflected from reduced ATP levels. Further, folic acid therapeutic potential was analysed in park (c00062) . Here we show that dietary folic acid provided protection against disparities involving pupal lethality, high mortality, locomotory defect, elevated oxidative stress and low metabolic active cell status associated with park (c00062) . Further mitochondrial respiration was enhanced as reflected from improved ATP levels in folate supplemented park (c00062) . To corroborate mitochondrial functioning further our analysis regarding transcript status of p53 and spargel by qRT-PCR, revealed down regulation of p53 and up regulation of spargel in folate supplemented park (c00062) , which was originally vice a versa. Our data thus support the potential of FA in alleviating the disparities associated with parkin loss of function in fly model. Further, FA role in alleviating mitochondrial dysfunction is encouraging to further explore FA mechanistic role to be utilized as potential therapeutics for parkin mediated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25963948

  11. Nutritional Supplementation with Essential Amino Acids and Phytosterols May Reduce Risk for Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease in Overweight Individuals with Mild Hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Robert H.; Deutz, Nicolaas E.; Schutzler, Scott; Beggs, Marjorie; Miller, Sharon; Wolfe, Robert R.; Wei, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance are risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. We have previously observed that supplementation with essential amino acids (EAA) could lower plasma triglycerides, and may improve glucose metabolism. Objective We sought to determine whether EAA’s combined with whey protein and phytosterols would facilitate improvements in plasma lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild hypertriglyceridemia. Design We enrolled nine subjects who were 50 years or older, had a documented plasma TG >150 mg/dl, and had not recently taken statin medications (within 6 weeks). Each subject served as his or her own control. These individuals underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after four weeks consumption of the oral nutritional supplement without dietary counseling or recommendations for physical activity. Results Plasma total cholesterol and LDL levels decreased in all nine volunteers (P<0.005 for cholesterol and P<0.02 for LDL). In six of these individuals, plasma triglycerides (TG) fell by 95±13 mg/dl (P=0.007); while the other three showed no TG reduction. Genotyping revealed that in two of the three individuals that did not have TG reduction in response to the nutritional supplementation. Insulin sensitivity (ISI) and the total AUCins/glucose were significantly reduced by leucine/EAAs and phytosterol supplementation (P=0.008). Conclusions These findings suggest that a dietary supplementation of EAAs and phytosterols may promote favorable reductions of blood lipids as well as insulin resistance in individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. Future larger studies of SNPs and TG response to dietary supplements will be of interest. PMID:26726312

  12. Fucoidan Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Exhibits Anti-Fatigue Action in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Wei, Li; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Fucoidan (FCD) is a well-known bioactive constituent of seaweed extract that possess a wide spectrum of activities in biological systems, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and modulation of immune systems. However, evidence on the effects of FCD on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. Therefore, we investigated the potential beneficial effects of FCD on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from three groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered FCD for 21 days at 0, 310 and 620 mg/kg/day, which were, respectively, designated the vehicle, FCD-1X and FCD-2X groups. The results indicated that the FCD supplementations increased the grip strength (p = 0.0002) and endurance swimming time (p = 0.0195) in a dose-depend manner. FCD treatments also produced dose-dependent decreases in serum levels of lactate (p < 0.0001) and ammonia (p = 0.0025), and also an increase in glucose level (p < 0.0001) after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, FCD supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. Therefore, we suggest that long-term supplementation with FCD can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue. PMID:25558908

  13. Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Wang, Ming-Fu; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotics (i.e., ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects for the host). However, few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10) supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) strain mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for oral administration of LP10 for six weeks at 0, 2.05 × 108, or 1.03 × 109 colony-forming units/kg/day, designated the vehicle, LP10-1X and LP10-5X groups, respectively. LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001) and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (p = 0.0118), and glucose (p = 0.0151) after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects. PMID:27070637

  14. Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Wang, Ming-Fu; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotics (i.e., ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects for the host). However, few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10) supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) strain mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for oral administration of LP10 for six weeks at 0, 2.05 × 10⁸, or 1.03 × 10⁹ colony-forming units/kg/day, designated the vehicle, LP10-1X and LP10-5X groups, respectively. LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001) and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (p = 0.0118), and glucose (p = 0.0151) after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects. PMID:27070637

  15. Bacterially synthesized folate and supplemental folic acid are absorbed across the large intestine of piglets.

    PubMed

    Asrar, Farhan M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2005-10-01

    A large pool of folate exists in the large intestine of humans. Preliminary evidence, primarily in vitro, suggests that this folate may be bioavailable. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that supplemental folic acid and bacterially synthesized folate are absorbed across the large intestine of piglets. The pig was used as an animal model because it resembles the human in terms of folate absorption, at least in the small intestine. A tracer of [3H]-folic acid or [3H]-para-aminobenzoic acid ([3H]-PABA), a precursor of bacterially synthesized folate, was injected into the cecum of 11-day-old piglets. Feces and urine were collected for 3 days. Thereafter, piglets were killed, and livers and kidneys harvested. [3H]-Folate was isolated from biological samples by affinity chromatography using immobilized milk folate binding proteins and counted using a scintillation counter. In piglets injected with [3H]-folic acid, the feces, liver, urine and kidneys accounted for 82.1%, 12.3%, 3.9% and 1.7% of recovered [3H]-folate, respectively. In piglets injected with [3H]-PABA, the amount of recovered bacterially synthesized folate in the feces, liver and urine was 85.1%, 0.4% and 14.6%, respectively. Twenty-three percent and 13% of tritium were recovered in samples examined (liver, kidney, fecal and urine) from piglets injected with [3H]-folic acid and [3H]-PABA, respectively. Using our estimates of [3H]-folic acid absorption and the total and percent monoglutamyl folate content of piglet feces, we predict that at least 18% of the dietary folate requirement for the piglet could be met by folate absorption across the large intestine.

  16. Molecular analysis of microbial community structure in the chicken ileum following organic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Nava, Gerardo M; Attene-Ramos, Matias S; Gaskins, H Rex; Richards, James D

    2009-06-12

    To compensate for possible decreases in animal production due to restrictions on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters, several non-antibiotic alternatives have been investigated. Organic acid supplementation (OAS) of feed or water has shown some promising results for affecting intestinal microbiota and reducing pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, few studies have explored the effects of OAS on microbial communities using objective molecular-based techniques. The aim of the present study was to characterize via 16S rRNA gene-based approaches responses of the intestinal microbiota after OAS in chicks. Newborn chicks were randomly divided in four treatments: (a) control (no antibiotic, no OAS); (b) antibiotic administration (bacitracin MD); (c) organic acid blend dl-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio) butanoic acid [HMTBA]; lactic, and phosphoric acid (HLP); and (d) organic acid blend HMTBA, formic, and propionic acid (HFP). Ileal contents and mucosal scrapings from 7 chicks/treatment/day were taken at 15, 22, and 29 days of age, and genomic DNA was isolated for the molecular analysis of the intestinal microbiota. The data demonstrate that HFP blend treatment for 29 consecutive days affected ileal microbial populations as indicated by community fingerprinting analysis (16S rRNA PCR-DGGE). In parallel, total bacterial and lactobacilli populations were increased by the HFP blend treatment as demonstrated by targeted qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA. In summary, the present data demonstrate that OAS, HFP blend treatment in particular, shifts intestinal microbiota, generates more homogenous and distinct populations, and increases Lactobacillus spp. colonization of the chick ileum. PMID:19269115

  17. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  18. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  19. Curcumin supplementation improves mitochondrial and behavioral deficits in experimental model of chronic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Bal, Amanjit; Sandhir, Rajat

    2014-10-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of curcumin, a polyphenol with pleiotropic properties, on mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress and cognitive deficits in a kindled model of epilepsy. Kindled epilepsy was induced in rats by administering a sub-convulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 40 mg/kg body weight) every alternate day for 30 days. PTZ administered rats exhibited marked cognitive deficits assessed using active and passive avoidance tasks. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in NADH:cytochrome-c reductase (complex I) and cytochrome-c oxidase (complex IV) activities along with an increase in ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls. The levels of glutathione also decreased in the cortex and hippocampus. Electron micrographs revealed disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity with distorted cristae in PTZ treated animals. Histopathological examination showed pyknotic nuclei and cell loss in the hippocampus as well as in the cortex of PTZ treated animals. Curcumin administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o. throughout the treatment paradigm was able to ameliorate cognitive deficits with no significant effect on seizure score. Curcumin was able to restore the activity of mitochondrial complexes. In addition, significant reduction in ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls was observed in PTZ animals supplemented with curcumin. Moreover, glutathione levels were also restored in PTZ treated rats supplemented with curcumin. Curcumin protected mitochondria from seizure induced structural alterations. Further, the curcumin supplemented PTZ rats had normal cell morphology and reduced cell loss. These results suggest that curcumin supplementation has potential to prevent mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress with improved cognitive functions in a chronic model of epilepsy. PMID:25117510

  20. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on fetal heart rate and variability: A randomized clinical trial☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, K.M.; Carlson, S.E.; Colombo, J.; Yeh, H.-W.; Shaddy, D.J.; Li, S.; Kerling, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    DHA (22:6n-3) supplementation during infancy has been associated with lower heart rate (HR) and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. We hypothesized that maternal DHA supplementation would improve fetal cardiac autonomic control and newborn neurobehavior. Pregnant women were randomized to 600 mg/day of DHA or placebo oil capsules at 14.4 (+/−4) weeks gestation. Fetal HRand HRV were calculated from magnetocardiograms (MCGs) at 24, 32 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA). Newborn neurobehavior was assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Postpartum maternal and infant red blood cell (RBC) DHA was significantly higher in the supplemented group as were metrics of fetal HRV and newborn neurobehavior in the autonomic and motor clusters. Higher HRV is associated with more responsive and flexible autonomic nervous system (ANS). Coupled with findings of improved autonomic and motor behavior, these data suggest that maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy may impart an adaptive advantage to the fetus. PMID:23433688

  1. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by trace metal elements supplementation and reduced metals dosage by green chelating agent [S, S]-EDDS via improving metals bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of trace metals on methane production from food waste and examining the feasibility of reducing metals dosage by ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) via improving