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  1. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  2. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children.

  3. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

    PubMed

    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( < 0.01) NH emissions by 46% over the 107-d period (5.4 and 2.9 g · pig · d, respectively). Change in NH emissions for each percentage unit reduction in dietary CP concentration corresponded with 47.9, 53.2, 26.8, 26.5, and 51.6% during Phases 1 through 5, respectively. Emissions of other gases did not differ between diets. Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances.

  4. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice Lin Yan*, Lana C. DeMars The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in...

  5. Antioxidant supplementation can reduce the survival costs of excess amino acid intake in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Archer, C Ruth; Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Oosthuizen, Vinette; Apostolides, Zeno; Nicolson, Susan W

    2014-12-01

    Over-consuming amino acids is associated with reduced survival in many species, including honeybees. The mechanisms responsible for this are unclear but one possibility is that excessive intake of amino acids increases oxidative damage. If this is the case, antioxidant supplementation may help reduce the survival costs of high amino acid intake. We tested this hypothesis in African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) using the major antioxidant in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We first determined the dose-range of EGCG that improved survival of caged honeybees fed sucrose solution. We then provided bees with eight diets that differed in their ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to carbohydrate (C) (0:1, 1:250, 1:100, 1:75, 1:50, 1:25, 1:10, 1:5 EAA:C) and also in their EGCG dose (0.0 or 0.4 mM). We found that bees fed sucrose only solution survived better than bees fed EAA diets. Despite this, bees preferred a diet that contained intermediate ratios of EAA:C (ca. 1:25), which may represent the high demands for nitrogen of developing nurse bees. EGCG supplementation improved honeybee survival but only at an intermediate dose (0.3-0.5 mM) and in bees fed low EAA diets (1:250, 1:100 EAA:C). That EGCG counteracted the lifespan reducing effects of eating low EAA diets suggests that oxidative damage may be involved in the association between EAAs and lifespan in honeybees. However, that EGCG had no effect on survival in bees fed high EAA diets suggests that there are other physiological costs of over-consuming EAAs in honeybees.

  6. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  7. Therapeutic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Campylobacter jejuni in Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter causes human food-borne illness and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products to be a significant source of human infection. Reducing Campylobacter in the poultry intestinal tract would reduce contamination of poultry products. Caprylic acid, a medium chain fatt...

  8. Effect of feeding reduced protein, amino acid-supplemented diets on nitrogen and energy balance in grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Easter, R A

    1995-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding reduced CP, amino acid (AA)-supplemented diets on the nitrogen (N) and energy (E) balance of grower pigs. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows (22.2 kg BW) were fed corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diets containing either 16% CP, 12% CP, or 12% CP supplemented with lysine (LYS), tryptophan (TRP), and threonine (THR). After 6 d of adaptation to the diets and feeding frequency, a 5-d N and E balance trial was conducted. Supplementation of the 12% CP diet with LYS, TRP, and THR improved N retention ( P < .01) but failed to improve N retention to the level attained by pigs fed the 16% CP diet (P < .01). Efficiency of N retention was similar between pigs fed the AA-supplemented 12% CP diet and pigs fed the 16% CP diet (P > .10). Energy retention was increased by AA-supplementation of the 12% CP diet ( P < .10) to a level higher than that of pigs fed the 16% CP diet (P < .01). In Exp. 2, 60 barrows (21.7 kg BW) were fed one of the following diets: 16% CP; 12% CP diet supplemented with indispensable AA (IDAA) to simulate the 16% CP diet; 12% CP supplemented with LYS, TRP, THR, and dispensable AA N (DAAN); 12% CP supplemented with LYS, TRP, and THR; or a 12% CP negative control diet. After 6 d of adaptation to the diets and feeding frequency, a 5-d N and E balance trial was conducted. Nitrogen retention was improved (P < .01) by supplementing the 12% CP diet with LYS, TRP, and THR but remained inferior (P < .01) to that obtained when pigs were fed the other three diets. Pigs fed the 12% CP diet with LYS, TRP, THR, and DAAN supplementation retained less N (P < .07) than pigs fed the 16% CP but retained an amount similar (P > .10) to pigs fed the 12% CP diet with IDAA and DAAN supplementation. Pigs fed the 12% CP diet with LYS, TRP, and THR supplementation exhibited the highest efficiency of N retention (P < .01). Pigs fed the 12% CP diet supplemented with LYS, TRP, THR, and DAAN retained more (P < .01) E than pigs fed the 12% CP

  9. Folic acid supplementation improves cognitive function by reducing the levels of peripheral inflammatory cytokines in elderly Chinese subjects with MCI

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fei; Wu, Tianfeng; Zhao, Jiangang; Song, Aili; Liu, Huan; Xu, Weili; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether folic acid supplementation would improve cognitive performance by reducing serum inflammatory cytokine concentrations. This RCT was performed in Tianjin, China. Participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were randomly assigned to the folic acid (400 μg/day) or conventional treatment groups. Neuropsychological tests were administered, and folate, homocysteine, vitamin B12, IL-6, TNF-α, Aβ-42, and Aβ-40 were measured at baseline and at 6- and 12-month time points.152 participants (folic acid: 77, conventional: 75) completed the trial. Significant improvements in folate (ηp2 = 0.703, P = 0.011), homocysteine (ηp2 = 0.644, P = 0.009), Aβ-42 (ηp2 = 0.687, P = 0.013), peripheral IL-6 (ηp2 = 0.477, P = 0.025), TNF-α (ηp2 = 0.709, P = 0.009) levels were observed in folic acid group compared with conventional group. Folic acid supplementation improved the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P = 0.028; effect size d = 0.153), Information (P = 0.031; d = 0.157) and Digit Span (P = 0.009; d = 0.172) scores at 12 months compared with conventional treatment. Based on these findings, daily oral administration of a 400-μg folic acid supplement to MCI subjects for 12 months can significantly improve cognitive performance and reduce peripheral inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:27876835

  10. Weekly iron and folic acid supplementation as a tool to reduce anemia among primary school children in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Longfils, Philippe; Heang, Ung Kim; Soeng, Hay; Sinuon, Muth

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of anemia decreased from 62% to 12% and from 57% to 26% in children 5 to 11 years of age in two rural primary schools in Kampot Province, Cambodia, after oral weekly supplementation with iron-folic acid tablets for 20 weeks and with vitamin A and mebendazole twice per year. In 12- to 15-year-old children, success was less marked. The prevalence of hookworm infestation did not change, but the number of eggs in the stool decreased drastically. The intervention had no significant influence on stunting and wasting. An integrated community approach including mass deworming, health education, and multi-micronutrient supplementation was very effective in reducing anemia in Cambodian schoolchildren and should be adopted on a larger scale.

  11. Reducing Colonization and Eggborne Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in Layer Chickens by In-Feed Supplementation of Caprylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Nair, Meera S; Bhattaram, Varun K; Karumathil, Deepti; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Khan, Mazhar I; Darre, Michael J; Curtis, Patricia A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for causing gastrointestinal infections in humans, predominantly due to the consumption of contaminated eggs. In layer hens, SE colonizes the intestine and migrates to various organs, including the oviduct, thereby leading to egg yolk and shell contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of caprylic acid (CA), a medium-chain fatty acid, in reducing SE colonization and egg contamination in layers. Caprylic acid was supplemented in the feed at 0%, 0.7%, or 1% (vol/wt) from day 1 of the experiment. Birds were challenged with 10(10) log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of SE by crop gavage on day 10, and re-inoculated (10(10) log CFU/mL) on day 35. After 7 days post first inoculation, eggs were collected daily and tested for SE on the shell and in the yolk separately. The birds were sacrificed on day 66 to determine SE colonization in the ceca, liver, and oviduct. The consumer acceptability of eggs was also determined by triangle test. The experiment was replicated twice. In-feed supplementation of CA (0.7% and 1%) to birds consistently decreased SE on eggshell and in the yolk (p<0.05). Supplementation of CA at 1.0% decreased SE population to ≈14% on the shell and ≈10% in yolk, when compared to control birds, which yielded ≈60% positive samples on shell and ≈43% in yolk. Additionally, SE populations in the cecum and liver were reduced in treated birds compared to control (p<0.05). No significant difference in egg production, body weight, or sensory properties of eggs was observed (p>0.05). The results suggest that CA could potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce eggborne transmission of SE.

  12. Supplementation of Saturated Long-chain Fatty Acids Maintains Intestinal Eubiosis and Reduces Ethanol-induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Torralba, Manolito; Tan, Justin; Embree, Mallory; Zengler, Karsten; Stärkel, Peter; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; DePew, Jessica; Loomba, Rohit; Ho, Samuel B.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.; Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Nelson, Karen E.; Fouts, Derrick E.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis, and development of alcoholic liver disease requires gut-derived bacterial products. However, little is known about how alterations to the microbiome contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Methods We used the Tsukamoto-French mouse model which involves continuous intragastric feeding of isocaloric diet or alcohol for 3 weeks. Bacterial DNA from the cecum was extracted for deep metagenomic sequencing. Targeted metabolomics assessed concentrations of saturated fatty acids in cecal contents. To maintain intestinal metabolic homeostasis, diets of ethanol-fed and control mice were supplemented with saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, amounts of lactobacilli, and saturated LCFA were measured in fecal samples of non-alcoholic individuals and patients with active alcohol abuse. Results Analyses of intestinal contents from mice revealed alcohol-associated changes to the intestinal metagenome and metabolome, characterized by reduced synthesis of saturated LCFA. Maintaining intestinal levels of saturated fatty acids in mice resulted in eubiosis, stabilized the intestinal gut barrier and reduced ethanol-induced liver injury. Saturated LCFA are metabolized by commensal Lactobacillus and promote their growth. Proportions of bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were lower in feces from patients with active alcohol abuse than controls. Total levels of LCFA correlated with those of lactobacilli in fecal samples from patients with active alcohol abuse but not in controls. Conclusion In humans and mice, alcohol causes intestinal dysbiosis, reducing the capacity of the microbiome to synthesize saturated LCFA and the proportion of Lactobacillus species. Dietary approaches to restore levels of saturated fatty acids in the intestine might reduce ethanol

  13. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-11-01

    Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge.

  14. Plasma amino acids of wether lambs supplemented with novel feed products to reduce locoweed toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweed is a toxic legume that impairs performance and may cause death in grazing livestock. Novel feed and supplement products are needed that counter or minimize the toxic effects of locoweed. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 3 proprietary feed product formulations on plasma amino aci...

  15. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA), in comparison with selenomethionine (SeMet), on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice using intramuscular and subcutaneous injection models. Mice were fed AIN9...

  16. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  17. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  18. Can a standard dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation reduce the symptoms of delayed onset of muscle soreness?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unaccustomed exercise can result in delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) which can affect athletic performance. Although DOMS is a useful tool to identify muscle damage and remodelling, prolonged symptoms of DOMS may be associated with the over-training syndrome. In order to reduce the symptoms of DOMS numerous management strategies have been attempted with no significant effect on DOMS-associated cytokines surge. The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of a 2 × 180 mg per day dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated inflammatory response and symptoms associated with DOMS. Methods Seventeen healthy non-smoking females (age 20.4 ± 2.1 years, height 161.2 ± 8.3 cm and mass 61.48 ± 7.4 kg) were randomly assigned to either placebo (N = 10) or EPA (N = 7). Serum IL-6, isometric and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) strength, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded on four occasions: i-prior to supplementation, ii-immediately after three weeks of supplementation (basal effects), iii-48 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise (acute training response effects), and iv-48 hours following the last of a series of three bouts of resistance exercise (chronic training response effects). Results There was only a group difference in the degree of change in circulating IL-6 levels. In fact, relative to the first baseline, by the third bout of eccentric workout, the EPA group had 103 ± 60% increment in IL-6 levels whereas the placebo group only had 80 ± 26% incremented IL-6 levels (P = 0.020). We also describe a stable multiple linear regression model which included measures of strength and not IL-6 as predictors of RPE scale. Conclusion The present study suggests that in doubling the standard recommended dose of EPA, whilst this may still not be beneficial at ameliorating the symptoms of DOMS, it counter intuitively appears to enhance the cytokine response to exercise. In a

  19. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  20. Antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation reduces risk of low birthweight in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Bin Nisar, Yasir; Dibley, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on perceived birth size and birthweight in Pakistan over a 5-year period from 2002 to 2006. The data source was the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2006-2007. Information from 5692 most recent live-born infants within 5 years prior to the survey was examined. The primary outcomes were maternal perception of birth size and birthweight, and the main exposure was any use of antenatal IFA supplements. Birthweight was reported for only 10% of the live births in the PDHS 2006-2007. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was adjusted for the cluster sampling design and for 13 potential confounders. The risk of having smaller than average birth size newborn was significantly reduced by 18% (adjusted odds ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.71, 0.96) for mothers who used any IFA supplements compared with those who did not. A similar (18%), but non-significant reduction in the risk of low birthweight, was found with the maternal use of IFA supplements. The risk of having smaller than average birth size babies was significantly reduced by 19% in those women who started IFA in the first trimester of pregnancy. About 11% of babies with smaller than average birth size were attributed to non-use of antenatal IFA supplements. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduces the risk of a newborn of smaller than average birth size in Pakistan. Universal coverage of supplementation would improve birth size.

  1. Dietary supplementation of β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) reduces whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in young CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Baumgarner, Bradley L; Nagle, Alison M; Quinn, Meagan R; Farmer, A Elaine; Kinsey, Stephen T

    2015-05-01

    Increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity leads to enhanced fatty acid utilization, while also promoting increased ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis (UDP) in mammalian skeletal muscle. β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) is a commercially available dietary supplement that has been shown to promote an AMPK-dependent increase in fatty acid utilization and aerobic capacity in mammals by compromising creatine kinase function. However, it remains unknown if continuous βGPA supplementation can negatively impact skeletal muscle growth in a rapidly growing juvenile. The current study was conducted to examine the effect of βGPA supplementation on whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in juvenile and young adult mice. Three-week old, post weanling CD-1 mice were fed a standard rodent chow that was supplemented with either 2% (w/w) α-cellulose (control) or βGPA. Control and βGPA-fed mice (n = 6) were sampled after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Whole-body and hindlimb muscle masses were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in βGPA-fed mice by 2 weeks. The level of AMPK (T172) phosphorylation increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the gastrocnemius of βGPA-fed versus control mice at 2 weeks, but was not significantly different at the 4- and 8-week time points. Further analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the skeletal muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase MAFbx/Atrogin-1 protein and total protein ubiquitination in the gastrocnemius of βGPA versus control mice at the 8-week time point. Our data indicate that feeding juvenile mice a βGPA-supplemented diet significantly reduced whole-body and skeletal muscle growth that was due, at least in part, to an AMPK-independent increase in UDP.

  2. Prepartum maternal diets supplemented with oilseeds alter the fatty acid profile in bovine neonatal plasma possibly through reduced placental expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 and fatty acid translocase.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J

    2016-12-12

    In the present study, we determined the effects of maternal dietary fat and the type of fat on plasma fatty acids and the expression of placental fatty acid transporter genes. In Experiment 1, Holstein cows in the last 35 days of gestation received diets containing sunflower seed (n=8; high in linoleic acid (LA)), canola seed (n=7; high in oleic acid (OLA)) or no oilseed (n=7; control). Fatty acids were quantified in dam and neonate plasma at calving. In Experiment 2, placental cotyledons were collected (LA: n=4; OLA: n=4; control: n=5) to quantify gene expression. Maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, neonatal total n-3 fatty acids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) declined, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total fat tended to decline following fat supplementation prepartum. Feeding of LA versus OLA prepartum tended to increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA) expression, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARD) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) expression tended to be higher in OLA- than LA-fed cows. Expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4) and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) expression was lower in placental tissue of cows fed fat compared with control cows. Reduced total n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA in neonates born of dams fed fat prepartum is likely due to changes in PPARs and reduced expression of placental FATP4 and FAT/CD36.

  3. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation reduces mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle from high fat fed, obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuyun; Dungan, Cory M; Carrier, Bradley; Rideout, Todd C; Williamson, David L

    2014-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is hyperactive in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle tissues of obese rodents. Alpha-lipoic acid (αLA) has been well accepted as a weight-loss treatment, though there are limited studies on its effect on mTOR signaling in high-fat fed, obese rodents. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine mTOR signaling and oxidative protein alterations in skeletal muscle of high-fat fed, obese rats after αLA supplementation. Phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eIF4B were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in muscle from αLA supplemented rats. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an mTOR inhibitory kinase, was higher (p < 0.05) in the αLA group. Protein expression of markers of oxidative metabolism, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) after αLA supplementation compared to non-supplemented group. Our findings show that αLA supplementation limits the negative ramifications of consuming a high fat diet on skeletal muscle markers of oxidative metabolism and mTORC1 signaling.

  4. Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Julia; Demmelmair, Hans; Hornstra, Gerard; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-02-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy not only improves maternal and neonatal DHA status, but often reduces gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels also, which may compromise foetal and infant development. The present study investigated the effects of a fish oil/evening primrose oil (FSO/EPO) blend (456 mg DHA/d and 353 mg GLA/d) compared to a placebo (mixture of habitual dietary fatty acids) on the plasma fatty acid (FA) composition in two groups of twenty non-pregnant women using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. FA were quantified in plasma total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and TAG at weeks 0, 4, 6 and 8. After 8 weeks of intervention, percentage changes from baseline values of plasma total lipid FA were significantly different between FSO/EPO and placebo for GLA (+49.9 % v. +2.1 %, means), DGLA (+13.8 % v. +0.7 %) and DHA (+59.6 % v. +5.5 %), while there was no significant difference for ARA ( - 2.2 % v. - 5.9 %). FA changes were largely comparable between plasma lipid fractions. In both groups three subjects reported mild adverse effects. As compared with placebo, FSO/EPO supplementation did not result in any physiologically relevant changes of safety parameters (blood cell count, liver enzymes). In women of childbearing age the tested FSO/EPO blend was well tolerated and appears safe. It increases plasma GLA, DGLA, and DHA levels without impairing ARA status. These data provide a basis for testing this FSO/EPO blend in pregnant women for its effects on maternal and neonatal FA status and infant development.

  5. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in College-Age Females

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Danielle T.; Pintauro, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 males) were randomly assigned to either BCAA (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) groups. Subjects performed a squatting exercise to elicit DOMS and rated their muscle soreness every 24 hours for four days following exercise while continuing to consume the BCAA or placebo. Following a three-week recovery period, subjects returned and received the alternate BCAA or placebo treatment, repeating the same exercise and DOMS rating protocol for the next four days. BCAA supplementation in female subjects resulted in a significant decrease in DOMS versus placebo at 24 hours following exercise (P = 0.018). No significant effect of BCAA supplementation versus placebo was noted in male subjects nor when male and female results were analyzed together. This gender difference may be related to dose per body weight differences between male and female subjects. PMID:24967261

  6. Branched-chain amino acid supplements reduced ascites and increased the quality of life in a patient with liver cirrhosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Itou, Minoru; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Oku, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Nobuyoshi; Ando, Eiji; Oriishi, Tetsuharu; Uchida, Yuki; Otsuka, Momoka; Tanaka, Suiko; Iwasaki, Shoko; Torii, Mari; Yoshida, Kiyomi; Adachi, Yuko; Suga, Mariko; Yoshiyama, Manami; Ibi, Ryoko; Akiyama, Yoshiko; Takakura, Machiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2009-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is frequently accompanied by malnutrition and hypoalbuminemia, which in turn commonly induces ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Ascites leads to abdominal distention and appetite loss, resulting in a deteriorated quality of life (QOL). Administration of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich supplements reduces hepatic encephalopathy and malnutrition. In addition, BCAAs by themselves up-regulate albumin synthesis through an increase in Fisher's ratio. Thus, in patients with liver cirrhosis, BCAA-rich supplements seem to be effective at reducing ascites and improving the QOL. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old Japanese man with liver cirrhosis with severe ascites and peripheral edema. The hepatic function of the patient was classified as Child-Pugh grade C. To reduce protein-energy malnutrition, BCAA-rich supplements were administered as a late evening snack as part of a regimen including 2000 kcal/day (32.5 kcal/kg/day) of total energy and 83.5 g/day (1.3 g/kg/day) of total protein intake. Eight weeks after admission, ascites and edema had decreased. Nutritional status also improved from the time of admission to discharge; the serum BCAA level increased from 365.4 to 450.2 µmol/l. Furthermore, the ratio of BCAAs to tyrosine (BTR) increased from 1.70 to 3.65. We also evaluated the effects of nutritional therapy on the patient's QOL using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey upon admission and at discharge. All subscores showed marked improvement and reached a level greater than the Japanese norm with nutritional treatment. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation not only reduced ascites, but also improved the QOL in a patient with liver cirrhosis.

  7. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5- to 11-mo old.

    PubMed

    Olney, Deanna K; Pollitt, Ernesto; Kariger, Patricia K; Khalfan, Sabra S; Ali, Nadra S; Tielsch, James M; Sazawal, Sunil; Black, Robert; Allen, Lindsay H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2006-09-01

    Iron and zinc deficiencies have been associated with delayed motor development in nutritionally at-risk children, albeit inconsistently. In this community-based, randomized double-blind trial, iron+folic acid (FeFA) (12.5 mg Fe + 50 mug folic acid), zinc (Zn) (10 mg), and iron+folic acid+zinc (FeFA+Zn) supplements or a placebo were given daily for 1 y to nutritionally at-risk children in Pemba, Zanzibar. The effects of these treatments on attaining unassisted walking were evaluated using survival analysis for 354 children aged 5-11 mo at the start of supplementation. Treatment effects on changes in hemoglobin (Hb) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) Z scores were evaluated using linear regression. Attained motor milestone was recorded every 2 wk for 1 y. Hb, ZPP, HAZ, and WAZ were measured at baseline and after 6 mo of treatment. FeFA with or without Zn reduced the time it took for children to walk assisted. Children who received any iron walked unassisted sooner than those who received no iron [median difference approximately 15 d, P = 0.035, risk ratio (RR) = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.61] and this effect was stronger in those who had iron deficiency anemia (IDA) at baseline (median difference was approximately 30 d; P = 0.002; RR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.21, 2.32). FeFA alone and Zn alone improved Hb and ZPP compared with placebo. There were no significant treatment effects on changes in HAZ or WAZ. The effects of treatment on time to walking may have been mediated by improvements in iron status or hemoglobin, but were not mediated through improvements in growth.

  8. Influence of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of cross-bred pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Rolo, Eva S; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pires, Virgínia R; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2016-03-28

    The isolated or combined effects of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets (RPD) on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig m. longissimus lumborum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed. The experiment was performed on forty intact male pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace cross-breed) with initial and final live weights of 60 and 93 kg, respectively. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following five diets (n 8): 16·0 % of crude protein (control), 13·0 % of crude protein (RPD), RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine, RPD supplemented with 1·5 % of arginine and RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine and 1·5 % of arginine. Data confirmed that RPD increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and total fat content in SAT. The increased total fat content in SAT was accompanied by higher GLUT type 4, lipoprotein lipase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA expression levels. In addition, the supplementation of RPD with betaine and/or arginine did not affect either IMF or total fat in SAT. However, dietary betaine supplementation slightly affected fatty acid composition in both muscle and SAT. This effect was associated with an increase of carnitine O-acetyltransferase mRNA levels in SAT but not in muscle, which suggests that betaine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key genes of lipid metabolism in pig muscle and SAT. Although the arginine-supplemented diet decreased the mRNA expression level of PPARG in muscle and SAT, it did not influence fat content or fatty acid composition in any of these pig tissues.

  9. Effects of Supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids to Reduced-Protein Diet on Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis and Degradation in the Fed and Fasted States in a Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; He, Pingli; Zhao, Shengjun; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been demonstrated to promote skeletal muscle mass gain, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are still unknown. Since the regulation of muscle mass depends on a dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses–fed gains) in protein turnover, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in fed/fasted states and the related mechanisms. Fourteen 26- (Experiment 1) and 28-day-old (Experiment 2) piglets were fed reduced-protein diets without or with supplemental BCAA. After a four-week acclimation period, skeletal muscle mass and components of anabolic and catabolic signaling in muscle samples after overnight fasting were determined in Experiment 1. Pigs in Experiment 2 were implanted with carotid arterial, jugular venous, femoral arterial and venous catheters, and fed once hourly along with the intravenous infusion of NaH13CO3 for 2 h, followed by a 6-h infusion of [1-13C]leucine. Muscle leucine kinetics were measured using arteriovenous difference technique. The mass of most muscles was increased by BCAA supplementation. During feeding, BCAA supplementation increased leucine uptake, protein synthesis, protein degradation and net transamination. The greater increase in protein synthesis than in protein degradation resulted in elevated protein deposition. Protein synthesis was strongly and positively correlated with the intramuscular net production of α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and protein degradation. Moreover, BCAA supplementation enhanced the fasted-state phosphorylation of protein translation initiation factors and inhibited the protein-degradation signaling of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems. In conclusion, supplementation of BCAA to reduced-protein diet increases fed-state protein synthesis and inhibits fasted-state protein degradation, both of which could contribute to the elevation of skeletal muscle mass in piglets

  10. Effects of Supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids to Reduced-Protein Diet on Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis and Degradation in the Fed and Fasted States in a Piglet Model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; He, Pingli; Zhao, Shengjun; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-12-28

    Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been demonstrated to promote skeletal muscle mass gain, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are still unknown. Since the regulation of muscle mass depends on a dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in fed/fasted states and the related mechanisms. Fourteen 26- (Experiment 1) and 28-day-old (Experiment 2) piglets were fed reduced-protein diets without or with supplemental BCAA. After a four-week acclimation period, skeletal muscle mass and components of anabolic and catabolic signaling in muscle samples after overnight fasting were determined in Experiment 1. Pigs in Experiment 2 were implanted with carotid arterial, jugular venous, femoral arterial and venous catheters, and fed once hourly along with the intravenous infusion of NaH(13)CO₃ for 2 h, followed by a 6-h infusion of [1-(13)C]leucine. Muscle leucine kinetics were measured using arteriovenous difference technique. The mass of most muscles was increased by BCAA supplementation. During feeding, BCAA supplementation increased leucine uptake, protein synthesis, protein degradation and net transamination. The greater increase in protein synthesis than in protein degradation resulted in elevated protein deposition. Protein synthesis was strongly and positively correlated with the intramuscular net production of α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and protein degradation. Moreover, BCAA supplementation enhanced the fasted-state phosphorylation of protein translation initiation factors and inhibited the protein-degradation signaling of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems. In conclusion, supplementation of BCAA to reduced-protein diet increases fed-state protein synthesis and inhibits fasted-state protein degradation, both of which could contribute to the elevation of skeletal muscle mass in

  11. Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary

  12. Maternal Supplementation with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Compared with Multiple Micronutrients, but Not with Iron and Folic Acid, Reduces the Prevalence of Low Gestational Weight Gain in Semi-Urban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Okronipa, Harriet; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Zeilani, Mamane; Arimond, Mary; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-04-01

    Background: It is unclear whether maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs; 118 kcal/d) affects maternal weight.Objective: We compared several secondary anthropometric measures between 3 groups of women in the iLiNS (International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements)-DYAD trial in Ghana.Methods: Women (n = 1320; <20 wk of gestation) were randomly assigned to receive 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d (IFA), 18 vitamins and minerals/d [multiple micronutrients (MMNs)], or 20 g SQ-LNSs with 22 micronutrients/d (LNS) during pregnancy and a placebo (200 mg Ca/d), MMNs, or SQ-LNSs, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum. Weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness at 36 wk of gestation and 6 mo postpartum were analyzed, as were changes from estimated prepregnancy values. We assessed the adequacy of estimated gestational weight gain (GWG) by using Institute of Medicine (IOM) and International Fetal and Newborn Growth Standards for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) guidelines.Results: The estimated prepregnancy prevalence of overweight or obesity was 38.5%. By 36 wk of gestation, women (n = 1015) had a mean ± SD weight gain of 7.4 ± 3.7 kg and changes of -1.0 ± 1.7 cm in MUAC and -2.8 ± 4.1 mm in TSF thickness. The LNS group had a lower prevalence of inadequate GWG on the basis of IOM guidelines (57.4%) than the MMN (67.2%) but not the IFA (63.1%) groups (P = 0.030), whereas the prevalence of adequate (26.9% overall) and excessive (10.4% overall) GWG did not differ by group. The percentages of normal-weight women (in kg/m(2): 18.5 < body mass index < 25.0; n = 754) whose GWG was less than the third centile of the INTERGROWTH-21st standards were 23.0%, 28.7%, and 28.5% for the LNS, MMN, and IFA groups, respectively (P = 0.36). At 6 mo postpartum, the prevalence of overweight or obesity was 45.3%, and the risk of becoming overweight or obese did not differ by group.Conclusion: SQ-LNS supplementation

  13. Experiences and Perspectives of Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients following a Diet of Reduced Osmoles, Protein, and Acid Precursors Supplemented with Water: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacob M.; Ptomey, Lauren; Hamilton-Reeves, Jill M.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Creed, Catherine; Carlson, Susan E.; Wesson, Donald E.; Grantham, Jared J.; Gibson, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Salt, protein, acid precursors, and fluid intake have been identified as factors that influence cyst growth in ADPKD. Unfortunately, the feasibility of following these dietary restrictions/enhancements from a patient’s point-of-view has yet to be studied. The purpose of this study is to understand better the experiences of patients following a relatively complex dietary prescription targeting these factors. Methods Twelve adults with ADPKD and kidney function >30ml/min/1.73m2 were recruited from the University of Kansas Medical Center Polycystic Kidney Disease clinic. In a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews of participants were conducted following a four week dietary intervention (experimental diet lower in sodium, protein, and acid precursors, and supplemented with water) either face-to-face or by telephone. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and checked for accuracy. Transcripts were analyzed thematically for emerging themes. Results Participants reported that eating less meat and more fruits and vegetables were the easiest components of the diet, whereas reaching the daily goal amount of fruits and vegetables and tracking the diet constantly were the most difficult components. Participants had little difficulty with fluid intake and reported the prescribed fluid goal as achievable. The tracking system for fruits and vegetables and protein was reported to be both helpful and intuitive, but tracking their intake on paper was tedious. Eating out was the most significant barrier to following the diet with some individuals avoiding restaurants in order to comply with the dietary prescription. Conclusion Participants on the experimental diet heightened their awareness of the consumption of dietary salt, protein, acid precursors, and fluid intake. Additionally, most participants believed adherence to the prescribed diet was feasible. However, participants wanted less cumbersome ways to track and monitor the diet, especially

  14. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  15. Dietary supplementation with a combination of alpha-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, glycerophosphocoline, docosahexaenoic acid, and phosphatidylserine reduces oxidative damage to murine brain and improves cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Suchy, James; Chan, Amy; Shea, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer disease has a complex etiology composed of nutritional and genetic risk factors and predispositions. Moreover, genetic risk factors for cognitive decline may remain latent pending age-related decline in nutrition, suggesting the potential importance of early nutritional intervention, including preventative approaches. We hypothesized that a combination of multiple nutritional additives may be able to provide neuroprotection. We demonstrate herein that dietary supplementation with a mixture of ALA, ALCAR, GPC, DHA, and PS reduced reactive oxygen species in normal mice by 57% and prevented the increase in reactive oxygen species normally observed in mice lacking murine ApoE when maintained on a vitamin-free, iron-enriched, oxidative-challenge diet. We further demonstrate that supplementation with these agents prevented the marked cognitive decline otherwise observed in normal mice maintained on this challenge diet. These findings add to the growing body of research indicating that key dietary supplementation may delay the progression of age-related cognitive decline.

  16. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5-11 months old

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron and zinc deficiencies have been associated with delayed motor development in nutritionally at-risk children, albeit inconsistently. In this community-based, randomized double-blind trial, iron+folic acid (FeFA) (12.5 mg Fe + 50 'g folic acid), zinc (Zn) (10 mg), and iron+folic acid+zinc (FeFA+Z...

  17. The potential benefits and adverse effects of phytic Acid supplement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Omoruyi, F O; Budiaman, A; Eng, Y; Olumese, F E; Hoesel, J L; Ejilemele, A; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1 β level was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the diabetic control and supplement treated groups. The liver lipogenic enzyme activities were not significantly altered among the groups. These results suggest that phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation.

  18. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

  19. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  20. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  1. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  2. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  3. Folic Acid Supplements: Can They Slow Cognitive Decline?

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow cognitive decline? I've heard that folic acid supplements can improve cognitive function in older adults. ... those with Alzheimer's disease also benefit from folic acid? Answers from Paul Y. Takahashi, M.D. There's ...

  4. Plasma and neutrophil fatty acid composition in advanced cancer patients and response to fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pratt, V C; Watanabe, S; Bruera, E; Mackey, J; Clandinin, M T; Baracos, V E; Field, C J

    2002-12-02

    Metabolic demand and altered supply of essential nutrients is poorly characterised in patients with advanced cancer. A possible imbalance or deficiency of essential fatty acids is suggested by reported beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation. To assess fatty acid status (composition of plasma and neutrophil phospholipids) in advanced cancer patients before and after 14 days of supplementation (12+/-1 g day(-1)) with fish (eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo (olive) oil. Blood was drawn from cancer patients experiencing weight loss of >5% body weight (n=23). Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and the major phospholipid classes of isolated neutrophils were determined using gas liquid chromatography. At baseline, patients with advanced cancer exhibited low levels (<30% of normal values) of plasma phospholipids and constituent fatty acids and elevated 20 : 4 n-6 content in neutrophil phospholipids. High n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios in neutrophil and plasma phospholipids were inversely related to body mass index. Fish oil supplementation raised eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in plasma but not neutrophil phospholipids. 20 : 4 n-6 content was reduced in neutrophil PI following supplementation with fish oil. Change in body weight during the supplementation period related directly to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma. Advanced cancer patients have alterations in lipid metabolism potentially due to nutritional status and/or chemotherapy. Potential obstacles in fatty acid utilisation must be addressed in future trials aiming to improve outcomes using nutritional intervention with fish oils.

  5. Reduced cardiac remodelling and prevention of glutathione deficiency after omega-3 supplementation in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuehua; Favre, Julie; Vercauteren, Magalie; Laillet, Brigitte; Remy-Jouet, Isabelle; Skiba, Mohamed; Lallemand, Françoise; Dehaudt, Cathy; Monteil, Christelle; Thuillez, Christian; Mulder, Paul

    2011-06-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) supplementation is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality and post-infarction death. However, the impact of omega-3 supplementation in congestive heart failure (CHF) is still unknown. This study assesses the effects of omega-3 supplementation on left ventricular (LV) function and remodelling. We assessed, in rats with CHF induced by left coronary ligation, the effects of a 1-week and a 12-week supplementation with omega-3 (450 mg/kg per day) on LV hemodynamics, function and structure. Chronic omega-3 reduces total peripheral resistance due to an increase in cardiac output without modification of arterial pressure. Only chronic omega-3 reduces LV end-diastolic pressure and LV relaxation constant. Moreover, chronic omega-3 decreases LV systolic and diastolic diameters, LV weight and collagen density. Acute and chronic omega-3 increase LV γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase and oppose glutathione deficiency resulting in a reduction of myocardial oxidized glutathione. In experimental CHF, long-term omega-3 supplementation improves LV hemodynamics and function and prevents LV remodelling and glutathione deficiency. The latter might be one of the mechanisms involved, but whether other mechanism, independent of myocardial redox 'status', such as reduced inflammation, are implicated remains to be confirmed.

  6. Oral glutathione supplementation drastically reduces Helicobacter-induced gastric pathologies

    PubMed Central

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Ducatelle, Richard; Foss, Dennis; Sanchez, Margaret; Joosten, Myrthe; Zhang, Guangzhi; Smet, Annemieke; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis causes gastric pathologies in both pigs and humans. Very little is known on the metabolism of this bacterium and its impact on the host. In this study, we have revealed the importance of the glutamate-generating metabolism, as shown by a complete depletion of glutamine (Gln) in the medium during H. suis culture. Besides Gln, H. suis can also convert glutathione (GSH) to glutamate, and both reactions are catalyzed by the H. suis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Both for H. pylori and H. suis, it has been hypothesized that the degradation of Gln and GSH may lead to a deficiency for the host, possibly initiating or promoting several pathologies. Therefore the in vivo effect of oral supplementation with Gln and GSH was assessed. Oral supplementation with Gln was shown to temper H. suis induced gastritis and epithelial (hyper)proliferation in Mongolian gerbils. Astonishingly, supplementation of the feed with GSH, another GGT substrate, resulted in inflammation and epithelial proliferation levels returning to baseline levels of uninfected controls. This indicates that Gln and GSH supplementation may help reducing tissue damage caused by Helicobacter infection in both humans and pigs, highlighting their potential as a supportive therapy during and after Helicobacter eradication therapy. PMID:26833404

  7. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Na-Young; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Lim, Yunsook

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage). We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:20871865

  8. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception.

  9. Leucine supplementation via drinking water reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE null mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Dai, Xiao-yan; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Ge-xin; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Recent evidence suggests that the essential amino acid leucine may be involved in systemic cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of leucine supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Methods: ApoE null mice were fed with chow supplemented with leucine (1.5% w/v) in drinking water for 8 week. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were examined using Oil Red O staining. Plasma lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were measured with fast protein liquid chromatography. Hepatic gene expression was detected using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Results: Leucine supplementation resulted in 57.6% reduction of aortic atherosclerotic lesion area in apoE null mice, accompanied by 41.2% decrease of serum LDL-C levels and 40.2% increase of serum HDL-C levels. The body weight, food intake and blood glucose level were not affected by leucine supplementation. Furthermore, leucine supplementation increased the expression of Abcg5 and Abcg8 (that were involved in hepatic cholesterol efflux) by 1.28- and 0.86-fold, respectively, and significantly increased their protein levels. Leucine supplementation also increased the expression of Srebf1, Scd1 and Pgc1b (that were involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism) by 3.73-, 1.35- and 1.71-fold, respectively. Consequently, leucine supplementation resulted in 51.77% reduction of liver cholesterol content and 2.2-fold increase of liver triglyceride content. Additionally, leucine supplementation did not affect the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12, but markedly decreased the serum level of MCP-1. Conclusion: Leucine supplementation effectively attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE null mice by improving the plasma lipid profile and reducing systemic inflammation. PMID:26687933

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR-/- mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients.

  11. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; Kim, G. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  12. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef.

  13. Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2α) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2α). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2α) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle.

  14. Dietary adipic acid reduces ammonia emission from swine excreta.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, T A

    2001-09-01

    Adipic acid is only partially catabolized when it is fed to animals, and a portion of it is excreted in urine. The excreted portion may lower urinary pH and, as a result, ammonia emission. The present study tested this hypothesis. In Exp. 1, nursery pigs (n = 14) were fed (for a period of 7 d) either a standard nursery diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid to assess effects on urinary pH (collected on d 5 or 6) and in vitro ammonia emission from the collected urine samples that were mixed with control feces. In Exp. 2, grower pigs housed 10 each in one of two chambers were fed a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid. Ventilated air was quantified and analyzed for ammonia using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine the effects of feeding 1% adipic acid on ammonia emission. The results from Exp. 1 showed that adipic acid strongly reduced urinary pH (from 7.7 to 5.5, P < 0.05). In vitro ammonia emission from these urine samples was significantly reduced at all the time points evaluated (1, 3, 18, and 46 h with reductions of 94, 93, 70, and 39%, respectively, P < 0.05). Experiment 2 showed that adipic acid supplementation reduced ammonia emission by 25% (P < 0.05), which corresponded to the predicted reduction in ammonia emission based on the reduction in manure pH observed. In conclusion, feeding adipic acid lowers urinary pH and reduces ammonia emission. The reduction in ammonia emission, though, does not correspond to the reduction in urinary pH but corresponds to the reduction in fecal pH as a result of mixing the urine and feces, in which feces act as a strong buffer.

  15. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on biophysical parameters and chilling sensitivity of ewe oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zeron, Yoel; Sklan, David; Arav, Amir

    2002-02-01

    Fat supplementation in the diet influences reproductive performance of lactating ruminants. Changes in the fat supply alter fatty acid composition and this can affect physical properties of cell membranes. This study examined the effect of rumen bypass polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation on oocyte quality, chilling sensitivity, and lipid phase transition in oocytes of the sheep. Ewes were fed a diet supplemented with calcium soaps of fish oil for 13 weeks. More follicles and oocytes were found in the ovaries of ewes supplemented with PUFA than in control ewes. The number of high-quality oocytes was higher in ewes fed PUFA than in control ewes (74.3 and 57.0%, P < 0.05, respectively). Evaluation of phospholipid fatty acid composition indicated that PUFA were present in small proportions in oocytes, and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were absent. Supplementation with PUFA increased the proportion of long chain unsaturated fatty acid in the plasma and cumulus cells phospholipids by 7.4 and 12.7%, respectively (P < 0.05). Integrity of oocyte membranes following chilling (16 degrees C, 15 min) was improved by PUFA supplementation increasing from 62.5 to 90.0% (P < 0.05). Due to changes in the oocyte's fatty acid profile, physical properties of the membrane were changed and the midpoint temperature of lipid transition reduced by 11 degrees C. These results suggest that supplementation of rumen bypass PUFA to ruminant diets can change fatty acid composition of follicle components and influence parameters such as number and quality of oocytes and their chilling resistance.

  16. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementation interacts and protects embryos from maternal diabetes-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Higa, R; Kurtz, M; Mazzucco, M B; Musikant, D; White, V; Jawerbaum, A

    2012-05-01

    Maternal diabetes increases the risk of embryo malformations. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementations have been shown to reduce embryo malformations in experimental models of diabetes. In this study we here tested whether folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact to prevent embryo malformations in diabetic rats, and analyzed whether they act through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), and nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species production. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration prior to mating. From Day 0.5 of pregnancy, rats did or did not receive folic acid (15 mg/kg) and/or a 6% safflower oil-supplemented diet. Embryos and decidua were explanted on Day 10.5 of gestation for further analysis of embryo resorptions and malformations, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels, NO production and lipid peroxidation. Maternal diabetes induced resorptions and malformations that were prevented by folic acid and safflower oil supplementation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were increased in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats and decreased with safflower oil and folic acid supplementations. In diabetic animals, the embryonic and decidual TIMPs were increased mainly with safflower oil supplementation in decidua and with folic acid in embryos. NO overproduction was decreased in decidua from diabetic rats treated with folic acid alone and in combination with safflower oil. These treatments also prevented increases in embryonic and decidual lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact and protect the embryos from diabetes-induced damage through several pathways related to a decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators.

  17. Reducing methane production by supplementation of Terminalia chebula RETZ. containing tannins and saponins.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of Terminalia chebula Retz. meal supplementation on rumen fermentation and methane (CH4 ) production by using an in vitro gas technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD) and the dietary treatments were T. chebula supplementation at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 mg with 0.5 g of roughage and concentrate ratio at 60:40. The results revealed that cumulative gas production (96 h of incubation) were higher (P < 0.01) with T. chebula supplementation at 12, 16 and 20 mg than other treatments. However, in vitro dry matter degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05). The NH3 -N concentrations tended to quadratically increase with increasing levels of T. chebula in the diet. In addition, total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and propionate concentrations were increased (P < 0.01), while acetate concentration, acetate-to-propionate ratio, CH4 production and protozoal populations were decreased (P < 0.01) when supplemented with T. chebula at 8, 12 and 16 mg, respectively. Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of T. chebula at 12 mg could improve rumen fermentation by reducing CH4 production and protozoa populations, thus improving in vitro gas production and VFA profiles.

  18. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    van Kooten, Maria J.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; de Araujo, Ivan E.; O’Malley, Stephanie; Small, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, Intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers. PMID:26656766

  19. Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick; Chappell, Andrew; Jenkinson, Alison McE; Thies, Frank; Gray, Stuart R

    2014-04-01

    Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils-although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

  20. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA in WP-USA supplements, as compared to the WP-BRA supplements; however, there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  1. Calcium glycerophosphate supplemented to soft drinks reduces bovine enamel erosion

    PubMed Central

    BARBOSA, Carolina Silveira; MONTAGNOLLI, Lia Guimarães; KATO, Melissa Thiemi; SAMPAIO, Fábio Correia; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) supplemented to soft drinks on bovine enamel erosion. Material and methods Four pH-cycles were performed, alternating demineralization by the beverage and remineralization in artificial saliva. Results Mean wear (±SD, µm) was 7.91±1.13, 7.39±1.01, 7.50±0.91 and 5.21±1.08 for Coca-ColaTM without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0 or 2.0 mM, respectively, while no wear was detected for CaGP at 5.0 and 10.0 mM. Corresponding figures for Sprite ZeroTM without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mM were 8.04±1.30, 7.84±0.71, 7.47±0.80, 4.96±0.81, 3.99±0.10 and 1.87±0.12, respectively. Conclusion Supplementation of both beverages with CaGP seems to be an alternative to reduce their erosive potential. PMID:23032201

  2. Retinol and riboflavin supplementation decreases the prevalence of anemia in Chinese pregnant women taking iron and folic Acid supplements.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ai G; Schouten, Evert G; Zhang, Feng Z; Kok, Frans J; Yang, Fang; Jiang, Dian C; Sun, Yong Y; Han, Xiu X

    2008-10-01

    In rural China, many pregnant women in their third trimester suffer from anemia (48%) and iron deficiency (ID; 42%), often with coexisting deficiencies of retinol and riboflavin. We investigated the effect of retinol and riboflavin supplementation in addition to iron plus folic acid on anemia and subjective well-being in pregnant women. The study was a 2-mo, double-blind, randomized trial. Subjects (n = 366) with anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) acid. The iron+folic acid (IF) group (n = 93) served as reference, the iron+folic acid+retinol group (IFA) (n = 91) was treated with 2000 mug retinol, the iron+folic acid+riboflavin group (IFB) (n = 91) with 1.0 mg riboflavin, and the iron+folic acid+retinol+riboflavin group (IFAB) (n = 91) with retinol and riboflavin. After the 2-mo intervention, the Hb concentration increased in all 4 groups (P < 0.001). The increase in the IFAB group was 5.4 +/- 1.1 g/L greater than in the IF group (P < 0.001). The reduced prevalence of anemia (Hb < 110g/L) and ID anemia were significantly greater in the groups supplemented with retinol and /or riboflavin than in the IF group. Moreover, gastrointestinal symptoms were less prevalent in the IFA group than in the IF group (P < 0.05) and improved well-being was more prevalent in the groups receiving additional retinol and/or riboflavin than in the IF group (P < 0.05). Thus, a combination of iron, folic acid, retinol, and riboflavin was more effective than iron plus folic acid alone. Multimicronutrient supplementation may be worthwhile for pregnant women in rural China.

  3. Estimation of optimum amino acid supplements to triticale.

    PubMed

    Heger, J

    1990-04-01

    Based on the nitrogen balance (NB) data and the efficiency of amino acid utilization, optimum supplements of limiting amino acids (AA) to triticale were calculated and their effect on true N digestibility (TD), biological value of protein (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) of a triticale-based diet was evaluated. To determine if AA balance must be considered in the calculation of the optimum supplements, the effect of a 20% or 40% excess of essential AA in lysine-, methionine-, threonine- or tryptophan-deficient diets was also studied. The AA excess had no significant effect on NB in diets deficient in lysine, methionine or threonine. However, NB in rats fed on the tryptophan-deficient diet increased as the AA excess increased. BV of the diet containing the optimized supplements of lysine, threonine, methionine and valine was comparable to that of lactalbumin or to the diet supplemented with all essential AA. The deletion of valine from the optimized supplement caused an insignificant decrease in BV. Due to the lower TD, NPU of diets containing the optimized AA supplements was lower than that of the diet containing all essential AA or of the lactalbumin-based diet.

  4. Supplementation of Emblica officinalis (Amla) extract reduces oxidative stress in uremic patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Chang, Yen-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Emblica Officinalis (also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry), a natural, traditional and functional food in Asia, has physiological benefits such as hepato-, cyto- and radio- protection, as well as hypolipidemic effects. In addition, Amla often functions as a potent antioxidant due to the high level of ascorbic acid (ranging from 1,100 to 1,700 mg/100 g of fruit) in its fruit. The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with Amla extract could reduce oxidative stress in patients with uremia. The findings show that supplementation with Amla extract for 4 months reduced the plasma oxidative marker, 8-iso-prostaglandin, (M0 vs. M4 = 1415 +/- 1234 pg/ml vs. 750 +/- 496 pg/ml, p < 0.05) and increased plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) (M0 vs. M4 = 2.32 +/- 0.14 mM vs. 2.55 +/- 0.24 mM, p < 0.05) in uremic patients. On the other hand, there were no significant differences observed in liver function (GOP and GPT), renal function (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid), diabetic index (plasma glucose and adiponectin) and atherogenic index (LDL/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and homocysteine) in patients treated with Amla for 4 months. Our data suggest that Amla supplementation may increase plasma antioxidant power and decrease oxidative stress in uremic patients. However, Amla extract did not influence hepatic or renal function, or diabetic and atherogenic indices in uremic patients.

  5. Retinoic acid stimulates essential fatty acid-supplemented human keratinocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Marcelo, C L; Dunham, W R

    1997-05-01

    The effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the proliferation of essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient and of EFA-supplemented adult human keratinocytes was investigated. EFA-deficient cell strains were supplied with one of four different fatty acid-supplemented media at the P0 to P1 passage. All-trans retinoic acid at 0.5 or 1.0 microM was added to the cultures at the P1 to P2 passage. At passage P3, and 3 and 7 d thereafter, the cell growth rate was determined. The fatty acid content of cultures grown in each medium was measured using gas chromatography. All the EFA media "normalized" the cellular fatty acid composition and drastically decreased the cell number and total DNA and protein of the cultures. All-trans retinoic acid at 1 microM prevented the loss of cell viability and growth usually associated with EFA supplementation but did not affect the control (EFA deficient) or 18:1 fatty acid-supplemented cultures. All-trans retinoic acid at 1 microM altered the fatty acid content of the EFA-supplemented cultures. A statistically significant increase in 14:0, 14:1, 16:1, 18:1, and 20:4 fatty acids occurred, whereas the amounts of 18:0 and 18:2 fatty acids decreased. The largest changes were in 16:1 fatty acid (8-14%) and 18:2 fatty acid (12-5%). All-trans retinoic acid at 0.5 microM also affected both cell growth and fatty acid composition without induction of the CRABP II message. These studies demonstrate that all-trans retinoic acid stimulates the growth of EFA-supplemented keratinocyte cultures while also altering the fatty acid composition of the cells.

  6. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in an animal model of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ross, Brian M; Malik, Imran; Babay, Slim

    2016-11-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may ameliorate depressed mood. The magnitude of the effect varies between studies, however, ranging from none at all to being of clinical significance. Given that substantial comorbidity occurs between mood and anxiety disorders, suggesting that they have one or more pathophysiological mechanisms in common, we hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids may be acting primarily to reduce anxiety rather than depression per se, a possibility which could underlie their variable effects on mood. To test this hypothesis rats were fed for 8 weeks with diets containing one of three types of omega-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, as well as a low omega-3 fatty acid control diet. Although brain omega-3 fatty acid concentrations were altered by dietary supplementation with eicospentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, no significant change in anxiety related behaviors were observed compared to the control group as assessed by the elevated-plus maze test. Our data therefore do not support an anxiolytic effect of omega-3 fatty acids and suggest that any effect of these lipids on mood likely occurs by a mechanism unrelated to reducing anxiety.

  7. Chia flour supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Luciana Tavares; da Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira; Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; de Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chia supplementation (Salvia hispanica L.) on blood pressure (BP) and its associated cardiometabolic factors in treated and untreated hypertensive individuals. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: the hypertensive-drug treated (CHIA-MD, n = 10), hypertensive untreated (CHIA-NM, n = 9) and placebo (PLA-MD, n = 7) groups. The subjects consumed 35 g/day of either chia flour or a placebo for 12 weeks. The clinical and ambulatory BP, inflammation, oxidative stress and markers for nitric oxide were measured. While the PLA-MD group showed no changes in BP, there was a reduction in the mean clinical blood pressure (MBP) in the CHIA (111.5 ± 1.9 to 102.7 ± 1.5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and CHIA-MD (111.3 ± 2.2 to 100.1 ± 1.8 mmHg, p < 0.001) groups. The CHIA-NM group showed no reduction in the MBP but did show a decreased systolic BP (146.8 ± 3.8 to 137.3 ± 3.1 mmHg, p < 0.05). The clinical BP reduction was demonstrated by a 24 h ambulatory systolic reduction in all of the supplemented groups. However, the mean ambulatory BP was reduced only in the CHIA (98.1 ± 2.4 to 92.8 ± 2.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) group, and there was no change in the diastolic component in either of the CHIA groups. The lipid peroxidation was reduced in the CHIA (p = 0.04) and CHIA-NM (p = 0.02) groups compared with the PLA-MD group. A reduction in the plasma nitrite levels was observed only in the CHIA group (p = 0.02). Chia flour has the ability to reduce ambulatory and clinical BP in both treated and untreated hypertensive individuals.

  8. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2005-06-01

    Asthma prevalence continues to increase despite the progress that has been made in the treatment options for asthma. Alternative treatment therapies that reduce the dose requirements of pharmacological interventions would be beneficial, and could potentially reduce the public health burden of this disease. There is accumulating evidence that dietary modification has potential to influence the severity of asthma and reduce the prevalence and incidence of this condition. A possible contributing factor to the increased incidence of asthma in Western societies may the consumption of a pro-inflammatory diet. In the typical Western diet, 20-25-fold more omega (n)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than n-3 PUFA are consumed, which results in the release of pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are n-3 PUFA derived from fish oil that competitively inhibit n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and this reduce the generation of pro-inflammatory 4-series leukotrienes (LTs) and 2-series prostaglandins (PGs) and production of cytokines from inflammatory cells. These data are consistent with the proposed pathway by which dietary intake of n-3 PUFA modulates lung disease. This article will review the existing information concerning the relationship between n-3 PUFA supplementation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. It includes studies assessing the efficacy of n-3 PUFA supplementation in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. This review will also address the question as to whether supplementing the diet with n-3 PUFA represents a viable alternative treatment regimen for asthma.

  9. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    PubMed Central

    McStay, Catrina L.; Prescott, Susan L.; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population studies have also described associations between folate status in pregnancy and the risk of subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in early life allergic diseases. PMID:28208798

  10. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future.

  11. The proteomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose conditions with amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong Khoa; Wright, Phillip C

    2008-11-01

    Ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose (VHG) media with an amino acid supplement was investigated. Amino acid supplementation led to positive cell responses, including reduced lag time and increased cell viability in VHG media. A quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was used to understand how amino acid supplemented S. cerevisiae responds to high osmotic conditions. iTRAQ data revealed that most proteins involved in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated under high glucose shock. Reactivation of amino acid metabolism was also observed at the end of the lag phase. The relative abundance of most identified proteins, including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis proteins, and heat-shock proteins, remained unchanged in the hours immediately following application of glucose shock. However, the expression of these proteins increased significantly at the end of the lag phase. Furthermore, the up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen biosynthesis proteins, first maintaining then latterly increasing glycolysis pathway activity was also observed. This was verified by enhanced ethanol yields at 10 and 12 h (0.43 and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose) compared to 2 h (0.32 g ethanol/g glucose). These data combined with relevant metabolite measurements demonstrates that enhanced ethanol fermentation under VHG conditions can be achieved with the aid of amino acid supplementation.

  12. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  13. Efficacy of some antioxidants supplementation in reducing oxidative stress post sodium tungstate exposure in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, S; Flora, S J S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of some antioxidants against sodium tungstate induced oxidative stress in male wistar rats. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100ppm in drinking water) for three months except for control group. In the same time, many rats were supplemented orally with different antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), n-acetylcysteine (NAC), quercetin or naringenin (0.30mM)) for five consecutive days a week for the same mentioned period before. Exposure to sodium tungstate significantly (P<0.05) inhibit blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, liver and blood reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels in tissues. ALA acid and NAC supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure increased GSH and also, was beneficial in the recovery of altered superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, besides, significantly reducing blood and tissue reactive oxygen species and TBARS levels. The results suggest a more pronounced efficacy of ALA acid and NAC supplementation than quercetin or naringenin supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure in preventing induced oxidative stress in rats.

  14. Evidence that L-carnitine and selenium supplementation reduces oxidative stress in phenylketonuric patients.

    PubMed

    Sitta, A; Vanzin, C S; Biancini, G B; Manfredini, V; de Oliveira, A B; Wayhs, C A Y; Ribas, G O S; Giugliani, L; Schwartz, I V D; Bohrer, D; Garcia, S C; Wajner, M; Vargas, C R

    2011-04-01

    It is well established that the involvement of reactive species in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases, including phenylketonuria (PKU), a metabolic genetic disorder biochemically characterized by elevated levels of phenylalanine (Phe). In previous studies, we verified that PKU patients (treated with a protein-restricted diet supplemented with a special formula not containing L-carnitine and selenium) presented high lipid and protein oxidative damage as well as a reduction of antioxidants when compared to the healthy individuals. Our goal in the present study was to evaluate the effect of Phe-restricted diet supplemented with L-carnitine and selenium, two well-known antioxidant compounds, on oxidative damage in PKU patients. We investigated various oxidative stress parameters in blood of 18 treated PKU patients before and after 6 months of supplementation with a special formula containing L-carnitine and selenium. It was verified that treatment with L-carnitine and selenium was capable of reverting the lipid peroxidation, measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive species, and the protein oxidative damage, measured by sulfhydryl oxidation, to the levels of controls. Additionally, the reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase was normalized by the antioxidant supplementation. It was also verified a significant inverse correlation between lipid peroxidation and L-carnitine blood levels as well as a significant positive correlation between glutathione peroxidase activity and blood selenium concentration. In conclusion, our results suggest that supplementation of L-carnitine and selenium is important for PKU patients since it could help to correct the oxidative stress process which possibly contributes, at least in part, to the neurological symptoms found in phenylketonuric patients.

  15. Amino acid supplementation of calf milk replacers containing plasma protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S Y; Campbell, J M; Drackley, J K

    2017-03-22

    We determined the effects of calf milk replacers containing 0, 5, or 10% bovine plasma protein (PP), either without or with the supplemental amino acids (AA) Ile and Thr, on growth and health of male Holstein calves (n = 104) for 56 d. Milk replacers were formulated to contain 22% crude protein (CP), 20% fat, and 2.0% Lys. Milk replacers (12.5% solids) were fed at a rate of 1.5% of body weight (BW) on a dry matter basis during wk 1 and 1.75% of BW beginning on d 8. Starter was introduced on d 36 so that effects of PP and AA balance in milk replacers could be isolated. Intake, respiratory scores, and fecal scores were measured daily. Body weight and stature were measured weekly and blood serum samples were obtained during wk 4. Treatments had no effects on intakes of dry matter, CP, or metabolizable energy. During wk 6 and 8, BW was less as PP inclusion increased without AA supplementation compared with the other treatments. In wk 7, calves fed the higher level of PP without AA had lower BW than calves fed either the lower level of PP without supplemented AA or the higher inclusion of PP with supplemented AA. Average daily gain and gain:feed were lowest for calves fed the higher inclusion of PP without supplemented AA; heart girth in wk 7 was smallest for those calves. During the first 21 d, occurrence of scours was greater in calves fed the control milk replacer than in calves fed milk replacers containing the higher inclusion of PP either without or with supplemental AA. Occurrence of scours was also greater for the lower inclusion of PP compared with the higher inclusion of PP when AA were supplemented. Throughout the 56-d experiment, the chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for calves fed the control milk replacer than for all other treatments except the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA. Additionally, chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA than for other milk replacers with PP. Calves

  16. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

  17. Assessment of nutrient supplement to reduce gentamicin-induced ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Le Prell, C G; Ojano-Dirain, C; Rudnick, E W; Nelson, M A; DeRemer, S J; Prieskorn, D M; Miller, J M

    2014-06-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat gram-negative bacterial infections. Treatment with this antibiotic carries the potential for adverse side effects, including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Ototoxic effects are at least in part a consequence of oxidative stress, and various antioxidants have been used to attenuate gentamicin-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. Here, a combination of nutrients previously shown to reduce oxidative stress in the hair cells and attenuate hearing loss after other insults was evaluated for potential protection against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Guinea pigs were maintained on a nutritionally complete standard laboratory animal diet or a diet supplemented with β-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium. Three diets with iterative increases in nutrient levels were screened; the final diet selected for study use was one that produced statistically reliable increases in plasma levels of vitamins C and E and magnesium. In two separate studies, significant decreases in gentamicin-induced hearing loss at frequencies including 12 kHz and below were observed, with less benefit at the higher frequencies. Consistent with the functional protection, robust protection of both the inner and outer hair cell populations was observed, with protection largely in the upper half of the cochlea. Protection was independently assessed in two different laboratories, using two different strains of guinea pigs. Additional in vitro tests did not reveal any decrease in antimicrobial activity with nutrient additives. Currently, there are no FDA-approved treatments for the prevention of gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. The current data provide a rationale for continued investigations regarding translation to human patients.

  18. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    PubMed

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes.

  19. Chemopreventive effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in experimental myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Emily R.; Kudva, Avinash K.; Quickel, Michael D.; Goodfield, Laura L.; Kennett, Mary J.; Whelan, Jay; Paulson, Robert F.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies for treatment of myeloid leukemia do not eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSC), leading to disease relapse. In this study, we supplemented mice with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5), a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid, at pharmacological levels, to examine if the endogenous metabolite, cyclopentenone prostaglandin delta-12 PGJ3 (Δ12-PGJ3), was effective in targeting LSCs in experimental leukemia. EPA supplementation for eight weeks resulted in enhanced endogenous production of Δ12-PGJ3 that was blocked by indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Using a murine model of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) induced by bone marrow transplantation of BCR-ABL-expressing hematopoietic stem cells, mice supplemented with EPA showed a decrease in the LSC population, reduced splenomegaly and leukocytosis, when compared to mice on an oleic acid diet. Supplementation of CML mice carrying the T315I mutation (in BCR-ABL) with EPA resulted in a similar effect. Indomethacin blocked the EPA effect and increased the severity of BCR-ABL-induced CML and decreased apoptosis. Δ12-PGJ3 rescued indomethacin-treated BCR-ABL mice and decreased LSCs. Inhibition of hematopoietic-prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) by HQL-79 in EPA-supplemented CML mice also blocked the effect of EPA. In addition, EPA supplementation was effective in a murine model of acute myeloid leukemia. Supplemented mice exhibited a decrease in leukemia burden and a decrease in the LSC colony-forming unit (LSC-CFU). The decrease in LSCs was confirmed through serial transplantation assays in all disease models. The results support a chemopreventive role for EPA in myeloid leukemia, which is dependent on the ability to efficiently convert EPA to endogenous cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids, including Δ12-PGJ3. PMID:26290393

  20. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not improve efficacy of meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment in lead-exposed suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Varnai, Veda Marija; Piasek, Martina; Blanusa, Maja; Juresa, Dijana; Sarić, Marija; Kostial, Krista

    2003-10-01

    It was suggested that ascorbic acid as a natural chelating agent can influence lead toxicokinetics and improve chelating properties of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in adult rats. In this paper potential benefits of ascorbic acid supplementation, alone or combined with DMSA, in decreasing lead retention in suckling rats were evaluated. Such data in young mammals are not available. L-Ascorbic acid (daily dose 650 mg/kg b.wt.) and/or DMSA (daily dose 91 mg/kg b.wt.) were administered orally to suckling Wistar rats either during ongoing 8-day oral lead exposure (as acetate; daily dose 2 mg lead/kg b.wt.) or after 3-day lead exposure (total dose 12 mg lead/kg b.wt.). Lead concentrations were analysed in the carcass (skeleton), liver, kidneys and brain by atomic absorption spectrometry. By ascorbic acid supplementation lead retention was not reduced under either lead exposure condition. Lead concentration was even increased in the carcass. Treatment with DMSA under both exposure conditions significantly reduced lead in all analysed tissues. Combined treatment with ascorbic acid and DMSA during ongoing lead exposure was substantially less effective than DMSA treatment alone, and did not affect DMSA efficacy when administered after lead exposure. It was concluded that ascorbic acid administered either during or after lead exposure in suckling rats has no beneficial effect on either lead retention or DMSA chelation effectiveness.

  1. Effect of folic acid supplementation on homocysteine concentration and association with training in handball players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strenuous physical activity can alter the status of folic acid, a vitamin directly associated with homocysteine (Hcy); alterations in this nutrient are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Handball players are a population at risk for nutrient deficiency because of poor dietary habits. Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate nutritional status for macronutrients and folic acid in members of a high-performance handball team, and determine the effect of a nutritional intervention with folic acid supplementation and education. Design A total of 14 high-performance handball players were monitored by recording training time, training intensity (according to three levels of residual heart rate (RHR): <60%, 60%–80% and >80%), and subjective perceived exertion (RPE) during a 4-month training period. Nutritional, laboratory and physical activity variables were recorded at baseline (Week 0), after 2 months of dietary supplementation with 200 μg folic acid (50% of the recommended daily allowance) (Week 8) and after 2 months without supplementation (Week 16). We compared training load and analyzed changes in plasma concentrations of Hcy before and after the intervention. Results Bivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy and folic acid concentrations (r = −0.84) at Week 8, reflecting a significant change in Hcy concentration (P < 0.05) as a result of hyperhomocysteinemia following the accumulation of high training loads. At Week 16 we observed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy concentration and training time with an RHR <60%, indicating that aerobic exercise avoided abrupt changes in Hcy and may thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular accidents in high-performance athletes. Conclusion Integral monitoring and education are needed for practitioners of handball sports to record their folic acid status, a factor that directly affects Hcy metabolism. Folic acid

  2. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 ± 10 y) performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial) and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation (omega-3 trial). Before and 48 h after eccentric exercise, signs of inflammation was assessed by measuring soreness ratings, swelling (arm circumference and arm volume), and temperature (infrared skin sensor). Arm soreness increased (p < 0.0001) in response to eccentric exercise; the magnitude of increase in soreness was 15% less in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.004). Arm circumference increased after eccentric exercise in the control trial (p = 0.01) but not in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.15). However, there was no difference between trials (p = 0.45). Arm volume and skin temperature did not change in response to eccentric exercise in either trial. These findings suggest that omega-3 supplementation decreases soreness, as a marker of inflammation, after eccentric exercise. Based on these findings, omega-3 supplementation could provide benefits by minimizing post-exercise soreness and thereby facilitate exercise training in individuals ranging from athletes undergoing heavy conditioning to sedentary subjects or patients who are starting exercise programs or medical treatments such as physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation. Key points Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to reduce inflammation in numerous inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and Chrohn’s disease. Although strenuous exercise is known to cause acute increases in inflammation, it is not clear if omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates this

  3. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids extends the adiponectin deficit during early lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiva P; Häussler, Susanne; Heinz, Johanna F L; Saremi, Behnam; Mielenz, Birgit; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-03-01

    Decreasing insulin sensitivity (IS) in peripheral tissues allows for partitioning nutrients towards the mammary gland. In dairy cows, extensive lipid mobilization and continued insulin resistance (IR) are typical for early lactation. Adiponectin, an adipokine, promotes IS. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in rodents and humans reduces fat mass whereby IR and hyperinsulinemia may occur. In dairy cows, CLA reduce milk fat, whereas body fat, serum free fatty acids and leptin are not affected. We aimed to investigate the effects of CLA supplementation on serum and adipose tissue (AT) adiponectin concentrations in dairy cows during the lactation driven and parity modulated changes of metabolism. High yielding cows (n=33) were allocated on day 1 post partum to either 100 g/day of a CLA mixture or a control fat supplement (CON) until day 182 post partum. Blood and subcutaneous (sc) AT (AT) biopsy samples were collected until day 252 post partum to measure adiponectin. Serum adiponectin decreased from day 21 pre partum reaching a nadir at calving and thereafter increased gradually. The distribution of adiponectin molecular weight forms was neither affected by time, parity nor treatment. Cows receiving CLA had decreased serum adiponectin concentrations whereby primiparous cows responded about 4 weeks earlier than multiparous cows. The time course of adiponectin concentrations in sc AT (corrected for residual blood) was similar to serum concentrations, without differences between CLA and CON. CLA supplementation attenuated the post partum increase of circulating adiponectin thus acting towards prolongation of peripartal IR and drain of nutrients towards the mammary gland.

  4. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25019084

  5. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases lung inflammation in hyperoxia-exposed newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lynette K; Valentine, Christina J; Pennell, Michael; Velten, Markus; Britt, Rodney D; Dingess, Kelly; Zhao, Xuilan; Welty, Stephen E; Tipple, Trent E

    2011-02-01

    DHA is a long-chain fatty acid that has potent antiinflammatory properties. Whereas maternal DHA dietary supplementation has been shown to improve cognitive development in infants fed DHA-supplemented milk, the antiinflammatory effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the developing fetus and neonate have not been extensively explored. Pregnant C3H/HeN dams were fed purified control or DHA-supplemented diets (~0.25% of total fat) at embryonic d 16 and consumed these diets throughout the study. At birth, the nursing mouse pups were placed in room air (RA; 21% O(2)) or >95% O(2) (hyperoxia) for up to 7 d. These studies tested the hypothesis that maternal DHA supplementation would decrease inflammation and improve alveolarization in the lungs of newborn mouse pups exposed to hyperoxia. Survival, inflammatory responses, and lung growth were compared among control diet/RA, DHA/RA, control/O(2), and DHA/O(2) pups. There were fewer neutrophils and macrophages in lung tissues from pups nursed by DHA-supplemented dams than in those nursed by dams fed the control diet at 7 d of hyperoxia exposure (P < 0.015). Although differences due to hyperoxia exposure were observed, maternal diet did not affect keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, IL-1β, or TNFα mRNA levels in pup tissues. Hyperoxia also induced NF-κB activity, but maternal diet did not affect NF-κB or PPARγ activities. In mice, DHA supplementation decreases leukocyte infiltration in the offspring exposed to hyperoxia, suggesting a potential role for DHA supplementation as a therapy to reduce inflammation in preterm infants.

  6. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Early Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Mitchel, Edward F.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Hartert, Tina V.; Cooper, William O.; Dupont, William D; Dorris, Stacy L.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Carroll, Kecia N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. While folic acid supplementation around conception helps prevent neural tube defects, an animal model suggests it may be a risk factor for respiratory diseases; although epidemiologic studies have had conflicting results. We investigated the timing of folic acid-containing prescription filling during pregnancy and child asthma. Methods In a retrospective cohort study of 104,428 children, born 1996–2005, and their mothers enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid, we investigated the association of filling folic acid-containing prescriptions during pregnancy and childhood asthma at age 4.5–6 years. We categorized women into exposure groups based on prescription-filling centered around the first trimester: no folic acid prescription exposure, exposure in first trimester only, exposure after first trimester, and exposure in first trimester and beyond. We defined asthma using asthma-specific healthcare visits and medication fills. Using logistic regression models, we investigated the relationship adjusting for potential confounders. Results Overall 15% of children had asthma. Compared with children born to women with no folic acid prescription exposure, children born to women with exposures in the first trimester only or first trimester and later had increased relative odds of asthma [adjusted odds ratios (OR) 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.3] and 1.2, 95% CI 1.2–1.3]; no association was seen in children born to women exposed after the first trimester. Conclusion Timing of folic acid-containing prescription filling during pregnancy was associated with childhood asthma. Our findings contribute to understanding of the role of prenatal nutritional supplements on child respiratory health. PMID:26360371

  7. Effect of mineral supplements to citric acid on enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Meyer, K; Hellwig, E; Buchalla, W; Lennon, A M

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral supplements to citric acid (1%; pH 2.21) on enamel erosion under controlled conditions in an artificial mouth. From each of 156 bovine incisors one polished enamel sample was prepared. The samples were divided among 13 experimental groups (n=12). In group 1 citric acid only was used (control). In groups 2-10 either calcium, phosphate or fluoride in various low concentrations was admixed to the citric acid. In groups 11-13 the citric acid was supplemented with a mixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride. For demineralisation the specimens were rinsed with the respective solution for 1 min, immediately followed by a remineralisation period with artificial saliva (1 min). The specimens were cycled through this alternating procedure five times followed by rinsing for 8 h with artificial saliva. The de- and remineralisation cycle was repeated three times for each specimen interrupted by the 8 h-remineralisation periods. Before and after the experiments, the specimens were examined using microhardness testing (Knoop hardness) and laser profilometry. Hardness loss and enamel dissolution was significantly higher for the controls as compared to the remaining groups. Significantly lowest hardness loss for all groups was recorded for group 12 with admixture of calcium, phosphate and fluoride to citric acid. The significantly highest enamel loss was recorded for the controls compared to all other samples. Groups 3 and 4 revealed significantly lower and higher tissue loss compared to the remaining groups (2-13), respectively. The other groups did not differ significantly from each other. Modification of citric acid with calcium, phosphate and fluoride exerts a significant protective potential with respect to dental erosion. However, with the low concentrations applied enamel dissolution could not be completely prevented.

  8. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by a 3-thia fatty acid reduces triacylglycerol secretion in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Skrede, S; Bremer, J; Berge, R K; Rustan, A C

    1994-08-01

    The present work shows that when mitochondrial beta-oxidation is stimulated by the hypolipemic, non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analogue tetradecylthioacetic acid, there is a decrease in the secretion of triacylglycerol in cultured rat hepatocytes. In order to study the effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid in cells with different fatty acid oxidation rates, cells were grown without or with L-carnitine supplement or with addition of the beta-oxidation inhibitor L-aminocarnitine. In cells grown without and with L-carnitine in the medium, the oxidation of [1-14C]oleic acid was stimulated by tetradecylthioacetic acid, whereas it was not significantly changed by palmitic acid. In cells grown with L-aminocarnitine, oxidation of [1-14C]oleic acid was almost abolished both in the absence and in presence of tetradecylthioacetic acid. The effect of tetradecylthioacetic acid and palmitic acid on incorporation of [1-14C]oleic acid into triacylglycerol was similar under all conditions. In the presence of L-carnitine, secretion of oleic acid-labeled triacylglycerol was reduced significantly more by tetradecylthioacetic acid than by palmitic acid. The effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid and palmitic acid on secretion of oleic acid-labeled triacylglycerol were reversed in cells grown with L-aminocarnitine, where palmitic acid was the stronger inhibitor. These results were substantiated by determination of mass of triacylglycerol secreted. It is concluded that tetradecylthioacetic acid reduces secretion of triacylglycerol from rat hepatocytes mainly by acutely stimulating fatty acid oxidation.

  9. ω-3 fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid, and antioxidants: immunomodulators or inert dietary supplements?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Expanded abstract Citation Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, deBoisblanc BP, Steingrub J, Rock, P. Enteral Omega-3 Fatty Acid, γ-Linolenic Acid, and Antioxidant Supplementation in Acute Lung Injury. JAMA. 2011; 306(14):1574-1581. PubMed PMID: 21976613. Background The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, along with γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants, may modulate systemic inflammatory response and improve oxygenation and outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Methods Objective: To determine if dietary supplementation of these substances to patients with acute lung injury would increase ventilator-free days to study day 28. Design: The OMEGA study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through February 21, 2009. All participants had complete follow-up. Setting: This trial occurred at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. Subjects: Participants were 272 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition. Intervention: Twice-daily enteral supplementation of n-3 fatty acids, γ -linolenic acid, and antioxidants compared with an isocaloric control. Enteral nutrition, directed by a protocol, was delivered separately from the study supplement. Outcomes: Ventilator-free days to study day 28. Results The study was stopped early for futility after 143 and 129 patients were enrolled in the n-3 and control groups. Despite an 8-fold increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels, patients receiving the n-3 supplement had fewer ventilator-free days (14.0 vs 17.2; P=.02) (difference, −3.2 [95% CI, −5.8 to −0.7]) and intensive care unit-free days (14.0 vs 16.7; P=.04). Patients in the n-3 group also had fewer nonpulmonary organ failure-free days (12.3 vs 15.5; P=.02). Sixty-day hospital mortality was 26.6% in the n 3 group vs 16

  10. Creatine supplementation reduces doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocellular injury.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Lucia; Darrabie, Marcus D; Mantilla, Jose Gabriel; Mishra, Rajashree; Feger, Bryan J; Jacobs, Danny O

    2015-04-01

    Heart failure is a common complication of doxorubicin (DOX) therapy. Previous studies have shown that DOX adversely impacts cardiac energy metabolism, and the ensuing energy deficiencies antedate clinical manifestations of cardiac toxicity. Brief exposure of cultured cardiomyocytes to DOX significantly decreases creatine transport, which is the cell's sole source of creatine. We present the results of a study performed to determine if physiological creatine supplementation (5 mmol/L) could protect cardiomyocytes in culture from cellular injury resulting from exposure to therapeutic levels of DOX. Creatine supplementation significantly decreased cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production caused by DOX. The protective effect was specific to creatine and depended on its transport into the cell.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  12. Impact of folic acid supplementation on single- and double-stranded RNA degradation in human colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jevtoci-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Langerholc, Tomaz; Jonovic, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Sufficient intake of folic acid is necessary for normal embryogenesis, fetal, and neonatal development. Folic acid facilitates nucleic acid internalization, and protects cellular DNA from nuclease degradation. Human milk contains enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, and antibodies, along with macrophages, that protect against infections and allergies. However, little to no information is available on the effects of folic acid supplementation on degradation of nucleic acids in human milk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the RNase activity (free and inhibitor-bound) in colostrum and mature milk, following folic acid supplementation. The study design included a total of 59 women, 27 of whom received 400 μg of folic acid daily periconceptionally and after. Folic acid supplementation increased the free RNase and polyadenylase activity following lactation. However, the increased RNase activity was not due to de novo enzyme synthesis, as the inhibitor-bound (latent) RNase activity was significantly lower and disappeared after one month. Folic acid reduced RNase activity by using double-stranded RNA as substrate. Data suggests that folic acid supplementation may improve viral RNAs degradation and mRNA degradation, but not dsRNA degradation, preserving in this way the antiviral defense.

  13. Fish oil supplementation reduces cachexia and tumor growth while improving renal function in tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Isabela; Casare, Fernando; Pequito, Danielle C T; Borghetti, Gina; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Brito, Gleisson A P; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio; Coimbra, Terezila M; Fernandez, Ricardo

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the renal function of healthy and tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with fish oil (FO), a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Weanling male rats were divided in two groups, one control (C) and another orally supplemented for 70 days with FO (1 g/kg body weight). After this time, half the animals of each group were injected in the right flank with a suspension of Walker 256 tumor cells (W and WFO). The W group had less proteinemia reflecting cachectic proteolysis, FO reversed this fact. Tumor weight gain was also reduced in WFO. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not different in FO or W compared to C, but was higher in WFO. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was higher in the FO supplemented groups. The W group had lower plasma osmolality than the C group, but FO supplementation resulted in normalization of this parameter. Fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na+)) of FO rats was similar to C. Proximal Na(+) reabsorption, evaluated by lithium clearance, was similar among the groups. Urinary thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) excretion was lower in the supplemented groups. The number of macrophages in renal tissue was higher in W compared to C rats, but was lower in WFO rats compared to W rats. In conclusion, FO supplementation resulted in less tumor growth and cachexia, and appeared to be renoprotective, as suggested by higher RPF and GFR.

  14. Reducing Ethnocentrism in International Business Students with an Online Multicultural Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluck, Udo; Clouse, Shawn F.; Shooshtari, Nader H.

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether multicultural online supplements can reduce ethnocentricity in students. The results based on data collected through an established "global-mindedness" questionnaire in both a traditional International Business course and one with an online addition, suggest that online supplements are a valuable tool…

  15. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid affects concentrations of amino acids in tissues of young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the lipids may modulate AA availability in tissues. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of four treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0% (control), 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. In brain, cholesterol supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate, serine, glutamine, threonine, β-alanine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and γ-aminobutyrate but increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycine and lysine, whereas DHA supplementation similarly affected (P < 0.05) concentrations of the same AA (except for isoleucine and lysine) and taurine. In addition, concentrations of most AA in liver, muscle and plasma were substantially altered by dietary supplementation of cholesterol and DHA in a tissue-dependent manner. Further, DHA reduced concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle, as well as ammonia in both plasma and brain. The results reveal that cholesterol and DHA can regulate AA metabolism and availability in various tissues of piglets. These novel findings have important implications for designing the next generation of infant formula to optimize neonatal growth and development. PMID:18972185

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Lowers Serum FSH in Normal Weight But Not Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Safi, Zain A.; Liu, Huayu; Carlson, Nichole E.; Chosich, Justin; Harris, Mary; Bradford, Andrew P.; Robledo, Celeste; Eckel, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Dietary omega-3 fatty acids delay ovarian aging and promote oocyte quality in mice. Objective: To test whether dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulates reproductive hormones in reproductive-age women. Design: Prospective interventional study. Setting: Academic center. Participants: Fifteen obese and 12 normal-weight (NW) eumenorrheic women, ages 28–34 years. Intervention: Two frequent blood-sampling studies were performed before and after 1 month of omega-3 PUFA supplementation with 4 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid daily. Main Outcome Measures: Serum LH and FSH (basal and after GnRH stimulation). Results: The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA was significantly reduced in plasma and red blood cell components for both groups after treatment (both P < .01). Omega-3 PUFA supplementation resulted in reduction of FSH and FSH response to GnRH by 17% on average (P = .06 and P = .03, respectively) in NW but not obese women. Serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were reduced after omega-3 PUFA supplementation (−72% for IL-1β; −56% for TNF-α; both, P < .05) in obese but not in NW women. This reduction, however, was not associated with a hormonal change in obese women. Conclusions: Dietary administration with omega-3 PUFA decreased serum FSH levels in NW but not in obese women with normal ovarian reserve. This effect is intriguing and is directionally consistent with murine data whereby higher dietary omega-3 PUFA extends reproductive lifespan. Our results imply that this nutritional intervention should be tested in women with diminished ovarian reserve in an attempt to delay ovarian aging. PMID:26523525

  17. Essential amino acid supplementation in patients following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Hans C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Senesac, Hilary A.; Hocker, Austin D.; Smolkowski, Keith; Shah, Steven N.; Jewett, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. By the year 2030, 3.48 million older U.S. adults are projected to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Following this surgery, considerable muscle atrophy occurs, resulting in decreased strength and impaired functional mobility. Essential amino acids (EAAs) have been shown to attenuate muscle loss during periods of reduced activity and may be beneficial for TKA patients. Methods. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial with 28 older adults undergoing TKA. Patients were randomized to ingest either 20 g of EAAs (n = 16) or placebo (n = 12) twice daily between meals for 1 week before and 2 weeks after TKA. At baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after TKA, an MRI was performed to determine mid-thigh muscle and adipose tissue volume. Muscle strength and functional mobility were also measured at these times. Results. TKA patients receiving placebo exhibited greater quadriceps muscle atrophy, with a –14.3 ± 3.6% change from baseline to 2 weeks after surgery compared with –3.4 ± 3.1% for the EAA group (F = 5.16, P = 0.036) and a –18.4 ± 2.3% change from baseline to 6 weeks after surgery for placebo versus –6.2 ± 2.2% for the EAA group (F = 14.14, P = 0.001). EAAs also attenuated atrophy in the nonoperated quadriceps and in the hamstring and adductor muscles of both extremities. The EAA group performed better at 2 and 6 weeks after surgery on functional mobility tests (all P < 0.05). Change in quadriceps muscle atrophy was significantly associated with change in functional mobility (F = 5.78, P = 0.021). Conclusion. EAA treatment attenuated muscle atrophy and accelerated the return of functional mobility in older adults following TKA. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00760383. Funding. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Office of the Director (OD), and the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), NIH grant K01HD057332, and the Medical

  18. Preconception folic acid supplementation and risk for chromosome 21 nondisjunction: a report from the National Down Syndrome Project.

    PubMed

    Hollis, NaTasha D; Allen, Emily G; Oliver, Tiffany Renee; Tinker, Stuart W; Druschel, Charlotte; Hobbs, Charlotte A; O'Leary, Leslie A; Romitti, Paul A; Royle, Marjorie H; Torfs, Claudine P; Freeman, Sallie B; Sherman, Stephanie L; Bean, Lora J H

    2013-03-01

    Both a lack of maternal folic acid supplementation and the presence of genetic variants that reduce enzyme activity in folate pathway genes have been linked to meiotic nondisjunction of chromosome 21; however, the findings in this area of research have been inconsistent. To better understand these inconsistencies, we asked whether maternal use of a folic acid-containing supplement before conception reduces risk for chromosome 21 nondisjunction. Using questionnaire data from the National Down Syndrome Project, a population-based case-control study, we compared the use of folic acid-containing supplements among mothers of infants with full trisomy 21 due to maternal nondisjunction (n = 702) and mothers of infants born with no major birth defects (n = 983). Using logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, and infant age at maternal interview, we found no evidence of an association between lack of folic acid supplementation and maternal nondisjunction among all case mothers (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.90-1.48). In analyses stratified by meiotic stage and maternal age (<35 or ≥35 years), we found an association among older mothers experiencing meiosis II nondisjunction errors (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.08-3.71). These data suggest that lack of folic acid supplementation may be associated specifically with MII errors in the aging oocyte. If confirmed, these results could account for inconsistencies among previous studies, as each study sample may vary by maternal age structure and proportion of meiotic errors.

  19. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    14. ABSTRACT: See next page. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer; Lipid Medtabolism, Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0296 TITLE: Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid ...SUBTITLE Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Randomized

  20. Experimental Colitis Is Attenuated by Cardioprotective Diet Supplementation That Reduces Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Mucosal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Citalán Madrid, Alí Francisco; García Ponce, Alexander; Silva Olivares, Angelica; Shibayama, Mineko; Betanzos, Abigail; Del Valle Mondragón, Leonardo; Nava, Porfirio; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are multifactorial, relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the etiology is still poorly understood but involves altered immune responses, epithelial dysfunction, environmental factors, and nutrition. Recently, we have shown that the diet supplement corabion has cardioprotective effects due to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are also prominent risk factors in IBD, we speculated that corabion also has beneficial effects on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male mice by administration of 3.5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for a period of 3 or 7 days with or without daily gavage feeding of corabion consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. We found that corabion administration attenuated DSS-induced colon shortening, tissue damage, and disease activity index during the onset of colitis. Mechanistically, these effects could be explained by reduced neutrophil recruitment, oxidative stress, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and internalization of the junctional proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin leading to less edema formation. Thus, corabion may be a useful diet supplement for the management of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders such as IBD. PMID:26881044

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Liu, Zuoliang; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease. A systematic search of articles in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists was performed to find relevant literature. All eligible studies assessed proteinuria, the serum creatinine clearance rate, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, or the occurrence of end-stage renal disease. Standard mean differences with 95% confidence intervals for continuous data were used to estimate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on renal function, as reflected by the serum creatinine clearance rate, proteinuria, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relative risk. Additionally, a random-effects model was used to estimate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the risk of end-stage renal disease. Nine randomized controlled trials evaluating 444 patients with chronic kidney disease were included in the study. The follow-up duration ranged from 2 to 76.8 months. Compared with no or low-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, any or high-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, respectively, was associated with a lower risk of proteinuria (SMD: -0.31; 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.10; p=0.004) but had little or no effect on the serum creatinine clearance rate (SMD: 0.22; 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.84; p=0.482) or the estimated glomerular filtration rate (SMD: 0.14; 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.42; p=0.296). However, this supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of end-stage renal disease (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.99; p=0.047). In sum, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is associated with a significantly reduced risk of end-stage renal disease and delays the progression of this disease. PMID:28226034

  2. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Murray, Rachael L; Ionescu, Alina A; Lindley, Martin R

    2003-11-15

    In elite athletes, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may respond to dietary modification, thereby reducing the need for pharmacologic treatment. Ten elite athletes with EIB and 10 elite athletes without EIB (control subjects) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects entered the study on their normal diet, and then received either fish oil capsules containing 3.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g docohexaenoic acid (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA] diet; n = 5) or placebo capsules containing olive oil (placebo diet; n = 5) taken daily for 3 weeks. Diet had no effect on preexercise pulmonary function in either group or on postexercise pulmonary function in control subjects. However, in subjects with EIB, the n-3 PUFA diet improved postexercise pulmonary function compared with the normal and placebo diets. FEV1 decreased by 3 +/- 2% on n-3 PUFA diet, 14.5 +/- 5% on placebo diet, and 17.3 +/- 6% on normal diet at 15 minutes postexercise. Leukotriene (LT)E4, 9alpha, 11beta-prostaglandin F2, LTB4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, all significantly decreased on the n-3 PUFA diet compared with normal and placebo diets and after the exercise challenge. These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties.

  3. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses.

  4. Fish oil and inflammatory disease: is asthma the next target for n-3 fatty acid supplements?

    PubMed

    Stephensen, Charles B

    2004-12-01

    Eating fish or taking n-3 fatty acid supplements can decrease the risk and severity of cardiovascular disease. Such supplements also provide symptomatic relief for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Recent research suggests that asthma, another highly prevalent, chronic inflammatory disease, may also respond to fish oil supplements.

  5. Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24842467

  6. Vitamin A supplementation reduces the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 intestinal immune response of Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Long, Kurt Z; Santos, Jose Ignacio; Estrada Garcia, Teresa; Haas, Meredith; Firestone, Mathew; Bhagwat, Jui; Dupont, Herbert L; Hertzmark, Ellen; Rosado, Jorge L; Nanthakumar, Nanda N

    2006-10-01

    The impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood diarrhea may be determined by the regulatory effect supplementation has on the mucosal immune response in the gut. Previous studies have not addressed the impact of vitamin A supplementation on the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), an essential chemokine involved in pathogen-specific mucosal immune response. Fecal MCP-1 concentrations, determined by an enzyme-linked immuno absorption assay, were compared among 127 Mexican children 5-15 mo of age randomized to receive a vitamin A supplement (<12 mo of age, 20,000 IU of retinol; > or =12 mo, 45,000 iu) every 2 mo or a placebo as part of a larger vitamin A supplementation trial. Stools collected during the summer months were screened for MCP-1 and gastrointestinal pathogens. Values of MCP-1 were categorized into 3 levels (nondetectable, or =median). Multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether vitamin A-supplemented children had different categorical values of MCP-1 compared with children in the placebo group. Differences in categorical values were also analyzed stratified by gastrointestinal pathogen infections and by diarrheal symptoms. Overall, children who received the vitamin A supplement had reduced fecal concentrations of MCP-1 compared with children in the placebo group (median pg/mg protein +/- interquartile range: 284.88 +/- 885.35 vs. 403.39 +/- 913.16; odds ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-97, P = 0.03). Vitamin A supplemented children infected with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) had reduced MCP-1 levels (odds ratio = 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.80) compared with children in the placebo group. Among children not infected with Ascaris lumbricoides vitamin A supplemented children had reduced MCP-1 levels (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.94). These findings suggest that vitamin A has an anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract by reducing MCP-1 concentrations.

  7. Effect of long-term intermittent supplementation with multiple micronutrients compared with iron-and-folic acid supplementation on Hb and micronutrient status of non-anaemic adolescent schoolgirls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faruk; Khan, Moududur R; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Karim, Rezaul; Williams, Gail; Banu, Cadi P; Nahar, Badrun; Darnton-Hill, Ian

    2012-10-28

    The present study examined whether long-term supplementation with once- and twice-weekly multiple micronutrients (MMN-1 and MMN-2) can improve Hb and micronutrient status more than twice-weekly Fe-folic acid (IFA-2) supplementation in non-anaemic adolescent girls in Bangladesh. An equal number of 324 rural schoolgirls aged 11-17 years were given MMN-1 or MMN-2 or IFA-2 supplements for 52 weeks in a randomised, double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected at baseline, and at 26 and 52 weeks of supplementation. The girls receiving IFA-2 supplements were more likely to be anaemic than the girls receiving MMN-2 supplements for 26 weeks (OR 5·1, 95% CI 1·3, 19·5; P = 0·018). All three supplements reduced Fe deficiency effectively. Both the MMN-1 and MMN-2 groups showed significantly greater improvements in vitamins A, B(2) and C status than the girls in the IFA-2 group, as might be expected. Receiving a MMN-1 supplement was found to be less effective than MMN-2 supplement in improving Fe, vitamins A, B(2) and folic acid status. Receiving micronutrient supplements beyond 26 weeks showed little additional benefit in improving micronutrient status. In conclusion, given twice-weekly for 26 weeks, MMN supplements can improve micronutrient status effectively with no significant increase in Hb concentration compared with IFA supplements in non-anaemic Bangladeshi adolescent girls. However, it significantly reduces the risk of anaemia. Before any recommendations can be made, further research, including into cost-effectiveness, is needed to see whether MMN supplementation has any additional longer-term health benefits over that of IFA supplementation in this population.

  8. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  9. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2–24 hours post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16–24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2–24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16–24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. PMID:25541501

  10. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2-24 h post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16-24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2 and 24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16-24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects.

  11. Folic acid supplementation affects apoptosis and differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells exposed to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Jia, De-yong; Liu, Hui-juan; Wang, Fu-wu; Liu, Shang-ming; Ling, Eng-Ang; Liu, Kai; Hao, Ai-jun

    2008-07-25

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation has been shown to be extremely effective in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs), one of the most common birth defects associated with diabetic pregnancy. However, the antiteratogenic mechanism of FA in diabetes-induced NTDs is unclear. This study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of FA in neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to high glucose in vitro. The undifferentiated or differentiated NSCs were cultured in normal D-glucose concentration (NG) or high D-glucose concentration (HG) with or without FA. FA supplementation significantly decreased apoptosis induced by HG and lowered the expression of p53 in the nucleus of undifferentiated NSCs exposed to HG. Administration of FA in differentiated NSCs did not alter their precocious differentiation induced by HG. The increased mRNA expression levels of the basic helix-loop-helix factors including Neurog1, Neurog2, NeuroD2, Mash1, Id1, Id2, and Hes5 in the presence of HG were not significantly affected by FA. The present results provided a cellular mechanism by which FA supplementation may have a potential role in prevention of NTDs in diabetic pregnancies. On the other hand, FA increased the mRNA expression levels of the above transcription factors and accelerated the differentiation of NSCs in the NG medium, suggesting that it may adversely affect the normal differentiation of NSCs. Therefore, the timing and dose of FA would be critical factors in considering FA supplementation in normal maternal pregnancy.

  12. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  13. Omega—3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, Elizabeth; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the value of Omega—3 (n—3) fatty acid supplementation for treatment of ADHD remains high. No prior meta-analysis has examined whether ADHD is associated with alterations in blood lipid levels and meta-analyses of supplementation have reached conflicting conclusions. Methods We report two new meta-analyses. Study 1 examined blood levels of Omega—3 fatty acids in relation to ADHD. Study 2 examined a larger sample of randomized intervention trials than previously reported. Results Study 1 included 9 studies (n = 586) and found lower overall blood levels of n—3 in individuals with ADHD versus controls (g = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26–0.59; p < .001). Study 2 included 16 studies (n = 1408) and found that n—3 supplementation improved ADHD composite symptoms; using the best available rating and reporter (g = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.15–0.37; p < .001). Supplementation showed reliable effects on hyperactivity by parent and teacher report, but reliable effects for inattention only by parent report. Conclusions Omega—3 levels are reduced in children with ADHD. Dietary supplementation appears to create modest improvements in symptoms. There is sufficient evidence to consider Omega—3 fatty acids as a possible supplement to established therapies. However it remains unclear whether such intervention should be confined to children with below normal blood levels. PMID:25181335

  14. Fatty acid and sensory characteristics of beef from three biological types of cattle grazing cool-season forages supplemented with soyhulls.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Brown, A H; Pohlman, F W; Rule, D C; Johnson, Z B; Onks, D O; Murrieta, C M; Richards, C J; Loveday, H D; Sandelin, B A; Pugh, R B

    2006-01-01

    Over two consecutive years, the effects of allocating divergent biological types of cattle (n=107) to fescue pasture without supplementation, or fescue or orchardgrass pasture with soyhull supplementation on chemical, fatty acid and sensory characteristics were investigated. Cattle from the two supplemented treatments produced beef that had increased (P<0.05) percentage lipid and decreased (P<0.05) polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids compared to the control. However, the n-6 to n-3 ratio was still less than four in beef from the supplemented cattle. Additionally, supplementation did not decrease (P>0.05) the CLA present in the longissimus, which can commonly occur when forage-fed cattle are supplemented concentrates. Although supplementation did not impact (P>0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear force or tenderness, supplementation of soyhulls reduced (P<0.05) the grassy flavor intensity of rib steaks when compared to the control. Biological type did not have a significant influence on most traits analyzed in this study. These results suggest that supplementation of soyhulls to cattle grazing forage can reduce grassy flavor intensity without decreasing CLA proportions, but can reduce the n-3 fatty acid proportions present in the longissimus.

  15. Nutritional supplementation with the mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus reduces oxidative stress in children with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Marcela S; Sá, Luana A; Vasconcelos, Amanda S; Moreira, Danilo R; Laurindo, Paula SOC; Ribeiro, Danielle RG; Santos, Rogério S; Guzzo, Paulo; Dolabela, Maria F; Percario, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The involvement of free radicals and oxidative stress in HIV infection has been extensively studied, and the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in animal studies have been demonstrated. However, few studies have demonstrated a benefit in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus, a mushroom rich in antioxidants, on the oxidative profile of children born with HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: The sample included 24 children (both boys and girls) between two and eight years of age, of whom 10 were HIV positive and received supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus for a three-month period, and 14 were HIV negative and received no supplementation. At the beginning and conclusion of the study, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite and nitrate (NN), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and the antioxidant capacity of inhibition of diphenyl-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) free radicals were analyzed. RESULTS: Before supplementation, significantly higher values of TBARS and NN, but decreased values of DPPH, were observed in infected subjects when compared with HIV-negative subjects. After supplementation, a reduction of TBARS and NN values and an increase in DPPH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were observed in HIV-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in HIV infection, with the participation of NN synthesis. Additionally, supplementation reversed oxidative alterations and improved antioxidant defense in infected individuals, and may become a complementary strategy in the treatment of these patients. PMID:25371688

  16. Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-04-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that folic acid-containing multivitamins may markedly reduce the risk of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. We examined whether maternal supplementation with folic acid alone during early pregnancy can prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. The data are from a large population-based cohort study established to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation in China. We selected participants who were registered in 2 southern provinces, had exact information on folic acid use, and were not affected by chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus before 20 weeks gestation. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for the effects of the main potential confounders, including age, body mass index, education, occupation, parity, and multiple births. The study size had 99.9% power (α=0.05) to detect a decrease of 10% over the unexposed rate of 9.4% for gestational hypertension. Among the 193 554 women (47.9% took folic acid, 52.1% did not), the overall incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The incidence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 9.7% and 2.5% for women who took folic acid, and 9.4% and 2.4% for women who did not use it. The adjusted risk ratio associated with folic acid use was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11) for gestational hypertension and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.18) for preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that daily consumption of 400 μg folic acid alone during early pregnancy cannot prevent the occurrence of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

  17. Dairy food supplementation may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Iuliano, Sandra; Poon, Shirley; Wang, Xiaofang; Bui, Minh; Seeman, Ego

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in institutionalised elderly increases morbidity and care costs. Meat and dairy foods are high-quality protein sources so adequate intakes may reduce malnutrition risk. We aimed to determine whether inadequate intakes of meat and dairy foods contribute to malnutrition in institutionalised elderly. This cross-sectional study involved 215 elderly residents (70·2 % females, mean age 85·8 years) from twenty-one aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Dietary intake was assessed using observed plate waste. Food groups and serving sizes were based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient content was analysed using a computerised nutrient analysis software (Xyris). Malnutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA) tool; a score between 24 and 30 indicates normal nutritional status. Data were analysed using robust regression. Mean MNA score was 21·6 (sd 2·7). In total, 68 % of residents were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (MNA score≤23·5). Protein intake was 87 (sd 28) % of the Australian recommended dietary intake (RDI). Consumption averaged 1 serving each of dairy foods and meat daily. Number of dairy and meat servings related to proportion of protein RDI (both P24 points). Provision of meat and dairy foods did not meet recommended levels. On the basis of current dietary intakes in aged-care residents, increasing consumption of dairy foods to the recommended four servings daily ensures protein adequacy and may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly, and so reduce risk of comorbidities and costs associated with malnutrition.

  18. Potential for amino acids supplementation during inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Coëffier, Moïse; Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is multifactorial and involves interactions of gut luminal content with mucosal barrier and especially immune cells. Malnutrition is a frequent issue during IBD flares, especially in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and nutritional support is frequently used to treat malnutrition but also in an attempt to modulate intestinal inflammation. The use of oral or enteral nutrition intervention in IBDs may be effective, alone or in combination with drugs, to achieve and maintain remission. However, standard diets are less effective than new-generation biotherapies and could be improved by supplementation with specific immunomodulatory amino acids. Experimental studies evaluating glutamine, the preferential substrate for enterocytes, are promising. Some clinical studies with oral glutamine in CD are until now disappointing, but new formulations and targeting could enhance glutamine efficacy at the site of mucosal lesions. The role of arginine, involved in nitric oxide and polyamines synthesis, still remains debated. However, the effects of these amino acids in IBD have been poorly documented in humans. Other candidates like glycine, cysteine, histidine, or taurine should also be evaluated in the future.

  19. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; House, James D; O, Karmin

    2015-11-15

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver.

  20. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of the Combination of Gallic and Linoleic Acid in Thigh Meat of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the combined effect of dietary supplementation of gallic and linoleic acid (GL) on the antioxidative effect and quality of thigh meat from broilers. Broilers received 3 dietary treatments: i) commercial finisher diet (control), ii) 0.5% GL (gallic:linoleic acid = 1 M:1 M), and iii) 1.0% GL during the 22 to 36 d. The pH value of broiler thigh meat was increased by GL supplementation. Water holding capacity of the thigh meat was enhanced by the 1.0% dietary GL supplementation. Antioxidative effect (total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS+ reducing activity, reducing power, and TBARS value) in the thigh from the broilers improved significantly with 1.0% GL. Linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the broilers fed both levels of dietary GL. However, volatile basic nitrogen content and microbiological quality was not shown to be different between control and treated group. Results indicate that 1.0% dietary supplementation of GL can improve the antioxidant activity of broiler thigh meat and may enhance the meat quality. PMID:25049528

  1. Docosahexanoic acid diet supplementation attenuates the peripheral mononuclear cell inflammatory response to exercise following LPS activation.

    PubMed

    Capó, X; Martorell, M; Llompart, I; Sureda, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2014-10-01

    Exercise induces changes in circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on the plasma cytokine levels and on the peripheral mononuclear (PBMCs) cells cytokine production after a training season or an acute bout of exercise. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA, whereas the placebo group consumed the same beverage without DHA. Three blood samples were taken: in basal conditions at the beginning of the nutritional intervention and after eight weeks of training season in basal and post-exercise conditions. The DHA content increased in erythrocytes after 8weeks of training and supplementation. Neither diet supplementation with DHA nor training season altered the basal plasma cytokines and growth factors. Only acute exercise significantly increased plasma IL6 in experimental and placebo groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation induced the inflammatory response in PBMCs, with a significant production rate of TNFα, IL6 and IL8 mainly after acute exercise. DHA supplementation significantly reduced the rate of TNFα and IL6 production by stimulated PBMCs. Acute exercise increased the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein levels in PBMCs, although the increase was only statistically significant in the placebo group. In conclusion, a training season does not induce significant changes in the circulating cytokine profile in well-trained soccer players. Exercise increases the PBMCs cell capabilities to produce cytokines after TLR4 stimulation with LPS and this rate of cytokine production is attenuated by diet DHA supplementation.

  2. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of oleic acid in the infraspinatus and LM, and increased linoleic acid (P < 0.01). Oil supplementation increased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of various isomers of CLA in muscle, with the greatest change in the cis-9,trans-11 isomer. Supplementation of sheep diets with safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty

  3. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduce performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akter, M; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-04-11

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance was investigated in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0, 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe x phytase interaction significantly influenced the FI, BWG and FCR. The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe x phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  4. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  5. Effect of parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids on adaptation to massive small bowel resection.

    PubMed

    Koruda, M J; Rolandelli, R H; Settle, R G; Zimmaro, D M; Rombeau, J L

    1988-09-01

    After massive small bowel resection, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is prescribed to maintain nutritional status. However, TPN reduces the mass of the remaining intestinal mucosa, whereas adaptation to small bowel resection is associated with increased mucosal mass. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to stimulate mucosal cell mitotic activity. This study determined whether the addition of SCFAs to TPN following small bowel resection would prevent intestinal mucosal atrophy produced by TPN. Adult rats underwent an 80% small bowel resection and then received either standard TPN or TPN supplemented with SCFAs (sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate). After 1 wk, jejunal and ileal mucosal weights, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein contents were measured and compared with the parameters obtained at the time of resection. Animals receiving TPN showed significant loss of jejunal mucosal weight, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein and ileal mucosal weight and deoxyribonucleic acid after small bowel resection, whereas animals receiving SCFA-supplemented TPN showed no significant change in the jejunal mucosal parameters and a significant increase in ileal mucosal protein. These data demonstrate that SCFA-supplemented TPN reduces the mucosal atrophy associated with TPN after massive bowel resection and thys may facilitate adaptation to small bowel resection.

  6. Supplementation of cow milk naturally enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to growing rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Emerson H.; Mareze-Costa, Cecília E.; Machado, Erica; Agustinho, Bruna C.; Pereira, Lucelia M.; Brito, Márcia N.; Brito, Nilton A.; Zeoula, Lucia M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow’s diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols (PUFA/P-M), at 5mL/kg body weight,having water as control. Whole milk supplementation increased initial weight gain and reduced gain in the adulthood of rats. Intake of common milk reduced cholesterol levels in non-obese rats and reduced insulin resistance in obese rats. PUFA-milk showed a decreasing effect on plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL concentrations, increasing plasma HDL concentration and reducing adipocyte size of non-obese rats, but no effect was observed in obese rats. PUFA/P-milk in obese rats resulted in greater deposition of muscle mass and mesenteric fat, with a tendency to lower LDL levels, and resulted a visceral fat accumulation in non-obese rats. Thus, whole common milk and PUFA-rich milk have shown to be beneficial in a normal metabolic condition, whereas common milk and milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols improve metabolic effects of obesity. PMID:28267800

  7. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). There was no effect of BCAA supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were unchanged with bed rest but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, A; Ying, Z; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2008-08-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), similar to exercise, improve cognitive function, promote neuroplasticity, and protect against neurological lesion. In this study, we investigated a possible synergistic action between DHA dietary supplementation and voluntary exercise on modulating synaptic plasticity and cognition. Rats received DHA dietary supplementation (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that the DHA-enriched diet significantly increased spatial learning ability, and these effects were enhanced by exercise. The DHA-enriched diet increased levels of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mature BDNF, whereas the additional application of exercise boosted the levels of both. Furthermore, the levels of the activated forms of CREB and synapsin I were incremented by the DHA-enriched diet with greater elevation by the concurrent application of exercise. While the DHA diet reduced hippocampal oxidized protein levels, a combination of a DHA diet and exercise resulted in a greater reduction rate. The levels of activated forms of hippocampal Akt and CaMKII were increased by the DHA-enriched diet, and with even greater elevation by a combination of diet and exercise. Akt and CaMKII signaling are crucial step by which BDNF exerts its action on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These results indicate that the DHA diet enhanced the effects of exercise on cognition and BDNF-related synaptic plasticity, a capacity that may be used to promote mental health and reduce risk of neurological disorders.

  9. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts.

  10. Supplementation with carnitine reduces the severity of constipation: a retrospective study of patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Shinya; Inoue, Keisuke; Aomatsu, Tomoki; Yoden, Atsushi; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Carnitine is an essential nutrient for the mitochondrial transport of fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency causes a variety of symptoms in multiple organs. Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities often have carnitine deficiency. This study aimed to determine the correlation between constipation and carnitine deficiency in them. Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The correlation between level of free carnitine and severity of constipation was examined. Constipation and non-constipation groups were compared for age; sex; body mass index; bed rest period; use of anti-epileptic drugs, valproate sodium, or enteral nutrition; and serum levels of albumin, pre-albumin, totalcholesterol, free carnitine, folic acid, and trace elements. Moreover, severity of constipation before and after carnitine supplementation was assessed. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Of these, 14 were assigned to the constipation group and 13 to the non-constipation group. The free carnitine level was significantly correlated with severity of constipation (R = 0.7604, p<0.01). Free carnitine was significantly lower in the constipation compared with the non-constipation group (p<0.01). No other significant differences between the groups were found. The severity of constipation was significantly relieved after carnitine supplementation (p<0.001). In conclusion, carnitine supplementation could reduce the severity of constipation. PMID:28366991

  11. Supplementation with carnitine reduces the severity of constipation: a retrospective study of patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Murata, Shinya; Inoue, Keisuke; Aomatsu, Tomoki; Yoden, Atsushi; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Carnitine is an essential nutrient for the mitochondrial transport of fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency causes a variety of symptoms in multiple organs. Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities often have carnitine deficiency. This study aimed to determine the correlation between constipation and carnitine deficiency in them. Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The correlation between level of free carnitine and severity of constipation was examined. Constipation and non-constipation groups were compared for age; sex; body mass index; bed rest period; use of anti-epileptic drugs, valproate sodium, or enteral nutrition; and serum levels of albumin, pre-albumin, totalcholesterol, free carnitine, folic acid, and trace elements. Moreover, severity of constipation before and after carnitine supplementation was assessed. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Of these, 14 were assigned to the constipation group and 13 to the non-constipation group. The free carnitine level was significantly correlated with severity of constipation (R = 0.7604, p<0.01). Free carnitine was significantly lower in the constipation compared with the non-constipation group (p<0.01). No other significant differences between the groups were found. The severity of constipation was significantly relieved after carnitine supplementation (p<0.001). In conclusion, carnitine supplementation could reduce the severity of constipation.

  12. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Josee; Rennicks White, Ruth; Coyle, Doug; Fraser, William; Smith, Graeme; Fergusson, Dean; Walker, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 80/7 and 166/7 weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159. PMID:24349782

  13. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  14. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  15. Effects of dietary supplemental L-carnitine and ascorbic acid on performance, carcass composition and plasma L-carnitine concentration of broiler chicks reared under different temperature.

    PubMed

    Celik, L; Oztürkcan, O

    2003-02-01

    The present study was initiated to determine whether dietary supplemental L-carnitine and ascorbic acid affect growth performance, carcass yield and composition, abdominal fat and plasma L-carnitine concentration of broiler chicks reared under normal and high temperature. During the experiment, two temperature regimes were employed in two experimental rooms, which were identical but different in environmental temperature. The regimes were thermoneutral (20-22 degrees C for 24 h) or recycling hot (34-36 degrees C for 8 h and 20-22 degrees C for 16 h). One-day-old broiler chicks (ROSS) were used in the experiment. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was employed with two levels (0 and 50 mg/kg) of supplemental L-carnitine and two levels (0 or 500 mg/kg) of supplemental ascorbic acid in drinking water under thermoneutral or high temperature regimes. Body weight gain was affected by high temperature. However, body weight gain was significantly improved in animals receiving supplemental L-carnitine, ascorbic acid or L-carnitine + ascorbic acid compared to animals receiving unsupplemented diet under high temperature. On the other hand, supplemental L-carnitine or L-carnitine + ascorbic acid reduced body weight gain under thermoneutral condition. Supplemental ascorbic acid significantly improved feed conversion efficiency, the improvement was relatively greater under high temperature. The L-carnitine content in the plasma was higher in the groups receiving supplemental L-carnitine and ascorbic acid under high temperature, while broilers fed supplemental L-carnitine and ascorbic acid had a decreased level of plasma L-carnitine concentration under normal temperature. It is concluded that dietary supplemental L-carnitine or L-carnitine + ascorbic acid may have positive effects on body weight gain, carcass weight under high temperature conditions.

  16. Daily consumption of the collagen supplement Pure Gold Collagen® reduces visible signs of aging

    PubMed Central

    Borumand, Maryam; Sibilla, Sara

    2014-01-01

    With age, changes in the metabolic processes of structural components of the skin lead to visible signs of aging, such as increased dryness and wrinkle formation. The nutritional supplement, Pure Gold Collagen®, which consists of hydrolyzed collagen, hyaluronic acid, vitamins, and minerals, was developed to counteract these signs. An open-label study was conducted to investigate the effects of this nutritional supplement on skin properties. Supplementation with 50 mL of Pure Gold Collagen on a daily basis for 60 days led to a noticeable reduction in skin dryness, wrinkles, and nasolabial fold depth. In addition, a significant increase in collagen density and skin firmness was observed after 12 weeks. The data from this study suggest that Pure Gold Collagen can counteract signs of natural aging. PMID:25342893

  17. Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Boeckaert, C; Vlaeminck, B; Dijkstra, J; Issa-Zacharia, A; Van Nespen, T; Van Straalen, W; Fievez, V

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d experimental periods in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Diets included a control diet, a starch-rich diet, a bicarbonate-buffered starch-rich diet, and a diet supplemented with DHA-enriched micro algae [Schizochytrium sp., 43.0 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)]. Algae were supplemented directly through the rumen fistula. The total mixed ration consisted of grass silage, corn silage, soybean meal, and a standard or glucogenic concentrate. The glucogenic and buffered glucogenic diet had no effect on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition because, unexpectedly, no reduced rumen pH was detected. The algae diet had no effect on rumen pH but provoked decreased butyrate and increased isovalerate molar proportions in the rumen. In addition, algae supplementation affected rumen biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid as reflected in the modified milk fatty acid composition toward increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) cis-9 trans-11, CLA trans-9 cis-11, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, and C22:6 n-3 concentrations. Concomitantly, on average, a 45% decrease in DMI and milk yield was observed. Based on these drastic and impractical results, a second animal experiment was performed for 20 d in which 9.35 g/kg of total DMI of algae were incorporated in the concentrate and supplemented to 3 rumen-fistulated cows. Algae concentrate feeding increased rumen pH, which was associated with decreased rumen short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Moreover, a different shift in rumen short-chain fatty acid proportions was observed compared with the first experiment because molar proportions of butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate increased, whereas acetate molar proportion decreased

  18. Folic acid supplementation: what is new? Fetal, obstetric, long-term benefits and risks

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Hind N; Hosseini Nasab, Susan; Haidar, Ziad A; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    The association between folic acid supplementation, prior to conception and/or during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, has been the subject of numerous studies. The worldwide recommendation of folic acid is at least 0.4 mg daily for all women of reproductive age, and 4–5 mg in high-risk women. In addition, evidence shows that folic acid supplementation could modulate other adverse pregnancy outcomes, specifically, in pregnancies complicated by seizure disorders, preeclampsia, anemia, fetal growth restriction and autism. This review summarizes the available national and international guidelines, concerning the indications and dosage of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, it describes the potential preventive benefits of folic acid supplementation on multiple maternal and fetal outcomes, as well as potential risks. PMID:28031963

  19. Folic acid supplementation: what is new? Fetal, obstetric, long-term benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Hind N; Hosseini Nasab, Susan; Haidar, Ziad A; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M

    2016-06-01

    The association between folic acid supplementation, prior to conception and/or during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, has been the subject of numerous studies. The worldwide recommendation of folic acid is at least 0.4 mg daily for all women of reproductive age, and 4-5 mg in high-risk women. In addition, evidence shows that folic acid supplementation could modulate other adverse pregnancy outcomes, specifically, in pregnancies complicated by seizure disorders, preeclampsia, anemia, fetal growth restriction and autism. This review summarizes the available national and international guidelines, concerning the indications and dosage of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, it describes the potential preventive benefits of folic acid supplementation on multiple maternal and fetal outcomes, as well as potential risks.

  20. 1. Appetite suppressant activity of supplemental dietary amino acids and subsequent compensatory growth of broilers.

    PubMed

    Acar, N; Patterson, P H; Barbato, G F

    2001-08-01

    This study was conducted to take advantage of the appetite-suppressant effect of excessive dietary amino acids in reducing feed intake and, in turn, restricting the early rapid growth of broilers to minimize metabolic disorders. Dietary amino acids were supplemented to a basal diet to yield a total of 1.57, 2.57, and 3.57% His; 2.7, 4.3, and 5.9% Lys; 1.36, 2.16, and 2.96% Met; 2.8, 3.8, and 4.8% Thr; and 1.27, 2.27, and 3.27% Trp and were fed to 408 chicks from 4 to 11 d of age. Fifteen dietary treatments of His, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were compared to the basal diet. Feed consumption was measured daily. Body weight measurements were taken at 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, and 21 d. At 21 d, pectoralis major and minor muscles, liver, and abdominal fat pad were weighed. High levels of Met and His caused the greatest depression in appetite from 4 to 11 d, and Thr, Trp, and Lys were found to be less potent. The exponential growth rate (EGR) of birds from 4 to 11 d of age was significantly reduced by the intermediate and high levels of the amino acid supplementation. From 11 to 14 d, EGR was greatest with high levels of Met or Trp, indicating more potential compensatory growth realized with these treatments. The high level of His decreased the percentage of pectoralis minor muscle yield, whereas the high level of Lys and Met increased the percentage of liver compared to those fed the basal diet. These results indicate that it is possible to use excessive individual amino acids in diets to suppress the appetite and early rapid growth to alleviate or minimize metabolic disorders.

  1. High dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy: are we sure it is safe?

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2015-04-01

    Most experts agree that folic acid supplementation is a key preconception intervention, particularly in women with epilepsy who take anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Primary prevention of neural tube defect through folic acid supplementation results in reduction of risk in an otherwise healthy population. The current folic acid supplementation recommendation is that all women of childbearing potential be supplemented with at least 0.4 mg of folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. It is recommended that all women with epilepsy and of childbearing potential be supplemented with folic acid daily prior to conception and during pregnancy. However, considering the potential significant drug-drug interactions between high doses of folic acid and some AEDs in patients with epilepsy and also with the emerging evidence from animal studies that high levels of folic acid throughout gestation may have adverse effects on fetal brain development, it is not suggested to advocate high dose folic acid supplementation in women with epilepsy until more information is available about its appropriate, safe and optimal dosing.

  2. Reduced Th22 cell proportion and prevention of atopic dermatitis in infants following maternal probiotic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rø, Anne Dorthea Bjerkenes; Simpson, Melanie Rae; Rø, Torstein Baade; Storrø, Ola; Johnsen, Roar; Videm, Vibeke; Øien, Torbjørn

    2017-03-27

    In the randomized, controlled study Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), maternal probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring. In the current study, we hypothesized that the effect was mediated by a shift in the T helper (Th) cells in the children.

  3. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Daniel; Veulemans, Verena; Horn, Patrick; Chatrou, Martijn L; Potthoff, Sebastian A; Kelm, Malte; Schurgers, Leon J; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2015-08-18

    Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation (100 µg/g diet) on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05) and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05) calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01). MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (10-fold; p < 0.05). CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures.

  4. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Scheiber, Daniel; Veulemans, Verena; Horn, Patrick; Chatrou, Martijn L.; Potthoff, Sebastian A.; Kelm, Malte; Schurgers, Leon J.; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation (100 µg/g diet) on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05) and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05) calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01). MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (10-fold; p < 0.05). CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures. PMID:26295257

  5. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production.

  6. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Ravinder; Berwal, Raj Singh; Sihag, Sajjan; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate), T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate) and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate) consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen) and body weight gain (g). Different levels of supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved production performance (percent hen-day egg production and egg mass production) as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg) per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05) in T4 and feed intake (kg) per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05) in T5 as comparison to control (T1) group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvement in FCR. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased at 0.5% level of salts of organic acids in the diet. The cumulative mean values of feed cost per dozen egg production were Rs. 44.14, 42.40, 42.85, 43.26, 42.57, 43.29 and 43.56 in treatment groups T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively, and reduction in feed cost per kg egg mass production for Rs. 0.52 and 0.99 in groups T2 and T5, respectively, in comparison to T1 group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that supplementation of salts of organic acids may

  7. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-01-29

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness.

  8. Long-term intermittent multiple micronutrient supplementation enhances hemoglobin and micronutrient status more than iron + folic acid supplementation in Bangladeshi rural adolescent girls with nutritional anemia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faruk; Khan, Moududur R; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Karim, Rezaul; Williams, Gail; Torlesse, Harriet; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Dalmiya, Nita; Banu, Cadi P; Nahar, Badrun

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term supplementation studies showed no additional hematologic benefit of multiple micronutrients (MMN) compared with iron + folic acid (IFA) in adolescent girls. This study examines whether long-term once- or twice-weekly supplementation of MMN can improve hemoglobin (Hb) and micronutrient status more than twice-weekly IFA supplementation in anemic adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Anemic girls (n = 324) aged 11-17 y attending rural schools were given once- or twice-weekly MMN or twice-weekly IFA, containing 60 mg iron/dose in both supplements, for 52 wk in a randomized double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 26 and 52 wk. Intent to treat analysis showed no significant difference in the Hb concentration between treatments at either 26 or 52 wk. However, after excluding girls with hemoglobinopathy and adjustment for baseline Hb, a greater increase in Hb was observed with twice-weekly MMN at 26 wk (P = 0.045). Although all 3 treatments effectively reduced iron deficiency, once-weekly MMN produced significantly lower serum ferritin concentrations than the other treatments at both 26 and 52 wk. Both once- and twice-weekly MMN significantly improved riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C status compared with IFA. Overall, once-weekly MMN was less efficacious than twice-weekly MMN in improving iron, riboflavin, RBC folic acid, and vitamin A levels. Micronutrient supplementation beyond 26 wk was likely important in sustaining improved micronutrient status. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of MMN intervention in this population and have implications for programming.

  9. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  10. Process, optimized acidizing reduce production facility upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Hill, D.G.; McConnell, S.B.; Johnson, M.R.

    1997-02-10

    The filtration/absorption process, coupled with optimum treatments, prevent facility upsets that increase the time and resources required for bringing a well back on-line following an acid stimulation. Surface active agents, required in acidizing to improve well productivity, can form oil/water emulsions and cause unacceptable oil and grease levels during acid flowback. But recent offshore experiences after acidizing show that operators can achieve oil and grease discharge limits without facility upsets. To minimize oil and grease, the additives need to be optimized by adding a mutual breakout solvent (MBS). MBS has the dual function of being a mutual solvent and a sludge and emulsion control additive. The paper discusses acidizing problems, acid additives, handling options, and a case history of the Main Pass A field.

  11. Association Between Fatty Acid Supplementation and Prenatal Stress in African Americans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.; Bortner, Jenna; Hoffmann, Amy; McAloon, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the association between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)supplementation and perceived stress and cortisol response to a stressor during pregnancy in a sample of African American women living in low-income environments. Methods Sixty-four African American women were enrolled at 16–21 weeks of gestation. Power calculations were computed using published standard deviations for the Perceived Stress Scale and the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants were randomized to either 450 mg per day of DHA(n=43) or placebo (n=21).At baseline, 24, and 30 weeks of gestation, perceived stress was assessed by self-report. Cortisol response to a controlled stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was measured from saliva samples collected upon arrival to the laboratory and after the completion of the TSST. Results Women in the DHA supplementation group reported lower levels of perceived stress at 30 weeks of gestation, controlling for depression and negative life events (mean = 27.4 versus 29.5, (F [3, 47] = 5.06, p = .029, cohen’s d = .65). Women in the DHA supplementation had lower cortisol output in response to arriving to the laboratory and a more modulated response to the stressor (F [1.78, 83.85] = 6.24, p = .004, cohen’s d = .76). Conclusions Pregnant women living in urban low-income environments who received DHA reported reduced perceived stress and lower levels of stress hormones in the third trimester. DHA supplementation may be a method for attenuating the effects of maternal stress during late pregnancy and improving the uterine environment with regard to fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. PMID:25415158

  12. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on recurrent colorectal adenoma, we conduc...

  13. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P < 0.01) but did not differ (P = 0.67) due to supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as

  14. Does oral buffered sodium supplementation reduce nausea and vomiting during an ultramarathon?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2016-01-01

    This work examines whether nausea or vomiting during an ultramarathon are due to a fluid or electrolyte imbalance, and if these symptoms can be reduced through the use of buffered sodium supplements. Starters (n = 376) of a 161.3-km ultramarathon underwent body weight measurements, 74.5% completed a post-race questionnaire, and 53.0% also underwent a post-race blood draw. The incidence of nausea or vomiting progressively increased during the race, and affected 60% of runners overall. Weight change and rate of sodium intake in supplements or in buffered sodium supplements did not differ between those with and without nausea or vomiting. Post-race serum sodium concentration also did not differ between those with and without symptoms in the last race segment. We conclude that weight change, the rate of sodium intake in supplements or in buffered sodium supplements, and serum sodium concentration are not related to symptoms of nausea or vomiting during a 161-km ultramarathon.

  15. Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Teruya, Kiichiro; Katakura, Yoshinori; Osada, Kazuhiro; Hamasaki, Takeki; Kashiwagi, Taichi; Komatsu, Takaaki; Li, Yuping; Ye, Jun; Ichikawa, Akira; Otsubo, Kazumichi; Morisawa, Shinkatsu; Xu, Qianghua; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2005-01-01

    In the two-stage cell transformation theory, cancer cells first receive initiation, which is mainly caused by DNA damage, and then promotion, which enhances transformation. Murine Balb/c 3T3 cells are widely used for transformation experiments because they lose contact inhibition ability when transformed. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), which is produced near a cathode during electrolysis of water, is an alkaline drinking water that is beneficial to health. ERW contains a high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), along with a small amount of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (Pt nps) derived from Pt-coated titanium electrodes. Pt nps stably disperse in aqueous solution for a long time, and convert hydrogen molecules to active hydrogen (atomic hydrogen) that can scavenge ROS. Therefore, ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps is a model strong reduced water. This is the first report that ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps strongly prevents transformation of Balb/c 3T3 cells. ERW was prepared by electrolysis of 0.002 M NaOH solution using a batch-type electrolysis device. Balb/c 3T3 cells were treated with 3-methyl cholanthrene (MCA) as an initiation substance, followed by treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) as a promotion substance. MCA/PMA-induced formation of a transformation focus was strongly suppressed by ERW supplemented with Pt nps but not by ERW or Pt nps individually. ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed transformation at the promoter stage, not at initiation, suggesting that ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed the PMA-induced augmentation of intracellular ROS. ERW supplemented with Pt nps is a potential new antioxidant against carcinogenesis.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation enhances stroke volume and cardiac output during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Walser, Buddy; Stebbins, Charles L

    2008-10-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. We tested the hypotheses that dietary supplementation with DHA (2 g/day) + EPA (3 g/day) enhances increases in stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) and decreases in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) during dynamic exercise. Healthy subjects received DHA + EPA (eight men, four women) or safflower oil (six men, three women) for 6 weeks. Both groups performed 20 min of bicycle exercise (10 min each at a low and moderate work intensity) before and after DHA + EPA or safflower oil treatment. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), SV, CO, and SVR were assessed before exercise and during both workloads. HR was unaffected by DHA + EPA and MAP was reduced, but only at rest (88 +/- 5 vs. 83 +/- 4 mm Hg). DHA + EPA augmented increases in SV (14.1 +/- 6.3 vs. 32.3 +/- 8.7 ml) and CO (8.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 10.3 +/- 1.2 L/min) and tended to attenuate decreases in SVR (-7.0 +/- 0.6 vs. -10.1 +/- 1.6 mm Hg L(-1) min(-1)) during the moderate workload. Safflower oil treatment had no effects on MAP, HR, SV, CO or SVR at rest or during exercise. DHA + EPA-induced increases in SV and CO imply that dietary supplementation with these fatty acids can increase oxygen delivery during exercise, which may have beneficial clinical implications for individuals with cardiovascular disease and reduced exercise tolerance.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Demin; Li, Hongji; Zhou, Bo; Han, Liqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Guoqing

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  18. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Barden, Anne; O'Callaghan, Nathan; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emile; Beilin, Lawrence J; Fenech, Michael; Irish, Ashley B; Watts, Gerald F; Puddey, Ian B; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-03-19

    DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on telomere length was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in CKD. Eighty-five CKD patients were randomized to: n-3 fatty acids (4 g); CoQ (200 mg); both supplements; or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Telomere length was measured in neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at baseline and 8 weeks, with and without correction for cell counts. Main and interactive effects of n-3 fatty acids and CoQ on telomere length were assessed adjusting for baseline values. F₂-isoprostanes were measured as markers of oxidative stress. There was no effect of n-3 fatty acids or CoQ on neutrophil or PBMC telomere length. However, telomere length corrected for neutrophil count was increased after n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.015). Post-intervention plasma F₂-isoprostanes were negative predictors of post-intervention telomere length corrected for neutrophil count (p = 0.025).The effect of n-3 fatty acids to increased telomere length corrected for neutrophil count may relate to reduced oxidative stress and increased clearance of neutrophils with shorter telomeres from the circulation. This may be a novel mechanism of modifying CVD risk in CKD patients.

  19. Impact of multiple micronutrient vs. iron - folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements could increase hemoglobin and improve micronutrient status of pregnant women more than iron ± folic acid supplements alone. Objective. To compare the effects of MMN vs. iron ± folic acid supplements on hemoglobin and micronutrient status of pregn...

  20. How Much Does the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Reduce Food Insecurity?

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Caroline; McKernan, Signe-Mary; Zhang, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 15% of all U.S. households and 40% of near-poor households were food insecure in 2009. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the cornerstone of federal food assistance programs and serves as the first line of defense against food-related hardship. This paper measures the effectiveness of SNAP in reducing food insecurity using an instrumental variables approach to control for selection. Our results suggest that receipt of SNAP benefits reduces the likelihood of being food insecure by roughly 30% and reduces the likelihood of being very food insecure by 20%. PMID:25197100

  1. Milk fat responses to dietary supplementation of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Teter, B B; Erdman, R A

    2012-09-01

    Short-and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA), which are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland, are reduced to a much greater extent than the long-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Our hypothesis was that SMCFA are limiting for milk fat synthesis even under conditions when milk fat is not depressed. Our objective was to test the potential limitation of SMCFA on milk fat synthesis via dietary supplementation. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (107±18 d in milk) were fed a corn silage-based total mixed ration. Cows were randomly assigned to groups of 4 per pen and supplemented with 1 of 4 dietary fat supplements (600 g/d) supplied in a 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods. Treatments consisted of fat supplements containing mixtures of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) and an SMCFA mixture (S; 3.3% C8, 7.6% C10, 9.85% C12, 32.12% C14, and 47.11% C16) that contained 0, 200, 400, and 600 g/d of S substituted for Megalac (S0, S200, S400, and S600, respectively). No treatment effects were observed for dry matter and fat-corrected milk. However, milk yield was decreased with S600. Milk fat increased linearly by 0.17, 0.25, and 0.33 percentage units for the respective S treatments. However, fat yield peaked at S200 and milk protein concentration and yield was significantly decreased at the higher S levels because of a linear trend toward decreased milk yield in the S600 treatment. In conclusion, SMCFA supplementation linearly increased milk fat concentration but decreased milk production at the higher levels of supplementation. The dietary inclusion of SMCFA had no effects on total milk fat yield.

  2. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health.

  3. Supplementation with vitamin A reduces watery diarrhoea and respiratory infections in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Long, Kurt Z; Rosado, Jorge L; DuPont, Herbert L; Hertzmark, Ellen; Santos, Jose Ignacio

    2007-02-01

    Previous clinical vitamin A trials have found no consistent effect on diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infection. These inconsistent results may be due to the distinct effects vitamin A supplementation has among children stratified by factors related to socio-economic status, nutritional status and season. We evaluated the effect of supplementation on the overall incidence of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections and on the incidence among children stratified by these factors. A total of 188 children, aged 6-15 months, from periurban, marginalized communities of Mexico City were assigned to receive vitamin A ( < 12 months of age, 20,000 IU retinol; >or= 12 months, 45,000 IU retinol) or a placebo every 2 months, and were followed for up to 15 months. Project personnel visited households twice a week to determine the onset and duration of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A supplementation had no significant effect on risk of overall diarrhoeal disease but reduced mild watery diarrhoea (incidence rate ratio (RR) 0.69; 95 % CI 0.50, 0.93) and cough with fever (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.98). Vitamin A supplementation decreased diarrhoeal disease during the summer (RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.57, 0.94), among non-stunted children (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.52, 0.93) and among children from households with better socio-economic measures. Heterogeneity in the response to vitamin A supplementation may reflect heterogeneity in the aetiology and epidemiology of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections and the impact that supplementation has on the immune response.

  4. Oral folic acid supplementation decreases palate and/or lip cleft occurrence in Pug and Chihuahua puppies and elevates folic acid blood levels in pregnant bitches.

    PubMed

    Domosławska, A; Jurczak, A; Janowski, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of lip and/or palate cleft (CL/CP) in new-borns of two breeds, Pugs and Chihuahuas, and to measure the folic acid blood levels in bitches during gestations both with and without folic acid oral supplementation. Bitches of 13 Pugs and 17 Chihuahuas with CL/CP cases were used in the study. In trial 1, the animals of the experimental group (n=25) were given additional folic acid from the onset of heat till the 40th day of gestation. The females of the control group (n=12) were fed a traditional diet. From all the animals blood was collected at the onset of heat, 14 days later and on the 30th day of the gestation to estimate folic acid concentration. In trial 2, the prevalence of CP/CL cases in litters from pregnancies before and after supplementation was compared. The percentage of puppies with CL/CP after supplementation decreased in both Pugs and Chihuahua puppies (10.86% and 15.78% vs. 4.76% and 4.8% respectively). On Day 0, the concentrations of folic acid were at a low physiological level (around 8 ng/ml) in all the animals. In bitches of the experimental group the blood level of folic acid on day 14th and 30th of the treatment showed an increase in both breeds (13.65 +/- 4.27 ng/ml in Pugs, 10.79 +/- 2.84 ng/ml in Chihuahuas, and 14.94 +/- 3.22 ng/ml in Pugs, 12.95 +/- 3.58 in Chihuahuas, respectively) while in the control group, this level decreased with time of gestation both in Pugs and in Chihuahuas (around 6 ng/ml). Folic acid supplementation seems to be a simple, effective preventive method to reduce the risk of CL/CP, especially in the predisposed breeds.

  5. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  6. Influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on the overall rumen microbiota of dairy cows and linkages with production parameters.

    PubMed

    Torok, Valeria A; Percy, Nigel J; Moate, Peter J; Ophel-Keller, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    The rumen microbiota contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and has an impact on feed efficiency and ruminant product fatty acid composition. Dietary fat supplements have shown promise in reducing enteric methane production and in altering the fatty acid profiles of ruminant-derived products, yet in vivo studies on how these impact the rumen microbiota are limited. In this study, we investigated the rumen bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and ciliate protozoan communities of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with 4 levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0, 25, 50, and 75 g·cow(-1)·day(-1)) and established linkages between microbial communities and production parameters. Supplementation with DHA significantly (P < 0.05) altered rumen bacterial and archaeal, including methanogenic archaeal, communities but had no significant (P > 0.05) effects on rumen fungal or ciliate protozoan communities. Rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving no DHA were correlated with increased saturated fatty acids (C18:0 and C11:0) in their milk. Furthermore, rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving a diet supplemented with 50 g DHA·cow(-1)·day(-1) were correlated with increases in monounsaturated fatty acids (C20:1n-9) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (C22:5n-3; C22:6n-3; C18:2 cis-9, trans-11; C22:3n-6; and C18:2n-6 trans) in their milk. The significant diet-associated changes in rumen archaeal communities observed did not result in altered enteric methane outputs in these cows.

  7. Tocopherol supplementation reduces NO production and pulmonary inflammatory response to bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin Dong; Golden, Thea; Guo, Chang-Jiang; Tu, Shui Ping; Scott, Pamela; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Gow, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    Bleomycin causes acute lung injury through production of reactive species and initiation of inflammation. Previous work has shown alteration to the production of reactive oxygen species results in attenuation of injury. Vitamin E, in particular, γ-tocopherol, isoform, has the potential to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This study examines the utility of dietary supplementation with tocopherols in reducing bleomycin-mediated acute lung injury. Male C57BL6/J mice were intratracheally instilled with PBS or 2 units/kg bleomycin. Animals were analyzed 3 and 8 days post instillation at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. Results showed successful delivery of tocopherols to the lung via dietary supplementation. Also, increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species due to bleomycin are normalized in those mice fed tocopherol diet. Injury was not prevented but inflammation progression was altered, in particular macrophage activation and function. Inflammatory scores based on histology demonstrate limited progression of inflammation in those mice treated with bleomycin and fed tocopherol diet compared to control diet. Upregulation of enzymes and cytokines involved in pro-inflammation were limited by tocopherol supplementation. Day 3 functional changes in elastance in response to bleomycin are prevented, however, 8 days post injury the effect of the tocopherol diet is lost. The effect of tocopherol supplementation upon the inflammatory process is demonstrated by a shift in the phenotype of macrophage activation. The effect of these changes on resolution and the progression of pulmonary fibrosis has yet to be elucidated.

  8. Does folic acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions.

    PubMed

    Luebeck, E Georg; Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Liu, Amy Y; Boynton, Alanna; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2008-06-01

    Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, and methyl group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may progress under folic acid supplementation, consistent with the role of folate role in nucleotide synthesis and cell proliferation. To better understand the possible trade-offs between the protective effects due to decreased mutation rates and possibly concomitant detrimental effects due to increased cell proliferation of folic acid, we used a biologically based mathematical model of colorectal carcinogenesis. We predict changes in cancer risk based on timing of treatment start and the potential effect of folic acid on cell proliferation and mutation rates. Changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to folic acid supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and effect on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without folic acid supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20 years). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting folic acid supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental. Experimental studies are needed to provide direct evidence for this dual role of folate in colorectal cancer and to validate and improve the model predictions.

  9. Folic acid supplemented goat milk has beneficial effects on hepatic physiology, haematological status and antioxidant defence during chronic Fe repletion.

    PubMed

    Alférez, María J M; Rivas, Emilio; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; Serrano-Reina, Jose A; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to asses the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets, either normal or Fe-overloaded and folic acid supplement on some aspects of hepatic physiology, enzymatic antioxidant defence and lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and erythrocyte of control and anaemic rats after chronic Fe repletion. 160 male Wistar rats were placed on 40 d in two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving low Fe diet. Lately, the rats were fed with goat and cow milk-based diets during 30 d, with normal-Fe content or Fe-overload and either with normal folic or folic acid supplemented. Fe-overload increased plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels when cow milk was supplied. Dietary folate supplementation reduced plasma transaminases levels in animals fed goat milk with chronic Fe overload. A remarkable increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the animals fed cow milk. Dietary folate supplement lead to a decrease on the activity of this enzyme in all the tissues studied with both milk-based diets. A concomitant increment in catalase was also observed. The increase in lipid peroxidation products levels in rats fed cow milk with Fe-overload, suggest an imbalance in the functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. In conclusion, dietary folate-supplemented goat milk reduces both plasma transaminases levels, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect and has beneficial effects in situation of Fe-overload, improving the antioxidant enzymes activities and reducing lipid peroxidation.

  10. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced neural tube defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Chen, Xue; Dong, Xu-Ting; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Hua; Wu, Shu-Xian; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-13

    Folic acid is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Increasing evidence demonstrates that physiological supply of folic acid during pregnancy prevents folic acid deficiency-related neural tube defects (NTDs). Previous studies showed that maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure caused NTDs in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-dose folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced NTDs. Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (20 μg/kg/d) from gestational day (GD) 8 to GD12. As expected, a five-day LPS injection resulted in 19.96% of fetuses with NTDs. Interestingly, supplementation with folic acid (3mg/kg/d) during pregnancy significantly alleviated LPS-induced NTDs. Additionally, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and skeletal malformations. Additional experiment showed that folic acid attenuated LPS-induced glutathione (GSH) depletion in maternal liver and placentas. Moreover, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental MyD88. Additionally, folic acid inhibited LPS-induced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in placentas. Correspondingly, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in placentas, maternal serum and amniotic fluid. In conclusion, supplementation with high-dose folic acid during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced NTDs through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  11. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  12. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats.

  13. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and birth outcome: re-analysis of a large randomised controlled trial and update of Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Charles, Deborah H M; Ness, Andy R; Campbell, Doris; Smith, George Davey; Whitley, Elise; Hall, Marion H

    2005-03-01

    Periconceptual folic acid prevents neural tube defects. The effect of folic acid taken throughout pregnancy is unclear, however. We re-analysed data from a large randomised controlled trial performed between 1966 and 1967 and combined the results with those from trials included in a Cochrane review. A total of 2928 women were randomised: 1977 were allocated to placebo, 466 to folic acid 200 microg/day and 485 to folic acid 5 mg/day. Folic acid supplementation was not associated with any difference in mean birthweight, placental weight or gestational age. When combined with trials in the Cochrane review folic acid at high doses was associated with reduced risk of low birthweight (pooled relative risk 0.73 [95% CI 0.53, 0.99]). We found no conclusive evidence of benefit for folic acid supplementation in pregnant women given from time of booking onwards.

  14. Estrogen supplementation reduces whole body leucine and carbohydrate oxidation and increases lipid oxidation in men during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, Mazen J; Devries, Michaela C; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2005-06-01

    Healthy active men exhibit higher rates of carbohydrate (CHO) and leucine oxidation and lower rates of lipid oxidation compared with their female counterparts both at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. We postulated that this reduced dependence on amino acids as a fuel source in women was due to the female sex hormone estrogen. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of supplementing 12 recreationally active men with estrogen on whole body substrate oxidation and leucine kinetics at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. Subjects cycled for 90 min at an intensity of 65% maximum O(2) consumption after 8 d of either estrogen supplementation (2 mg 17beta-estradiol/d) or placebo (polycose). After a 2-wk washout period, they repeated the test after 8 d of the alternate treatment. On the test day, after a primed continuous infusion of l-[(13)C]leucine, O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, steady-state breath (13)CO(2), and plasma alpha-[(13)C]ketoisocaproate enrichments were measured at rest and at 60, 75, and 90 min during exercise in the postabsorptive state. Exercise increased energy expenditure more than 5-fold, CHO oxidation more than 6-fold, lipid oxidation more than 4-fold, and leucine oxidation 2.2-fold (all P < 0.0001), whereas it decreased the ratio of lipid to CHO oxidation by 50-70% (P = 0.003) compared with values at rest. Estrogen supplementation decreased respiratory exchange ratio during exercise (P = 0.03). Estrogen supplementation significantly decreased CHO oxidation by 5-16% (P = 0.04) and leucine oxidation by 16% (P = 0.01), whereas it significantly increased lipid oxidation by 22-44% (P = 0.024) at rest and during exercise. We conclude that estrogen influences fuel source selection at rest and during endurance exercise in recreationally active men, characterized by a reduced dependence on amino acids and CHO and an increased reliance on lipids as a fuel

  15. Supplemental dietary leucine and the skeletal muscle anabolic response to essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; McClung, James P

    2011-09-01

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is regulated by a number of dietary factors, to include essential amino acids (EAAs). Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid, has been identified as a stimulator of MPS in many cell culture and animal studies. However, whether supplemental leucine exerts a unique stimulatory effect, as compared to other EAAs, on muscle anabolism in humans has not been clearly demonstrated. A recent study found no improvement in resting MPS in adults who consumed a 10 g EAA supplement providing added leucine (3.5 g leucine) when compared to a control 10 g EAA supplement (1.8 g leucine). These findings suggest that added leucine is unnecessary for the stimulation of MPS when sufficient EAAs are provided; however, the study of supplemental leucine during conditions such as endurance exercise, caloric deprivation, and ageing may be warranted.

  16. Acid rain reduced in eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, V.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Sulfate and free hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation decreased 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern United States in 1995. The largest decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments set limitations, effective January 1, 1995, on sulfur dioxide emissions from affected coal-fired sources. Based on our analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, we conclude that substantial declines in acid rain occurred in the eastern United States in 1995 because of large reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions in the same region.

  17. Retention and utilization of amino acids in piglets fed ad libitum or restrictively diets supplemented with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Walz, O P; Pallauf, J

    1997-01-01

    In a metabolic trial 4 groups of 8 piglets of 5 kg weight each were kept individually for 45 days (final weight 23 kg) and fed a practical diet. At the beginning of the experiment the body amino acid contents of an additional group of 8 piglets were determined by carcass analysis, and at the end of the experiment the body amino acid contents of the 4 test group piglets (A = control fed ad libitum, B and C = supplement of 1.5% fumaric acid fed ad libitum or restrictively, D = supplement of 1.5% citric acid fed ad libitum) were also analysed. The amino acid retention during the experimental period was determined by difference. The supplements of fumaric or citric acid did not influence the amount of the amino acid retention. The quotient of amino acid retention to amino acid consumed or the "productive amino acid value" was calculated and the maintenance requirements of essential amino acids for piglets were used to estimate the productive amino acid value for both retention and maintenance. The mean amino acid retention amounted to about 56 g/d, i.e. 3.49 g/kg W0.75.d of essential amino acids. The essential amino acid requirements for maintenance was 2.0 g, i.e. 0.29 g/kg W0.75.d, showing a variation of 4% (Leu) to 20% (Met+Cys) when related to the amount of the corresponding amino acid retention. With regard to the amino acid pattern for retention of the nutritionally most important amino acids, the following ratios were found: Lys, 100 (6.27 g/16 g N): Met+Cys, 48 (3.03 g): Thr, 56 (3.49 g): Trp, 13 (0.80 g). The productive amino acid values ranged from 40% (Trp), 55% (Thr), 66% (Met) to 80% (Lys). Under the conditions investigated, neither the supplements of organic acids nor the feed restriction influenced the amino acid utilization.

  18. Assessment of different folic acid supplementation doses for low-birth-weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Fatma Çakmak; Aygün, Canan; Gülten, Sedat; Bedir, Abdulkerim; Çetinoğlu, Erhan; Küçüködük, Şükrü; Bek, Yüksel

    2016-01-01

    Aim The adequacy of 50 mcg folic acid supplementation given to low-birth-weight babies was investigated. The folate levels of the mothers and infants, and breastmilk, and the optimum dose for folic acid supplementation were also investigated. Material and Methods After obtaining blood from 141 low-birth-weight infants on the 1st day of life for serum and red cell folate levels, the infants were randomly allocated into three groups according to the folic acid supplement dose. Forty-six infants were given 25 μg/d folic acid, 39 were given 50 μg/d folic acid, and 44 were given 75 μg/d folic acid. Folic acid could not be given to 12 infants. Follow-up blood samples were obtained at the end of folic acid supplementation. Maternal samples for red cell and serum folate levels and breast milk folate levels were obtained within the first 48 hours and the samples for measuring breastmilk folate level were obtained on the 3rd day postnatally. The feeding modes of the infants, maternal folic acid intake, and details of neonate intensive care unit course were recorded. Results The mean birth weight and gestational age of the infants were found as 1788.2±478.4 g and 33.5±2.9 weeks, respectively. The mean serum and red cell folate levels on admission were found as 21.2±12.2 ng/mL and 922.7±460.7 ng/mL, respectively. The mean maternal serum and red cell folate levels and the mean breast milk folate levels were found as 12.3±7.5 ng/mL, 845.5±301.4 ng/mL, and 30.6±33.0 ng/m, respectively. The breast milk folate levels of mothers who were supplemented with folic acid during pregnancy were significantly higher compared with mothers who were not supplemented with folic acid (p<0.001). Infants who were supplemented with folic acid had higher follow-up serum folate levels compared with the basal level in all groups, but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusion This study showed that the folic acid doses of 25, 50, and 75 μcg/d affected

  19. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H.; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J.; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype. PMID:26647963

  20. Combined Supplementation of Choline and Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy Enhances Neurodevelopment of Fetal Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Megur Ramakrishna Bhat, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for humans which plays an important role in structural integrity and signaling functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, highly enriched in cell membranes of the brain. Dietary intake of choline or DHA alone by pregnant mothers directly affects fetal brain development and function. But no studies show the efficacy of combined supplementation of choline and DHA on fetal neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to analyze fetal neurodevelopment on combined supplementation of pregnant dams with choline and DHA. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: normal control [NC], saline control [SC], choline [C], DHA, and C + DHA. Saline, choline, and DHA were given as supplements to appropriate groups of dams. NC dams were undisturbed during entire gestation. On postnatal day (PND) 40, brains were processed for Cresyl staining. Pups from choline or DHA supplemented group showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in number of neurons in hippocampus when compared to the same in NC and SC groups. Moreover, pups from C + DHA supplemented group showed significantly higher number of neurons (p < 0.001) in hippocampus when compared to the same in NC and SC groups. Thus combined supplementation of choline and DHA during normal pregnancy enhances fetal hippocampal neurodevelopment better than supplementation of choline or DHA alone. PMID:28210506

  1. Why oral calcium supplements may reduce renal stone disease: report of a clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C; Child, D; Hudson, P; Davies, G; Davies, M; John, R; Anandaram, P; De Bolla, A R

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To investigate whether increasing the daily baseline of gut calcium can cause a gradual downregulation of the active intestinal transport of calcium via reduced parathyroid hormone (PTH) mediated activation of vitamin D, and to discuss why such a mechanism might prevent calcium oxalate rich stones. To demonstrate the importance of seasonal effects upon the evaluation of such data. Methods—Within an intensive 24 hour urine collection regimen, daily calcium supplementation (500 mg) was given to five stone formers for a 10 week period during a six month crossover study. In a further population of patients on follow up for previous renal stone disease, observations were made on 1066 24 hour urine samples collected over five years in respect of seasonal effects relevant to the interpretation of the study. Results—In the group of patients on calcium supplements the following results were found. During calcium supplementation, the proportion of urine calcium to oxalate was higher (increased calcium to oxalate molar ratio), the 24 hour urine product of calcium and oxalate did not rise, and urine oxalate was lower during the first six weeks of supplementation. Twenty four hour urine calcium was 10.2% higher than baseline in the final four weeks of the 10 weeks of supplementation. Twenty four hour urine phosphate was 11.4% lower during the first six weeks of supplementation, but then rose while the patients were still on supplementation; renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TmP/GFR) mirrored the urine phosphate changes inversely. PTH was higher after stopping supplementation, but 1,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol changes were not detected. In the 1066 urine samples collected over five years the following results were found. Calcium and oxalate excretion correlated positively and not inversely. Urine calcium and phosphate excretion were 5.5% and 2.5% higher, respectively, in "light" months of the year compared with "dark" months. A post summer decline in both urine

  2. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study.

  3. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  4. Changes in milk fatty acid profile and animal performance in response to fish oil supplementation, alone or in combination with sunflower oil, in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    Ruminant diet supplementation with sunflower oil (SO) and fish oil (FO) has been reported as a good strategy for enhancing some milk fat compounds such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dairy cows, but no information is available regarding dairy sheep. In this work, ewe diet was supplemented with FO, alone or in combination with SO, with the aim of improving milk nutritional value and evaluating its effect on animal performance. Sixty-four Assaf ewes in mid lactation, fed a high-concentrate diet, were distributed in 8 lots of 8 animals each and assigned to 4 treatments (2 lots/treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 20 g of SO/kg (SO), 10 g of FO/kg (FO), or 20 g of SO plus 10 g of FO/kg (SOFO). Milk production and composition, including a complete fatty acid profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatments. Supplementation with FO tended to reduce dry matter intake compared with the control treatment (-15%), and its use in combination with SO (SOFO) resulted in a significant decrease in milk yield as well (-13%). All lipid supplements reduced milk protein content, and FO also reduced milk fat content by up to 21% alone (FO) and 27% in combination with SO (SOFO). Although the mechanisms involved in FO-induced milk fat depression are not yet well established, the observed increase in some milk trans-FA that are putative inhibitors of milk fat synthesis, such as trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and the 63% decrease in C18:0 (consistent with the theory of reduced milk fat fluidity) may be involved. When compared with the control, lipid supplementation remarkably improved the milk content of rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA; up to 4-fold increases with SO and SOFO diets), whereas FO-containing diets also increased milk n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (with mean contents of 0.29 and 0.38% of total fatty acids for SOFO and FO, respectively), and reduced the n-6:n-3 FA

  5. Acid rain reduced in Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.A.; Bowersox, V.C.; Grimm, J.W.

    2000-03-15

    Concentrations of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) and free hydrogen ions (H{sup +}) in precipitation decreased from 10% to 25% over a large area of the Eastern US from 1995 through 1997 as compared to the previous 12-year (1983--1994) reference period. These decreases were unprecedented in magnitude and spatial extent. In contrast, nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) concentrations generally did not change over this period. The largest decreases in both H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations, which nearly mimicked one another, occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Title 4 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set limitations on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from a large number of utility-owned coal-fired sources. Phase 1 of the CAAA required that these limitations be met by January 1, 1995. On the basis of their analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, the authors conclude that significant declines in acid rain occurred in many parts of the Eastern US from 1995 through 1997 because of large reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions in this region and a corresponding reduction in SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations in precipitation.

  6. Consumption of vitamin B(6) reduces fecal ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid, a risk factor for colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Utama, Zaki; Suidasari, Sofya; Zhang, Peipei; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Ei; Kato, Norihisa

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) on the colonic luminal environment, growing male rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg diet for 6 wk. Food intake and growth were unaffected by the dietary treatment. Supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) significantly reduced the production of a fecal secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (the most toxic secondary bile acid and a risk factor for colon cancer), and markedly reduced the ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid (a less toxic secondary bile acid) in feces (p<0.05). Increasing dietary vitamin B(6) increased fecal mucin levels (a marker of intestinal barrier function) in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) but did not affect fecal immunoglobulin A levels (an index of intestinal immune function). Cecal levels of organic acids were not significantly affected by supplemental dietary vitamin B(6). These results suggest the possibility that dietary vitamin B(6) affects the colonic luminal environment by altering the production of secondary bile acids and mucins.

  7. Reduced cadmium body burden in cadmium-exposed calves fed supplemental zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Lamphere, D.N.; Dorn, C.R.; Reddy, C.S.; Meyer, A.W.

    1984-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of practical supplemental dietary zinc to modify the cadmium content in edible bovine tissues and to identify copper interactions with cadmium and zinc. The effect of supplemental zinc (200 or 600 ..mu..g/g) on the concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and copper in liver, kidney cortex, muscle, and blood of calves fed 50 ..mu..g/g cadmium for 60 days was evaluated. Blood samples were collected before and eight times after starting to feed cadmium or cadmium plus zinc. Liver, kidney, and muscle samples were collected when calves were slaughtered (baseline, at beginning of experimental feeding; cadmium-fed, at end of 60 days feeding). The cadmium concentrations of all sample types collected were markedly increased by the feeding of cadmium. Feeding 600 ..mu..g/g supplemental zinc significantly increased the zinc concentrations of liver, kidney cortex, and blood and decreased the cadmium accumulation in these organs as well as muscle. The copper concentrations of muscle or blood were not altered by feeding cadmium with or without zinc but those of liver and kidney cortex were significantly increased by higher dietary levels of zinc and cadmium. The potential use of dietary zinc salts in reducing cadmium body burden in food animals suspected or known to have high cadmium intakes is suggested.

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid or gamma-linolenic acid on neutrophil phospholipid fatty acid composition and activation responses.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, M P; Ziboh, V A

    1990-10-01

    Previous data that alimentation with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:n-3) or vegetable oil rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6) can reduce symptoms of inflammatory skin disorders lead us to determine the effects of dietary supplements of oils rich in EPA or GLA on guinea pig (GP) neutrophil (PMN) membrane potential (delta gamma), secretion, and superoxide (O2-) responses. Weanling GPs were initially fed diets supplemented with olive oil (less than 0.1% EPA; less than 0.1% GLA) for 2 weeks, followed by a crossover by two sets of animals to diets supplemented with fish oil (19% EPA) or borage oil (25% GLA). At 4-week intervals, 12% sterile casein-elicited peritoneal neutrophils (PMN) were assessed for membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles and FMLP-, LTB4-, and PMA-stimulated delta gamma changes, changes in flow cytometrically measured forward scatter (FWD-SC) (shape change), 90 degrees scatter (90 degrees -SC) in cytochalasin B-pretreated-PMN (secretion response), and superoxide responses, GP incorporated EPA and GLA (as the elongation product, dihomo-GLA or DGLA) into their PMN phospholipids by 4 weeks. The peritoneal PMN of all groups demonstrated broad resting FWD-SC and poor activation-related FWD-SC increases, suggesting in vivo activation. While secretion was comparable in the three groups in response to FMLP, there was a trend toward inhibition of LTB4-stimulated 90 degrees -SC loss in both fish and borage oil groups. This was significant only with borage oil (21.7 +/- 2.1 vs 15.3 +/- 1.2% loss of baseline 90 degrees -SC, olive vs borage: P = 0.03). PMN from borage- and fish oil-fed GPs showed a progressively lower O2- response to FMLP than the olive oil group (73.9 +/- 3.9 and 42.9 +/- 6.8% of olive oil response for borage and fish oils, respectively; P less than 0.005 and P less than 0.01, respectively, at 12 weeks), while PMA-stimulated O2- was inhibited only in the fish oil-fed group and only at 12 weeks (62.0 +/- 2

  9. Efficacy of Systemic Vitamin C Supplementation in Reducing Corneal Opacity Resulting from Infectious Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Wun; Yoo, Woong-Sun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Chung, In-Young; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on reducing the size of corneal opacity resulting from infectious keratitis. The study included 82 patients (82 affected eyes), admitted for infectious keratitis from January 2009 to August 2013, who were followed for more than 3 months. Patients were divided into control, oral vitamin C (3 g/d), and intravenous vitamin C (20 g/d) groups during hospitalization. Corneal opacity sizes were measured using anterior segment photographs and Image J program (version 1.27; National Institutes of Health, Jinju, South Korea) at admission, discharge, and final follow-up. The corneal opacity size used for analysis was the measured opacity size divided by the size of the whole cornea. The corneal opacity size decreased by 0.03 ± 0.10 in the oral vitamin C group, 0.07 ± 0.22 in the intravenous vitamin C group, and 0.02 ± 0.15 in the control group. Intravenous vitamin C reduced the corneal opacity size more than oral vitamin C (P = 0.043). Intravenous vitamin C produced greater reduction in corneal opacity size in younger patients (P = 0.015) and those with a hypopyon (P = 0.036). Systemic vitamin C supplementation reduced the size of corneal opacity resulting from infectious keratitis. Intravenous vitamin C was more beneficial than oral supplementation, especially in younger patients and those with hypopyon. PMID:25415664

  10. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  11. Carnitine supplementation modulates high dietary copper-induced oxidative toxicity and reduced performance in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Çakır, Latife; Çetin, Ebru; Kanbur, Murat

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on performance, egg quality and certain biochemical parameters in laying hens fed a diet containing high levels of copper proteinate. Forty-eight 42-week-old laying hens were divided into four groups with four replicates. The laying hens were fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with either 400 mg carnitine (Car)/kg diet, 800 mg copper proteinate (CuP)/kg diet or 400 mg carnitine + 800 mg copper (Car+CuP)/kg diet, for 6 weeks. Supplemental CuP decreased feed consumption (p < 0.01), feed efficiency and egg production (p < 0.001), as compared to control. The combination of Car and CuP increased (p < 0.001) egg production and feed efficiency as compared to CuP. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05) and alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.01) were increased, while lactate dehydrogenase activity was decreased (p < 0.001) by supplemental CuP and Car+CuP. Supplemental CuP caused an increase in plasma malondialdehyde (p < 0.01) and nitric oxide levels (p < 0.05). In the Car+CuP group, this increase was observed to have been reduced significantly (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Car+CuP increased (p < 0.05) glucose level. These results indicate that the carnitine and copper combination may prevent the possible adverse effects of high dietary copper on performance and lipid peroxidation in hens.

  12. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P < 0.05) levels of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P < 0.05) and BDNF (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus and CREB mRNA (P < 0.01) in the cortex as compared with BS group. The cognitive performance of these animals was higher (P < 0.05) as compared with BS group. Our data indicates the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function.

  13. Meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat from broilers supplemented with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Islam, Md Manirul; Bostami, A B M Rubayet; Mun, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ye-Jin; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2015-12-01

    The effects of diets supplemented with four levels (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) of pomegranate by-product (PB) on meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of broiler meat were evaluated. The crude protein and moisture contents increased, whereas ether extract in breast and thigh meat and cholesterol in breast meat decreased in response to dietary PB supplementation (p<0.05). In breast and thigh meat, the sum of saturated fatty acids was lower, while the sum of mono-unsaturated and n-3 fatty acids were higher, alongside lower n-6/n-3 ratio in the 1.0% and 2.0% PB supplemented group (p<0.05). The TBARS values and pH of breast and thigh meat were reduced in the PB supplemented groups (p<0.05). Overall, the results presented herein indicate that supplementation of diets with up to 2% pomegranate by-products improved the meat composition, fatty acid profile and reduced lipid oxidation of broiler meat.

  14. Translating formative research findings into a behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and iron and folic acid supplementation in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephanie L; Seim, Gretchen L; Wawire, Salome; Chapleau, Gina M; Young, Sera L; Dickin, Katherine L

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization now recommends integrating calcium supplements into antenatal micronutrient supplementation programmes to prevent pre-eclampsia, a leading cause of maternal mortality. As countries consider integrating calcium supplementation into antenatal care (ANC), it is important to identify context-specific barriers and facilitators to delivery and adherence. Such insights can be gained from women's and health workers' experiences with iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 pregnant and post-partum women and 20 community-based and facility-based health workers in Kenya to inform a calcium and IFA supplementation programme. Interviews assessed awareness of anaemia, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia; ANC attendance; and barriers and facilitators to IFA supplement delivery and adherence. We analyzed interviews inductively using the constant comparative method. Women and health workers identified poor diet quality in pregnancy as a major health concern. Neither women nor health workers identified pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, anaemia or related symptoms as serious health threats. Women and community-based health workers were unfamiliar with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and considered anaemia symptoms normal. Most women had not received IFA supplements, and those who had received insufficient amounts and little information about supplement benefits. We then developed a multi-level (health facility, community, household and individual) behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and IFA supplementation. Formative research is an essential first step in guiding implementation of antenatal calcium supplementation programmes to reduce pre-eclampsia. Because evidence on how to implement successful calcium supplementation programmes is limited, experiences with antenatal IFA supplementation can be used to guide programme development.

  15. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid–sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4‐1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3‐ to 5‐fold higher in Northern China and 3‐fold higher in India. A recent population‐based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with

  16. A Review: Supplementation of Foods with Essential Fatty Acids-Can It Turn a Breeze without Further Ado?

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Vijayalakshmi; Hettiarachchy, Navam S

    2016-07-03

    This paper focuses on the critical aspects of supplementation of foods with essential fatty acids (EFAs), the need, health benefits of supplementation and the constraints of the process. Current trend of supplementation of foods with EFAs has been gaining momentum and more research pioneers due to the health benefits in par with the direct intake of EFA supplements. Technologies including encapsulation, nanotechnology, molecular complexing, genetic engineering and more emerging means, hold promise to food supplementation with EFAs. Food trials with adoption of various technologies, studies of bioavailability and health benefits are still underway and crucial before EFA supplementation in foods can hit the market on a global scale.

  17. Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Kate Petersen; Moreau, Régis F.; Smith, Eric J.; Smith, Anthony R.; Hagen, Tory M.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food. It is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age. How do the biochemical properties of LA relate to its biological effects? Herein, we review the molecular mechanisms of LA discovered using cell and animal models, and the effects of LA on human subjects. Though LA has long been touted as an antioxidant, it has also been shown to improve glucose and ascorbate handling, increase eNOS activity, activate Phase II detoxification via the transcription factor Nrf2, and lower expression of MMP-9 and VCAM-1 through repression of NF-kappa-B. LA and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, may use their chemical properties as a redox couple to alter protein conformations by forming mixed disulfides. Beneficial effects are achieved with low micromolar levels of LA, suggesting that some of its therapeutic potential extends beyond the strict definition of an antioxidant. Current trials are investigating whether these beneficial properties of LA make it an appropriate treatment not just for diabetes, but also for the prevention of vascular disease, hypertension, and inflammation. PMID:19664690

  18. Preventive effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on the spontaneous development of hepatic preneoplastic lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db obese mice.

    PubMed

    Terakura, Daishi; Shimizu, Masahito; Iwasa, Junpei; Baba, Atsushi; Kochi, Takahiro; Ohno, Tomohiko; Kubota, Masaya; Shirakami, Yohei; Shiraki, Makoto; Takai, Koji; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2012-12-01

    Obesity and its associated disorders, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which improve protein malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis, reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in these patients with obesity. In the present study, the effects of BCAA supplementation on the spontaneous development of hepatic premalignant lesions, foci of cellular alteration, in db/db obese mice were examined. Male db/db mice were given a basal diet containing 3.0% of either BCAA or casein, a nitrogen-content-matched control of BCAA, for 36 weeks. On killing the mice, supplementation with BCAA significantly inhibited the development of foci of cellular alteration when compared with casein supplementation by inhibiting cell proliferation, but inducing apoptosis. BCAA supplementation increased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) messenger RNA and decreased the levels of c-fos and cyclin D1 mRNA in the liver. BCAA supplementation also reduced both the amount of hepatic triglyceride accumulation and the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in the liver. Increased macrophage infiltration was inhibited and the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA in the white adipose tissue were each decreased by BCAA supplementation. BCAA supplementation also reduced adipocyte size while increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and adiponectin mRNA in the white adipose tissue compared with casein supplementation. These findings indicate that BCAA supplementation inhibits the early phase of obesity-related liver tumorigenesis by attenuating chronic inflammation in both the liver and white adipose tissue. BCAA supplementation may be useful in the chemoprevention of liver tumorigenesis in obese

  19. Lipid Class Specific Quantitative Analysis of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Food Supplements.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Laura; Ostermann, Annika I; Konrad, Thade; Riegel, Dieter; Hellhake, Stefan; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2017-01-11

    Supplementation products containing n-3 PUFA from marine sources serve a large market. Although the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the products is provided by the manufacturer, no or little information is available on their lipid pattern. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed the fatty acid pattern in the lipid fractions triglycerides, phospholipids, ethyl esters, and free fatty acids in supplementation products by means of solid phase extraction and gas chromatography. Twelve products from the European and U.S. markets containing fish, krill, algal, or plant oil were analyzed. Total n-3 PUFA content ranged from 68 g/100 g fat (fish oil) to 42 g/100 g fat (algal oil) to 17 g/100 g fat (krill oil). On the basis of the n-3 PUFA containing lipid class, the supplements can be separated dominantly in ethyl ester, re-esterified triglyceride, triglyceride, and phospholipid containing products. Algae-based products contained natural triglycerides, krill oils a complex mixture of phospholipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, and fish oil products either ethyl esters, re-esterified triglycerides, or triglycerides. Even products of the same class and source showed distinct differences in their lipid pattern. A specification of the lipid composition of n-3 PUFA products would allow distinguishing the different (qualities of) supplements.

  20. Folic Acid Supplementation Improves Vascular Function in Professional Dancers With Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Anne Z.; Papanek, Paula; Szabo, Aniko; Widlansky, Michael E.; Gutterman, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if folic acid supplementation improves vascular function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]) in professional dancers with known endothelial dysfunction. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting Academic institution in the Midwestern United States. Subjects Twenty-two professional ballet dancers volunteered for this study. Main Outcome Measures Subjects completed a 3-day food record to determine caloric and micronutrient intake. Menstrual status was determined by interview and questionnaire. Endothelial function was determined as flow-induced vasodilation measured by high-frequency ultrasound of the brachial artery. A change in brachial diameter of <5% to hyperemic flow stimulus was defined a priori as endothelial dysfunction. Subjects with abnormal FMD took 10 mg of folic acid daily for 4 weeks, and FMD testing was then repeated. Serum whole blood was measured for folic acid levels before and after supplementation. Results Sixty-four percent of dancers (n = 14) had abnormal brachial artery FMD (<5%) (mean ± standard deviation, 2.9% ± 1.5%). After 4 weeks of folic acid supplementation (10 mg/day), FMD improved in all the subjects (7.1% ± 2.3%; P < .0001). Conclusions This study reveals that vascular endothelial function improves in dancers after supplementation with folic acid (10 mg/day) for at least 4 weeks. This finding may have clinically important implications for future cardiovascular disease risk prevention. PMID:21715240

  1. The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Diau, Guan-Yeu; Hsieh, Andrea T; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter A; Wijendran, Vasuki; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity on CNS DHA and ARA concentrations. Methods Baboons were randomized into a breastfed (B) and four formula-fed groups: term, no DHA/ARA (T-); term, DHA/ARA supplemented (T+); preterm, no DHA/ARA (P-); preterm and DHA/ARA supplemented (P+). At four weeks adjusted age, brains were dissected and total fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results DHA and ARA are rich in many more structures than previously reported. They are most concentrated in structures local to the brain stem and diencephalon, particularly the basal ganglia, limbic regions, thalamus and midbrain, and comparatively lower in white matter. Dietary supplementation increased DHA in all structures but had little influence on ARA concentrations. Supplementation restored DHA concentrations to levels of breastfed neonates in all regions except the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Prematurity per se did not exert a strong influence on DHA or ARA concentrations. Conclusion 1) DHA and ARA are found in high concentration throughout the primate CNS, particularly in gray matter such as basal ganglia; 2) DHA concentrations drop across most CNS structures in neonates consuming formulas with no DHA, but ARA levels are relatively immune to ARA in the diet; 3) supplementation of infant formula is effective at restoring DHA concentration in structures other than the cerebral cortex. These results will be useful as a guide to future investigations of CNS function in the absence of dietary DHA and ARA. PMID:15975147

  2. Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation has limited impact on micronutrient status of Bangladeshi infants compared with standard iron and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Eneroth, Hanna; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Stephensen, Charles B; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge about the impact of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status is limited. We examined the effect of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab Trial. Pregnant women (n = 4436) were randomized to Early or Usual promotion of enrollment in a food supplementation program. In addition, they were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 3 types of daily micronutrient supplements provided from wk 14 of gestation to 3 mo postpartum: 1) folic acid and 30 mg iron (Fe30Fol); 2) folic acid and 60 mg iron; or 3) a multiple micronutrient including folic acid and 30 mg iron (MMS). At 6 mo, infant blood samples (n = 1066) were collected and analyzed for hemoglobin and plasma ferritin, zinc, retinol, vitamin B-12, and folate. The vitamin B-12 concentration differed between the micronutrient supplementation groups (P = 0.049). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was lower in the MMS group (26.1%) than in the Fe30Fol group (36.5%) (P = 0.003). The prevalence of zinc deficiency was lower in the Usual food supplementation group (54.1%) than in the Early group (60.2%) (P = 0.046). There were no other differential effects according to food or micronutrient supplementation groups. We conclude that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation may have a beneficial effect on vitamin B-12 status in infancy.

  3. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Sawaengsri, Hathairat; Wang, Junpeng; Reginaldo, Christina; Steluti, Josiane; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2016-04-01

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in postmenopausal women ≥50years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate immune system critical for surveillance and defense against virus-infected and cancer cells. We determined if a high folic acid diet can result in reduced NK cell cytotoxicity in an aged mouse model. Female C57BL/6 mice (16-month-old) were fed an AIN-93M diet with the recommended daily allowance (1× RDA, control) or 20× RDA (high) folic acid for 3months. NK cytotoxicity was lower in splenocytes from mice fed a high folic acid diet when compared to mice on control diet (P<.04). The lower NK cell cytotoxicity in high folic acid fed mice could be due to their lower mature cytotoxic/naïve NK cell ratio (P=.03) when compared to the control mice. Splenocytes from mice on high folic acid diet produced less interleukin (IL)-10 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (P<.05). The difference in NK cell cytotoxicity between dietary groups was abolished when the splenocytes were supplemented with exogenous IL-10 prior to assessment of the NK cytotoxicity, suggesting that the reduced NK cell cytotoxicity of the high folic acid group was at least partially due to reduced IL-10 production. This study demonstrates a causal relationship between high folic acid intake and reduced NK cell cytotoxicity and provides some insights into the potential mechanisms behind this relationship.

  4. Soy Protein Supplementation Reduces Clinical Indices in Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun-Bo; Chi, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Clinical trials have studied the use of soy protein for treating type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MS). The purpose of this study was to outline evidence on the effects of soy protein supplementation on clinical indices in T2D and MS subjects by performing a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Materials and Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases up to March 2015 for RCTs. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed-and-random-effects model. A total of eleven studies with eleven clinical variables met the inclusion criteria. Results The meta-analysis showed that fasting plasma glucose (FPG) [weighted mean difference (WMD), -0.207; 95% CI, -0.374 to -0.040; p=0.015], fasting serum insulin (FSI) (WMD, -0.292; 95% CI, -0.496 to -0.088; p=0.005), homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (WMD, -0.346; 95% CI, -0.570 to -0.123; p=0.002), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD, -0.230; 95% CI, -0.441 to -0.019; p=0.033), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (WMD, -0.304; 95% CI, -0.461 to -0.148; p=0.000), total cholesterol (TC) (WMD, -0.386; 95% CI, -0.548 to -0.225; p=0.000), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD, -0.510; 95% CI, -0.722 to -0.299; p=0.000) are significant reduced with soy protein supplementation, compared with a placebo control group, in T2D and MS patients. Furthermore, soy protein supplementation for longer duration (≥6 mo) significantly reduced FPG, LDL-C, and CRP, while that for a shorter duration (<6 mo) significantly reduced FSI and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Soy protein supplementation could be beneficial for FPG, FSI, HOMA-IR, DBP, LDL-C, TC, and CRP control in plasma. PMID:26996569

  5. The Supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Arginine, and Citrulline Improves Endurance Exercise Performance in Two Consecutive Days

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, I-Shiung; Wang, Yi-Wen; Chen, I-Fan; Hsu, Gi-Sheng; Hsueh, Chun-Fang; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system plays a crucial role in fatigue during endurance exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) could reduce cerebral serotonin synthesis by competing with its precursor tryptophan for crossing the blood brain barrier. Arginine and citrulline could prevent excess hyperammonemia accompanied by BCAA supplementation. This study investigated the combination of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline on endurance performance in two consecutive days. Seven male and three female endurance runners ingested 0.17 g·kg-1 BCAA, 0.05 g·kg-1 arginine and 0.05 g·kg-1 citrulline (AA trial) or placebo (PL trial) in a randomized cross-over design. Each trial contained a 5000 m time trial on the first day, and a 10000 m time trial on the second day. The AA trial had significantly better performance in 5000 m (AA: 1065.7 ± 33.9 s; PL: 1100.5 ± 40.4 s) and 10000 m (AA: 2292.0 ± 211.3 s; PL: 2375.6 ± 244.2 s). The two trials reported similar ratings of perceived exertion. After exercise, the AA trial had significantly lower tryptophan/BCAA ratio, similar NH3, and significantly higher urea concentrations. In conclusion, the supplementation could enhance time-trial performance in two consecutive days in endurance runners, possibly through the inhibition of cerebral serotonin synthesis by BCAA and the prevention of excess hyperammonemia by increased urea genesis. Key points The combined supplementation of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline could enhance performance in 5000 m and 10000 m in 2 consecutive days in competitive runners. The supplementation may be helpful in multi-day competitions. The supplemented BCAA may alleviate central fatigue, allowing the subjects to run faster at the same degree of perceived exertion. The hyperammonemia that is usually accompanied with BCAA supplementation may be prevented by arginine and citrulline through increased urea genesis. PMID:27803630

  6. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  7. Editorial Commentary: Knee Hyaluronic Acid Viscosupplementation Reduces Osteoarthritis Pain.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the AAOS knee osteoarthritis guidelines, systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses shows that viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection reduces knee osteoarthritis pain and improves function according to the highest level of evidence.

  8. Effects of reducing dietary protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 during the late stages of the egg production cycle on performance and eggshell quality.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, K

    2003-09-01

    A series of four experiments was conducted to determine whether-shell quality during the late stages of egg production can be improved by using diets that are effective in reducing egg size. The experiments involved dietary manipulation of protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12. In experiment 1, reducing dietary protein in combination of reducing the dietary methionine and choline or this diet without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 resulted in reduced egg weight and improved shell quality. However, egg production also was drastically reduced. In experiment 2, reducing the dietary level of methionine, without adding supplemental choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality, but egg production was reduced as well. In this experiment reducing the dietary methionine without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. In experiment 3, reducing the dietary level of methionine and choline or reducing the dietary level of choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality without adverse effects on egg production. On the other hand, reducing dietary methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and supplemental choline reduced egg weight and improved shell quality but lowered egg production. In experiment 4, reducing dietary methionine together with reducing choline and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. The results of this series of experiments generally indicate that certain manipulations of the combination of methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 have the potential to reduce egg weight and improve shell quality without affecting egg production during the latter stages of the egg production cycle.

  9. Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A.

    2009-02-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

  10. Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kliem, K E; Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirkland, R M; Barratt, C E S; Livingstone, K M; Givens, D I

    2013-05-01

    In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were

  11. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  12. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  13. Diferential gene expression and adiposity reduction induced by ascorbic acid supplementation in a cafeteria model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Campión, J; Milagro, F I; Fernández, D; Martínez, J A

    2006-06-01

    Obesity is considered as an inflammatory disease, in which free radical-induced oxidative stress and excessive intake of macronutrients exacerbate their symptoms. In this context, we assessed in rats the possible preventive effect of the supplementation with an antioxidant molecule, ascorbic acid, in order to reduce the adiposity induced by the intake of a high-fat diet. For this purpose, during 56 days, three groups of male Wistar rats were fed on: a) standard pelleted diet, b) Cafeteria diet, c) ascorbate-supplemented (750 mg/kg of body weight) Cafeteria diet. At the end of the experimental period, microarray analysis was used to identify genes transcriptionally induced or repressed by both experimental dietary models (Cafeteria diet supplemented or not with ascorbic acid) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Dietary ascorbic acid was able to protect against high fat diet effects, reducing the increase of body weight, total body fat and enlargement of different adipose depots induced by the Cafeteria diet without affecting food intake. An association analysis accurately and differentially allowed the detection of gene expression changes related with adiposity and insulin resistance. The genes that more strongly correlated with body fat and HOMA insulin resistance index were involved in adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucocorticoid metabolism, cell cycle regulation, as well as in several insulin-induced processes. Some other transcripts are regulated by the vitamin C-mediated reduction of adiposity, such as genes that participate in glucocorticoid metabolism, adipogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, or tricarboxylic acid cycle. This strategy was able to link variations in adipose tissue gene expression with markers of diet-induced obesity in rats, such as insulin resistance and body fat content.

  14. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of reduced folate carrier and effect of dietary folate supplementation on the expression of reduced folate carrier in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Kroeker, A; House, J D

    2009-09-01

    The reduced folate carrier (RFC) has been postulated to be a major entity for folate transport activity in humans and other mammals. However, there are limited reports of the importance of RFC in an avian system. In the current study, therefore, the molecular cloning and tissue distribution of RFC, as well as the effect of dietary folate supplementation on the expression of this transporter, were investigated in the chicken. Shaver White laying hens (n=8 per diet) received 3 wheat-based diets containing the following: 1) no supplemental folate, 2) folic acid (10.00 mg/kg), or 3) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (11.30 mg/kg) for 21 d. The mRNA expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the cloned partial RFC cDNA containing the full coding region from duodenum was 99% homologous to the reference gene available in GenBank. A broad expression profile of RFC transcripts was observed, with RFC mRNA detected in the brain, liver, kidney, spleen, lung, intestine, ovary, and testis, as well as other tissues. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that no significant differences (P>0.05) due to diet were found in the mRNA levels of RFC in the duodenum and cecum. However, compared with the basal diet, jejunal mRNA levels of RFC were decreased (P<0.05) in hens fed with the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate diet, but the reduction did not reach significance (P=0.077) in the hens fed the folic acid diet. Overall, the current study demonstrated that the RFC cDNA containing the full coding region was successfully cloned from the duodenum of laying hens. The wide tissue distribution of RFC transcripts is suggestive of an important role of RFC in the process of folate transport in the chicken. Moreover, dietary folate supplementation could downregulate the jejunal mRNA expression of RFC. Such findings will lay the foundation of future work involving the RFC in avian systems, including laying hens.

  15. Dietary supplementation of creatine monohydrate reduces the human fMRI BOLD signal.

    PubMed

    Hammett, Stephen T; Wall, Matthew B; Edwards, Thomas C; Smith, Andrew T

    2010-08-02

    Creatine monohydrate is an organic acid that plays a key role in ATP re-synthesis. Creatine levels in the human brain vary considerably and dietary supplementation has been found to enhance cognitive performance in healthy individuals. To explore the possibility that the fMRI Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) response is influenced by creatine levels, BOLD responses to visual stimuli were measured in visual cortex before and after a week of creatine administration in healthy human volunteers. The magnitude of the BOLD response decreased by 16% following creatine supplementation of a similar dose to that previously shown to increase cerebral levels of phosphocreatine. We also confirmed that cognitive performance (memory span) is increased. These changes were not found in a placebo group. Possible mechanisms of BOLD change are considered. The results offer potential for insight into the coupling between neural activity and the BOLD response and the more immediate possibility of accounting for an important source of variability during fMRI analysis in clinical studies and other investigations where between-subjects variance is an issue.

  16. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  17. Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-12-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis.

  18. Influence of eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation on lean body mass in cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, R A; Yeung, E; Mazurak, V C; Mourtzakis, M

    2011-11-08

    Cancer cachexia is characterised by a progressive loss of muscle, resulting in functional impairment and shorter survival. Eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish, has been studied for its role as an anti-cachexia therapy. Initial results of eicosapentaenoic supplementation in advanced cancer were promising with improvements in lean body mass (LBM), appetite and quality of life. However, subsequent larger phase III clinical trials reported minimal benefits of supplementation. Recently, several studies have used different study designs, which may provide insight on the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic in cancer cachexia and also on potential sources of divergent results in previous trials. This review examines the potential benefit of eicosapentaenoic supplementation on LBM and discusses limitations with current studies to identify methods which may aid in progressing the research of future clinical trials.

  19. Low auxotrophy-complementing amino acid concentrations reduce yeast chronological life span.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Pedro; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Ludovico, Paula; Rodrigues, Fernando; Leão, Cecília

    2007-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, interventions resembling caloric restriction, either by reduction of glucose or non-essential amino acid content in the medium, prolong life span and retard aging. Here we have examined the role of auxotrophy-complementing amino acid supplementation of S. cerevisiae strains in determining yeast chronological life span and stress resistance. The results obtained from cells cultured in standard amino acid concentrations revealed a reduced final biomass yield and premature aging phenotypes. These included shorter life span and indicators of oxidative stress, together with a G2/M cell cycle arrest and the appearance of a sub-G0/G1 population pointing to the occurrence of a specific cell death programme under starvation of essential amino acids. In order to overcome this starvation, five times higher amino acid concentrations were supplied to the medium as has already been commonly used by few laboratories. Such cultures reached more than five-fold higher final biomass yield in stationary phase and the early aging phenotypes were abrogated. Furthermore, in a long-lived yeast strain lacking TOR1, there was no positive effect of amino acid supplementation on longevity. On the contrary, amino acid supply had a positive effect on chronological life span of RAS2 deleted cells. This study may provide novel insights into the role of essential nutrients and their effect on aging process and raises the warning that the positive effects of caloric restriction on life span maybe restricted to non-essential nutrients. Moreover, the severe consequences on cell physiology, life span and stress resistance induced by essential amino acid imbalances presents a note of caution for those still using standard amino acid concentrations for studies with auxotrophic yeast strains.

  20. Folic Acid supplementation and pregnancy: more than just neural tube defect prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Guan, Yong; Yu, Yan-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Folate (vitamin B(9)) is an essential nutrient that is required for DNA replication and as a substrate for a range of enzymatic reactions involved in amino acid synthesis and vitamin metabolism. Demands for folate increase during pregnancy because it is also required for growth and development of the fetus. Folate deficiency has been associated with abnormalities in both mothers (anemia, peripheral neuropathy) and fetuses (congenital abnormalities). This article reviews the metabolism of folic acid, the appropriate use of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy, and the potential benefits of folic acid, as well as the possible supplementation of l-methylfolate for the prevention of pregnancy-related complications other than neural tube defects.

  1. Effects of fatty acid supplements on ruminal and total tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient digestion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 +/- 12 days in milk, mean +/- SD) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from supplemented saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). All rations contained identical forage and concentrate components including 37.2% forage and 13.5% cottonseed. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and linearly decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. The reduction in ruminal NDF digestibility was because of a linear decrease in digestion rate and a linear increase in passage rate of potentially digestible NDF with increasing saturated FS. Total tract digestibility of NDF was not different between treatments because of compensatory postruminal digestion. Ruminal fatty acid and C18 fatty acid digestibility tended to increase linearly with increasing unsaturated FS, and postruminal C18 fatty acid digestibility decreased with increasing saturated FS. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal organic matter digestibility and decreased intestinal long-chain fatty acid digestibility, although differences in fatty acid digestibility may be partially explained by fatty acid intake.

  2. Statin Use Mitigate the Benefit of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation-A Meta-Regression of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ankur; Bajaj, Anurag; Khosla, Sandeep; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-01-01

    During last 2 decades, multiple studies have evaluated omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation for cardiovascular prevention. The benefit found in previous studies was not demonstrated in more contemporary trials. We aimed to investigate effect of study characteristics, particularly concomitant statin therapy on results of randomized controlled trials. We systematically searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating ω-3 PUFA supplementation and reporting clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effect model, followed by a meta-regression of dose, docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA) ratio, and duration of treatment and use of lipid-lowering/statin therapy in control group. Twenty-three studies with 77,776 patients (38,910 PUFA; 38,866 controls) were included. PUFA had no effect on total mortality [risk ratio (RR) = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-1.01] and myocardial infarction (RR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.73-1.02), but marginally reduced cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98). Lower control group statin use (b = 0.222, P = 0.027) and higher DHA/EPA (b = -0.105, P = 0.033) ratio was associated with higher reduction in total mortality. Duration and dose had no effect. None of the variables except duration had significant effect on reduction in cardiovascular mortality by PUFA supplementation. There was evidence of publication bias. Statin use may mitigate, and higher DHA/EPA ratio is associated with the beneficial effect of PUFA supplementation.

  3. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, E T; Prokoski, K; Horn, D; Viott, A D; Santos, T C; Fernandes, J I M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. coli challenged broilers supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and threonine. Six hundred male broilers at one d of age from the Cobb strain were utilized. The design was completely randomized using a 2×3 factorial design (unchallenged and challenged and 3 diets). A commercial diet was used as a control and 2 other diets were formulated with glutamine (1.5 and 3% Aminogut®), arginine (1 and 2% L-Arginine), and threonine (1 and 2% L-threonine). The animals that consumed diets supplemented with amino acids presented better (P<0.05) feed conversion in the period from one to 42 d of age. The ability of cell proliferation and the villus:crypt ratio in response to enteric challenge were greater (P<0.05) for broilers that received diets supplemented with amino acids. High levels of amino acids in the experimental feeds reflected in greater protein levels in poultry house litter, and they did not interfere with ammonia production. The supplementation of diets with trophic amino acids can positively contribute to the regeneration and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa in broilers and to the maintenance of zootechnical performance when submitted to enteric challenges.

  4. Public health significance of supplementation or fortification of grain products with folic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for supplemental folate can be traced to the initial phase of the discovery of this vitamin as a micronutrient for the prevention of pregnancy related anemia. In the post discovery era, folic acid was used primarily to prevent deficiency as manifested by low blood folate levels and megalob...

  5. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation promotes aerobic growth of Salmonella Typhimurium under nitrosative stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Mee; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kook, Joong-Ki; Choy, Hyon E; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Bang, Iel Soo

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inactivates iron-sulfur enzymes in bacterial amino acid biosynthetic pathways, causing amino acid auxotrophy. We demonstrate that exogenous supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) can restore the NO resistance of hmp mutant Salmonella Typhimurium lacking principal NO-metabolizing enzyme flavohemoglobin, and of mutants further lacking iron-sulfur enzymes dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (IlvD) and isopropylmalate isomerase (LeuCD) that are essential for BCAA biosynthesis, in an oxygen-dependent manner. BCAA supplementation did not affect the NO consumption rate of S. Typhimurium, suggesting the BCAA-promoted NO resistance independent of NO metabolism. BCAA supplementation also induced intracellular survival of ilvD and leuCD mutants at wild-type levels inside RAW 264.7 macrophages that produce constant amounts of NO regardless of varied supplemental BCAA concentrations. Our results suggest that the NO-induced BCAA auxotrophy of Salmonella, due to inactivation of iron-sulfur enzymes for BCAA biosynthesis, could be rescued by bacterial taking up exogenous BCAA available in oxic environments.

  6. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration. PMID:27775591

  7. Lactobacillus GG and Tributyrin Supplementation Reduce Antibiotic-Induced Intestinal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cresci, Gail; Nagy, Laura E.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic therapy negatively alters the gut microbiota. Lactobacillus GG (LGG) decreases antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) symptoms, but the mechanisms are unknown. Butyrate has beneficial effects on gut health. Altered intestinal gene expression occurs in the absence of gut microbiota. We hypothesized that antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota reduce butyrate production, varying genes involved with gut barrier integrity and water and electrolyte absorption, lending to AAD, and that simultaneous supplementation with LGG and/or tributyrin would prevent these changes. Methods C57BL/6 mice aged 6–8 weeks received a chow diet while divided into 8 treatment groups (± saline, ± LGG, ± tributyrin, or both). Mice received treatments orally for 7 days with ± broad-spectrum antibiotics. Water intake was recorded daily and body weight was measured. Intestine tissue samples were obtained and analyzed for expression of genes and proteins involved with water and electrolyte absorption, butyrate transport, and gut integrity via polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Results Antibiotics decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression (butyrate transporter and receptor, Na+/H+ exchanger, Cl−/HCO3−, and a water channel) and protein expression (butyrate transporter, Na+/H+ exchanger, and tight junction proteins) in the intestinal tract. LGG and/or tributyrin supplementation maintained intestinal mRNA expression to that of the control animals, and tributyrin maintained intestinal protein intensity expression to that of control animals. Conclusion Broad-spectrum antibiotics decrease expression of anion exchangers, butyrate transporter and receptor, and tight junction proteins in mouse intestine. Simultaneous oral supplementation with LGG and/or tributyrin minimizes these losses. Optimizing intestinal health with LGG and/or tributyrin may offer a preventative therapy for AAD. PMID:23630018

  8. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-10-20

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration.

  9. A Mixed-Method Study to Determine the Benefits of Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation and Effects of Folic Acid Deficiency in Mothers on Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata S; Kolli, Sunanda Reddy; Neogi, Sutapa B; Singh, Samiksha; John, Neena; N., Srinivas; Ramani, Sudha; Shamanna, BR; Doyle, Pat; Kinra, Sanjay; Ness, Andy; Pallepogula, Dinesh Raj; Pant, Hira B; Babbar, Smiksha; Reddy, Raghunath; Singh, Rachna

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence from high income countries shows mothers who are supplemented with folic acid in their periconceptional period and early pregnancy have significantly reduced adverse outcomes like birth defects. However, in India there is a paucity of data on association of birth defects and folic acid supplementation. We identified a few important questions to be answered using separate scientific methods and then planned to triangulate the information. Objective In this paper, we describe the protocol of our study that aims to determine the association of folic acid and pregnancy outcomes like neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). We decided to fill the gaps in knowledge from India to determine public health consequences of folic acid deficiency and factors influencing dietary and periconceptional consumption of folic acid. Methods The proposed study will be carried out in five stages and will examine the questions related to folic acid deficiency across selected locations in South and North India. The study will be carried out over a period of 4 years through the hierarchical evidence-based approach. At first a systematic review was conducted to pool the current birth prevalence of NTDs and orofacial clefts OFCs in India. To investigate the population prevalence, we plan to use the key informant method to determine prevalence of NTDs and OFCs. To determine the normal serum estimates of folic acid, iron, and vitamin B12 among Indian women (15-35 years), we will conduct a population-based, cross-sectional study. We will further strengthen the evidence of association between OFCs and folic acid by conducting a hospital-based, case-control study across three locations of India. Lastly, using qualitative methods we will understand community and health workers perspective on factors that decide the intake of folic acid supplements. Results This study will provide evidence on the community prevalence of birth defects and prevalence folic acid and

  10. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  11. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in treatment of atopic dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarski, Maciej; Sawicka-Żukowska, Małgorzata; Bobrus-Chociej, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Some recent studies indicate that unsaturated fatty acids, components of cellular membranes and precursors of immunomodulators, play a significant role in the pathogenesis of some symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Since they cannot be synthesized by the human body, they must be provided with nutrition as the so called exogenous fatty acids: linoleic (a precursor of arachidonic acid) and α-linolenic acid (a precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)). Their deficiency facilitates the development of some disorders, e.g. of the cardiovascular system or of the nervous system, or becomes the cause of intensification of ailments in their course e.g. pruritus and dryness in atopic dermatitis. Though clinical examinations to date confirm the efficacy of fatty acid supplementation in treatment of atopic dermatitis, their results are not explicit. PMID:24278056

  12. Supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid in the last trimester of pregnancy: maternal-fetal biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Sanjurjo, Pablo; Ruiz-Sanz, Jose I; Jimeno, Pilar; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Aquino, Lourdes; Matorras, Roberto; Esteban, Judit; Banqué, Montserrat

    2004-01-01

    The nutritional significance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPS) during the perinatal period is becoming increasingly important. There are currently very few studies on dietary intervention during gestation. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy on levels in both the newborn and the mother. A randomized placebo controlled study was carried out on 20 pregnant women in study group receiving 200 mg/day of docosahexaenoic acid-(DHA) during the last trimester of pregnancy. Results in both groups (A supplemented, B non-supplemented) highlighted a decrease in plasma arachidonic acid (5.99 +/- 0.91 vs. 4.51 +/- 0.71 p<0.001 for group A and 5.84 +/- 0.71 vs. 4.80 +/- 0.51 p<0.01 for group B) in the baseline-final intra-group comparison. The intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference in plasma DHA at delivery: it was found to be higher in the population of supplemented pregnant women (3.17 +/- 0.26 vs. 2.77 +/- 0.31). The neonate population displayed no significant differences between the two groups. The results show that LCPS are consumed during the final stages of pregnancy and that oral supplementation with 200 mg/day of DHA is reflected in an increase in the plasma level of this fatty acid in the mother. One could speculate that there would be a corresponding increase in DHA bioavailability for the fetus.

  13. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy and four-year-old neurodevelopment in a population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Julvez, Jordi; Fortuny, Joan; Mendez, Michelle; Torrent, Maties; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi

    2009-05-01

    The use of folic acid supplements during very early pregnancy is recommended in order to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Little is known about the possible benefits of folic acid on child neurodevelopment. A total of 420 children (87% of those eligible) from a birth cohort had complete data for final analyses at age 4 years. Information about folic acid and other over-the-counter dietary supplements was obtained prospectively using interviewer-administered questionnaires at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. Psychological outcomes were assessed by two psychologists and teachers 4 years later. Low maternal socio-economic status, smoking, high parity and short duration of breast feeding were associated with lower prevalence of folic acid supplement use. Verbal (b = 3.98, SE = 1.69), motor (b = 4.54, SE = 1.66) and verbal-executive function (b = 3.97, SE = 1.68) scores, social competence (b = 3.97, SE = 1.61) and inattention symptom [OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.22, 0.95] scores were associated with reported folic acid use. Reported folic acid supplement use during pregnancy was associated with improved neurodevelopment in children after adjusting for a number of sociodemographic and behavioural factors.

  14. Folic acid supplementation can adversely affect murine neural tube closure and embryonic survival.

    PubMed

    Marean, Amber; Graf, Amanda; Zhang, Ying; Niswander, Lee

    2011-09-15

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), a common birth defect in humans, result from the failure of the embryonic neural tube (NT) to close properly. NT closure is a complex, poorly understood morphogenetic process influenced by genes and environment. The most effective environmental influence in decreasing the risk for NTDs is folic acid (FA) fortification and supplementation, and these findings led to the recommendation of periconceptual FA intake and mandatory fortification of the US grain supply in 1998. To explore the relationship between genetics and responsiveness to FA supplementation, we used five mouse NTDs models-Zic2, Shroom3, Frem2, Grhl2 (Grainyhead-like 2) and L3P (Line3P)-and a long-term generational FA supplementation scheme. Contrary to expectations, we find that three genetic mutants respond adversely to FA supplementation with increased incidence of NTDs in homozygous mutants, occurrence of NTDs in heterozygous embryos and embryonic lethality prior to NT closure. Because of these unexpected responses, we examined NTD risk after short-term FA supplementation. Our results indicate that, for the same genetic allele, NTD risk can depend on the length of FA exposure. Our data indicate that, depending on the gene mutation, FA supplementation may adversely influence embryonic development and NT closure.

  15. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by trace metal elements supplementation and reduced metals dosage by green chelating agent [S, S]-EDDS via improving metals bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of trace metals on methane production from food waste and examining the feasibility of reducing metals dosage by ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) via improving metals bioavailability. The results indicated that the effects of metal elements highly depended on the supplemental concentrations. Trace metals supplemented under moderate concentrations greatly enhanced the methane yield. However, the excessive supplementation of Fe (1000 mg/L) and Ni (50 mg/L) exhibited the obvious toxicity to methanogens. The combinations of trace metals exhibited remarkable synergistic effects. The supplementation of Fe (100 mg/L) + Co (1 mg/L) + Mo (5 mg/L) + Ni (5 mg/L) obtained the greatest methane yield of 504 mL/g VSadded and the highest increment of 35.5% compared to the reactor without metals supplementation (372 mL/g VSadded). The changes of metals speciation showed the reduction of metals bioavailability during anaerobic digestion, which might weaken the stimulative effects of trace metals. However, the addition of EDDS improved metals bioavailability for microbial uptake and stimulated the activity of methanogens, and therefore, strengthened the stimulative effects of metals on anaerobic digestion of food waste. The batch and semi-continuous experiments confirmed that the addition of EDDS (20 mg/L) bonded to trace metals prior to their supplementation could obtain a 50% reduction of optimal metals dosage. This study provided a feasible method to reduce trace metals dosage without the degeneration of process performance of anaerobic digestion.

  16. Luteolin supplementation adjacent to aspirin treatment reduced dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Osman, Neamt H A; Said, Usama Z; El-Waseef, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Esraa S A

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that aspirin is used in colon cancer treatment. However, long-term of Aspirin usage is limited to gastric and renal toxicity. Luteolin (LUT) has cancer prevention and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LUT supplementation and Aspirin treatment in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis in rats. DMH (20 mg/kg BW/week) treated rats received gavages with Aspirin (50 mg/kg BW/week) and LUT (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) for 15 weeks. DMH injections induce colon polyps and renal bleeding, significantly increasing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative stress, and kidney function tests and reducing antioxidant markers. Either Aspirin or LUT gavages alone or combined produce a significant decrease in colon polyp number and size, significantly decreasing CEA, COX-2, and oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant markers. In conclusion, the supplementations of LUT adjacent to Aspirin in the treatment of DMH-induced carcinogenesis in rats reflect a better effect than the use of Aspirin alone.

  17. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  18. The Effects of Phosphatidylserine and Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Supplement on Late Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Teruhisa

    2015-01-01

    Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS) may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17) and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal levels and circadian

  19. Taurine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and protects the liver in an iron-overload murine model

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZEYU; LIU, DAN; YI, BO; LIAO, ZHANGPING; TANG, LEI; YIN, DONG; HE, MING

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that iron overload induces liver damage by causing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taurine is a potent free radical scavenger that attenuates the damage caused by excessive oxygen free radicals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether taurine could reduce the hepatotoxicity of iron overload with regard to ROS production. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with iron 5 days/week for 13 weeks to achieve iron overload. It was found that iron overload resulted in liver dysfunction, increased apoptosis and elevated oxidative stress. Taurine supplementation increased liver taurine levels by 40% and led to improved liver function, as well as a reduction in apoptosis, ROS formation and mitochondrial swelling and an attenuation in the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment with taurine mediated a reduction in oxidative stress in iron-overloaded mice, attenuated liver lipid peroxidation, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and maintained reduced glutathione levels. These results indicate that taurine reduces iron-induced hepatic oxidative stress, preserves liver function and inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis. Therefore, taurine may be a potential therapeutic drug to reduce liver damage caused by iron overload. PMID:25201602

  20. Modifying the acute phase response of Jersey calves by supplementing milk replacer with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ballou, M A; Cruz, G D; Pittroff, W; Keisler, D H; DePeters, E J

    2008-09-01

    Fifty-one Jersey bull calves (5 +/- 1 d old) were assigned to 1 of 3 milk replacers to determine the effects of increasing doses of n-3 fatty acids from fish oil on the acute phase response after an endotoxin challenge. All calves were fed a 22.5% crude protein and 18% lipid milk replacer (Calva Products, Acampo, CA) supplemented with an additional 2% fatty acids. Treatments differed only in the supplemental lipid source and included a 3:1 mix of corn and canola oils, a 1:1 blend of fish oil (Omega Proteins, Houston, TX) and the 3:1 mix of corn and canola oils, and fish oil only. On d 23, each calf was injected subcutaneously with 4 microg/kg of body weight of Salmonella Typhimurium endotoxin. Clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 72 h post endotoxin challenge. Endotoxin caused a dramatic rise in respiratory rate; feeding fish oil significantly attenuated the increase. Heart rate and rectal temperature were not affected by treatment. Feeding fish oil attenuated the change in serum iron concentration over time. Endotoxin caused severe hypoglycemia, reaching a nadir at 4 h. Calves supplemented with fish oil had reduced concentrations of serum glucose for 8 to 24 h. Furthermore, calves supplemented with fish oil alone had reduced serum insulin at 12, 28, and 24 h. In contrast, endotoxin caused an acute increase in blood urea nitrogen and nonesterified fatty acids; there were significant linear effects of fish oil on both blood urea nitrogen and nonesterified fatty acids. Serum triglycerides were elevated beginning at 12 h after the endotoxin challenge and returned to baseline values within 72 h. Fish oil suppressed the rise in triglycerides during this period, and the effect was linear with increasing fish oil. Serum concentrations of leptin decreased after the endotoxin challenge; however, the treatment did not influence the response. There was no treatment effect on serum aspartate

  1. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on male reproductive system during exposure to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazhagan, G.; Riar, S. S.; Kain, A. K.; Bardhan, Jaya; Thomas, Pauline

    1989-09-01

    Two groups of male rats were exposed to simulated altitudes of 6060 m and 7576 m for 6 h/day for 7 days (intermittent exposure). In two additional groups of animals exposed to the same altitude, 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) was fed daily for 5 days prior to the exposure period and also during the exposure period. Rats that did not receive AA showed loss of body weight and weight of reproductive organs after exposure. Sex organs showed atrophy on histological examination and there was a deterioration in spermatozoal quality. There was an increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase, and decrease in protein, sialic acid and glyceryl phosphorylcholine content in various reproductive tissues after exposure. All the above changes in histology and biochemical composition could be partially prevented by AA supplementation. AA supplementation can therefore protect the male reproductive system from deleterious effects of hypoxia. The probable mechanism of action of AA is discussed.

  2. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and the risk of preterm births in China: a large prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Folic acid-containing multivitamins have been associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth. We examined whether periconceptional use of folic acid alone reduced this risk. Methods: Data were derived from a large population-based cohort study conducted in China to evaluate the prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation. The sample comprised 207 936 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 20–42 weeks to women from two provinces in southern China. Healthcare workers recorded folic acid intake prospectively each month. Gestational age calculation was based on the first day of the last menstrual period. Preterm births were categorized into three clinical subtypes: iatrogenic preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and spontaneous preterm birth. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between folic acid use and the risk of preterm birth, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The incidence of preterm birth was significantly lower among folic acid users (5.28%) than among non-users (6.10%). Folic acid use showed a 14% risk reduction for preterm birth overall [adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–0.90]. This association was strongest for spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.78–0.86) and was not significant for iatrogenic preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.88–1.07) or PPROM (adjusted RR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.93–1.23). Conclusions: Daily intake of 400 μg folic acid alone during the periconceptional period was associated with a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:24603317

  3. Vitamin A dietary supplementation reduces the mortality of velogenic Newcastle disease significantly in cockerels.

    PubMed

    Okpe, Godwin Chinedu; Ezema, Wilfred Sunday; Shoyinka, Shodeinde Vincent Olumuyiwa; Okoye, John Osita Arinze

    2015-10-01

    This project was undertaken to find ways of reducing mortalities and economic losses due to velogenic Newcastle disease (VND) in areas where the disease is enzootic. Four groups of cockerels of 44 birds each were used for this experiment. The birds in groups 1 and 2 received no dietary vitamin A supplementation, whereas groups 3 and 4 received 300 iu and 600 iu of vitamin A per kilogram of commercial feed, respectively, from 1 week of age till the end of the experiment. At 6 weeks of age, the birds in groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated intraocularly with a VND virus (duck/Nigeria/Plateau/Kuru/113/1991). The birds in Group 1 were given phosphate-buffered saline intraocularly. Clinical signs appeared in Group 2 birds on day 3 PI and in groups 3 and 4 on day 5 PI. The clinical signs included a drop in feed and water consumption, depression, diarrhoea, torticollis and paralysis in all the infected groups. The average body weights of all groups were significantly different from one another on day 14 PI with Group 2 birds having the lowest body weight. Mortalities were highest in Group 2 birds (0%, 93.18%, 72.73% and 56.82% in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively). The antibody response in all the groups was significantly different from one another on days 14 and 21 PI. Group 2 birds had the lowest titres on those 2 days and showed more severe atrophy of the bursa, spleen, thymus and fibrin deposition in the spleen and thymus than the birds in groups 3 and 4. The above observations show that vitamin A dietary supplementation delayed the onset of clinical signs and significantly reduced body weight loss, atrophy of the bursa, spleen and thymus, and mortalities by 36%. It also significantly potentiated haemagglutination inhibition antibody response.

  4. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi G; Thuse, Nileema V; Ramdas, Lalita V; Deshpande, Swapna S; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Deshpande, Jyoti A; Uradey, Bhagyashree S; Ganpule, Anjali A; Naik, Sadanand S; Joshi, Niranjan P; Farrant, Hannah; Refsum, Helga

    2007-01-01

    People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (<150 pmol/L) and 24 had hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p <0.05) and reduced tHcy concentration (18.0 to 13.0 micromol/L, p <0.05) within first 2 weeks, both of which remained stable for the next 4 weeks. Plasma vitamin B12 and tHcy concentrations did not change in those who did not receive vitamin B12, and there was no change in plasma folate concentration in any of the groups. Blood haemoglobin concentration increased marginally within first two weeks in those women who received vitamin B12 (by 3 g/L, p <0.05) and the number of women with macrocytosis decreased from 2 to zero. There was no change in vibration sensory threshold during the period of the study. High-dose per oral vitamin B12 supplementation significantly reduced plasma tHcy within 2 weeks but did not achieve normal plasma tHcy concentration even after 6 weeks. People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.

  5. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Klaus; Telford, Richard D; Cunningham, Ross B

    2013-01-01

    Objective Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL®) on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53) was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour−1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour−1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours) the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK) were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful). Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41) compared to the placebo (P < 0.05), the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05). CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05), but trends toward lower CK in the PCSO-524® group, which were also more pronounced in the lesser trained runners, were not statistically significant. Conclusion Pain sensations experienced by distance runners following a 30 km run were reduced by supplementation with the marine oil complex PCSO-524®, an effect which was greater in lesser trained

  6. Peri-conceptional supplementation of folic acid-knowledge and practices of pregnant women and health providers

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Naithani, Manisha; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Singh, Richa; Das, Pranoti

    2016-01-01

    Context: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common congenital anomalies. NTDs are preventable if folic acid (FA) is supplemented before and during conception. Knowledge and supplementation of FA by pregnant women as well as it's timely provision by health providers is crucial in reducing the burden of NTDs in the community. Aim: To study the knowledge and supplementation of FA by pregnant women and it's prescription/provision by health providers. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the block Doiwala, District Dehradun, Uttarakhand. Subjects and Methods: A total of 400 pregnant women and 121 government health providers (5 medical officers, 25 auxiliary nurse midwives [ANMs], and 91 accredited social health activists [ASHAs]) were interviewed on predesigned, pretested questionnaire by study/field investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportion of different variables calculated and Chi-square test with Yates correction was applied. Results: Of 400, 73.50% of women had heard of FA. Overall, knowledge scores suggested intermediate to low level of knowledge about FA. Totally 94.25% of women had planned pregnancies; however, only 4.75% of women reported FA supplementation before conception. This indicates that if these women would have been properly counseled and prescribed FA, they might have taken it. About 60% of medical officers, 4% of ANMs, and 3.3% of ASHAs knew FA deficiency as one of the causes of NTD. None of the health providers reported to be prescribing/counseling FA to pregnant women. FA was out of supply on the block at the time of the study. Conclusions: Knowledge and supplementation practices related with FA are poor. PMID:27843847

  7. Effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with organoselenium compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids on hatchability.

    PubMed

    Pappas, A C; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C; Surai, P F; McDevitt, R M

    2006-09-01

    The effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and organoselenium compounds on fertility, hatchability, and the weight of 1-d-old chicks was assessed. Prepeak (23 wk) and peak (27 wk) production breeders were fed 1 of 4 diets: a wheat-based commercial breeder diet with 55 g/kg of either soybean oil (SO) or fish oil (FO), but no added Se (only that originating from feed ingredients), and each diet with added Se as Sel-Plex (SO + Se, FO + Se). The diets were designed to contain <0.1 mg/kg of Se and about 0.5 mg/kg of Se for the nonsupplemented (no added Se) and the supplemented diets, respectively. The Se concentration of the eggshell of the hatching egg was measured. The concentration of Se, PUFA, and total lipid content of the brain and liver of the 1-d-old chick was determined. The number of fertile eggs increased, embryonic mortality decreased, and hatchability increased as hen age increased from 23 to 27 wk. The Se concentration in the eggshell and the brain and liver of 1-d-old chicks was higher in the high-Se treatments com pared with the concentration in the low-Se treatments. Fish oil inclusion in the breeder diet increased embryonic mortality in wk 3 of incubation and reduced both hatchability and 1-d-old chick weight in hens of both ages. The addition of Se to the FO diets ameliorated some of these adverse effects, because chicks hatched from eggs laid by 23-wk-old breeders of the FO + Se treatment were heavier than those receiving the FO treatment. The Se concentration in the brain and liver of chicks from the FO hens was higher than that in chicks from the SO hens. The concentration of docosahexaenoic fatty acid was higher in the liver of chicks from the SO + Se treatment compared with that of chicks from the SO treatment, indicating possible protective effects of Se. Hatchability was decreased by increased PUFA and was higher in 27-wk-old compared with 23-wk-old breeders.

  8. Folic Acid Supplementation Is Suboptimal in a National Cohort of Older Veterans Receiving Low Dose Oral Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Tonner, Chris; Miao, Yinghui; Yazdany, Jinoos; Gannon, Jacqueline; Boscardin, W. John; Daikh, David I.; Steinman, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Co-prescription of folic acid in patients receiving low dose oral methotrexate is recommended because it reduces adverse events and prolongs the use of methotrexate (MTX). However, little is known about how often new users of methotrexate are co-prescribed folic acid, and what factors are associated with its use. We aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors of, and persistence of folic acid use in a population-based cohort of MTX users with rheumatic diseases. Methods Using a national, administrative database of patients seen through the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) that included pharmacy and laboratory data, we performed an observational cohort study of veterans over 65 years old who were new users of MTX. We used log-binomial regression to identify independent predictors of folic acid use and Kaplan Meyer survival analysis to examine persistence of folic acid over time. Results We studied 2467 incident users of MTX. 27% of patients were not prescribed folic acid through the VHA pharmacy within 30 days of MTX initiation. Patients who did not see a rheumatologist were 23% less likely to receive folic acid compared to patients who did have a rheumatologist visit during the baseline period (RR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.72, 0.82). These results remained unchanged even after adjusting for demographic, clinical, and other factors (adjusted RR (95% CI) 0.78 (0.74, 0.85)). After 20 months, only 50% of patients continued to receive folic acid. Conclusions In a nationwide VHA cohort of new users of oral MTX, many patients did not receive folic acid or discontinued it over time. Rheumatologists were more likely to prescribe folic acid than other providers. These data highlight the need to improve patient safety for users of methotrexate by standardizing workflows for folic acid supplementation. PMID:27977768

  9. Stearidonic acid as a supplemental source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to enhance status for improved human health.

    PubMed

    Walker, Celia G; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2013-02-01

    There is substantial evidence to show that consumption and increased blood levels of the very long-chain (VLC) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The consumption of oily fish is an effective way of increasing EPA and DHA intake and status, but intake in most Western countries remains below the levels recommended for optimal health. The reasons for this include not liking the taste, a concern about sustainability of fish supplies, or potential chemical and heavy metal contamination. Alternative dietary sources of ω-3 fatty acids to enhance EPA and DHA status in the body would therefore be beneficial. There are many non-fish food sources of the essential plant-derived ω-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, but conversion from this to longer-chain EPA and especially to DHA is poor. Stearidonic acid (SDA) is an intermediate fatty acid in the biosynthetic pathway from α-linolenic acid to VLC ω-3 PUFAs and the conversion from SDA is more efficient than from α-linolenic acid. However, there are few food sources rich in SDA. Oil crops naturally rich in SDA or enriched through genetic modification may offer an alternative supplemental oil to boost the population status of VLC ω-3 PUFAs. This review discusses the currently available evidence that increased SDA consumption can increase red blood cell EPA content, although this is less than the effect of supplementation directly with EPA. There is now a need for trials specifically designed to assess whether an increased SDA consumption would translate into improved human health outcomes.

  10. l-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) supplementation to optimize health and reproduction in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, R; Ranjan, A; Dhaliwal, G S; Patra, R C

    2012-01-01

    Cattle can synthesize L-ascorbic acid (or Vitamin C) from either D-glucose or D-galactose through glucuronic acid pathway in the liver. L-Ascorbic acid present in cattle diet is almost totally destroyed by rumen microorganisms making them essentially dependent on its endogenous synthesis, which is assumed sufficient to meet the physiological requirement. Therefore, the role of vitamin C in cattle health and disease has remained widely overlooked. However, there is mounting evidence that the level of L-ascorbic acid in blood and other tissues decreases in association with stress and disease, and Vitamin C supplementation revealed favorable response as evident from early recovery. The present review is an attempt to summarize the existing literature pertaining to the physiological role of L-ascorbic acid and the scope of its supplementation in the prevention and treatment of diseases in cattle. It should be realized that the aqueous solution of vitamin C is highly acidic and subcutaneous or intramuscular administration may cause tissue irritation and inflammation, whereas the sodium ascorbate solution is less acidic and might be used for intramuscular administration.

  11. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p < 0.01) during pregnancy, increased systolic (p < 0.05) and diastolic (p < 0.01) blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p < 0.05 for both) but did not affect the lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p < 0.05) the levels of plasma triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  12. Reducible HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymers for nucleic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Julie; Johnson, Russell N.; Schellinger, Joan G.; Carlson, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradability can be incorporated into cationic polymers via use of disulfide linkages that are degraded in the reducing environment of the cell cytosol. In this work, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and methacrylamido-functionalized oligo-L-lysine peptide monomers with either a non-reducible 6-aminohexanoic acid (AHX) linker or a reducible 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithiol]propionic acid (AEDP) linker were copolymerized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Both of the copolymers and a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of copolymers with reducible and non-reducible peptides were complexed with DNA to form polyplexes. The polyplexes were tested for salt stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. The HPMA-oligolysine copolymer containing the reducible AEDP linkers was less efficient at transfection than the non-reducible polymer and was prone to flocculation in saline and serum-containing conditions, but was also not cytotoxic at charge ratios tested. Optimal transfection efficiency and toxicity was attained with mixed formulation of copolymers. Flow cytometry uptake studies indicated that blocking extracellular thiols did not restore transfection efficiency and that the decreased transfection of the reducible polyplex is therefore not primarily caused by extracellular polymer reduction by free thiols. The decrease in transfection efficiency of the reducible polymers could be partially mitigated by the addition of low concentrations of EDTA to prevent metal-catalyzed oxidation of reduced polymers. PMID:21893178

  13. Reducible HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymers for nucleic acid delivery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Julie; Johnson, Russell N; Schellinger, Joan G; Carlson, Peter M; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-05-01

    Biodegradability can be incorporated into cationic polymers via use of disulfide linkages that are degraded in the reducing environment of the cell cytosol. In this work, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and methacrylamido-functionalized oligo-l-lysine peptide monomers with either a non-reducible 6-aminohexanoic acid (AHX) linker or a reducible 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithiol] propionic acid (AEDP) linker were copolymerized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Both of the copolymers and a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of copolymers with reducible and non-reducible peptides were complexed with DNA to form polyplexes. The polyplexes were tested for salt stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. The HPMA-oligolysine copolymer containing the reducible AEDP linkers was less efficient at transfection than the non-reducible polymer and was prone to flocculation in saline and serum-containing conditions, but was also not cytotoxic at charge ratios tested. Optimal transfection efficiency and toxicity were attained with mixed formulation of copolymers. Flow cytometry uptake studies indicated that blocking extracellular thiols did not restore transfection efficiency and that the decreased transfection of the reducible polyplex is therefore not primarily caused by extracellular polymer reduction by free thiols. The decrease in transfection efficiency of the reducible polymers could be partially mitigated by the addition of low concentrations of EDTA to prevent metal-catalyzed oxidation of reduced polymers.

  14. Effects of a joint supplement whose main components are resveratrol and hyaluronic acid on some biochemical parameters in aged lame horses

    PubMed Central

    EMEME, Mary U.; ABDULLAHI, Usman S.; SACKEY, Anthony K. B.; AYO, Joseph O.; MSHELIA, Wayuta P.; EDEH, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a supplement that contains resveratrol and hyaluronic acid (RH supplement) in aged lame horses. A total of 16 horses of both sexes, aged between 15 and 22 years, weighing between 350–450 kg and showing lameness due to arthritis of the knee, hock, stifle, and fetlock joints and stiffness owing to ageing were used for the study. They comprised eight horses that were administered the RH supplement for three weeks and eight others that served as controls and were given only a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain used as carrier in the supplement. Blood samples were collected from each horse before supplementation (week 0) and at weekly intervals for the three weeks of the experiment. Biochemical parameters including creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium were measured by standard methods. There was a significant (P˂0.05) reduction in values of creatine kinase and glucose in the horses administered the RH supplement. It was concluded that the RH supplement may reduce the level of these biochemical parameters and their deleterious effects especially during ageing in horses. PMID:27073333

  15. DNA Methylation Profiling at Single-Base Resolution Reveals Gestational Folic Acid Supplementation Influences the Epigenome of Mouse Offspring Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Brown, W. Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly more evident that lifestyle, environmental factors, and maternal nutrition during gestation can influence the epigenome of the developing fetus and thus modulate the physiological outcome. Variations in the intake of maternal nutrients affecting one-carbon metabolism may influence brain development and exert long-term effects on the health of the progeny. In this study, we investigated whether supplementation with high maternal folic acid during gestation alters DNA methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of mouse offspring. We used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to analyze the DNA methylation profile at the single-base resolution level. The genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed that supplementation with higher maternal folic acid resulted in distinct methylation patterns (P < 0.05) of CpG and non-CpG sites in the cerebellum of offspring. Such variations of methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of offspring were highly sex-specific, including several genes of the neuronal pathways. These findings demonstrate that alterations in the level of maternal folic acid during gestation can influence methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of offspring. Such changes in the offspring epigenome may alter neurodevelopment and influence the functional outcome of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. PMID:27199632

  16. Dietary supplementation with docosahexanoic acid (DHA) increases red blood cell membrane flexibility in mice with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Wandersee, Nancy J; Maciaszek, Jamie L; Giger, Katie M; Hanson, Madelyn S; Zheng, Suilan; Guo, YiHe; Mickelson, Barbara; Hillery, Cheryl A; Lykotrafitis, George; Low, Philip S; Hogg, Neil

    2015-02-01

    Humans and mice with sickle cell disease (SCD) have rigid red blood cells (RBCs). Omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA), may influence RBC deformability via incorporation into the RBC membrane. In this study, sickle cell (SS) mice were fed natural ingredient rodent diets supplemented with 3% DHA (DHA diet) or a control diet matched in total fat (CTRL diet). After 8weeks of feeding, we examined the RBCs for: 1) stiffness, as measured by atomic force microscopy; 2) deformability, as measured by ektacytometry; and 3) percent irreversibly sickled RBCs on peripheral blood smears. Using atomic force microscopy, it is found that stiffness is increased and deformability decreased in RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, RBCs from SS mice fed DHA diet had markedly decreased stiffness and increased deformability compared to RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet. Furthermore, examination of peripheral blood smears revealed less irreversibly sickled RBCs in SS mice fed DHA diet as compared to CTRL diet. In summary, our findings indicate that DHA supplementation improves RBC flexibility and reduces irreversibly sickled cells by 40% in SS mice. These results point to potential therapeutic benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in SCD.

  17. Limiting amino acids in bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) as determined from blood amino acid levels and amino acid supplementation studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Khader, V; Rao, S V

    1982-01-01

    The limiting amino acids of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) were determined from plasma amino acid score and ratio and growth response of weanling rats to supplements of amino acids. The results indicated that methionine, threonine and tryptophan are the most limiting amino acids. Protein efficiency ratio of raw and cooked Bengal gram fed at a dietary level of 10% protein increased from 2.7 to 3.7 and 2.4 to 3.4, respectively, on supplementing the diets with methionine, threonine and tryptophan. Plasma levels of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan were similar in rats fed raw or cooked Bengal gram, indicating that the trypsin or other inhibitors that may be present in the raw gram do not affect the biological availability of these amino acids.

  18. Effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex on gut integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sanz Fernandez, M V; Pearce, S C; Gabler, N K; Patience, J F; Wilson, M E; Socha, M T; Torrison, J L; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes livestock health and productivity and both may in part be mediated by reduced intestinal integrity. Dietary zinc improves a variety of bowel diseases, which are characterized by increased intestinal permeability. Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs. Crossbred gilts (43±6 kg BW) were ad libitum fed one of three diets: (1) control (ZnC; 120 ppm Zn as ZnSO4; n=13), (2) control+100 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn220; containing a total of 220 ppm Zn; n=14), and (3) control+200 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn320; containing a total of 320 ppm Zn; n=16). After 25 days on their respective diets, all pigs were exposed to constant HS conditions (36°C, ∼50% humidity) for either 1 or 7 days. At the end of the environmental exposure, pigs were euthanized and blood and intestinal tissues were harvested immediately after sacrifice. As expected, HS increased rectal temperature (P⩽0.01; 40.23°C v. 38.93°C) and respiratory rate (P⩽0.01; 113 v. 36 bpm). Pigs receiving ZnAA tended to have increased rectal temperature (P=0.07; +0.27°C) compared with ZnC-fed pigs. HS markedly reduced feed intake (FI; P⩽0.01; 59%) and caused BW loss (2.10 kg), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatment. Fresh intestinal segments were assessed ex vivo for intestinal integrity. As HS progressed from days 1 to 7, both ileal and colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) decreased (P⩽0.05; 34% and 22%, respectively). This was mirrored by an increase in ileal and colonic permeability to the macromolecule dextran (P⩽0.01; 13- and 56-fold, respectively), and increased colonic lipopolysaccharide permeability (P⩽0.05; threefold) with time. There was a quadratic response (P⩽0.05) to increasing ZnAA on ileal TER, as it was improved (P⩽0.05; 56%) in Zn220-fed pigs compared with ZnC. This study demonstrates that HS progressively compromises the intestinal

  19. Short communication: Lactational responses to palmitic acid supplementation when replacing soyhulls or dry ground corn.

    PubMed

    de Souza, J; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of mid-lactation dairy cows to a palmitic acid (C16:0)-enriched fatty acid supplement when replacing soyhulls or dry ground corn in the diet. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (182 ± 60 d in milk; mean ± SD) were blocked by preliminary 3.5% fat-corrected milk and randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments consisted of a control diet containing no supplemental fat (CON), and 2 C16:0-enriched fatty acid-supplemented treatments (PA; BergaFat F100, Berg & Schmidt, Hanover, Germany) as a replacement for either soyhulls (PA-SH) or dry ground corn (PA-CG). The C16:0-enriched supplement was fed at 1.5% of diet dry matter. The PA treatments did not affect dry matter intake, but PA-SH increased dry matter intake by 1.4 kg/d compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments did not affect milk yield; however, PA-SH increased milk yield by 2.4 kg/d compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments tended to decrease milk protein content (3.12 vs. 3.15%). In contrast, PA-SH increased milk protein content (3.14 vs. 3.10%) and milk protein yield (1.27 vs. 1.19 kg/d) compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments increased milk fat concentration (3.68 vs. 3.55%) and milk fat yield (1.46 vs. 1.38 kg/d). The increase in milk fat yield with PA treatments was due to the increase in the yield of 16-carbon fatty acid in milk fat. Furthermore, PA-SH tended to increase yield of de novo fatty acids and yield of 16-carbon fatty acids compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments tended to increase feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/dry matter intake) compared with CON (1.51 vs. 1.46). The PA-SH treatment tended to increase insulin concentration compared with PA-CG (1.58 vs. 1.49 μg/L) and PA treatments increased nonesterified fatty acids compared with CON (110 vs. 99 μEq/L). Overall, PA treatments improved feed efficiency and increased milk fat yield and the response to the C16:0-enriched

  20. Effects of reduced calcium and phosphorous diets supplemented with phytase on laying performance of hens.

    PubMed

    Ziaei, N; Shivazad, M; Mirhadi, S A; Gerami, A

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the potential for reduced environmental impact by reducing dietary calcium and phosphorus content and phytase addition of laying hen diets. A randomized complete block design with a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement of 8 dietary treatments: 2 levels ofphytase (0 and 300 FTU kg(-1)) and 2 mineral levels (Ca: 34/18 and NPP: 3.2/2.2 g kg(-1), respectively). A total of 240 White Leghorn (WL) layers, 25 weeks of age were used. Considering birds in 12 cages as a replicate, 5 such replicates were randomly allotted to each dietary treatment. Individual body weight of the bird was recorded at the beginning and end of the experiment. Egg production on an individual basis was recorded daily and percentage hen day egg production was calculated. The cleaned eggshells were dried for 24 h, weighed and expressed as percentage of whole egg. One bird from each experimental unit were selected at random and killed by cervical dislocation at the end of the experiment and the left tibia was removed. Dried bone samples were ashed at 680 degrees C for 12 h for estimation of bone ash. The results of this experiment showed that reducing Ca and NPP (Non-Phytate Phosphorus) without phytase decreased BWG (Body Weight Gain), feed intake, FCE (Feed Conversion Efficiency), egg production, egg shell weight and tibia ash. However, phytase addition to low mineral diets completely corrected the adverse effects associated with low dietary Ca and NPP. It can therefore be concluded that reducing levels of Ca and NPP below current standards and phytase supplementation can reduce pollution potential from laying hen production without adversely affecting bird performance or welfare.

  1. Comparison of high dose and low dose folic acid supplementation on prevalence, onset and severity of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Azar Danesh; Dehkordi, Nastaran Zamani; Lotfizadeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Folic acid supplementation had previously mentioned as a protective factor against the onset of preeclampsia (PE). In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of high dose (5 mg daily) and low dose (1 mg daily) of folic acid supplementation on prevalence, onset and severity of PE. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women who were in the first trimester and referred to prenatal care university hospitals of Isfahan, Iran during October 2013–May 2015 were included in this study, then they were randomly divided into two groups of 5 mg and 1 mg (treated with daily 5 mg and 1 mg of folic acid, respectively), both groups received folic acid from the first trimester of pregnancy to 42 days after termination. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and some urine and blood biochemistry parameters were measured. SPSS-22 used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 943 pregnant women participated in the study (450 women in 1 mg group and 450 women in 5 mg group). Incidence rate of PE was 3.8% in 1 mg group and 2.4% in 5 mg group. In a comparison of preeclamptic patients in 1 mg and 5 mg group, no significant differences were seen regarding age, BMI, laboratory data, the severity of the disease, and onset (early or late) (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Although our findings support that administration of high dose folic acid may decrease the prevalence of PE, there is not enough data to support that higher amount of folic acid administration can reduce the severity of presentation's signs or ameliorate the laboratory data and the onset of PE. PMID:28217630

  2. Fatty acid composition and sensory traits of beef fed palm oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Partida, J A; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Campo, M M

    2007-07-01

    This study measured the effect of replacing dietary fat from an animal source with palm oil supplements on the intramuscular fatty acid profile and sensory quality traits of the meat from young bulls. Thirty-six entire male Friesian calves (mean age=6.8±1.1 months, mean live weight=162.5±28.6kg) were assigned to one of four isoenergetic (1.03 MFU/kg DM) and isoproteinic (15.5% CP) diets, that differed in their fat additives: (D1) lard-tallow mix (control); (D2) hydrogenated palm oil fatty acids (PFA); (D3) calcium salt of partially hydrogenated PFA, and (D4) calcium salt of the fatty acid distillate from palm oil. Bulls (mean live weight=391.3±30.3kg) were slaughtered under commercial conditions and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of the four diets and ageing time (1, 10, and 21d). Only the proportions of C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly affected by the palm oil dietary supplement. Ageing time affected grass odour, tenderness, juiciness, fibrosity, liver flavour, and acid flavour. Nevertheless, palm oil supplements did not negatively alter the organoleptic characteristics of the meat.

  3. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the technological quality of backfat of pigs.

    PubMed

    Bothma, C; Hugo, A; Osthoff, G; Joubert, C C; Swarts, J C; de Kock, H L

    2014-06-01

    Pigs were fed diets containing 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Compared to controls, backfat from CLA fed pigs was firmer and extracted lipid contained increasing amounts of CLA, but a ±11% overall decrease in unsaturated fatty acids and a ±5% overall increase in each of C16:0 and C18:0 saturated fatty acids were noted. This resulted in a change in the melting properties of fat. The onset setting temperature increased from ±14°C to ±18°C for lipid of backfat of pigs from the 0.25 and 0.5% CLA supplementation groups, and to ±26°C for lipid from the 1% CLA supplementation group. The final melting temperatures increased from ±37°C to ±43°C and ±45°C, respectively. The presence of β'-crystals of C18:0-C16:0-C18:1c9 triacylglycerides in fat from CLA fed pigs and β-crystals in fat from 1% CLA fed pigs was observed. Fatty acid and melting point results explained the improvement in the technological quality of backfat as a result of dietary CLA supplementation.

  4. Chlorogenic acid supplementation improves multifocal electroretinography in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joo Young; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of chlorogenic acid supplementation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, we evaluated objective change in visual function with multifocal electroretinography, along with visual acuity, visual field, standard electroretinography, and contrast sensitivity. Eighteen patients diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa were enrolled in this prospective, non-comparative, single-arm study. Multifocal electroretinography, best-corrected visual acuity in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters, total point score on visual field examination with Humphrey Field Analyzer II, electroretinography, and contrast sensitivity were measured and repeated after 3 months supplementation with chlorogenic acid. The amplitude of ring 5 was significantly higher on multifocal electroretinography after 3 months of chlorogenic acid supplementation (7.2 ± 9.5 vs 8.3 ± 10.8 nV/deg(2), mean ± standard deviation, P = 0.022). There were no significant changes in the best-corrected visual acuity, total point score on Humphrey Field Analyzer, 30 Hz flicker amplitude on standard electroretinography, or contrast sensitivity. Chlorogenic acid may have a beneficial effect on the peripheral area at the margins of retinal degeneration, and should be considered as an anti-oxidant for the management of retinitis pigmentosa.

  5. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows supplemented with pressed oilseed cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sa; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Pereira, Elzania Sales; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Correia, Braulio Rocha

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the productive and nutritional parameters of milk from crossbred lactating cows managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and with a diet supplemented with different pressed oilseed cakes. The supplements used were as follows: peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake for replacement of soybean meal. Sixteen cows with an average weight of 544 ± 57 kg and producing 8 ± 1.4 L of milk per day were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to the treatments according to a Latin square design repeated over time, with four treatments, 16 animals and four experimental periods. Supplementation of the diet with peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake compared with soybean meal in the diet of cows did not affect the average daily production or composition of the milk. The palm kernel cake promoted an increase in lauric fatty acids (C12:0 ) and palmitoleic acids (C16:1 ) (5.02 and 1.65%, respectively) compared with peanut cake and sunflower cake (4.13 and 4.01%, respectively). The levels of oleic fatty acids (C18:1 ) were higher for the sunflower cake and palm kernel cake supplements (26.01 and 25.01%, respectively) compared with peanut cake (23.11%). The replacement of soybean meal with sunflower cake and palm kernel cake improved the nutritional quality of the milk, with lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids and higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, without compromising the production or nutritional composition of the milk. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  7. Does folic acid supplementation rescue defects in ECE-1-deficient mouse embryos?

    PubMed

    Haque, A; Šaňková, B; Kvasilová, A; Krejčí, E; Sedmera, D

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) signalling is essential for normal embryonic development. Disruption of this pathway leads to defects in the development of subsets of cranial and cephalic neural crest derivatives. Endothelin-converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1) is a ratelimiting step in the biosynthesis of ET-1. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the protective role of folic acid (FA) against congenital anomalies via increasing the expression of ET-1. We have tested whether FA supplementation can rescue craniofacial and cardiac defects observed in the ECE1-/- embryos. ECE1+/- mice were caged together to obtain litters containing embryos of all possible genotypes. The treatment group had the diet supplemented with 20 mg/kg of FA from the day of discovery of the vaginal plug. FA supplementation did not result in modified proportions of the genotypes, indicating no rescue of the embryonic mortality. There was also no effect on the litter size. Craniofacial and cardiac defects were likewise identical in the ECE1-/- embryos of both groups. There was a mild but significant reduction in the embryo size in wild-type and heterozygous FA-supplemented embryos, and there were haemorrhages in the wild-type supplemented embryos at ED14.5. Expression of ET receptor A detected by immunohistochemistry was up-regulated in the ECE1-/- embryos, but FA supplementation had no effects on the distribution of staining intensity. We conclude that FA is not able to rescue the phenotype in this model, suggesting an alternative pathway for its action. These results also caution against indiscriminate use of dietary supplements in attempts to prevent congenital anomalies.

  8. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    PubMed

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability).

  9. Supplementation with iron and folic acid enhances growth in adolescent Indian girls.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S J; Poojara, R H

    2000-02-01

    The prevalence of anemia is high in adolescent girls in India, with over 70% anemic. Iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements have been shown to enhance adolescent growth elsewhere in the world. To confirm these results in India, a study was conducted in urban areas of Vadodora, India to investigate the effect of IFA supplements on hemoglobin, hunger and growth in adolescent girls 10-18 y of age. Results show that there was a high demand for IFA supplements and >90% of the girls consumed 85 out of 90 tablets provided. There was an increment of 17.3 g/L hemoglobin in the group of girls receiving IFA supplements, whereas hemoglobin decreased slightly in girls in the control group. Girls and parents reported that girls increased their food intake. A significant weight gain of 0.83 kg was seen in the intervention group, whereas girls in the control group showed little weight gain. The growth increment was greater in the 10- to 14-y-old age group than in the 15- to 18-y-old group, as expected, due to rapid growth during the adolescent spurt. IFA supplementation is recommended for growth promotion among adolescents who are underweight.

  10. Do side-effects reduce compliance to iron supplementation? A study of daily- and weekly-dose regimens in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hyder, S M Ziauddin; Persson, Lars Ake; Chowdhury, A M R; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2002-06-01

    Side-effects of iron supplementation lead to poor compliance. A weekly-dose schedule of iron supplementation rather than a daily-dose regimen has been suggested to produce fewer side-effects, thereby achieving a higher compliance. This study compared side-effects of iron supplementation and their impact on compliance among pregnant women in Bangladesh. These women were assigned to receive either weekly doses of 2 x 60 mg iron (one tablet each Friday morning and evening) or a daily dose of 1 x 60 mg iron. Fifty antenatal care centres were randomly assigned to prescribe either a weekly- or a daily-supplementation regimen (86 women in each group). Side-effects were assessed by recall after one month of supplementation and used for predicting compliance in the second and third months of supplementation. Compliance was monitored using a pill bottle equipped with an electronic counting device that recorded date and time whenever the pill bottle was opened. Of five gastrointestinal side-effects (heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, or constipation) assessed, vomiting occurred more frequently in the weekly group (21%) than in the daily group (11%, p<0.05). Compliance (ratio between observed and recommended tablet intake) was significantly higher in the weekly-supplementation regimen (93%) than in the daily-supplementation regimen (61%, p<0.05). Overall, gastrointestinal side-effects were not significantly associated with compliance. However, the presence of nausea and/or vomiting reduced compliance in both the regimens-but only among women from the lower socioeconomic group. In conclusion, weekly supplementation of iron in pregnancy had a higher compliance compared to daily supplementation of iron despite a higher frequency of side-effects. The findings support the view that gastrointestinal side-effects generally have a limited influence on compliance, at least in the dose ranges studied. Efforts to further reduce side-effects of iron supplementation may not be a

  11. Novel Omega-3 Fatty Acid Epoxygenase Metabolite Reduces Kidney Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Levick, Scott P.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D.; Imig, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases epoxidize the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid into novel epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) that have multiple biological actions. The present study determined the ability of the most abundant EDP regioisomer, 19,20-EDP to reduce kidney injury in an experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal fibrosis mouse model. Mice with UUO developed kidney tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. UUO mice had elevated kidney hydroxyproline content and five-times greater collagen positive fibrotic area than sham control mice. 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice for 10 days reduced renal fibrosis with a 40%–50% reduction in collagen positive area and hydroxyproline content. There was a six-fold increase in kidney α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive area in UUO mice compared to sham control mice, and 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice decreased α-SMA immunopositive area by 60%. UUO mice demonstrated renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and elevated expression of multiple mesenchymal markers (FSP-1, α-SMA, and desmin). Interestingly, 19,20-EDP treatment reduced renal EMT in UUO by decreasing mesenchymal and increasing epithelial marker expression. Overall, we demonstrate that a novel omega-3 fatty acid metabolite 19,20-EDP, prevents UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice by reducing renal EMT. PMID:27213332

  12. Oral Leucine Supplementation Is Sensed by the Brain but neither Reduces Food Intake nor Induces an Anorectic Pattern of Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Thais T.; Pedroso, João A. B.; Furigo, Isadora C.; Tirapegui, Julio; Donato, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Leucine activates the intracellular mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Although central infusion of leucine reduces food intake, it is still uncertain whether oral leucine supplementation is able to affect the hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. We observed increased phosphorylation of p70s6k in the mouse hypothalamus after an acute oral gavage of leucine. We then assessed whether acute oral gavage of leucine induces the activation of neurons in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the brainstem. Leucine did not induce the expression of Fos in hypothalamic nuclei, but it increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the area postrema. In addition, oral gavage of leucine acutely increased the 24 h food intake of mice. Nonetheless, chronic leucine supplementation in the drinking water did not change the food intake and the weight gain of ob/ob mice and of wild-type mice consuming a low- or a high-fat diet. We assessed the hypothalamic gene expression and observed that leucine supplementation increased the expression of enzymes (BCAT1, BCAT2 and BCKDK) that metabolize branched-chain amino acids. Despite these effects, leucine supplementation did not induce an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, our data show that the brain is able to sense oral leucine intake. However, the food intake is not modified by chronic oral leucine supplementation. These results question the possible efficacy of leucine supplementation as an appetite suppressant to treat obesity. PMID:24349566

  13. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  14. Impact of iron and folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lymperaki, E; Tsikopoulos, A; Makedou, K; Paliogianni, E; Kiriazi, L; Charisi, C; Vagdatli, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the impact of supplements on oxidative stress (OS) during pregnancy. Fifty volunteer pregnant women (21-40 years old), in the 12 ± 2 weeks' and 38 ± 2 weeks' gestation of pregnancy (study group), and 25 non-pregnant healthy women (control group) were enrolled. All pregnant women were divided into two age groups (A1: < 35 years and A2: ≥ 35 years) and four groups according to supplementation (B1: iron, B2: folic acid, B3: both and B4: none). Antioxidant activity was assayed using the TAC kit (Cayman Chemical Co.). Level of statistical significance was p < 0.05. Serum TAC values in all pregnant women in the first trimester were significantly lower, as compared with those of the control group. Levels of TAC increased significantly in the third trimester of pregnancy, especially with folic acid or no supplementation. In conclusion, pregnancy is associated with OS, which is promoted by the administration of iron supplementation.

  15. Histomorphology and small intestinal sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 gene expression in piglets fed phytic acid and phytase-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Adeola, O; Nyachoti, C M

    2011-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary phytic acid (PA) and phytase supplementation on small intestinal histomorphology and Na-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) gene expression in piglets. Twenty-four piglets with an average initial BW of 7.60 ± 0.73 kg were randomly assigned to 3 experimental diets, to give 8 piglets per diet. The diets were a casein-cornstarch-based diet that was supplemented with 0 or 2% PA, or 2% PA (as Na phytate) plus an Escherichia coli-derived phytase at 500 phytase units/kg. The basal diet was formulated to meet the 1998 NRC energy, digestible AA, mineral, and vitamin requirements for piglets. After 10 d of feeding, the piglets were killed to determine small intestinal histomorphology and small intestinal SGLT1 gene expression. Phytic acid supplementation did not affect (P > 0.1) villus height (VH) and the VH-to-crypt depth (CD) ratio, but did decrease (P < 0.05) CD in the jejunum. Phytase supplementation did not affect (P > 0.1) VH, CD, and the VH-to-CD ratio. Phytic acid supplementation reduced SGLT1 gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum by 1.1-, 5.4-, and 2.4-fold, respectively. Phytase supplementation increased SGLT1 gene expression in the jejunum by 2.6-fold, but reduced SGLT1 gene expression in the duodenum and ileum by 2.0- and 4.0-fold, respectively. In conclusion, PA reduced CD in the jejunum and SGLT1 gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas phytase supplementation increased the expression of SGLT1 in the jejunum. The reduced SGLT1 gene expression by PA implies that PA reduces nutrient utilization in pigs partly through reduced expression of SGLT1, which is involved in glucose and Na absorption. The increased expression of SGLT1 in the jejunum by phytase supplementation implies that phytase alleviated the negative effects of PA partly through increased expression of SGLT1.

  16. Progesterone supplementation during the early fetal period reduces pregnancy loss in high-yielding dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Hunter, R H F

    2004-11-01

    It was hypothesized that sub-optimal progesterone concentrations during the late embryo and early fetal period may act to compromise conceptus development in dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis by supplementing pregnant cows with exogenous progesterone following pregnancy diagnosis. The study population consisted of 1098 pregnant lactating cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography between 36 and 42 days after insemination. Animals found to be pregnant were randomly assigned to the Control (untreated cows, n = 549) or Treatment (n = 549) groups. Cows in group Treatment were fitted at pregnancy diagnosis with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) containing 1.55 g of progesterone, for 28 days. Cows were then subjected to a further diagnosis by palpation per rectum on Day 90 of gestation. Pregnancy loss was registered in 95 (8.7%) cows on Day 90 of pregnancy: 66 (12%) in group Control and 29 (5.3%) in group Treatment. Logistic regression analysis indicated that there were no significant effects of herd, bull, milk production, service number, days in milk at pregnancy and lactation number. Based on the odds ratio, treated cows were 2.4 (1/0.41) times less likely to miscarry, whereas the risk of pregnancy loss was 1.6 times higher in cows that became pregnant during the warm period in comparison to the cool period. These results support the hypothesis that sub-optimal progesterone concentrations in high producer dairy cows may compromise conceptus development. Under these conditions, intra-vaginal progesterone supplementation has the potential to reduce the incidence of pregnancy loss during the early fetal period.

  17. Folic acid supplementation increases cutaneous vasodilator sensitivity to sympathetic nerve activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Greaney, Jody L; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-02-22

    During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. In protocol 1, esophageal temperature (Tes) was increased by 1.0ºC (water-perfused suit) while SSNA (peroneal microneurography) and red cell flux in the innervated dermatome (laser Doppler flowmetry; dorsum of the foot) were continuously measured. In protocol 2, two intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of the lateral calf for graded infusions of acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10) to 10(-1)M) with and without nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockade (20mM L-NAME). Folic acid improved reflex vasodilation (46±4% vs. 31±3 %CVCmax for placebo; P<0.001) without affecting the increase in SSNA (Δ506±104% vs. Δ415±73% for placebo; NS). Folic acid increased the slope of the SSNA:CVC relation (0.08±0.02 vs. 0.05±0.01 for placebo; P<0.05) and extended the response range. Folic acid augmented ACh-induced vasodilation (83±3% vs. 66±4 %CVCmax for placebo; P=0.002); however there was no difference between treatments at the NOS-inhibited site (53±4% vs. 52±4% CVCmax for placebo; NS). These data demonstrate that folic acid supplementation enhances reflex vasodilation by increasing the sensitivity of skin arterioles to central sympathetic nerve outflow during hyperthermia in aged human subjects.

  18. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin; Criales, Gabriel; Mellgren, Gunnar; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Hallenborg, Philip; Espe, Marit; Frøyland, Livar; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2009-04-01

    Conjugation of bile acids (BAs) to the amino acids taurine or glycine increases their solubility and promotes liver BA secretion. Supplementing diets with taurine or glycine modulates BA metabolism and enhances fecal BA excretion in rats. However, it is still unclear whether dietary proteins varying in taurine and glycine contents alter BA metabolism, and thereby modulate the recently discovered systemic effects of BAs. Here we show that rats fed a diet containing saithe fish protein hydrolysate (saithe FPH), rich in taurine and glycine, for 26 days had markedly elevated fasting plasma BA levels relative to rats fed soy protein or casein. Concomitantly, the saithe FPH fed rats had reduced liver lipids and fasting plasma TAG levels. Furthermore, visceral adipose tissue mass was reduced and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure was induced in perirenal/retroperitoneal adipose tissues of rats fed saithe FPH. Our results provide the first evidence that dietary protein sources with different amino acid compositions can modulate the level of plasma bile acids and our data suggest potential novel mechanisms by which dietary protein sources can affect energy metabolism.

  19. Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Pappritz, Julia; Meyer, Ulrich; Kramer, Ronny; Weber, Eva-Maria; Jahreis, Gerhard; Rehage, Jürgen; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2011-04-01

    The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the

  20. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  1. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Badr, Haitham A; AlSadek, Dina M M; Mathew, Mohit P; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B; Yarema, Kevin J; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2015-12-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, "Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  2. Effects of squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma free amino acid concentrations in young women.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Akita, Keiichi; Inaguma, Asami; Watanabe, Satoko; Bajotto, Gustavo; Sato, Juichi

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in plasma free amino acid concentrations induced by squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young, untrained female subjects. In the morning on the exercise session day, participants ingested drinks containing either BCAA (isoleucine:leucine:valine=1:2.3:1.2) or dextrin (placebo) at 0.1 g/kg body weight 15 min before a squat exercise session, which consisted of 7 sets of 20 squats, with 3 min intervals between sets. In the placebo trial, plasma BCAA concentrations were decreased subsequent to exercise, whereas they were significantly increased in the BCAA trial until 2 h after exercise. Marked changes in other free amino acids in response to squat exercise and BCAA supplementation were observed. In particular, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids were temporarily decreased in the BCAA trial, being significantly lower than those in the placebo trial. These results suggest that BCAA intake before exercise affects methionine and aromatic amino acid metabolism.

  3. Effect of forage type with or without corn supplementation on animal performance, beef fatty acid composition, and palatability.

    PubMed

    Wright, A M; Andrae, J G; Rosso, C Fernandez; Miller, M C; Pavan, E; Bridges, W; Duckett, S K

    2015-10-01

    Thirty-two steers were used to examine forage type (legumes [ and ] vs. grasses [ and ]) with or without individual corn grain supplementation (0 vs. 0.75% of live weight [LW]/d) on beef fatty acid composition and palatability. In each year, steers ( = 16/yr) were randomly assigned to forage type ( = 8/forage type per yr) and to supplementation treatments within forage type ( = 4/supplementation treatment/forage type per yr). Forage types (grasses vs. legumes) were replicated in 2 paddocks of perennial and annual forage type pastures. A mixed model was developed with forage type, corn grain supplementation, and the 2-way interaction as fixed effects and 2 different error terms, one for testing forage and another for testing grain supplement and grain supplement × forage interaction. Corn grain supplementation increased ( = 0.01) ADG by 0.29 kg/d and final LW by 13 kg. Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage (DP), and KPH were greater ( < 0.05) for steers supplemented with corn grain. Carcasses from steers grazing legumes had greater ( = 0.04) DP compared with carcasses from steers grazing grasses. Alpha-linolenic acid concentration was higher ( < 0.05) in LM of steers grazing legumes than in LM of steers grazing grasses, both without supplementation. Supplementation decreased ( < 0.05) linolenic acid levels for both forage types; however, the magnitude of this reduction was greater for legumes than for grasses. The ratio of -6 to -3 PUFA was greater ( = 0.03) in the LM of corn grain-supplemented steers than in the LM of nonsupplemented steers. Supplementation of corn grain decreased ( < 0.05) the percentage of odd-chain fatty acids and increased ( < 0.05) the percentage of MUFA in the LM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were not altered ( > 0.05) by forage type, supplementation, or the 2-way interaction. Beef finished on legumes had greater concentrations of -3 PUFA, whereas beef supplemented with corn grain had a greater ratio of -6 to -3 fatty acids. On a

  4. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689

  5. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bivi, M Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M S; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-10-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease.

  6. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  7. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Katherine E.; Newsham, Katherine R.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  8. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Corder, Katherine E; Newsham, Katherine R; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R; Weiss, Edward P

    2016-03-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m(-2)) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  9. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and white matter changes in major depression.

    PubMed

    Chhetry, Binod Thapa; Hezghia, Adrienne; Miller, Jeffrey M; Lee, Seonjoo; Rubin-Falcone, Harry; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    White matter abnormalities are implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are low in MDD and affect myelination, we hypothesized that PUFA supplementation may alleviate depression through improving white matter integrity. Acutely depressed MDD patients (n = 16) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 12) had 25-direction diffusion tensor imaging before and after 6 weeks of fish oil supplementation. Plasma phospholipid omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) levels were determined before and after supplementation using high-throughput extraction and gas chromatography and expressed as a percentage of total phospholipids (PUFA%). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was computed using a least-squares-fit diffusion tensor with non-linear optimization. Regression analyses were performed with changes in PUFA levels or Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores as predictors, voxel-wise difference maps of FA as outcome, covariates age and sex, with family-wise correction for multiple comparisons. Increases in plasma phospholipid DHA% (but not EPA% or AA%) after fish oil predicted increases in FA in MDD but not HV, in a cluster including genu and body of the corpus callosum, and anterior corona radiata and cingulum (cluster-level p < 0.001, peak t-score = 8.10, p = 0.002). There was a trend for greater change in FA in MDD responders over nonresponders (t = -1.874, df = 13.56, p = 0.08). Decreased depression severity predicted increased FA in left corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus (cluster-level p < 0.001, peak t-score = 5.04, p = 0.0001). Increased FA correlated with increased DHA% and decreased depression severity after fish oil supplementation suggests therapeutic effects of omega-3 PUFAs may be related to improvements in white matter integrity.

  10. Effects of phytic acid and exercise on some serum analytes in rats orally exposed to diets supplemented with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Daley, Tasha; Omoregie, Samson N; Wright, Vincent; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2013-03-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It has been reported to be high in the soil where food crops are grown in some parishes of Jamaica. Surprisingly, no adverse effect of cadmium has been reported among the Jamaican population. However, phytic acid has also been shown to be high in some food crops grown in Jamaica. In this study, we evaluated the effects of phytic acid (1 %) and exercise on the metabolism of cadmium (5 mg cadmium/kg body weight) in rats. Five groups of rats were fed as follows: rats fed control diet, control diet supplemented with cadmium and subjected to exercise, control diet supplemented with phytic acid plus cadmium and subjected to exercise, control diet supplemented with cadmium plus phytic acid, and control diet supplemented with cadmium only. The animals were fed for 4 weeks and then sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for some biochemical assays. Percentage weight loss (28.42 %) was greatest in the group that had cadmium supplement only. The group fed control diet supplemented with cadmium only displayed increased liver enzymes and electrolytes except for the significant decrease in bicarbonate compared to other test groups. Similarly, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were increased in the group fed cadmium supplement only compared to other test groups. Total cholesterol trended downwards in the test groups compared to control. These observations suggest that consumption of diet high in phytic acid with relatively high physical activity may be protective against the adverse effects of cadmium.

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected folic acid on rumen fermentation, degradability and excretion of urinary purine derivatives in growing steers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Liu, Qiang; Guo, Gang; Huo, WenJie; Ma, Le; Zhang, YanLi; Pei, CaiXia; Zhang, ShuanLin; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary addition of rumen-protected folic acid (RPFA) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, enzyme activity and the relative quantity of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in growing beef steers. Eight rumen-cannulated Jinnan beef steers averaging 2.5 years of age and 419 ± 1.9 kg body weight were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four treatments comprised supplementation levels of 0 (Control), 70, 140 and 210 mg RPFA/kg dietary dry matter (DM). On DM basis, the ration consisted of 50% corn silage, 47% concentrate and 3% soybean oil. The DM intake (averaged 8.5 kg/d) was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP) and net energy for growth was not affected by treatments. In contrast, increasing RPFA supplementation increased average daily gain and the concentration of total volatile fatty acid and reduced ruminal pH linearly. Furthermore, increasing RPFA supplementation enhanced the acetate to propionate ratio and reduced the ruminal ammonia N content linearly. The ruminal effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre from corn silage and CP from concentrate improved linearly and was highest for the highest supplementation levels. The activities of cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase and α-amylase linearly increased, but carboxymethyl-cellulase and protease were not affected by the addition of RPFA. The relative quantities of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased linearly. With increasing RPFA supplementation levels, the excretion of urinary purine derivatives was also increased linearly. The present results indicated that the supplementation of RPFA improved ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, activities of microbial enzymes and the relative quantity of the ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. According to the conditions of this

  12. A Note on Fatty Acids Profile of Meat from Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Inorganic or Organic Selenium

    PubMed Central

    del Puerto, Marta; Cabrera, M. Cristina

    2017-01-01

    This investigation evaluated, in broiler chickens Pectoralis and Gastrocnemius muscles, the effect of the dietary supplementation with sodium selenite (0.3 ppm) versus selenomethionine (0.3 ppm), on the fatty acids composition, lipids indices, and enzymes indexes for desaturase, elongase, and thioesterase. The selenium reduced, in both muscles, the content of atherogenic fatty acids, C14:0 and C16:0, while it increased the C18:1 level. On the other hand, selenium increased, in both muscles, the content of C18:3n3 and EPA, but not DPA and DHA. No selenium effect was detected for PUFA/SFA, n-6, n-3, n-6/n-3, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. As for the enzyme indexes, a selenium effect is only detected for thioesterase. Taken together, the results highlight the potential effect of dietary selenium, mainly selenomethionine, in the modulation of the composition of fatty acids in chicken meat, in particular, reducing the content of atherogenic fatty acids and increasing the health promoting n-3 PUFA. PMID:28194404

  13. Folic acid supplementation rescues anomalies associated with knockdown of parkin in dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Saurabh; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Yadav, Amarish Kumar; Srikrishna, Saripella

    2015-05-08

    parkin loss associated early-onset of Parkinson's disease, involves mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as the plausible decisive molecular mechanisms in disease pathogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction involves several up/down regulation of gene products, one of which being p53 is found to be elevated. Elevated p53 is involved in mitochondrial mediated apoptosis of neuronal cells in Parkinson's patients who are folate deficient as well. The present study therefore attempts to examine the effect of Folic acid (FA) supplementation in alleviation of anomalies associated with parkin knockdown using RNAi approach, specific to Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Drosophila model system. Here we show that FA supplementation provide protection against parkin RNAi associated discrepancies, thereby improves locomotor ability, reduces mortality and oxidative stress, and partially improves Zn levels. Further, metabolic active cell status and ATP levels were also found to be improved thereby indicating improved mitochondrial function. To corroborate FA supplementation in mitochondrial functioning further, status of p53 and spargel was checked by qRT-PCR. Here we show that folic acid supplementation enrich mitochondrial functioning as depicted from improved spargel level and lowered p53 level, which was originally vice versa in parkin knockdown flies cultured in standard media. Our data thus support the potential of folic acid in alleviating the behavioural defects, oxidative stress, augmentation of zinc and ATP levels in parkin knock down flies. Further, folic acid role in repressing mitochondrial dysfunction is encouraging to further explore its possible mechanistic role to be utilized as potential therapeutics for Parkinson's disease.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of dietary protein supplementation, on the performance of sows and their litters during first and subsequent parities. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with body weight (BW...

  15. Leucine-enriched essential amino acid supplementation during moderate steady state exercise enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The effects of essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation during moderate steady state (ie, endurance) exercise on postexercise skeletal muscle metabolism are not well described, and the potential role of supplemental leucine on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and associated molecular re...

  16. Development of a complex amino acid supplement, Fatigue Reviva™, for oral ingestion: initial evaluations of product concept and impact on symptoms of sub-health in a group of males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A new dietary supplement, Fatigue Reviva™, has been recently developed to address issues related to amino acid depletion following illness or in conditions of sub-health where altered amino acid homeostasis has been associated with fatigue. Complex formulations of amino acids present significant challenges due to solubility and taste constraints. This initial study sets out to provide an initial appraisal of product palatability and to gather pilot evidence for efficacy. Methods Males reporting symptoms of sub-health were recruited on the basis of being free from any significant medical or psychological condition. Each participant took an amino acid based dietary supplement (Fatigue Reviva™) daily for 30 days. Comparisons were then made between pre- and post-supplement general health symptoms and urinary amino acid profiles. Results Seventeen men took part in the study. Following amino acid supplementation the total Chalder fatigue score improved significantly (mean ± SEM, 12.5 ± 0.9 versus 10.0 ± 1.0, P<0.03). When asked whether they thought that the supplement had improved their health, 65% of participants responded positively. A subgroup of participants reported gastrointestinal symptoms which were attributed to the supplement and which were believed to result from the component fructooligosaccharide. Analysis of urinary amino acids revealed significant alterations in the relative abundances of a number of amino acids after supplementation including an increase in valine, isoleucine and glutamic acid and reduced levels of glutamine and ornithine. Discriminant function analysis of the urinary amino acid data revealed significant differences between the pre- and post-supplement urine excretion profiles. Conclusions The results indicated that Fatigue Reviva™ was palatable and that 65% of the study group reported that they felt the product had improved their health. The product could provide an effective tool for the management of unexplained

  17. Trans-11 vaccenic acid reduces hepatic lipogenesis and chylomicron secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Wright, David C; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2009-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid (VA) is the predominant trans isomer in ruminant fat and a major precursor to the endogenous synthesis of cis9,trans11-conjugated linoleic acid in humans and animals. We have previously shown that 3-wk VA supplementation has a triglyceride (TG)-lowering effect in a rat model of dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (JCR:LA-cp rats). The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effect (16 wk) of VA on lipid homeostasis in both the liver and intestine in obese JCR:LA-cp rats. Plasma TG (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (P < 0.01), and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, as well as the serum haptoglobin concentration, were all lower in obese rats fed the VA diet compared with obese controls (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a decrease in the postprandial plasma apolipoprotein (apo)B48 area under the curve (P < 0.05) for VA-treated obese rats compared with obese controls. The hepatic TG concentration and the relative abundance of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase proteins were all lower (P < 0.05) in the VA-treated group compared with obese controls. Following acute gastrointestinal infusion of a VA-triolein emulsion in obese rats that had been fed the control diet for 3 wk, the TG concentration was reduced by 40% (P < 0.05) and the number of chylomicron (CM) particles (apoB48) in nascent mesenteric lymph was reduced by 30% (P < 0.01) relative to rats infused with a triolein emulsion alone. In conclusion, chronic VA supplementation significantly improved dyslipidemia in both the food-deprived and postprandial state in JCR:LA-cp rats. The appreciable hypolipidemic benefits of VA may be attributed to a reduction in both intestinal CM and hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathways.

  18. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on AGEs and sRAGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Asuman; Andican, Gülnur; Siva, Zeynep Oşar; Andican, Ahat; Burcak, Gülden

    2016-12-01

    In diabetes mellitus, chronic hyperglycemia leads to formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Binding of AGEs to receptors of AGE (RAGE) causes deleterious effects. In populations with a high consumption of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been reported. We aimed to investigate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (EPA and DHA) supplementation on the levels of AGEs (carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and pentosidine), sRAGE, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM patients (n = 38) treated with oral hypoglycemic agents, without insulin were supplemented with n-3 fatty acids (1.2 g/day) for 2 months. Plasma CML, pentosidine, sRAGE, and NF-kB levels were measured by ELISA both before and after the supplementation. n-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly reduced fasting glucose (p < 0.01), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (p < 0.05), and pentosidine (p < 0.05) levels. The supplementation induced percentage changes in pentosidine and HbA1c and in pentosidine and creatinine were observed to be correlated (r = 0.349, p < 0.05) and (r = 0.377, p < 0.05), respectively. Waist circumference and systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly decreased due to n-3 supplementation (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.01), respectively. Our results show that supplementation with n-3 fatty acid has beneficial effects on waist circumference; systolic and diastolic blood pressures; and the levels of glucose, HbA1c, and pentosidine in T2DM patients. However, the supplementation failed to decrease these parameters to the reference ranges for healthy subjects. In addition, the supplementation did not appear to induce any significant differences in CML, sRAGE, or NF-kB.

  19. Maternal arachidonic acid supplementation improves neurodevelopment of offspring from healthy and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinping; Del Bigio, Marc R; Weiler, Hope A

    2009-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may compromise infant arachidonic acid status and development. This study tested if maternal arachidonic acid supplementation improves neurodevelopment in rat offspring. Dams were randomized into 6 groups using a 3x2 design: Saline-Placebo, streptozotocin-induced diabetes with glucose controlled at <13mmol/L, or poorly controlled at 13-20mmol/L using insulin; and fed either control or an arachidonic acid (0.5% of fat) diet throughout reproduction. Offspring were tested on post-natal days 3 and 5 for righting response, days 7 and 9 for negative geotaxis, day 14 for wire hanging endurance, days 18 and 24 for rota rod endurance, and day 28 for Morris water maze performance. Only the poorly controlled group had impaired day 7 geotaxis and day 18 rota rod performance (p<0.02), but this improved with maternal arachidonic acid supplementation (p<0.0006). Arachidonic acid improved the wire hanging endurance (p=0.0003) and water maze latency (p=0.0021), suggesting enhanced neurodevelopment in all offspring.

  20. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

    2012-09-01

    Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements

  1. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Celia G; West, Annette L; Browning, Lucy M; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2015-08-03

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0-4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

  2. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  3. Arginine supplementation between 41 and 146 days of pregnancy reduces uterine blood flow in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Yunta, C; Vonnahme, K A; Mordhost, B R; Hallford, D M; Lemley, C O; Parys, C; Bach, A

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that arginine (Arg) supplementation during early pregnancy could foster placental vascularization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Arg supplementation on uterine artery hemodynamics between 40 and 140 days of gestation. At 41 days of gestation, 17 Holstein heifers (448 ± 73.9 kg) were surgically fitted with a catheter in the peritoneal cavity. After surgery, nine heifers received a daily intraperitoneal infusion of 40 mg of Arg/kg of body weight (BW; ARG), whereas the remaining eight heifers received a daily intraperitoneal infusion of saline solution at equivalent volumes as ARG heifers relative to BW (CTRL). Daily infusions took place every 12 hours until heifers reached 146 days of pregnancy. At 41, 62, 83, 104, 125, and 146 days of pregnancy, all heifers were body weighed, bled, and uterine blood flow volume (FV) and other hemodynamics were determined using Doppler ultrasonography. The measurements included heart rate, FV, pulsatility index, and resistance index. Plasma concentrations of amino acids (AAs), nitric oxide, glucose, insulin growth factor, progesterone (P4), growth hormone, and prolactin were analyzed. In a second experiment, we evaluated Arg metabolism when infused either intravenously or intraperitoneally. Overall, FV did not differ between the treatments, but it increased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy day. Uterine blood FV evolved differently between the treatments, with CTRL heifers having a greater (P < 0.05) FV (1104 ± 65.42 mL/min) at 146 days of pregnancy than in ARG heifers (806 ± 65.32 mL/min). Pulsatility index and resistance index decreased throughout pregnancy but did not differ between the treatments. Heart rate was decreased (P < 0.05) in ARG (74 ± 1.4 beats/min) compared with CTRL heifers (81 ± 1.5 beats/min). Plasma concentrations of Arg tended (P < 0.09) to be greater in ARG than those in CTRL heifers, but carnitine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan were lower

  4. Effect of l-glutamic acid supplementation on performance and nitrogen balance of broilers fed low protein diets.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, R M; Costa, F G P; Givisiez, P E N; Freitas, E R; Goulart, C C; Santos, R A; Souza, J G; Brandão, P A; Lima, M R; Melo, M L; Rodrigues, V P; Nogueira, E T; Vieira, D V G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein reduction and supplementation of l-glutamic acid in male broiler diets. A total of 648 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications with eighteen birds per experimental unit. The study comprised pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (8-21 days), growth (22-35 days) and final (36-45 days) phases. The first treatment consisted of a control diet formulated according to the requirements of essential amino acids for each rearing phase. The second and third treatments had crude protein (CP) reduced by 1.8 and 3.6 percentage points (pp) in relation to the control diet respectively. In the fourth treatment, l-glutamic acid was added to provide the same glutamate level as the control diet, and in the last two treatments, the broilers were supplemented with 1 and 2 pp of glutamate above that of the control diet respectively. The reduction in CP decreased the performance of broilers and the supplementation of l-glutamic acid did not influence performance when supplied in the diets with excess of glutamate. The lowest excreted nitrogen values were observed in the control diet, and treatments 2 and 3, respectively, in comparison with treatments with the use of l-glutamic acid (5 and 6). Retention efficiency of nitrogen was better in the control diet and in the treatment with a reduction of 1.8 pp of CP. It was verified that the serum uric acid level decreased with the CP reduction. A reduction in CP levels of up to 21.3%, 18.8%, 18.32% and 17.57% is recommended in phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35 and at 36 to 42 days, respectively, with a level of glutamate at 5.32%, 4.73%, 4.57%, 4.38%, also in these phases.

  5. Folic acid supplementation attenuates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Cui, Yan; Ge, Jing; Ma, Meijing

    2012-01-01

    Folic acid participates in the metabolism of homocysteine and lowers plasma homocysteine levels directly or indirectly. To establish a hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rat model, 2 mL of DL-homocysteine was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 200 mg/kg from day 10 to day 19 of gestation. Folic acid was administered by intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg during the period of preeclampsia induction. Results showed that systolic blood pressure, proteinuria/creatinine ratio, and plasma homocysteine levels in the hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats increased significantly, and that body weight and brain weight of rat pups significantly decreased. Folic acid supplementation markedly reversed the above-mentioned abnormal changes of hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats and rat pups. These findings suggest that folic acid can alleviate the symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia- induced preeclampsia in pregnant rats without influencing brain development of rat pups. PMID:25624824

  6. Means for reducing oxalic acid to a product

    SciTech Connect

    Morduchowitz, A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes an apparatus for reducing oxalic acid to a product comprising: a cell including a separator for separating the cell into two chambers, a catholyte chamber and an anolyte chamber, each chamber having an inlet and an outlet; a porous anode arranged within the anolyte section in a manner so that an electrolyte entering through the inlet of the anolyte section will pass through the anode and exit through the outlet of the anolyte section; means for providing an electrolyte to the inlet of the anolyte chamber in a manner so that it will exit through the outlet of the anolyte chamber; means for providing a mixture of oxalic acid and an electrolyte to the inlet of the catholyte chamber; porous cathode means located in the catholyte chamber for reducing the oxalic acid in the oxalic acid-electrolyte mixture to the product within the cathode means when a d.c. voltage provided across the anode and the cathode means, the product exiting the cell by way of the catholyte chamber's outlet; and means for providing a d.c. voltage across the cathode means and the anode so as to cooperate in the reduction of the oxalic acid; and in which the cathode means includes a porous cathode having discrete sites of platinum and mercury as catalysts and the product is ethylene glycol.

  7. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Meng, Goh Yong; Sheau Wei, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA).The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption. PMID:25309587

  8. Effect of diet supplementation with sunflower oil on milk production, fatty acid profile and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Gonzalo; Luna, Pilar; Mantecón, Angel R; Castañares, Natalia; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela; Frutos, Pilar

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the nutritional quality of ewe milk fat by increasing potentially healthy fatty acids (FA) through diet supplementation with unprotected oil rich in linoleic acid, and without detrimental effects on animal performance. Twenty-four ewes were assigned to two high concentrate diets, control or supplemented with 6% sunflower oil (SO), for 4 weeks. No differences between treatments were found in milk production and dry matter intake. Although the SO diet increased milk fat percentage and tended to reduce milk protein concentration, it did not affect milk fat, protein or total solid yield. Most of the modifications in milk FA composition were addressed toward a potentially healthier profile: a decrease in C12:0 to C16:0 and a remarkable increase in the contents of cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 (from 0.94 to 3.60 g/100 g total FA) and trans-11 C18:1 (from 2.23 to 8.61 g/100 g total FA). Furthermore, the levels reached were maintained throughout the period monitored. However, the SO diet increased other trans C18:1 isomer percentages, too. The lack of differences between treatments in the in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters, studied with batch cultures of rumen microorganisms, would indicate no negative effects on ruminal fermentation.

  9. Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces Campylobacter Load

    PubMed Central

    Prasai, Tanka P.; Walsh, Kerry B.; Bhattarai, Surya P.; Midmore, David J.; Van, Thi T. H.; Moore, Robert J.; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were absent: an OTU 100% identical to Campylobacter jejuni; an OTU 99% identical to Helicobacter pullorum; multiple Gallibacterium anatis (>97%) related OTUs; Bacteroides dorei (99%) and Clostridium aldenense (95%) related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens. PMID:27116607

  10. Dietary supplementation of bitter gourd reduces the risk of hypercholesterolemia in cholesterol fed sprague dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rabia; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Mahr-Un-Nisa, -

    2016-09-01

    Functional and health endorsing benefits of various foods are often attributed to their phytochemistry. The bitter gourd holds potential in improving the health of the individuals owing to its incredible versatility in phytochemistry. However, the efficacy of different parts of bitter gourd needs attention of the researchers. In the current exploration, different parts of bitter gourd were evaluated for their cholesterol lowering potential in cholesterol fed Sprague dawley rats. For the purpose, four types of bitter gourd part i.e. whole fruit, seedless fruit, seeds, and seed extracts were used and compared with placebo in hypercholesterolemic rats. In placebo, momentous increase in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels was observed. All parts attenuate the cholesterol 18.79 to 40.17% triglycerides 25.97 to 37.01% and LDL 14.49 to 26.09%. However, 1% extract powder was most effective in reducing the cholesterol and triglycerides. From the present study, it is deduced that bitter gourd extract can be supplemented in food products for the management of hypercholesterolemia. However, future studies in human subjects needs to be conducted for meticulousness of the present findings.

  11. Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen to Reduce Surgical Site Infection After High-Energy Fracture Surgery (OXYGEN Study).

    PubMed

    OʼToole, Robert V; Joshi, Manjari; Carlini, Anthony R; Sikorski, Robert A; Dagal, Armagan; Murray, Clinton K; Weaver, Michael J; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Stall, Alec C; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Agel, Julie; Zadnik, Mary; Bosse, Michael J; Castillo, Renan C

    2017-04-01

    Supplemental perioperative oxygen (SPO) therapy has been proposed as one approach for reducing the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Current data are mixed regarding efficacy in decreasing SSI rates and hospital inpatient stays in general and few data exist for orthopaedic trauma patients. This study is a phase III, double-blind, prospective randomized clinical trial with a primary goal of assessing the efficacy of 2 different concentrations of perioperative oxygen in the prevention of SSIs in adults with tibial plateau, pilon (tibial plafond), or calcaneus fractures at higher risk of infection and definitively treated with plate and screw fixation. Patients are block randomized (within center) in a 1:1 ratio to either treatment group (FiO2 80%) or control group (FiO2 30%) and stratified by each study injury location. Secondary objectives of the study are to compare species and antibacterial sensitivities of the bacteria in patients who develop SSIs, to validate a previously developed risk prediction model for the development of SSI after fracture surgery, and to measure and compare resource utilization and cost associated with SSI in the 2 study groups. SPO is a low cost and readily available resource that could be easily disseminated to trauma centers across the country and the world if proved to be effective.

  12. The effect of subchronic supplementation with folic acid on homocysteine induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Rasic-Markovic, A; Rankov-Petrovic, B; Hrncic, D; Krstic, D; Colovic, M; Macut, Dj; Djuric, D; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2015-06-01

    Influence of folic acid on the CNS is still unclear. Folate has a neuroprotective effect, while on the other hand excess folate can exacerbate seizures in epileptics. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of subchronic administration of folic acid on behavioural and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of DL homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase in different brain regions was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: 1. Controls (C, 0.9% NaCl); 2. DL homocysteine-thiolactone 8.0 mmol/kg (H); 3. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid 5 mg/kg for 7 days (F) and 4. Subchronic supplementation with F + single dose of H (FH). Seizure behaviour was assessed by incidence, latency, number and intensity of seizure episodes. Seizure severity was described by a descriptive scale with grades 0-4. For EEG recordings, three gold-plated recording electrodes were implanted into the skull. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid did not affect seizure incidence, median number of seizure episodes and severity in FH, comparison with H (p > 0.05). The majority of seizure episodes in all groups were of grade 2. There were no significant differences in lethal outcomes at 24 h upon H injection in the FH vs. H group. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase was significantly increased in almost all examined structures in the FH vs. H group. Subchronic folic acid administration did not exacerbate H induced seizures and completely recovered the activity of ATPases.

  13. Leucine supplementation stimulates protein synthesis and reduces degradation signal activation in muscle of newborn pigs during acute endotoxemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sepsis disrupts skeletal muscle proteostasis and mitigates the anabolic response to leucine (Leu) in muscle of mature animals. We have shown that Leu stimulates muscle protein synthesis (PS) in healthy neonatal piglets. To determine if supplemental Leu can stimulate PS and reduce protein degradation...

  14. Effect of dietary corn oil supplementation on equine gastric fluid acid, sodium, and prostaglandin E2 content before and during pentagastrin infusion.

    PubMed

    Cargile, Jana L; Burrow, James A; Kim, Inyoung; Cohen, Noah D; Merritt, A M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of corn oil (approximately 60% [wt/vol] linoleic acid) dietary supplementation on various components of equine gastric secretion was studied by use of a repeated-measures experimental design. Four healthy adult ponies were surgically fitted with gastric cannulas. The ponies were then fed a free-choice hay diet for 5 weeks, which was followed by 5 weeks of the same diet supplemented with 45 mL of corn oil daily. Gastric contents were analyzed under basal and pentagastrin-stimulated conditions once weekly during the latter 2 weeks on each diet. Gastric contents were collected at 30-minute intervals, and volume, hydrogen ion concentration, sodium content, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content were measured. Data were analyzed by a linear fixed-effect modeling procedure. During the diet supplemented with corn oil, the ponies had, under basal and pentagastrin-stimulated conditions, significantly decreased acid output and significantly increased PGE2 and sodium outputs compared to those measured before corn oil supplementation. We conclude that corn oil supplementation may be an effective and inexpensive way to increase the protective properties of equine glandular gastric mucosa. This could be particularly helpful in reducing the chances of ulceration associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration.

  15. Capsiate supplementation reduces oxidative cost of contraction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health.

  16. Short communication: Effects of milk fat depression induced by a dietary supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on properties of semi-hard goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Chen, S X; Rovai, M; Lock, A L; Bauman, D E; Gipson, T A; Ren, F Z; Zeng, S S

    2009-06-01

    Dietary supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduce milk fat synthesis in lactating goats. This study investigated effects of milk fat depression induced by dietary CLA supplements on the properties of semi-hard goat cheese. Thirty Alpine does were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups and fed diets with lipid-encapsulated CLA that provided trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 0 (control), 3 (CLA-1), and 6 g/d (CLA-2). The experiment was a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Periods were 2 wk in length, each separated by 2-wk periods without CLA supplements. Bulk milk was collected on d 3 and 13 of each of 3 periods for cheese manufacture. The largest decrease (23.2%) in milk fat content, induced by the high dosage (6 g/d per doe) of trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplementation at d 13 of treatment, resulted in decreases of cheese yield and moisture of 10.2 and 10.0%, respectively. Although CLA supplementation increased the hardness, springiness, and chewiness, and decreased the cohesiveness and adhesiveness of cheeses, no obvious defects were detected and no significant differences were found in sensory scores among cheeses. In conclusion, milk fat depression induced by a dietary CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA resulted in changes of fat-to-protein ratio in cheese milk and consequently affected properties of semi-hard goat cheese.

  17. Linoleic acid supplementation results in increased arachidonic acid and eicosanoid production in CF airway cells and in cftr−/− transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Munir M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Andersson, Charlotte; Bhutta, Abdul Q.; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Laposata, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF leads to increased levels of arachidonate-derived proinflammatory metabolites and that this process is exacerbated by increasing linoleic acid levels in the diet. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of linoleic acid supplementation on downstream proinflammatory biomarkers in two CF models: 1) in vitro cell culture model using 16HBE14o− sense [wild-type (WT)] and antisense (CF) human airway epithelial cells; and 2) in an in vivo model using cftr−/− transgenic mice. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and IL-8 and eicosanoids were measured by ELISA. Neutrophils were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from knockout mice following linoleic acid supplementation and exposure to aerosolized Pseudomonas LPS. Linoleic acid supplementation increased arachidonic acid levels in CF but not WT cells. IL-8, PGE2, and PGF2α secretion were increased in CF compared with WT cells, with a further increase following linoleic acid supplementation. cftr−/− Mice supplemented with 100 mg of linoleic acid had increased arachidonic acid levels in lung tissue associated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the airway compared with control mice. These findings support the hypothesis that increasing linoleic acid levels in the setting of loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function leads to increased arachidonic acid levels and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:20656894

  18. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Courtney P.; Barry, Arden R.; Koshman, Sheri L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have purported protective cardiovascular (CV) effects. We sought to assess the evidence available for the use of omega-3 PUFAs for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1999 to 2015. Placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled over 1000 patients with follow-up greater than 1 year and meta-analyses of RCTs were included. Results: Eight RCTs and 2 meta-analyses were included. In patients with preexisting CVD, only 1 of 5 included RCTs demonstrated a reduction in CV events with omega-3 PUFAs; however, the effect size was minimal, and the study was limited by an open-label design and lack of placebo control. Two meta-analyses concluded omega-3 PUFAs do not reduce CV events in addition to standard, evidence-based therapy in patients after myocardial infarction. Of the 3 predominantly primary prevention RCTs, only 1 demonstrated a minor reduction in major coronary events; however, it was also an open-label study. Furthermore, the safety of omega-3 PUFAs should be considered. While data from RCTs have not demonstrated serious safety concerns, omega-3 PUFAs can increase the risk of bleeding and may interact with other medications that affect hemostasis, such as antiplatelet agents and warfarin. Discussion and Conclusion: There is currently a lack of evidence to support the routine use of omega-3 PUFAs in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Pharmacists are ideally situated to engage patients in the discussion of the lack of benefit and possible risk of omega-3 PUFA supplements. PMID:27212967

  19. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P < 0.01) but glucagon level was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in arginine-supplemented than in control pigs. Compared with the control, arginine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P < 0.01) carcass fat content by 11%. The arginine treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) longissimus dorsi muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  20. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  1. Analysis for availability of amino acid supplements in foods and feeds: biochemical and nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, H T

    1978-01-01

    In formulated diets based on cereal grains, lysine and/or methionine are usually deficient as well as often being the first amino acids limiting the nutritional value of such diets. Deficiency of these two amino acids in nutritional practice is compensated by synthetic L-lysine and DL-methionine supplementation or by the introduction of various protein sources - rich in lysine and methionine. Among all essential amino acids lysine is most liable and subject to damage during the processing of foods and feeds which can cause the "deepening" of the lysine deficiency not on the total but on the physiologically-available lysine basis. Hence, the simultaneous lysine deficiency and biological "sufficiency" problem is discussed using examples of practical diets in which a balance of biologically-active substances was achieved by the formulation and optimalisation according to the needs of animals, taking into account physiological lysine "accessibility" - "availability". Growth rate, nitrogen balance data and chemical composition of the tissue in long term trials are the most valid indication justifying the quantity of amino acid supplements to the practical diets. Prediction of the practical results of dietary amino acid balance from various short-term chemical and biological tests can give misleading results. Their application in nutritional practice is restricted to particular types of foods/feeds, and to specific processing systems and test conditions. Observations of the appearances of most limiting, dietary amino acids in the blood after the meal do not provide a complete nutritional characteristics of practical rations due to complex regulatory mechanisms in protein and amino acid metabolism much of which are not yet fully understood.

  2. Effects of Supplemental Liquid DL-methionine Hydroxy Analog Free Acid in Diet on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Functions of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kaewtapee, C.; Krutthai, N.; Bunchasak, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analog free acid (DL-MHA) on growth performance and gastrointestinal conditions of piglets. One hundred and eighty crossbred barrow piglets (Large White×Landrace, body weight: 12.48±0.33 kg) were divided into three groups with ten replications of six piglets each. Piglets received DL-MHA in diet at a concentration of 0 (control group), 0.15%, or 0.24%. The results indicated that increasing the standardized ileal digestible (SID) of sulfur amino acids (SAA) to lysine (SID SAA:Lys) ratio by supplementation of DL-MHA tended to increase (quadratic; p<0.10) weight gain and ADG, and showed slightly greater (linear; p<0.10) gain:feed ratio. The pH in the diet and cecum linearly decreased (p<0.01), whereas pH in colon had a quadratic response (p<0.01) with increasing supplementation of DL-MHA. By greater supplementation of DL-MHA, the population of Lactobacillus spp. in rectum was likely to increase (quadratic; p<0.10), but Escherichia coli population in the diet was reduced (quadratic; p<0.05). Acetic acid concentration and total short-chain fatty acids in cecum linearly increased (p<0.05), whereas valeric acid in cecum quadratically increased (p<0.05) with increasing DL-MHA levels. Moreover, the villous height of the jejunum quadratically increased (p<0.01) as the supplementation of DL-MHA was increased. It is concluded that the addition of DL-MHA in diet improved the growth performance and the morphology of gastrointestinal tract of piglets. PMID:26954213

  3. Interaction between ambient temperature and supplementation of synthetic amino acids on performance and carcass parameters in commercial male turkeys.

    PubMed

    Veldkamp, T; Ferket, P R; Kwakkel, R P; Nixey, C; Noordhuizen, J P

    2000-10-01

    An experiment with male turkeys was conducted to test the hypothesis that turkey production performance responds positively to extra crystalline amino acid supplementation (lysine, methionine, and threonine) when subjected to a high ambient temperature regimen (HT) in the grower period. Two diets were formulated to provide lysine, methionine, and threonine concentrations that either 1) met the breeder recommendations or 2) contained 10% higher lysine and methionine concentrations from 22 to 134 d of age and 10% higher threonine concentration from 22 to 68 d of age. Both diets were fed at two temperatures (15 or 25 C) from 42 d of age onward. At 134 d of age, turkeys on the HT had generally lower BW than those on the low temperature regimen (LT). Up to 68 d of age and from 106 to 134 d of age, feed intake of turkeys on the HT was significantly lower than that of turkeys on the LT. Up to 42 d of age, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of turkeys on the HT were significantly lower than those of turkeys on the LT. Significant treatment interactions were observed from 22 to 41 d of age. Turkeys fed the amino acid-supplemented diets on the LT had significantly reduced FCR, whereas those on the HT did not respond. From 69 to 105 d of age, turkeys on the HT that were fed the supplemented diets had significantly increased FCR, but there were no dietary effects among turkeys on the LT. There were no consistent diet effects on growth performance or carcass yields. Breast meat yields of turkeys on the LT were higher (33.5 vs 32.1%), and drum yields were lower (12.7 vs 13.0%), than those of turkeys on the HT. There were no significant amino acid balance x ambient temperature effects on processing yields. The hypothesis of this experiment could be rejected as production performance did not respond positively to extra supplementation of lysine, methionine, and threonine when subjected to an HT.

  4. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the impact of type of maternal micronutrient supplement, time of introduction of a prenatal food supplement and the two interventions combined on micronutrient status of infants in rural Bangladesh. In a community trial, 4436 pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual start of food...

  5. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  6. Influences of carbohydrate plus amino acid supplementation on differing exercise intensity adaptations in older persons: skeletal muscle and endocrine responses.

    PubMed

    Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys Leopoldine; Breen, Leigh; Stewart, Claire E

    2010-06-01

    Losses in physiological function in healthy ageing occur partly as a consequence of reduced protein intake and partly as a consequence of less than 30-min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The current study aimed to compare the effects of two different intensities of resistance training in healthy older adults, whose habitual dietary intake was supplemented with carbohydrate and amino acid preparations. We hypothesised that although intensive exercise with appropriate carbohydrate and amino acid supplementation would result in the most profound impact on in vivo markers of healthy physiologic and endocrine functions in previously sedentary older individuals, the effectiveness of the less intense exercise prescription with supplementation would also result in beneficial adaptations over and above findings of previous studies on low intensity exercise alone. Twenty-nine older adults (out of 32) completed the study after being randomly assigned to low (SUP_LowR, i.e., approximately 40% 1RM; n = 16) versus high resistance training (SUP_HighR, i.e., approximately 80% 1RM; n = 13) for 12 weeks. A carbohydrate supplement was ingested immediately before and during every exercise session and an amino acid cocktail was ingested post-exercise. Neither intervention significantly impacted upon body composition assessed using: Body mass index, waist/hip ratio and bioelectric impedance. Muscle strength increased similarly in the two groups with the SUP_HighR protocol showing 46 +/- 8%, 10.8 +/- 4.4% and 26.9 +/- 4.9% (P < 0.01) improvements in 1-RM strength, unilateral and bilateral knee extension torque, respectively, compared with 39 +/- 2%, 9.4 +/- 3.7% and 29.5 +/- 8.2% (P < 0.01) increments in the same measures in the SUP_LowR group. Lean muscle thickness however, showed a greater benefit of the SUP_LowR protocol (8.7 +/- 3.9% increase, P < 0.05) compared with the SUP_HighR protocol, which elicited no significant change. In terms of functional abilities, only

  7. Long-term vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis and mortality in Ldlr-/- mice, but not when fed Western style diet

    PubMed Central

    Meydani, Mohsen; Kwan, Paul; Band, Michael; Knight, Ashley; Guo, Weimin; Goutis, Jason; Ordovas, Jose

    2014-01-01

    (p=0.03) fewer aortic lesions in the vitamin E supplemented LFLC group (50%) compared to LFLC mice that did not receive vitamin E supplements in their diets (65%). Subjective immunohistochemical evaluation of aortic valves showed that LFLC mice that received vitamin E supplements for 18 mo had less intima media thickness compared to LFLC mice that did not receive vitamin E supplements in their diet. The LFLC mice that were supplemented with vitamin E for 18 mo had the lowest mRNA expression of inflammatory markers such as VCAM-1, MCP-1 and CD36 in samples obtained from lesion and non-lesion areas. Conclusion In conclusion, 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet in Ldlr-/- mice is not effective at reducing mortality and atherosclerosis when the diet contained high or medium levels of fat and cholesterol. However, a relatively low dose and long-term vitamin E supplementation started from an early age is effective in reducing mortality and atherosclerotic lesions in genetically prone Ldlr-/- mice fed LFLC diet. PMID:24529144

  8. Dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides increases short-chain fatty acids but decreases protein-derived catabolites in the intestinal luminal content of weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Li; Kong, Xiang-Feng; Lian, Guo-Qi; Blachier, Francois; Geng, Mei-Mei; Yin, Yu-Long

    2014-09-01

    The improvement of gut health and function with prebiotic supplements after weaning is an active area of research in pig nutrition. The present study was conducted to test the working hypothesis that medium-term dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) can affect the gut ecosystem in terms of microbiota composition, luminal bacterial short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and intestinal expression of genes related to intestinal immunity and barrier function. Ten Huanjiang mini-piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Each group received a standard diet containing either dietary supplementation with 0.5% corn starch (control group) or 0.5% SBOS (experimental group). The results showed that dietary supplementation with SBOS increased the diversity of intestinal microflora and elevated (P < .05) the numbers of some presumably beneficial intestinal bacteria (e.g., Bifidobacterium sp, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and Roseburia). Soybean oligosaccharide supplementation also increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acid in the intestinal lumen, and it reduced (P < .05) the numbers of bacteria with pathogenic potential (e.g., Escherichia coli, Clostridium, and Streptococcus) and the concentration of several protein-derived catabolites (e.g., isobutyrate, isovalerate, and ammonia). In addition, SBOS supplementation increased (P < .05) expression of zonula occludens 1 messenger RNA, and it decreased (P < .05) expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 8 messenger RNA in the ileum and colon. These findings suggest that SBOS supplementation modifies the intestinal ecosystem in weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets and has potentially beneficial effects on the gut.

  9. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  10. Effects of dietary almond- and olive oil-based docosahexaenoic acid- and vitamin E-enriched beverage supplementation on athletic performance and oxidative stress markers.

    PubMed

    Capó, X; Martorell, M; Busquets-Cortés, C; Sureda, A; Riera, J; Drobnic, F; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2016-12-07

    Functional beverages based on almonds and olive oil and enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could be useful in modulating oxidative stress and enhancing physical performance in sportsmen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with functional beverages on physical performance, plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids' and polyphenol handling, oxidative and nitrative damage, and antioxidant and mitochondrial gene expression in young and senior athletes. Athletes performed maximal exercise tests before and after one month of dietary supplementation and blood samples were taken immediately before and one hour after each test. The beverages did not alter performance parameters during maximal exercise. Supplementation increased polyunsaturated and reduced saturated plasma fatty acids while increasing the DHA erythrocyte content; it maintained basal plasma and blood polyphenol levels, but increased the blood cell polyphenol concentration in senior athletes. Supplementation protects against oxidative damage although it enhances nitrative damage in young athletes. The beverages enhance the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after exercise in young athletes.

  11. Short-term ubiquinol supplementation reduces oxidative stress associated with strenuous exercise in healthy adults: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Alvaro; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Kajarabille, Naroa; Chirosa, Ignacio; Guisado, Isabel M; Javier Chirosa, Luis; Guisado, Rafael; Ochoa, Julio J

    2016-11-12

    Studies about Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) supplementation on strenuous exercise are scarce, especially those related with oxidative stress associated with physical activity and virtually nonexistent with the reduced form, Ubiquinol. The objective of this study was to determine, for the first time, whether a short-term supplementation with Ubiquinol can prevent oxidative stress associated to strenuous exercise. The participants (n = 100 healthy and well trained, but not on an elite level) were classified in two groups: Ubiquinol (experimental group), and placebo group (control). The protocol consisted of conducting two identical strenuous exercise tests with a rest period between tests of 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected from the participants before supplementation (basal value) (T1), after supplementation (2 weeks) (T2), after first physical exercise test (T3), after 24 h of rest (T4), and after second physical exercise test (T5).The increase observed in the lactate, isoprostanes, DNA damage, and hydroperoxide levels reveals the severity of the oxidative damage induced by the exercise. There was a reduction in the isoprostanes, 8-OHdG, oxidized LDL, and hydroperoxydes in the supplemented Ubiquinol group, an increase in total antioxidant status, fat soluble antioxidant (both plasma and membrane), and CAT activity. Also, NO in the Ubiquinol-supplemented group was maintained within a narrow range. Oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise is accumulative and increases transiently in subsequent sessions of physical activity. A short-term supplementation (2 weeks) with Ubiquinol (200 mg/day) before strenuous exercise, decreases oxidative stress and increases plasma NO, fact that could improve endothelial function, energetic substrate supply, and muscle recovery after strenuous exercise. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):612-622, 2016.

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy alters neonatal behavior in sheep.

    PubMed

    Capper, Judith L; Wilkinson, Robert G; Mackenzie, Alexander M; Sinclair, Liam A

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine whether supplementation of pregnant ewes with long-chain (n-3) fatty acids present in fish oil, in combination with dietary vitamin E, would alter neonatal behavior in sheep. Twin- (n=36) and triplet- (n=12) bearing ewes were allocated at d 103 of gestation to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 1 of 2 fat sources [Megalac, a calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate or a fish oil mixture, high in 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3)] and 1 of 2 dietary vitamin E concentrations (50 or 500 mg/kg) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Feeding fish oil increased gestation length by 2 d and increased the proportion of 22:6(n-3) within neonatal plasma by 5.1-fold and brain by 10%, whereas brain 20:5(n-3) was increased 5-fold. Supranutritional dietary vitamin E concentrations decreased the latency of lambs to stand in ewes fed fish oil but not Megalac, whereas latency to suckle was decreased from 43 to 34 min by fish oil supplementation. Supplementation with fish oil also substantially decreased the secretion rate (mL/h) of colostrum and the yield (g/h) of fat and protein. We conclude that supplementation of ewes with fish oil decreases the latency to suckle, increases gestation length and the 22:6(n-3):20:4(n-6) ratio in the neonatal brain, and may improve lamb survival rate. However, further work is required to determine how to mitigate the negative effects of fish oil on colostrum production.

  13. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Thorn, Stephanie R; Friedman, Jacob E; Hay, William W

    2012-08-01

    Placental insufficiency decreases fetal amino acid uptake from the placenta, plasma insulin concentrations, and protein accretion, thus compromising normal fetal growth trajectory. We tested whether acute supplementation of amino acids or insulin into the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would increase net fetal protein accretion rates. Late-gestation IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep received acute, 3-h infusions of amino acids (with euinsulinemia), insulin (with euglycemia and euaminoacidemia), or saline. Fetal leucine metabolism was measured under steady-state conditions followed by a fetal muscle biopsy to quantify insulin signaling. In CON, increasing amino acid delivery rates to the fetus by 100% increased leucine oxidation rates by 100%. In IUGR, amino acid infusion completely suppressed fetal protein breakdown rates but increased leucine oxidation rate by only 25%, resulting in increased protein accretion rates by 150%. Acute insulin infusion, however, had very little effect on amino acid delivery rates, fetal leucine disposal rates, or fetal protein accretion rates in CON or IUGR fetuses despite robust signaling of the fetal skeletal muscle insulin-signaling cascade. These results indicate that, when amino acids are given directly into the fetal circulation independently of changes in insulin concentrations, IUGR fetal sheep have suppressed protein breakdown rates, thus increasing net fetal protein accretion.

  14. New Insights in Nutritional Management and Amino Acid Supplementation in Urea Cycle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate is used in the pharmacological treatment of urea cycle disorders to create alternative pathways for nitrogen excretion. The primary metabolite, phenylacetate, conjugates glutamine in the liver and kidney to form phenylacetylglutamine that is readily excreted in the urine. Patients with urea cycle disorders taking sodium phenylbutyrate have a selective reduction in the plasma concentrations of branched chain amino acids despite adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, this depletion is usually the harbinger of a metabolic crisis. Plasma branched chain amino acids and other essential amino acids were measured in control subjects, untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females, and treated patients with urea cycle disorders (ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency) in the absorptive state during the course of stable isotope studies. Branched chain amino acid levels were significantly lower in treated patients with urea cycle disorders when compared to untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females or control subjects. These results were replicated in control subjects who had low steady-state branched chain amino acid levels when treated with sodium phenylbutyrate. These studies suggested that alternative pathway therapy with sodium phenylbutyrate causes a substantial impact on the metabolism of branched chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders, implying that better titration of protein restriction can be achieved with branched chain amino acid supplementation in these patients who are on alternative pathway therapy. PMID:20299258

  15. Effects of fatty acid supplements on milk yield and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). The SAT treatment did not change milk fat concentration, but UNS linearly decreased milk fat in cannulated cows and tended to decrease milk fat in noncannulated cows compared with control. Milk fat depression with UNS corresponded to increased concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Milk fat profile was similar for SAT and control, but UNS decreased concentration of short- and medium-chain FA. Digestible energy intake tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS in cannulated and noncannulated cows. Increasing unsaturated FS linearly increased empty body weight and net energy gain in cannulated cows, whereas increasing saturated FS linearly increased plasma insulin. Efficiency of conversion of digestible energy to milk tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS for cannulated cows only. Addition of SAT provided little benefit to production and energy balance, whereas UNS decreased energy intake and milk energy yield.

  16. Is a dietary n-3 fatty acid supplement able to influence the cardiac effect of the psychological stress?

    PubMed

    Rousseau, D; Moreau, D; Raederstorff, D; Sergiel, J P; Rupp, H; Muggli, R; Grynberg, A

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are involved in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Stress is known to increase the incidence of CVD and the present study was realised to evaluate some physiological and biochemical effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in male Wistar rats subjected to a psycho social stress. Rats were fed for 8 weeks a semi-purified diet containing 10% of either sunflower seed oil or the same oil supplemented with DHA. This food supply represented 50% of their daily requirement. The remaining 50% were supplied as 45 mg food pellets designed to induce stress in rats by an intermittent-feeding schedule process. The control group (n = 12) was fed the equivalent food ration as a single daily feeding. The physiological cardiovascular parameters were recorded by telemetry through a transmitter introduced in the abdomen. At the end of the experimentation, the heart and adrenals were withdrawn and the fatty acid composition and the catecholamine store were determined. Dietary DHA induced a pronounced alteration of the fatty acid profile of cardiac phospholipids (PL). The level of all the n-6 PUFAs was reduced while 22:6 n-3 was increased. The stress induced a significant increase in heart rate which was not observed in DHA-fed group. The time evolution of the systolic blood pressure was not affected by the stress and was roughly similar in the stressed rats of either dietary group. Conversely, the systolic blood pressure decreased in the unstressed rats fed DHA. Similar data were obtained for the diastolic blood pressure. The beneficial effect of DHA was also observed on cardiac contractility, since the dP/dt(max) increase was prevented in the DHA-fed rats. The stress-induced modifications were associated with an increase in cardiac noradrenaline level which was not observed in DHA-fed rats. The fatty acid composition of adrenals was significantly related to the fatty acid intake particularly the

  17. High-dose folic acid supplementation alters the human sperm methylome and is influenced by the MTHFR C677T polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Aarabi, Mahmoud; San Gabriel, Maria C.; Chan, Donovan; Behan, Nathalie A.; Caron, Maxime; Pastinen, Tomi; Bourque, Guillaume; MacFarlane, Amanda J.; Zini, Armand; Trasler, Jacquetta

    2015-01-01

    Dietary folate is a major source of methyl groups required for DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that is actively maintained and remodeled during spermatogenesis. While high-dose folic acid supplementation (up to 10 times the daily recommended dose) has been shown to improve sperm parameters in infertile men, the effects of supplementation on the sperm epigenome are unknown. To assess the impact of 6 months of high-dose folic acid supplementation on the sperm epigenome, we studied 30 men with idiopathic infertility. Blood folate concentrations increased significantly after supplementation with no significant improvements in sperm parameters. Methylation levels of the differentially methylated regions of several imprinted loci (H19, DLK1/GTL2, MEST, SNRPN, PLAGL1, KCNQ1OT1) were normal both before and after supplementation. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) revealed a significant global loss of methylation across different regions of the sperm genome. The most marked loss of DNA methylation was found in sperm from patients homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, a common polymorphism in a key enzyme required for folate metabolism. RRBS analysis also showed that most of the differentially methylated tiles were located in DNA repeats, low CpG-density and intergenic regions. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that methylation of promoter regions was altered in several genes involved in cancer and neurobehavioral disorders including CBFA2T3, PTPN6, COL18A1, ALDH2, UBE4B, ERBB2, GABRB3, CNTNAP4 and NIPA1. Our data reveal alterations of the human sperm epigenome associated with high-dose folic acid supplementation, effects that were exacerbated by a common polymorphism in MTHFR. PMID:26307085

  18. Thermal tolerance and survival of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Gökçe Polat; Pagotto, Franco; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.

  19. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  20. A Potent, Versatile Disulfide-Reducing Agent from Aspartic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard reagent for reducing disulfide bonds between and within biological molecules. At neutral pH, however, >99% of DTT thiol groups are protonated and thus unreactive. Herein, we report on (2S)-2-amino-1,4-dimercaptobutane (dithiobutylamine or DTBA), a dithiol that can be synthesized from l-aspartic acid in a few high-yielding steps that are amenable to a large-scale process. DTBA has thiol pKa values that are ∼1 unit lower than those of DTT and forms a disulfide with a similar E°′ value. DTBA reduces disulfide bonds in both small molecules and proteins faster than does DTT. The amino group of DTBA enables its isolation by cation-exchange and facilitates its conjugation. These attributes indicate that DTBA is a superior reagent for reducing disulfide bonds in aqueous solution. PMID:22353145

  1. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids to a low-protein diet regulates intestinal expression of amino acid and peptide transporters in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihai; Qiao, Shiyan; Ren, Man; Zeng, Xiangfang; Ma, Xi; Wu, Zhenlong; Thacker, Philip; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-11-01

    This study determined the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) on growth performance, expression of jejunal AA and peptide transporters, and the colonic microflora of weanling piglets fed a low-protein (LP) diet. One hundred and eight Large White × Landrace × Duroc piglets (weaned at 28 days of age) were fed a normal protein diet (NP, 20.9 % crude protein), an LP diet (LP, 17.1 % crude protein), or an LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + BCAA, 17.9 % crude protein) for 14 days. Dietary protein restriction reduced piglet growth performance and small-intestinal villous height, which were restored by BCAA supplementation to the LP diet to values for the NP diet. Serum concentrations of BCAA were reduced in piglets fed the LP diet while those in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet were similar to values for the NP group. mRNA levels for Na(+)-neutral AA exchanger-2, cationic AA transporter-1, b(0,+) AA transporter, and 4F2 heavy chain were more abundant in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet than the LP diet. However, mRNA and protein levels for peptide transporter-1 were lower in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet as compared to the LP diet. The colonic microflora did not differ among the three groups of pigs. In conclusion, growth performance, intestinal development, and intestinal expression of AA transporters in weanling piglets are enhanced by BCAA supplementation to LP diets. Our findings provide a new molecular basis for further understanding of BCAA as functional AA in animal nutrition.

  2. Effect of thyroxine supplementation on the response to perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gutshall, D.M.; Pilcher, G.D.; Langley, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) is a member of a family of perfluorinated carboxylic acids that have found widespread commercial applications as lubricants, surfactants, wetting agents and corrosion inhibitors. The effects of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) supplementation on perfluoro-n-decanoic acid- (PFDA) induced decreases in food consumption, body weight, and body temperature were examined. A dose-response study was carried out with 50-, 100-, 200-, or 250-{mu}g/kg ip doses of T{sub 4} for 7 d prior to PFDA administration, and daily dosing with T{sub 4} was continued for an additional 30 d. From this study a T{sub 4} dose of 200 {mu}g/kg was chosen, and subsequent experiments were conducted with this dose. Supplementation with T{sub 4} at 200 {mu}g/kg daily alleviated the hypophagia but not the severe weight loss and hypothermia produced by PFDA treatment. Their results suggest that some component of the thyroid axis plays a role in feeding behavior. In addition, the PFDA-induced wasting syndrome and hypothermia appear to be unrelated to changes in serum thyroid hormones. The unexpected observation that severe weight loss occurred in the presence of essentially normal food intake suggests that PFDA alters basic cellular metabolic processes.

  3. Folic acid supplements and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tingting; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Wang, Meilin; Zhu, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk, but conflicting results were reported. We herein performed a meta-analysis based on relevant studies to reach a more definitive conclusion. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before October 2014. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. The results suggested that folic acid treatment was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in the total population (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.22, P = 0.974). Moreover, no statistical effect was identified in further subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounding factors. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation had no effect on colorectal cancer risk. However, this finding must be validated by further large studies.

  4. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity.

  5. Reducing acid in dilute acid pretreatment and the impact on enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Stevens, Mark A; Zhu, Yongming; Holmes, Jason; Moxley, Geoffrey; Xu, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Dilute acid pretreatment is a leading pretreatment technology for biomass to ethanol conversion due to the comparatively low chemical cost and effective hemicellulose solubilization. The conventional dilute acid pretreatment processes use relatively large quantities of sulfuric acid and require alkali for pH adjustment afterwards. Significant amounts of sulfate salts are generated as by-products, which have to be properly treated before disposal. Wastewater treatment is an expensive, yet indispensable part of commercial level biomass-to-ethanol plants. Therefore, reducing acid use to the lowest level possible would be of great interest to the emerging biomass-to-ethanol industry. In this study, a dilute acid pretreatment process was developed for the pretreatment of corn stover. The pretreatment was conducted at lower acid levels than the conventional process reported in the literature while using longer residence times. The study indicates that a 50% reduction in acid consumption can be achieved without compromising pretreatment efficiency when the pretreatment time was extended from 1-5 min to 15-20 min. To avoid undesirable sugar degradation and inhibitor generation, temperatures should be controlled below 170°C. When the sulfuric acid-to-lignocellulosic biomass ratio was kept at 0.025 g acid/g dry biomass, a cellulose-to-glucose conversion of 72.7% can be achieved at an enzyme loading of 0.016 g/g corn stover. It was also found that acid loading based on total solids (g acid/g dry biomass) governs the pretreatment efficiency rather than the acid concentration (g acid/g pretreatment liquid). While the acid loading on lignocellulosic biomass may be achieved through various combinations of solids loading and acid concentration in the pretreatment step, this work shows that it is unlikely to reduce acid use without undermining pretreatment efficiency simply by increasing the solid content in pretreatment reactors, therefore acid loading on biomass is indicated

  6. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH.

  7. Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Langius, Jacqueline A E; Smit, Egbert F; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Paul, Marinus A; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), (n-3) fatty acids from fish oil, have immune-modulating effects and may improve nutritional status in cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing multimodality treatment. In a double-blind experiment, 40 patients with stage III NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 2 cans/d of a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids (2.0 g EPA + 0.9 g DHA/d) or an isocaloric control supplement. EPA in plasma phospholipids, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), body weight, fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and inflammatory markers were assessed. Effects of intervention were analyzed by generalized estimating equations and expressed as regression coefficients (B). The intervention group (I) had a better weight maintenance than the control (C) group after 2 and 4 wk (B = 1.3 and 1.7 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a better FFM maintenance after 3 and 5 wk (B = 1.5 and 1.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a reduced REE (B = -16.7% of predicted; P = 0.01) after 3 wk, and a trend for a greater MUAC (B = 9.1; P = 0.06) and lower interleukin-6 production (B = -27.9; P = 0.08) after 5 wk. After 4 wk, the I group had a higher energy and protein intake than the C group (B = 2456 kJ/24 h, P = 0.03 and B = 25.0 g, P = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids beneficially affects nutritional status during multimodality treatment in patients with NSCLC.

  8. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sonica; Chhibber, Sanjay; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj

    2013-07-01

    The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host.

  9. Trans-11 vaccenic acid dietary supplementation induces hypolipidemic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Lu, Jing; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2008-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid [VA; 18:1(n-9)] is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and is the precursor to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans. Despite VA being the predominant trans monoene in ruminant-derived lipids, very little is known about its nutritional bioactivity, particularly in conditions of chronic metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of VA to improve dyslipidemia, insulin sensitivity, or inflammatory status in obese and insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. The obese rats and age-matched lean littermates were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 1.5% (wt:wt) VA for a period of 3 wk. The incorporation of VA and subsequent conversion to CLA in triglyceride was measured in adipose tissue. Glucose and insulin metabolism were assessed via a conscious adapted meal tolerance test procedure. Plasma lipids as well as serum inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by commercially available assays. VA supplementation did not result in any observable adverse health effects in either lean or obese JCR:LA-cp rats. After 3 wk of feeding, body weight, food intake, and glucose/insulin metabolism did not differ between VA-supplemented and control groups. The incorporation of VA and CLA into adipose triglycerides in obese rats fed VA increased by 1.5-fold and 6.5-fold, respectively, compared with obese rats fed the control diet. The most striking effect was a 40% decrease (P < 0.05) in fasting triglyceride concentrations in VA-treated obese rats relative to obese controls. Serum Il-10 concentration was decreased by VA, regardless of genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term dietary supplementation of 1.5% VA did not result in any detrimental metabolic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats. In contrast, dietary VA had substantial hypo-triglyceridemic effects, suggesting a new bioactivity of this fatty acid that is typically found in ruminant

  10. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the

  11. Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-Related Behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ari, Csilla; Kovács, Zsolt; Juhasz, Gabor; Murdun, Cem; Goldhagen, Craig R.; Koutnik, Andrew P.; Poff, Angela M.; Kesl, Shannon L.; D’Agostino, Dominic P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM). The groups included standard diet (SD) or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE; 1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE), high dose ketone ester (HKE; ~25 g/kg/day, HKE), beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S; ~25 g/kg/day, KS) and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT; ~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT) were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day) and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day). At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats), more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), more distance traveled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats) and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy through a

  12. Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-Related Behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk Rats.

    PubMed

    Ari, Csilla; Kovács, Zsolt; Juhasz, Gabor; Murdun, Cem; Goldhagen, Craig R; Koutnik, Andrew P; Poff, Angela M; Kesl, Shannon L; D'Agostino, Dominic P

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM). The groups included standard diet (SD) or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE; 1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE), high dose ketone ester (HKE; ~25 g/kg/day, HKE), beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S; ~25 g/kg/day, KS) and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT; ~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT) were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day) and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day). At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats), more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), more distance traveled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats) and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy through a

  13. Dietary verbascoside supplementation in donkeys: effects on milk fatty acid profile during lactation, and serum biochemical parameters and oxidative markers.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Vizzarri, F; Palazzo, M; Martemucci, G

    2017-03-07

    Various uses of donkeys' milk have been recently proposed for human consumption on the basis of its nutritional characteristics. Improvements in milk fatty acid profile and animal oxidative status can be induced through dietary supplementation of phenolic compounds. The study aimed to evaluate in donkeys the effects of dietary supplementation with verbascoside (VB) on: (i) the fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents of milk during a whole lactation, and (ii) blood biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative status of the animals. At foaling, 12 lactating jennies were subdivided into two groups (n 6): control, without VB supplement; VB, receiving a lipid-encapsulated VB supplement. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents in milk were assessed monthly over the 6 months of lactation. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, tryglicerides, non-esterified fatty acid, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, reactive oxygen metabolites, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), vitamin A and vitamin E were evaluated at 8 days after foaling (D0) and then at D90, D105 and D120 of lactation. In milk, the VB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acids (P<0.05) and increased the monounsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05), and vitamins A and E (P<0.01) values. On the serum parameters, the VB supplementation decreased total cholesterol (P<0.01), tryglicerides, bilirubin, ALT and TBARs, and increased (P<0.01) vitamin E. In conclusion, the VB dietary supplementation affects the nutritional quality of donkey's milk with a benefit on the oxidative status and serum lipidic profile of the animals.

  14. Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Whitrow, Melissa J; Moore, Vivienne M; Rumbold, Alice R; Davies, Michael J

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the timing, dose, and source of folate during pregnancy on childhood asthma by using data from an Australian prospective birth cohort study (n = 557) from 1998 to 2005. At 3.5 years and 5.5 years, 490 and 423 mothers and children participated in the study, respectively. Maternal folate intake from diet and supplements was assessed by food frequency questionnaire in early (<16 weeks) and late (30-34 weeks) pregnancy. The primary outcome was physician-diagnosed asthma, obtained by maternal-completed questionnaire. Asthma was reported in 11.6% of children at 3.5 years (n = 57) and in 11.8% of children at 5.5 years (n = 50). Folic acid taken in supplement form in late pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma at 3.5 years (relative risk (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.43) and with persistent asthma (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69). The effect sizes did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. The association was similar at 5.5 years but did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.42) in univariable models. These findings on childhood asthma support previous observations that supplementation with folate in pregnancy leads to an allergic asthma phenotype in mice via epigenetic mechanisms and is associated with poorer respiratory outcomes in young children.

  15. Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; Dalton, N; Start, K; El-Bishti, M M; Chantler, C

    1980-07-01

    The effects on growth, nitrogen balance, and body composition of a protein-restricted diet supplemented with oral essential amino acids (EAA) were studied in seven children with advanced chronic renal failure. The diet was designed to provide minimum protein requirements for height-age, half in unselected form and half as an EAA supplement. Energy from carbohydrate and fat were increased to give a protein/energy ratio of 1.25 G:100 kcal. Nitrogen balance, studied in five children before and after 6 to 8 months of EAA treatment, was improved in each case. intracellular water (total body water minus bromide space) increased in four children but fell in three children during treatment. No significant improvement in growth, expressed as height or height velocity standard deviation scores in relation to bone age, was observed. Serum urea and urea/creatinine ratio fell after institution of EAA treatment, but the fall was not sustained. Although the EAA preparation proved acceptable to the children, dietary assessments indicated that the desired dietary aims were rarely achieved. It is concluded that, in this pediatric age group, the long-term application of a protein restricted diet with EAA supplements is of limited value.

  16. Supplemental phytic acid and microbial phytase change zinc bioavailability and cadmium accumulation in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, G; Brandt, K; Most, E; Pallauf, J

    1995-07-01

    Three groups of individually housed albino rats (n = 6 each, initial average weight = 47 g) were fed diets based on egg white and corn starch over a 4-week period. All diets were supplemented with 15 mg/kg of Zn and 5 mg/kg of Cd. Group I (Control) was fed the basal diet free of phytic acid (PA) and phytase. By replacing corn starch by 0.5% PA (as NaPA) in groups II and III, a molar PA/Zn ratio of 33 was obtained. In group III, 2000 U of microbial phytase per kg diet were added. Addition of PA to diet (group II) resulted in a significant decrease in growth and zinc status. The negative effect of dietary PA on growth and zinc status was considerably counteracted by the supplementation of 2000 U microbial phytase (group III). In group I the highest apparent zinc absorption (58.2%) was measured. The addition of 0.5% PA (group II) significantly decreased apparent zinc absorption to 23.4%. In rats receiving the phytase-enriched diet (group III) 46.5% of ingested zinc was apparently absorbed. Liver cadmium concentration in rats fed the diet containing PA was significantly higher than that in the control group, whereas phytase supplementation lowered liver cadmium accumulation. In tendency similar effects were obtained for kidney cadmium accumulation.

  17. Association between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lyu; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy and analyze the associations between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in LT4 therapy. Totally, 195 pregnant women with hypothyroidism receiving routine prenatal care were enrolled. They were categorized into three groups: overt hypothyroidism (OH), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with negative thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), and SCH with positive TPOAb. The association between the clinical classification and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment was assessed. The results indicated that reduced TSH was significantly different among the groups according to the clinical classifications (p = 0.043). The result was also significantly different between patients with OH and patients with SCH and negative TPOAb (p = 0.036). Similar result was reported for the comparison between patients with OH and patients with SCH and positive TPOAb (p = 0.016). Multiple variable analyses showed that LT4 supplementation, gestational age and the variable of clinical classifications were associated with reduced TSH independently. Our data suggested that the therapeutic effect of substitutive treatment with LT4 was significantly associated with different clinical classifications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and the treatment should begin as soon as possible after diagnosis.

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Amyloid β Production via Multiple Pleiotropic Mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Kuchenbecker, Johanna; Grösgen, Sven; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Friess, Petra; de Wilde, Martijn C.; Broersen, Laus M.; Penke, Botond; Péter, Mária; Vígh, László; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is characterized by accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generated by β- and γ-secretase processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with decreased amyloid deposition and a reduced risk in Alzheimer disease in several epidemiological trials; however, the exact underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we systematically investigate the effect of DHA on amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic APP processing and the potential cross-links to cholesterol metabolism in vivo and in vitro. DHA reduces amyloidogenic processing by decreasing β- and γ-secretase activity, whereas the expression and protein levels of BACE1 and presenilin1 remain unchanged. In addition, DHA increases protein stability of α-secretase resulting in increased nonamyloidogenic processing. Besides the known effect of DHA to decrease cholesterol de novo synthesis, we found cholesterol distribution in plasma membrane to be altered. In the presence of DHA, cholesterol shifts from raft to non-raft domains, and this is accompanied by a shift in γ-secretase activity and presenilin1 protein levels. Taken together, DHA directs amyloidogenic processing of APP toward nonamyloidogenic processing, effectively reducing Aβ release. DHA has a typical pleiotropic effect; DHA-mediated Aβ reduction is not the consequence of a single major mechanism but is the result of combined multiple effects. PMID:21324907

  19. Milk fatty acid profile and dairy sheep performance in response to diet supplementation with sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Frutos, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    In an attempt to develop strategies for enhancing the nutritional value of sheep milk fat, dairy ewe diet was supplemented with 3 incremental levels of marine algae (MA), in combination with sunflower oil, to evaluate the effects of these marine lipids on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and animal performance. Fifty Assaf ewes in mid lactation were distributed in 10 lots of 5 animals each and allocated to 5 treatments (2 lots per treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 25 g of sunflower oil/kg of DM plus 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of MA (56.7% ether extract)/kg of DM. Milk production and composition, including FA profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment. Neither intake nor milk yield were significantly affected by lipid addition, but all MA supplements decreased milk fat content from d 14 onward, reaching a 30% reduction after 28 d on SOMA(3). This milk fat depression might be related not only to the joint action of some putative fat synthesis inhibitors, such as trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 and probably trans-10 C18:1, but also to the limited ability of the mammary gland to maintain a desirable milk fat fluidity, that would have been caused by the noticeable increase in trans-C18:1 together with the lowered availability of stearic acid for oleic acid synthesis through Delta(9)-desaturase. Furthermore, all lipid supplements, and mainly MA, reduced the secretion of de novo FA (C6:0-C14:0) without increasing the yield of preformed FA (>C16). Supplementation with sunflower oil plus MA resulted in larger increases in cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 than those observed with sunflower oil alone, achieving a mean content as high as 3.22% of total FA and representing a more than 7-fold increase compared with the control. Vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1) was also significantly enhanced (on average +794% in SOMA treatments), as was C22:6 n-3 (DHA) content, although the transfer efficiency of the latter, from the diets

  20. Effects of high peanut meal with different crude protein level supplemented with amino acids on performance, carcass traits and nitrogen retention of Chinese Yellow broilers.

    PubMed

    Gou, Z Y; Jiang, S Q; Jiang, Z Y; Zheng, C T; Li, L; Ruan, D; Chen, F; Lin, X J

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of feeding high peanut meal diets of reduced crude protein (CP) content supplemented with essential amino acids (EAA) on growth performance, carcass traits, biochemical indices in plasma, and nitrogen (N) retention of male and female Lingnan Yellow broilers from day 22 to day 42 of age. Each of four dietary treatments (19%, 18%, 17% or 16% CP, dietary CP level reduced by the reduced dietary peanut meal) contained six replicate pens with 35 birds of each sex (males and females with equal number), separately (1680 in total). The three diets with reduced CP were supplemented with 5 EAA to meet the requirements and provide the same levels as in the 19% CP diet. Average daily gain decreased and feed:gain ratio was worse in both sexes with reduced CP% (linear, p < 0.05). Dressing percentage increased as CP% decreased in males (linear, p < 0.05) and thigh muscle percentage reduced slightly in females (linear, p < 0.05). Abdominal fat percentage of males fed the 17% CP was the lowest (quadratic, p < 0.05). The plasma metabolic indices, concentrations of triglycerides and malondialdehyde, showed linear responses to reduced CP% (p < 0.05) with triglycerides increasing while malondialdehyde decreased. Plasma uric acid increased in females (linear, p < 0.05), but not in males, as CP% decreased. Efficiency of N retention increased and N excretion strikingly decreased with lower CP diets (p < 0.001), and both variables showed significant (p < 0.05) linear and quadratic effects. It is concluded that there was a limit to which dietary CP of broilers could be reduced without adverse effects. Dietary CP could be reduced to 17% for males and 18% for females (or 18% when fed together) between day 22 and day 42, if diets are supplemented with synthetic EAA.

  1. Whole Body Creatine and Protein Kinetics in Healthy Men and Women: Effects of creatine and amino acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Kalhan, Satish C; Gruca, Lourdes; Marczewski, Susan; Bennett, Carole; Kummitha, China

    2015-01-01

    Creatine kinetics were measured in young healthy subjects, eight males and seven females, age 20–30 years, after an overnight fast on creatine free diet. Whole body turnover of glycine and its appearance in creatine was quantified using [1-13C] glycine and the rate of protein turnover was quantified using L-ring [2H5] phenylalanine. The creatine pool size was estimated by the dilution of a bolus [C2H3] creatine. Studies were repeated following a five days supplement creatine 21g.day−1 and following supplement amino acids 14.3 g.day−1. Creatine caused a ten folds increase in the plasma concentration of creatine and a 50% decrease in the concentration of guanidinoacetic acid. Plasma amino acids profile showed a significant decrease in glycine, glutamine and taurine and a significant increase in citrulline, valine, lysine and cysteine. There was a significant decrease in the rate of appearance of glycine, suggesting a decrease in de-novo synthesis (p=0.006). The fractional and absolute rate of synthesis of creatine was significantly decreased by supplemental creatine. Amino acid supplement had no impact on any of the parameters. Creatine supplement caused a significant decrease in the rate of synthesis of creatine. This is the first detailed analysis of creatine kinetics and the effects of creatine supplement in healthy young men and women. These methods can be applied for the analysis of creatine kinetics in different physiological states. PMID:26480831

  2. The effect of supplementing rumen undegradable unsaturated fatty acids on marbling in early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Mangrum, K S; Tuttle, G; Duckett, S K; Sell, G S; Krehbiel, C R; Long, N M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementation with a rumen undegradable unsaturated fatty acids (FA) source improved marbling deposition in early-weaned steers. All steers (Angus, = 23; Angus × Hereford, = 24) were weaned at 150 ± 5 d of age. Steers were blocked by BW and breed and then randomly assigned to either control (CON; average 1.5 kg of corn gluten feed [CGF], = 23) or isocaloric supplementation containing a rumen undegradable fat source (RUF; 200 g of Megalac-R added to an average of 1.06 kg of CGF, = 24) offered 5 d/wk for 110 d. All steers had ad libitum access to pastures throughout treatment and received supplements individually. Steer BW and blood samples were collected at 0, 55, and 110 d of supplementation, and real-time ultrasound measurements were collected at d 110. Following treatment, steers were transported to Oklahoma State University for finishing and subsequent harvesting at a commercial plant. All data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS either as repeated measures or ANOVA depending on parameters. There were no significant changes in BW from the beginning of treatment to harvest due to treatment. Ultrasound data showed that RUF steers tended ( = 0.08) to have more i.m. fat than CON at d 110. Serum concentrations of FA showed a treatment × day interaction ( < 0.02) for 16:0, 18:0, 18:1-9, 18:2, 20:4, and total FA. These specific FA concentrations slightly increased in CON steers, but there was a more pronounced increase in the concentration of these FA across the supplementation period in RUF steers. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were increased ( < 0.01) on d 55 and 110 in RUF steers compared with those in CON steers. Serum leptin concentration in RUF steers was greater ( < 0.01) than CON steers at d 110. After harvest, RUF carcasses had greater ( = 0.01) marbling scores than those of CON carcasses. All other carcass measures were similar between treatments. The percentage of total

  3. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghobadi, Hassan; Matin, Somaieh; Nemati, Ali; Naghizadeh-baghi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL1β), is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients. Patients and methods In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL1β assessment, the patients’ anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study. Results The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score (P=0.001), average caloric intake (P=0.01), and macronutrient intake (P<0.05), while a significant decrease was observed in the serum level of IL1β among the patients of the supplementation group (P=0.008). Meanwhile, although the supplementation group’s body mass index was also higher on completion, compared to their own initial state as well as to that in the control group, the differences were not significant (P=0.13). Conclusion The findings of this research indicate that the consumption of CLA supplementation can be effective in regulating the appetite and improving the nutritional status of patients suffering from COPD

  4. Effects of lactic acid fermentation and gamma irradiation of barley on antinutrient contents and nutrient digestibility in mink (Mustela vison) with and without dietary enzyme supplement.

    PubMed

    Skrede, Anders; Sahlstrøm, Stefan; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Connor, Kirsti Hjelme; Skrede, Grete

    2007-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of fermentation of barley, using two different strains of lactic acid bacteria, a Lactobacillus plantarum/pentosus strain isolated from spontaneously fermented rye sourdough (AD2) and a starch-degrading Lactobacillus plantarum (AM4), on contents of mixed-linked (1 --> 3) (1 --> 4)-beta-glucans, alpha-amylase inhibitor activity, inositol phosphates, and apparent digestibility of macronutrients in mink. Effects of fermentation were compared with effects of gamma irradiation (gamma-irradiation: 60Co gamma-rays at 25 kGy). The diets were fed to mink with and without a supplementary enzyme preparation. Both lactic acid fermentation and gamma-irradiation followed by soaking and incubation, reduced concentrations of soluble beta-glucans, phytate and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity. Dietary enzyme supplementation increased significantly digestibility of crude protein, fat, starch and crude carbohydrate (CHO). Fermentation of the barley increased digestibility of starch and CHO. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria AD2 resulted in higher starch and CHO digestibility than strain AM4, and had greater effect than gamma-irradiation, soaking and incubation. The highest digestibility of starch and CHO was obtained after AD2 fermentation followed by enzyme supplementation. It is concluded that both lactic acid fermentation of barley and enzyme supplementation have positive nutritional implications in the mink by limiting the effects of antinutrients and improving digestibility and energy utilization.

  5. Comparison of the fatty acid profiles in cheeses from ewes fed diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Raúl; Manso, Teresa; Mantecón, Angel R; Juárez, Manuela; De la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Gómez-Cortés, Pilar

    2010-10-13

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a cheese from ewes milk with a healthier fatty acid (FA) profile. To achieve our aim, 48 ewes (12 per treatment) were fed diets supplemented with 3% of plant oils: palm (used as control), olive (OO), soybean (SO), and linseed (LO). Milk samples from each treatment were collected to manufacture cheeses. The cheesemaking process did not modify the dairy fat FA profile, but OO, SO, and LO did reduce the C12:0 + C14:0 + C16:0 content in dairy fat, thus decreasing the atherogenic index value in the cheeses. Percentages of cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 in cheeses ranged from the 0.43 control value to 0.92, 1.64, and 2.71 with OO, LO, and SO respectively, following the same pattern as trans-11 C18:1. In contrast, trans-10 C18:1 levels were always below 1%. The lowest n-6/n-3 ratio obtained with LO (1.43) suggests that such lipid supplementation would be the most effective nutritional strategy for improving cheese FA profiles.

  6. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    supplementation to grazing steers did not alter (P > 0.05) the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer compared with PA. Oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) linoleic acid (C18:2) content by 56, 98 and 262% compared with CONC, PC, and PA, respectively. Relative mRNA expression of SCD was upregulated (P < 0.001) by 46-, 18- and 7-fold, respectively, for CONC, PC, and PO compared with PA. Relative FASN mRNA expression was also upregulated (P = 0.004) by 9- and 5-fold, respectively, for CONC and PC compared with PA. Grain feeding, either on CONC or supplemented on pasture, upregulated FASN and SCD mRNA to increase MUFA and de novo fatty acids in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Upregulation of SCD with grain feeding and reduced tissue CLA concentrations suggest that the decreased CLA concentrations were the result of limited substrate (trans-11 vaccenic acid) availability.

  7. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation lowers perceived exertion but does not affect performance in untrained males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; White, Jim P; Arguello, Eric M; Haymes, Emily M

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation affects aerobic performance, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), or substrate utilization as compared with an isocaloric, carbohydrate (CHO) beverage or a noncaloric placebo (PLAC) beverage. Nine untrained males performed three 90-minute cycling bouts at 55% VO₂ peak followed by 15-minute time trials. Subjects, who were blinded to beverage selection, ingested a total of 200 kcal via the CHO or BCAA beverage before and at 60 minutes of exercise or the PLAC beverage on the same time course. RPE and metabolic measurements were taken every 15 minutes during steady-state exercise, and each of the trials was separated by 8 weeks. Plasma glucose and BCAA concentrations were measured pre- and post-exercise. A greater distance (4.6 ± 0.6 km) was traveled in the time-trial during the CHO trial than the PLAC trial (3.9 ± 0.4 km) (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the BCAA (4.4 ± 0.5 km) and PLAC trials. RPE was reduced at the 75-minute and 90-minute mark during the BCAA trial as compared with the PLAC trial. There were no significant differences found for the trial vs. time interaction in regard to respiratory exchange ratio. Thus, CHO supplementation improves performance in a loaded time-trial as compared with a PLAC beverage. BCAA supplementation, although effective at increasing blood concentrations of BCAA, did not influence aerobic performance but did attenuate RPE as compared with a PLAC beverage.

  8. Milk conjugated linoleic acid response to fish oil supplementation of diets differing in fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in their fatty acid compositions (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) to determine which combination would lead to maximum conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA) and transvaccenic acid (TVA) concentrations in milk fat. Twelve Holstein cows (eight multiparous and four primiparous cows) at 73 (+/- 32) DIM were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% fat source high in stearic acid (HS), 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO), 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO), and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets formulated to contain 18% crude protein were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa haylage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production (35.8, 36.3, 34.9, and 35.0 kg/d for diets 1 to 4) was similar for all diets. Milk fat percentages (3.14, 2.81, 2.66, and 3.08) and yields (1.13, 1.02, 0.93, and 1.08 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were lowest for HLO. Milk protein percentages (3.04, 3.03, 3.10, and 3.08) and dry matter intake (DMI) (25.8, 26.0, 26.2, and 26.2 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were similar for all diets. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations (0.70, 1.04, 1.70, and 1.06 g/100 g fatty acids) for diet 1 to 4 and yields (7.7, 10.7, 15.8, and 11.3 g/d) for diets 1 to 4 were greatest with HLO and were least with HS. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations and yields were similar for cows fed the HO and the HLN diets. Similar to milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, milk TVA concentration (1.64, 2.49, 3.74, and 2.41 g/100 g fatty acids) for diets 1 to 4 was greatest with the HLO diet and least with the HS diet. Feeding a high linoleic acid fat source with fish oil most effectively increased concentrations and yields of milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA and TVA.

  9. Visceral fat and body weight are reduced in overweight adults by the supplementation of Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Ae; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Soo-Ran; Kim, Min-Gul; Jung, Su-Jin; Song, Won O; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Various forms of fermented soybean products are well documented for their health benefits. The efficacy of anti-obesogenic effect of Doenjang, one of the most commonly used seasonings in Korean cuisine, has been reported only in animal models; thus, an evaluation of Doenjang needs to be conducted in human studies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that Doenjang supplementation reduces body weight and changes body composition in overweight adults. A total of 51 overweight adults participated in this study. A group of males with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and waist to hip ratio (WHR) ≥ 0.90, and a group of females with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and WHR ≥ 0.85 were randomly assigned to either a Doenjang supplement (9.9 g dry/day) group or a placebo group for a 12-week randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography (CT) and blood components were measured before and after the intervention period. After the 12-week study, the Doenjang supplementation group had significant reductions in body weight (kg), body fat mass (kg) and body fat (%) compared to the placebo group, the supplementation of Doenjang resulted in a significant reduction in visceral fat (cm2), although no changes were observed in total and subcutaneous fat are as (cm2), serum lipid profiles and dietary intakes. The present study demonstrated that daily supplementation of 9.9 g dry/day of Doenjang for 12 weeks reduces body weight and visceral fat in overweight adults. PMID:23346302

  10. n-3 fatty acids: functional differences between food intake, oral supplementation and drug treatments.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Franca; Poli, Andrea

    2013-12-20

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are essential for mammalian cells that are not able to synthesise de novo their precursor, α-linolenic acid, and may only partially convert it to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and to a very small extent to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). For this reason, nutritional guidelines for cardiovascular prevention recommend regular fish consumption (approximately two portions per week) in order to increase the intake of the n-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA, mainly referring to fatty fish, living in cold waters, usually very rich in these fatty acids. However, the indication to consume fish regularly is unlikely to be sufficient to ensure that patients with documented coronary heart diseases receive the daily amount of EPA+DHA (ca. 1g) necessary for effective secondary prevention of the disease. This has prompted the development of pharmaceutical formulations both for dietary supplementation and for therapeutic administration, based on several dietary sources, containing greatly variable amounts of EPA and DHA, often with different availabilities. Critical knowledge of these characteristics allows the selection of the best approach in order to optimise the n-3 PUFA supply in various individuals.

  11. Formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces incidence of allergy in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Foiles, Amanda M.; Kerling, Elizabeth H.; Wick, Jo A.; Scalabrin, Deolinda M.F.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergy has sharply increased in affluent Western countries in the last 30 years. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) may protect the immune system against development of allergy. Methods We prospectively categorized illnesses by body system in a subset of 91 children from the Kansas City cohort of the DIAMOND (DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development) study who had yearly medical records through 4 years of age. As infants, they were fed either a control formula without LCPUFA (n=19) or one of three formulas with LCPUFA from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (n=72). Results Allergic illnesses in the first year were lower in the combined LCPUFA group compared to the control. LCPUFAs significantly delayed time to first allergic illness (p=0.04) and skin allergic illness (p=0.03); and resulted in a trend to reduced wheeze/asthma (p=0.1). If the mother had no allergies, LCPUFAs reduced the risk of any allergic diseases (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.56, p=0.0.001) and skin allergic diseases (HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.93, p=0.04). In contrast, if the mother had allergies, LCPUFAs reduced wheezing/asthma (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.07, 0.9, p = 0.02). Conclusions LCPUFA supplementation during infancy reduced the risk of skin and respiratory allergic diseases in childhood with effects influenced by maternal allergies. PMID:26613373

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplemented Diet Influences the Orchidectomy-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in Rat Mesenteric Arteries.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Diva M; Navarro, Rocío; Del Campo, Lara; Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the cardiovascular benefits of a high dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been extensively studied. However, many of the molecular mechanisms and effects exerted by PUFAs have yet to be well explained. The lack of sex hormones alters vascular tone, and we have described that a DHA-supplemented diet to orchidectomized rats improve vascular function of the aorta. Based on these data and since the mesenteric artery importantly controls the systemic vascular resistance, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a DHA-supplemented diet on the mesenteric vascular function from orchidectomized rats. For this purpose mesenteric artery segments obtained from control, orchidectomized or orchidectomized plus DHA-supplemented diet were utilized to analyze: (1) the release of prostanoids, (2) formation of NO and ROS, (3) the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh), as well as the involvement of prostanoids and NO in this response, and (4) the vasoconstrictor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), analyzing also the effect of exogenous noradrenaline (NA), and the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The results demonstrate beneficial effects of DHA on the vascular function in orchidectomized rats, which include a decrease in the prostanoids release and superoxide formation that were previously augmented by orchidectomy. Additionally, there was an increase in endothelial NO formation and the response to ACh, in which NO involvement and the participation of vasodilator prostanoids were increased. DHA also reversed the decrease in EFS-induced response caused by orchidectomy. All of these findings suggest beneficial effects of DHA on vascular function by reversing the neurogenic response and the endothelial dysfunction caused by orchidectomy.

  13. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p < 0.05). The daily output of these vitamins via milk was also greater in cows of the CLA group than in cows of the control group (+36, 50 and 24% for retinol, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p < 0.05). In agreement with higher concentrations of tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration.

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplemented Diet Influences the Orchidectomy-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in Rat Mesenteric Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Diva M.; Navarro, Rocío; del Campo, Lara; Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S.; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the cardiovascular benefits of a high dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been extensively studied. However, many of the molecular mechanisms and effects exerted by PUFAs have yet to be well explained. The lack of sex hormones alters vascular tone, and we have described that a DHA-supplemented diet to orchidectomized rats improve vascular function of the aorta. Based on these data and since the mesenteric artery importantly controls the systemic vascular resistance, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a DHA-supplemented diet on the mesenteric vascular function from orchidectomized rats. For this purpose mesenteric artery segments obtained from control, orchidectomized or orchidectomized plus DHA-supplemented diet were utilized to analyze: (1) the release of prostanoids, (2) formation of NO and ROS, (3) the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh), as well as the involvement of prostanoids and NO in this response, and (4) the vasoconstrictor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), analyzing also the effect of exogenous noradrenaline (NA), and the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The results demonstrate beneficial effects of DHA on the vascular function in orchidectomized rats, which include a decrease in the prostanoids release and superoxide formation that were previously augmented by orchidectomy. Additionally, there was an increase in endothelial NO formation and the response to ACh, in which NO involvement and the participation of vasodilator prostanoids were increased. DHA also reversed the decrease in EFS-induced response caused by orchidectomy. All of these findings suggest beneficial effects of DHA on vascular function by reversing the neurogenic response and the endothelial dysfunction caused by orchidectomy. PMID:28068359

  15. Effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 on metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Graulet, B; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Doepel, L; Palin, M-F; Girard, C L

    2007-07-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 given from 3 wk before to 8 wk after calving on lactational performance and metabolism of 24 multiparous Holstein cows assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Supplementary folic acid at 0 or 2.6 g/d and vitamin B12 at 0 or 0.5 g/d were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Supplementary folic acid increased milk production from 38.0 +/- 0.9 to 41.4 +/- 1.0 kg/d and milk crude protein yield from 1.17 +/- 0.02 to 1.25 +/- 0.03 kg/d. It also increased plasma Gly, Ser, Thr, and total sulfur AA, decreased Asp, and tended to increase plasma Met. Supplementary B12 decreased milk urea N, plasma Ile, and Leu and tended to decrease Val but increased homocysteine, Cys, and total sulfur AA. Liver concentration of phospholipids was higher in cows fed supplementary B12. Plasma and liver concentrations of folates and B12 were increased by their respective supplements, but the increase in plasma folates and plasma and liver B12 was smaller for cows fed the 2 vitamins together. In cows fed folic acid supplements, supplementary B12 increased plasma glucose and alanine, tended to decrease plasma biotin, and decreased Km of the methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in hepatic tissues following addition of deoxyadenosylcobalamin, whereas it had no effect when cows were not fed folic acid supplements. There was no treatment effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acids as well as specific activity and gene expression of Met synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in the liver. Ingestion of folic acid supplements by cows fed no supplementary B12 increased total lipid and triacylglycerols in liver, whereas these supplements had no effect in cows supplemented with B12. The increases in milk and milk protein yields due to folic acid supplements did not seem to be dependent on the vitamin B12 supply. However, when vitamin B12 was given in

  16. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  17. Crude protein supplementation to reduce lupine consumption by pregnant cattle in the scablands of eastern Washington.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine) is prevalent in eastern Washington, and when consumed by pregnant cows, can cause “crooked calf disease.” Rangelands in this region are dominated by poor quality annual grasses. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding supplemental crude protein...

  18. Vitamin D reduces musculoskeletal pain after infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Antonino; Morabito, Nancy; Atteritano, Marco; Basile, Giorgio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    The acute-phase response (APR) is a frequent occurrence after infusion of zoledronic acid and is caused by activation of γδ T cells. Vitamin D receptor is expressed in immune cells, and vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this prospective study was to test the effect of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) on the incidence of APR and intensity of pain in women undergoing infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis. 60 women were enrolled and randomized into two groups. At baseline, 30 women received an oral bolus of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU), while another 30 women received placebo. On day 5 both groups were treated with a single infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg) and received a daily supplementation of calcium (1,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU). Patients were clinically evaluated and inflammatory markers were assayed before zoledronic acid administration and every 24 h for the following 2 days. The onset of APR has been defined by the occurrence of fever or at least one of the typical symptoms, such as musculoskeletal pain after zoledronic acid infusion. Intensity of pain was measured by a one-dimensional scale (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain). APR developed in 66.6% of patients, with no significant difference between groups. The vitamin group experienced less musculoskeletal pain [median 1 (0-4) vs. 2 (1-8), P < 0.05] and exhibited lower inflammatory markers (P < 0.005 vs. placebo). Our data demonstrate that cholecalciferol at a dose of 300,000 IU reduces the intensity of musculoskeletal pain after infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation of organic acids and phytase on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadagheri, Nasibeh; Najafi, Ramin; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acids and phytase enzyme supplementation on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers. The experiment was done in a factorial arrangement 2 × 2 × 2 based on completely randomized design with eight treatments, five replicates with 12 chicks in each until 42 days of age. Diets included natural vinegar (0 and 2%), citric acid (CA; 0.00 and 1.00%) and phytase enzyme (PHY; 0.00 and 500 FTU phytase per kg of feed). One bird from each treatment replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate the small intestinal morphology on 42 days of age. Analysis of results showed that vinegar increased feed consumption and body weight gain in total experimental period (p ˂ 0.05), while CA significantly decreased feed consumption on 0-14 days of age (p ˂ 0.05). No effect was observed on performance in interaction of organic acids together and with PHY group (p > 0.05). In duodenum CA increased the villus height and width (p ˂ 0.05) and PHY enzyme increased villus width (p ˂ 0.05) and decreased crypt depth (p ˂ 0.05). On the other hand, CA along with PHY significantly decreased crypt depth (p ˂ 0.05). In jejunum PHY alone and in combination with vinegar increased the goblet cells numbers (p ˂ 0.05), whereas vinegar significantly increased the goblet cells numbers in ileum (p ˂ 0.05). The muscular thickness in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was not affected among different treatment groups. The results showed that supplementation of organic acids and phytase together in this experiment, with no negative effects on each other, improved their effects on some parameters. PMID:27872714

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with amino acids on boar sperm quality and fertility.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-Jun; Wu, De; Xu, Sheng-Yu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Zheng-Feng; Che, Lian-Qiang; Wu, Cai-Mei; Xu, Xue-Yu; Lin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids on sperm quality and fertility rates after insemination with boar semen. Twelve Yorkshire boars were paired by age and allocated to one of two dietary treatments composed of total lysine levels of 0.64% (T1) and 0.96% (T2), with the lysine: methionine: threonine: tryptophan: valine ratio in the diets set to 100:27:73:19:69 through the addition of synthetic amino acids. Semen was collected twice weekly (phase 1, 1-12 wk); every other day (phase 2, 13-16 wk); twice weekly (phase 3, 17-26 wk); and daily (phase 4, 27-28 wk). Semen was collected from boars during phase 3 and used to inseminate 64 multiparous sows. Our results showed that sperm concentration and total sperm cells were greater in boars in T2 than in boars in T1 in phases 2 and 4 (P<0.05). Sperm motility parameters, morphologically normal sperm, and acrosome integrity in T2 boars were greater than those in T1 boars (P<0.05) during the experiment. Free amino acid concentrations in seminal plasma increased in T2 boars (P<0.05). Furthermore, sows inseminated with semen collected from T2 boars gave birth to more live piglets than those inseminated with semen collected from T1 boars (P=0.04). In conclusion, supplementation of boar diet with amino acids improves sperm quality, and subsequently increases fertilization capacity and the number of live piglets.

  1. L-ascorbic acid and α tocopherol supplementation and antioxidant status in nickel- or lead-exposed rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Das, Kusal K; Saha, Sikha

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on plasma and whole brain nitric oxide level and antioxidant status in nickel sulfate- or lead acetate- treated male albino rats. Nitric oxide and lipid peroxide levels in whole brain tissue and plasma increased following nickel and lead treatment but significantly returned to near-normal values upon L-ascorbic acid or alpha-tocopherol supplementation. In brain tissue, antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase--along with the glutathione level decreased significantly after both treatments but significantly improved upon simultaneous supplementation with L-ascorbic acid or alpha-tocopherol. Lead-treated animals showed a greater improvement with alpha-tocopherol, whereas nickel-treated rats showed a greater improvement with L-ascorbic acid. In both groups, combined supplementation with L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol did not change the percentage improvement in comparison with supplementation with a single vitamin alone.

  2. Brain docosahexaenoic acid status and learning in young rats submitted to dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and supplementation limited to lactation.

    PubMed

    García-Calatayud, Salvador; Redondo, Carlos; Martín, Eva; Ruiz, José Ignacio; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Sanjurjo, Pablo

    2005-05-01

    N-3 fatty acid deficiency has been related to decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) levels in brain and to learning disadvantages. The influence of n-3 deficiency and supplementation on brain fatty acids and learning were investigated in young rats. Newborn Wistar rats were assigned to three groups of cross-foster mothers. The control group (C) was nursed by mothers that received essential fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and the deficient group (D) was nursed by mothers that did not receive those fatty acids. The supplemental group (S) had the same conditions as D, receiving an additional DHA and arachidonic acid supplement during lactation. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus fatty acid composition was examined using thin-layer and capillary column gas chromatography, and learning was measured by passive-avoidance procedure. D brains showed low DHA and high DPA levels, but S brain composition was similar to C. Learning in the S group was unaffected, but in the D group, it was poorer than C. Learning was directly correlated with DHA levels and inversely with DPA levels in brain. Low DHA and high DPA brain levels both were correlated with poor learning. DPA seems not to be a suitable brain functional analogue of DHA, and DHA supplementation reversed both biochemical and learning adverse effects observed in n-3 deficiency.

  3. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  4. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Neural Substrates: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Pagani, Marco; Caporali, Paola; Galbusera, Alberto; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM) volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills), and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social) and emotional (anxiety and coping) abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study) C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy. PMID:26973513

  5. Three Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Means-End Problem Solving in 9-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drover, James; Hoffman, Dennis R.; Castaneda, Yolanda S.; Morale, Sarah E.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether feeding infants formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) improves cognitive function of 9-month-olds. Participants included 229 infants from 3 randomized controlled trials. Children received either formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, or a control formula…

  6. Combining reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid has supplementary beneficial effects on boar sperm cryotolerance.

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Elisa; Estrada, Efrén; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate how supplementing freezing and thawing media with reduced glutathione (GSH) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) affected the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, semen samples of 12 ejaculates coming from 12 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into seven aliquots to which 5 mM of GSH and 100 μM of AA were added separately or together at two different steps of freeze-thawing. Various sperm parameters (levels of free cysteine residues in sperm nucleoproteins, sperm viability, acrosome membrane integrity, intracellular peroxide and superoxide levels [ROS], and total and progressive motility) were evaluated before freezing and at 30 and 240 minutes after thawing. Both GSH and AA significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance when they were separately added to freezing and thawing media. However, the highest improvement was recorded when both freezing and thawing media were supplemented with 5 mM of GSH plus 100 μM of AA. This improvement was observed in sperm viability and acrosome integrity, sperm motility, and nucleoprotein structure. Although ROS levels were not much increased by freeze-thawing procedures, the addition of GSH and AA to both freezing and thawing extenders significantly decreased intracellular peroxide levels and had no impact on superoxide levels. According to our results, we can conclude that supplementation of freezing and thawing media with both GSH and AA has a combined, beneficial effect on frozen-thawed boar sperm, which is greater than that obtained with the separate addition of either GSH or AA.

  7. Oral supplementation of medium-chain fatty acids during the dry period supports the neutrophil viability of peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2013-08-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted to explore the effect of orally supplemented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to heifers and cows starting 6-8 weeks prior to expected calving date on blood and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocyte (PMNL) apoptosis between 1 and 3 d in milk (DIM). The effects of MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactation, and test-day somatic cell count (SCC) and average daily milk yield (MY) during the first 4 months of lactation were evaluated as well. Twenty-two animals were included of which half were orally supplemented with MCFA starting 6-8 weeks prior to calving and half served as non-supplemented controls. The PMNL viability in both blood and milk was quantified using dual-colour flow cytometry with fluorescein-labelled annexin and propidium iodide. In non-supplemented animals, % blood PMNL apoptosis significantly increased between start of supplementation and early lactation, reflecting a potential reduction in innate immune capacity, whereas this was not true in the MCFA-supplemented animals. Similar results were seen in milk PMNL apoptosis. Overall, the % apoptotic milk PMNL between 1 and 3 DIM was significantly lower in the MCFA-supplemented group compared with the non-supplemented group. There was no substantial effect of oral MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of quarter IMI nor on the composite test-day milk SCC or average daily MY. In conclusion, oral MCFA-supplementation starting 6-8 weeks before expected calving date supported the blood and milk neutrophil viability in early lactating dairy cows. Still, this was not reflected in an improvement of udder health nor MY in early and later lactation. The results should trigger research to further unravel the mechanisms behind the observed immunomodulating effect, and the potential relevance for the cows' performances throughout lactation.

  8. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  9. Effects of crystalline amino acid supplementation to the diet on odor from pig manure.

    PubMed

    Le, P D; Aarnink, A J A; Jongbloed, A W; van der Peet Schwering, C M C; Ogink, N W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of specific crystalline AA supplementation to a diet on odor emission, odor intensity, odor hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure, and on manure characteristics (pH; ammonia N; total nitrogen; sulfurous, indolic, and phenolic compounds; and VFA concentrations). An experiment was conducted with growing pigs (n = 18) in a randomized complete block design, with 3 treatments in 6 blocks. Treatment groups were (1) a 15%-CP basal diet with 3 times the requirement of sulfur-containing AA (14.2 g/kg of diet, as-fed basis); (2) the basal diet with 2 times the requirement of Trp and Phe+Tyr (2.9 and 20.4 g/kg of diet, respectively, as-fed basis); and (3) the basal diet with AA supplementation to levels sufficient for maximum protein gain. Pigs with an initial BW of 41.2 +/- 0.8 kg were individually penned in partly slatted floor pens and offered a daily feed allowance of 2.8 times the maintenance requirement for NE (293 kJ/kg of BW(0.75)). Feed was mixed with water at 1:2.5 (wt/wt). Feces and urine of each pig was allowed to accumulate in separate manure pits under the slatted floor. After an adaptation period of 2 wk, and after cleaning the manure pits, manure was subsequently collected. In wk 5 of the collection period, separate samples were collected directly from each manure pit for odor, ammonia, and manure composition analyses. Air samples were analyzed for odor concentration and for hedonic tone and odor intensity above the odor detection threshold. Results showed that supplementing crystalline S-containing AA in surplus of the requirement increased odor emission (P < 0.001) and odor intensity (P < 0.05) and reduced odor hedonic tone (P < 0.05) from the air above the manure pits. Supplementing crystalline Trp, Tyr, and Phe in surplus of the recommended requirements did not affect odor emission, odor intensity, or odor hedonic tone. Regardless of dietary treatment, all pigs had similar performance

  10. Anacardic acid from brazilian cashew nut trees reduces dentine erosion.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cintia; Oliveira, Flávia; Dos Santos, Maria Lucilia; de Freitas, Thiago; Imparato, José Carlos; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of solutions containing saturated anacardic acid (AA) on dentine erosion in vitro. AA was chemically isolated from natural cashew nutshell liquid obtained by continuous extraction in a Soxhlet extractor and was fully saturated by catalytic hydrogenation. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity, when exposed to buffers containing 100 µmol/l AA, was analyzed using zymography. Bovine root samples were subjected to erosive demineralization (Sprite Zero™, 4 × 90 s/day) and remineralization with artificial saliva between the erosive cycles for 5 days. The samples were treated as follows, after the first and the last acid exposure (1 min; n = 12/group): (1) 100 µmol/l epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (positive control); (2) 0.05% NaF; (3) 100 µmol/l saturated AA; (4) saturated AA and EGCG; (5) saturated AA, EGCG and NaF; (6) untreated (negative control). Dentine erosion was measured using a contact profilometer. Two dentine samples from each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Saturated AA reduced the activity of MMP-2. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed that all treatments significantly reduced dentine loss compared to the negative control (6.03 ± 0.98 µm). Solutions containing saturated AA (1.97 ± 1.02 µm) showed the greatest reduction in dentine erosion compared to the NaF (3.93 ± 1.54 µm) and EGCG (3.79 ± 0.83 µm) solutions. Therefore, it may be concluded that AA significantly reduces dentine erosion in vitro, possibly by acting as an MMP-2 inhibitor.

  11. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Has No Effect on Postprandial Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Kinetics in Men with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, André J; Lamarche, Benoît; Hogue, Jean-Charles; Couture, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proposed to modulate plasma lipids, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammatory state and to reduce triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The present double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation at 3 g/d for 8 weeks on the intravascular kinetics of intestinally derived apolipoprotein (apo) B-48-containing lipoproteins in 10 men with type 2 diabetes. In vivo kinetics of the TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 were assessed using a primed-constant infusion of L-[5,5,5-D3] leucine for 12 hours in a fed state. Compared with the placebo, n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly reduced fasting TG concentrations by -9.7% (P = 0.05) but also significantly increased plasma levels of cholesterol (C) (+6.0%, P = 0.05), LDL-C (+12.2%, P = 0.04), and HDL-C (+8.4, P = 0.007). n-3 PUFA supplementation had no significant impact on postprandial TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 levels or on the production or catabolic rates of these lipoproteins. These data indicate that 8-week supplementation with n-3 PUFAs in men with type 2 diabetes has no beneficial effect on TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 levels or kinetics.

  12. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-07

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  13. Effective size of a wild salmonid population is greatly reduced by hatchery supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M R; Marine, M L; French, R A; Waples, R S; Blouin, M S

    2012-01-01

    Many declining and commercially important populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are intentionally released into the wild. These supplementation programs often create large numbers of offspring from relatively few breeding adults, which can have substantial population-level effects. We examined the genetic effects of supplementation on a wild population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, by matching 12 run-years of hatchery steelhead back to their broodstock parents. We show that the effective number of breeders producing the hatchery fish (broodstock parents; Nb) was quite small (harmonic mean Nb=25 fish per brood-year vs 373 for wild fish), and was exacerbated by a high variance in broodstock reproductive success among individuals within years. The low Nb caused hatchery fish to have decreased allelic richness, increased average relatedness, more loci in linkage disequilibrium and substantial levels of genetic drift in comparison with their wild-born counterparts. We also documented a substantial Ryman–Laikre effect whereby the additional hatchery fish doubled the total number of adult fish on the spawning grounds each year, but cut the effective population size of the total population (wild and hatchery fish combined) by nearly two-thirds. We further demonstrate that the Ryman–Laikre effect is most severe in this population when (1) >10% of fish allowed onto spawning grounds are from hatcheries and (2) the hatchery fish have high reproductive success in the wild. These results emphasize the trade-offs that arise when supplementation programs attempt to balance disparate goals (increasing production while maintaining genetic diversity and fitness). PMID:22805657

  14. Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J

    2015-10-01

    Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep ( = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, a different group of wether sheep ( = 5; 33.6 ± 3.70 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed, on an isonitrogenous basis, either a control (151 g CP/kg DM and 8.4 MJ ME/kg DM) or sodium propionate-supplemented (139 g CP/kg DM and 8.9 MJ ME/kg DM) diet at 2-h intervals. [N] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine was collected by vacuum and feces were collected by a harness bag. Over the last 12 h, [C]glucose was continuously infused intravenously and hourly blood samples were collected during the last 5 h. Propionate treatments increased ( < 0.001) the proportion of rumen propionate in both experiments. In Exp. 1, N retention was not affected by propionate infusion as compared with isoenergetic acetate. There was no effect on urea entry (synthesis) rate (UER) in Exp. 1; however, sodium propionate infusion tended ( < 0.1) to increase urinary urea elimination (UUE). In Exp. 2, feeding propionate increased ( < 0.01) N retention by 0.8 g N/d. In addition, UER was reduced by approximately 2 g urea N/d, leading to a reduction ( < 0.05) in UUE (7.0 vs. 6.2 g urea N/d). Between the 2 experiments, the proportion of UER recycled to the gut was greater with the forage-type diet in Exp. 2 (approximately 60%) compared with the concentrate-type diet in Exp. 1 (approximately 40%), although urea N fluxes across the gut remained unchanged in both

  15. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B.; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21−/− mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine’s beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  16. Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor modulates fatty acid composition and reduces obesity-induced inflammation in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bourgeois, H; Vandermeulen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Meyer, E; Demeyere, K; Hesta, M

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor (sPLA2i) has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory function by blocking the production of inflammatory mediators. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sPLA2i on inflammation, oxidative stress and serum fatty acid profile in dogs. Seven obese and seven lean Beagle dogs were used in a 28-day double blind cross-over design. Dogs were fed a control diet without supplemental sPLA2i or an sPLA2i supplemented diet. The sPLA2i diet decreased plasma fibrinogen levels and increased the protein:fibrinogen ratio in obese dogs to levels similar to those of lean dogs fed the same diet. Obese dogs had a higher plasma concentration of the lipophilic vitamin A with potential antioxidative capacity and a lower ratio of retinol binding protein 4:vitamin A compared to lean dogs, independent of the diets. A higher proportion of myristic acid (C14:0) and a lower proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) were observed in the dogs fed with the sPLA2i diet compared to dogs fed with the control diet. Furthermore, a higher ratio of n-6 to n-3, a lower proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower omega-3 index were observed in obese compared to lean dogs. The results indicate that obese dogs are characterized by a more 'proinflammatory' serum fatty acid profile and that diet inclusion of sPLA2i may reduce inflammation and alter fatty acid profile.

  17. Whole body creatine and protein kinetics in healthy men and women: effects of creatine and amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kalhan, Satish C; Gruca, Lourdes; Marczewski, Susan; Bennett, Carole; Kummitha, China

    2016-03-01

    Creatine kinetics were measured in young healthy subjects, eight males and seven females, age 20-30 years, after an overnight fast on creatine-free diet. Whole body turnover of glycine and its appearance in creatine was quantified using [1-(13)C] glycine and the rate of protein turnover was quantified using L-ring [(2)H5] phenylalanine. The creatine pool size was estimated by the dilution of a bolus [C(2)H3] creatine. Studies were repeated following a five days supplement creatine 21 g.day(-1) and following supplement amino acids 14.3 g day(-1). Creatine caused a ten-fold increase in the plasma concentration of creatine and a 50 % decrease in the concentration of guanidinoacetic acid. Plasma amino acids profile showed a significant decrease in glycine, glutamine, and taurine and a significant increase in citrulline, valine, lysine, and cysteine. There was a significant decrease in the rate of appearance of glycine, suggesting a decrease in de-novo synthesis (p = 0.006). The fractional and absolute rate of synthesis of creatine was significantly decreased by supplemental creatine. Amino acid supplement had no impact on any of the parameters. This is the first detailed analysis of creatine kinetics and the effects of creatine supplement in healthy young men and women. These methods can be applied for the analysis of creatine kinetics in different physiological states.

  18. Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids supplementation on fatty acid metabolism in atorvastatin-administered SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Abdullah; Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Hossain, Shahdat; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of cholesterol-lowering statins, which substantially benefit future cardiovascular events, on fatty acid metabolism have remained largely obscured. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin on fatty acid metabolism together with the effects of TAK-085 containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester on atorvastatin-induced n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid lowering in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats, as a metabolic syndrome model. Supplementation with 10mg/kg body weight/day of atorvastatin for 17 weeks significantly decreased plasma total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Atorvastatin alone caused a subtle change in fatty acid composition particularly of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver or erythrocyte membranes. However, the TAK-085 consistently increased both the levels of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver and erythrocyte membranes. After confirming the reduction of plasma total cholesterol, 300mg/kg body weight/day of TAK-085 was continuously administered for another 6 weeks. Supplementation with TAK-085 did not decrease plasma total cholesterol but significantly increased the EPA and DHA levels in both the plasma and liver compared with rats administered atorvastatin only. Supplementation with atorvastatin alone significantly decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases, elongase-5, and stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase-2 levels and increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the liver compared with control rats. TAK-085 supplementation significantly increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that long-term supplementation with atorvastatin decreases the EPA and DHA levels by inhibiting the desaturation and elongation of n-3 fatty acid metabolism, while TAK-085 supplementation effectively replenishes this effect in SHRcp rat liver.

  19. Influence of dietary fat source and copper supplementation on broiler performance, fatty acid profile of meat and depot fat, and on cholesterol content in meat.

    PubMed

    Skrivan, M; Skrivanová, V; Marounek, M; Tůmová, E; Wolf, J

    2000-12-01

    1. Three hundred and twenty d-old chickens were fed on a wheat/maize-soyabean meal diet supplemented with (i) 50 g/kg lard, (ii) 25 g/kg lard and 25 g/kg rapeseed oil, (iii) 50 g/kg rapeseed oil, and (iv) 50 g/kg rapeseed oil and 200 mg copper per kg as copper sulphate pentahydrate. 2. Final weights at 39 d of age in chickens receiving rapeseed oil were lower by 9% than in those fed on the diet containing only lard (P<0.05). The fatty acids profiles of lipids extracted from the tissues of 10 chickens per group reflected those of the diets. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of breast muscles and abdominal fat (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids) was increased and the ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids was decreased by the substitution of lard by rapeseed oil (P<0.001). These changes were more pronounced for the adipose tissue than for breast muscles. 4. Copper sulphate supplementation increased the final body weight of chickens by 4.3% (P<0.05), reduced the saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportion (P<0.05) in abdominal fat and increased the PUFA:SFA ratio (P<0.05). The magnitude of improvement, however, was small. 5. The substitution of rapeseed oil for lard decreased the concentration of cholesterol in breast muscles by 13%. Copper supplementation further reduced the cholesterol content by 25%. Both effects were significant (P<0.001).

  20. Lipid growth requirement and influence of lipid supplement on fatty acid and aldehyde composition of Syntrophococcus sucromutans.

    PubMed Central

    Doré, J; Bryant, M P

    1989-01-01

    Results concerning the ruminal fluid growth requirement of the ruminal acetogen, Syntrophococcus sucromutans, indicate that octadecenoic acid isomers satisfy this essential requirement. Complex lipids, such as triglycerides and phospholipids, can also support growth. The cellular fatty acid and aldehyde composition closely reflects that of the lipid supplement provided to the cells. Up to 98% of the fatty acids and 80% of the fatty aldehydes are identical in chain length and degree of unsaturation to the octadecenoic acid supplement provided in the medium. S. sucromutans shows a tendency to have a greater proportion of the aldehyde form among its 18 carbon chains than it does with the shorter-chain simple lipids, which may be interpreted as a strategy to maintain membrane fluidity. 14C labeling showed that most of the oleic acid taken up from the medium was incorporated into the membrane fraction of the cells. PMID:2729991

  1. Alpha-linolenic acid supplementation and resistance training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Stephen M; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2009-02-01

    Increased inflammation with aging has been linked to sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing older adults with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during a resistance training program, based on the hypothesis that ALA decreases the plasma concentration of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6, which in turn would improve muscle size and strength. Fifty-one older adults (65.4 +/- 0.8 years) were randomized to receive ALA in flax oil (~14 g.day-1) or placebo for 12 weeks while completing a resistance training program (3 days a week). Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks for muscle thickness of knee and elbow flexors and extensors (B-mode ultrasound), muscle strength (1 repetition maximum), body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), and concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-6. Males supplementing with ALA decreased IL-6 concentration over the 12 weeks (62 +/- 36% decrease; p = 0.003), with no other changes in inflammatory cytokines. Chest and leg press strength, lean tissue mass, muscle thickness, hip bone mineral content and density, and total bone mineral content significantly increased, and percent fat and total body mass decreased with training (p < 0.05), with the only benefit of ALA being a significantly greater increase in knee flexor muscle thickness in males (p < 0.05). Total-body bone mineral density improved in the placebo group, with no change in the ALA group (p = 0.05). ALA supplementation lowers the IL-6 concentration in older men but not women, but had minimal effect on muscle mass and strength during resistance training.

  2. Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Priscila; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Pereira, Renata Virginia Fernandes; Neto, Marcilio Hubner Miranda; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) dietary supplementation on myenteric neurons and epithelial cell proliferation of the jejunum of adult rats with chronic diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty rats at 90 d of age were divided into three groups: Non-diabetic, diabetic and diabetic treated with AA (DA) (1 g/L). After 120 d of treatment with AA the animals were killed. The myenteric neurons were stained for myosin-V and analyzed quantitatively in an area of 11.2 mm2/animal. We further measured the cellular area of 500 neurons per group. We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. The data area was analyzed using the Olympus BX40 microscope. RESULTS: There was an increase of 14% in the neuronal density (792.6 ± 46.52 vs 680.6 ± 30.27) and 4.4% in the cellular area (303.4 ± 5.19 vs 291.1 ± 6.0) respectively of the diabetic group treated with AA when compared to control diabetic animals. There were no significant differences in MI parameters, villi height or crypt depths among the groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AA in the diabetic animal promoted moderate neuroprotection. There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes mellitus with or without supplementation with AA. PMID:19030205

  3. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric; Lama, Tenzing T. S.; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally expressed in the posterior tooth-forming region, such as pitx2 and dlx2b. After RA exposure, we also observed a correlation between cartilage malformations and ectopic tooth induction, as well as abnormal cranial neural crest marker gene expression. Additionally, we observed that the RA-induced zebrafish anterior teeth resemble in pattern and number the dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions. We conclude that RA is sufficient to induce anterior ectopic tooth development in zebrafish where teeth were lost in evolution, potentially by altering neural crest cell development, and that changes in the location of RA synthesis correlate with evolutionary changes in vertebrate dentitions.—Seritrakul, P., Samarut, E., Lama, T. T. S., Gibert, Y., Laudet, V., Jackman, W. R. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish. PMID:22942074

  4. Dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid-containing fish oil suppresses F2-isoprostanes but enhances inflammatory cytokine response in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huiyong; Liu, Wei; Goleniewska, Kasia; Porter, Ned A; Morrow, Jason D; Peebles, R Stokes

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological and clinical evidence has suggested that increased dietary intake of fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be associated with a reduced risk of asthma. However, interventional studies on these effects have been equivocal and controversial. Free radical oxidation products of lipids and cyclooxygenases-derived prostaglandins are believed to play an important role in asthma, and fish oil supplementation may modulate the levels of these critical lipid mediators. We employed a murine model of allergic inflammation produced by sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) to study the effects of fish oil supplementation on airway inflammation. Our studies demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids were dose dependently incorporated into mouse lung tissue after dietary supplementation. We examined the oxidative stress status by measuring the levels of isoprostanes (IsoPs), the gold standard for oxidative stress in vivo. OVA challenge caused significant increase of F(2)-IsoPs in mouse lung, suggesting an elevated level of oxidative stress. Compared to the control group, fish oil supplementation led to a significant reduction of F(2)-IsoP (from arachidonic acid) with a concomitant increase of F(3)-IsoPs (from EPA) and F(4)-IsoPs (from DHA). Surprisingly, however, fish oil supplementation enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation suppressed the production of pulmonary protective PGE(2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) while the level of urinary metabolites of the PGE(2) was increased. Our data suggest that augmented lung inflammation after fish oil supplementation may be due to the reduction of PGE(2) production in the lung and these dichotomous results bring into question the role of fish oil supplementation in the treatment of asthma.

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-10-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice that is a model for postmenopausal women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice were fed with a high-fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared with OVX mice fed with a high-fat diet without CLA. Although CLA was effective in slowing down body weight gain of both sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these 2 groups of mice. Treatment with CLA did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an antiobesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women and that the antiobesity effect of CLA is not estrogen related.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice which is a model for postmenopaual women. We further hypothesized that body weight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice fed with a high fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced body weight gain compared to OVX mice fed with a high fat diet without CLA. While CLA was effective in slowing down of body weight gain of both Sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these two groups of mice. CLA treatment did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an anti-obesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women, and the anti-obesity effect of CLA is not estrogen-related. PMID:21056287

  7. Does docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in term infants enhance neurocognitive functioning in infancy?

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Alexandra E.; Meldrum, Suzanne J.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Prescott, Susan L.; Simmer, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The proposal that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enhances neurocognitive functioning in term infants is controversial. Theoretical evidence, laboratory research and human epidemiological studies have convincingly demonstrated that DHA deficiency can negatively impact neurocognitive development. However, the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of DHA supplementation in human term-born infants have been inconsistent. This article will (i) discuss the role of DHA in the human diet, (ii) explore the physiological mechanisms by which DHA plausibly influences neurocognitive capacity, and (iii) seek to characterize the optimal intake of DHA during infancy for neurocognitive functioning, based on existing research that has been undertaken in developed countries (specifically, within Australia). The major observational studies and RCTs that have examined dietary DHA in human infants and animals are presented, and we consider suggestions that DHA requirements vary across individuals according to genetic profile. It is important that the current evidence concerning DHA supplementation is carefully evaluated so that appropriate recommendations can be made and future directions of research can be strategically planned. PMID:24312040