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Sample records for acid tba values

  1. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Because alcohols are miscible or highly soluble in water, alcohols are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for analysis....

  2. TBA PRODUCTION BY ACID HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE DURING HEATED HEADSPACE ANALYSIS & EVALUATION OF A BASE AS A PRESERVATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At room temperature (20°±3°C), purge and trap samplers provide poor sensitivity for analysis of the fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). Because alcohols are miscible or highly soluble in water, they are not efficiently transferred to a gas chr...

  3. IS HCI THAT IS USED AS A PRESERVATIVE CREATING FALSE POSITIVES FOR TBA IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will hydrochloric acid produce false positives for TBA? Yes, if you heat the sample to get a lower detection limit for TBA. Conventional purge and trap methods at ambient temperature have a reporting limit for TBA between 50 and 100 g/liter. This is higher than the provisiona...

  4. The Diagnostic Usefulness of Serum Total Bile Acid Concentrations in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis of Varied Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Maleszka, Aleksandra; Dumnicka, Paulina; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Sporek, Mateusz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) are biliary tract diseases with cholestasis and alcohol consumption. In 10%–15% of patients, etiology determination is difficult. Identification of the etiology allows for the implementation of adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the serum concentrations of total bile acids (TBA) to diagnose AP etiology in the early phase of the disease. We included 66 patients with AP, admitted within the first 24 h from the onset of symptoms. TBA were measured in serum at 24, 48, and 72 h from the onset of AP, using an automated fifth generation assay. The bilirubin-to-TBA ratio (B/TBA) was calculated. TBA was highest on the first day of AP and decreased subsequently. In patients with biliary etiology, serum TBA was significantly higher compared to those with alcoholic and other etiologies. B/TBA was significantly higher in patients with alcoholic etiology. At admission, the cut-off values of 4.7 µmol/L for TBA and 4.22 for the B/TBA ratio allowed for a differentiation between biliary and other etiologies of AP with a diagnostic accuracy of 85 and 83%. Both TBA and B/TBA may help in the diagnosis of AP etiology in the early phase of AP. PMID:28067818

  5. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  6. MICROCOSM STUDY OF ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE AND TBA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water samples collected in at a gasoline spill sites in Orange County, California, suggested that MTBE was being transformed to TBA. In some of the most heavily contaminated wells, the concentration of TBA was higher than the concentration of MTBE (MTBE 2 µg/L and TBA 40,...

  7. Integrals of motion from TBA and lattice-conformal dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feverati, Giovanni; Grinza, Paolo

    2004-12-01

    The integrals of motion of the tricritical Ising model are obtained by thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations derived from the A integrable lattice model. They are compared with those given by the conformal field theory leading to a unique one-to-one lattice-conformal correspondence. They can also be followed along the renormalization group flows generated by the action of the boundary field φ on conformal boundary conditions in close analogy to the usual TBA description of energies.

  8. In Situ Biotreatment of TBA with Recirculation/Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    North, Katharine P.; Mackay, Douglas M.; Kayne, Julian S.; Petersen, Daniel; Rasa, Ehsan; Rastegarzadeh, Laleh; Holland, Reef B.; Scow, Kate M.

    2012-01-01

    The potential for in situ biodegradation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) by creation of aerobic conditions in the subsurface with recirculating well pairs was investigated in two field studies conducted at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). In the first experiment, a single recirculating well pair with bromide tracer and oxygen amendment successfully delivered oxygen to the subsurface for 42 days. TBA concentrations were reduced from approximately 500 μg/L to below the detection limit within the treatment zone and the treated water was detected in a monitoring transect several meters downgradient. In the second experiment, a site-calibrated model was used to design a double recirculating well pair with oxygen amendment, which successfully delivered oxygen to the subsurface for 291 days and also decreased TBA concentrations to below the detection limit. Methylibium petroleiphilum strain PM1, a known TBA-degrading bacterium, was detectable at the study site but addition of oxygen had little impact on the already low baseline population densities, suggesting that there was not enough carbon within the groundwater plume to support significant new growth in the PM1 population. Given favorable hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions, the use of recirculating well pairs to introduce dissolved oxygen into the subsurface is a viable method to stimulate in situ biodegradation of TBA or other aerobically-degradable aquifer contaminants. PMID:23358537

  9. IS YOUR TBA COMING FROM BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  10. TBA biodegradation in surface-water sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for [U-14C] TBA biodegradation was examined in laboratory microcosms under a range of terminal electron accepting conditions. TBA mineralization to CO2 was substantial in surface-water sediments under oxic, denitrifying, or Mn(IV)-reducing conditions and statistically significant but low under SO4-reducing conditions. Thus, anaerobic TBA biodegradation may be a significant natural attenuation mechanism for TBA in the environment, and stimulation of in situ TBA bioremediation by addition of suitable terminal electron acceptors may be feasible. No degradation of [U-14C] TBA was observed under methanogenic or Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  11. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  12. Natural Anaerobic Biodegradation of TBA in Aquifer Sediments at Gasoline Spill Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    TBA is an important contaminant at spills sites of gasoline that contains MTBE. The impact of TBA is particularly important in Southern California, where the State Action Level for TBA is 12 μg/L and many communities produce ground water for drinking water from an urban landscape...

  13. MTBE, TBA, and TAME attenuation in diverse hyporheic zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.; Trego, D.A.; Hale, K.G.; Haas, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel-related compounds such as the fuel oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) presents a significant issue to managers and consumers of groundwater and surface water that receives groundwater discharge. Four sites were investigated on Long Island, New York, characterized by groundwater contaminated with gasoline and fuel oxygenates that ultimately discharge to fresh, brackish, or saline surface water. For each site, contaminated groundwater discharge zones were delineated using pore water geochemistry data from 15 feet (4.5 m) beneath the bottom of the surface water body in the hyporheic zone and seepage-meter tests were conducted to measure discharge rates. These data when combined indicate that MTBE, TBA, and TAME concentrations in groundwater discharge in a 5-foot (1.5-m) thick section of the hyporheic zone were attenuated between 34% and 95%, in contrast to immeasurable attenuation in the shallow aquifer during contaminant transport between 0.1 and 1.5 miles (0.1 to 2.4 km). The attenuation observed in the hyporheic zone occurred primarily by physical processes such as mixing of groundwater and surface water. Biodegradation also occurred as confirmed in laboratory microcosms by the mineralization of U- 14C-MTBE and U- 14C-TBA to 14CO2 and the novel biodegradation of U- 14C-TAME to 14CO2 under oxic and anoxic conditions. The implication of fuel oxygenate attenuation observed in diverse hyporheic zones suggests an assessment of the hyporheic zone attenuation potential (HZAP) merits inclusion as part of site assessment strategies associated with monitored or engineered attenuation. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  14. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    PubMed

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data.

  15. STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF MTBE TO EVALUATE THE SOURCE OF TBA IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared those of the conventional fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In the year 2002, th...

  16. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT OF MTBE AND TBA IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (as U.S. EPA defines the term) is a remedy, where natural processes bring the concentration of MTBE or TBA to an acceptable level in a reasonable period of time. The longevity of the plume is its critical property. The rate of attenuation is typica...

  17. EFFECT OF BTEX ON THE DEGRADATION OF MTBE AND TBA BY MIXED BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination in groundwater often coexists with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) near the source of the plume. Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is a prevalent intermediate of MTBE degradation. Therefore, there is a significant p...

  18. COMPOUND-SPECIFIC ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF MTBE AND TBA FOR BIOREMEDIATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of stable isotope ratios to detect biodegradation for a number of chemical compounds including MTBE and TBA has been demonstrated in a number of laboratory or field studies. Chemical reactions tend to favor molecules with the lighter isotopic species (e.g., 12C, 1H), ...

  19. The standing wave FEL/TBA: Realistic cavity geometry and energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Soo, Henke, H.; Sessler, A.M.; Sharp, W.M.

    1993-05-01

    A set of parameters for standing wave free electron laser two beam accelerators (SWFEL/TBA) is evaluated for realistic cavity geometry taking into account beam-break-up and the sensitivity of output power to imperfections. Also given is a power extraction system using cavity coupled wave guides.

  20. IDENTIFYING THE CAUSE OF HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF TBA IN GROUNDWATER AT GASOLINE SPIILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring at gasoline spills in Orange County, California has revealed that TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is often present at high concentrations in ground water. To manage the hazard associated with the presence of TBA, staff of the UST Local Oversight Program (LOP) of the Oran...

  1. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  2. An ex situ evaluation of TBA- and MTBE-baited bio-traps

    PubMed Central

    North, Katharine P.; Mackay, Douglas M.; Annable, Michael D.; Sublette, Kerry L.; Davis, Greg; Holland, Reef B.; Petersen, Daniel; Scow, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    Aquifer microbial communities can be investigated using Bio-traps® (“bio-traps”), passive samplers containing Bio-Sep® beads (“bio-beads”) that are deployed in monitoring wells to be colonized by bacteria delivered via groundwater flow through the well. When bio-beads are “baited” with organic contaminants enriched in 13C, stable isotope probing allows assessment of the composition and activity of the microbial community. This study used an ex situ system fed by groundwater continuously extracted from an adjacent monitoring well within an experimentally-created aerobic zone treating a tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) plume. The goal was to evaluate aspects of bio-trap performance that cannot be studied quantitatively in situ. The measured groundwater flow through a bio-trap housing suggests that such traps might typically “sample” about 1.8 L per month. The desorption of TBA or methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) bait from bio-traps during a typical deployment duration of 6 weeks was approximately 90% and 45%, respectively, of the total initial bait load, with initially high rate of mass loss that decreased markedly after a few days. The concentration of TBA in groundwater flowing by the TBA-baited bio-beads was estimated to be as high as 3400 mg/L during the first few days, which would be expected to inhibit growth of TBA-degrading microbes. Initial inhibition was also implied for the MTBE-baited bio-trap, but at lower concentrations and for a shorter time. After a few days, concentrations in groundwater flowing through the bio-traps dropped below inhibitory concentrations but remained 4–5 orders of magnitude higher than TBA or MTBE concentrations within the aquifer at the experimental site. Desorption from the bio-beads during ex situ deployment occurred at first as predicted by prior sorption analyses of bio-beads but with apparent hysteresis thereafter, possibly due to mass transfer limitations caused by colonizing microbes. These results suggest that

  3. Misconceptions concerning the behavior, fate and transport of the fuel oxygenates TBA and MTBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, R.; Sloan, R.

    2003-04-01

    The release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and the subsequent appearance of dissolved constituents in drinking water has focused attention on the use of MTBE in reformulated fuels. Natural biodegradation of MTBE in soil, photo-oxidation in the atmosphere or chemical oxidation during remediation of gasoline releases can produce the intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is also a fuel oxygenate and can be found as a co-product in MTBE synthesized from methanol and TBA. Because the physical properties of ethers and alcohols differ somewhat from the predominant hydrocarbon compounds in gasoline, misconceptions have developed about the behavior of fuel oxygenates in storage and in the subsurface. Critical review of several misconceptions about MTBE and TBA in gasoline reveals the concepts were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, clarifies these misconceptions and assumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates and their degradation products in the environment. Commonly held misconceptions focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenate management: storage/dispensing, hydrology, remediation, and health effects. Storage/dispensing misconceptions address materials stability to ethers and alcohols in fuel and the environmental forensics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology misconceptions deal with plume dynamics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation misconceptions focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent developments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects misconceptions address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. Generally MTBE and TBA are manageable by the same processes and

  4. Modeling the microscopic electrical properties of thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) for label-free biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Reggiani, Lino; Cataldo, Rosella; De Nunzio, Giorgio; Giotta, Livia; Guascito, Maria Rachele

    2017-02-01

    Aptamers are chemically produced oligonucleotides, able to bind a variety of targets such as drugs, proteins and pathogens with high sensitivity and selectivity. Therefore, aptamers are largely employed for producing label-free biosensors (aptasensors), with significant applications in diagnostics and drug delivery. In particular, the anti-thrombin aptamers are biomolecules of high interest for clinical use, because of their ability to recognize and bind the thrombin enzyme. Among them, the DNA 15-mer aptamer (TBA), has been widely explored around the possibility of using it in aptasensors. This paper proposes a microscopic model of the electrical properties of TBA and of the aptamer-thrombin complex, combining information from both structure and function, following the issues addressed in an emerging branch of electronics known as proteotronics. The theoretical results are compared and validated with measurements reported in the literature. Finally, the model suggests resistance measurements as a novel tool for testing aptamer-target affinity.

  5. Modeling the microscopic electrical properties of thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) for label-free biosensors.

    PubMed

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Reggiani, Lino; Cataldo, Rosella; De Nunzio, Giorgio; Giotta, Livia; Guascito, Maria Rachele

    2017-02-10

    Aptamers are chemically produced oligonucleotides, able to bind a variety of targets such as drugs, proteins and pathogens with high sensitivity and selectivity. Therefore, aptamers are largely employed for producing label-free biosensors (aptasensors), with significant applications in diagnostics and drug delivery. In particular, the anti-thrombin aptamers are biomolecules of high interest for clinical use, because of their ability to recognize and bind the thrombin enzyme. Among them, the DNA 15-mer aptamer (TBA), has been widely explored around the possibility of using it in aptasensors. This paper proposes a microscopic model of the electrical properties of TBA and of the aptamer-thrombin complex, combining information from both structure and function, following the issues addressed in an emerging branch of electronics known as proteotronics. The theoretical results are compared and validated with measurements reported in the literature. Finally, the model suggests resistance measurements as a novel tool for testing aptamer-target affinity.

  6. Site specific replacements of a single loop nucleoside with a dibenzyl linker may switch the activity of TBA from anticoagulant to antiproliferative

    PubMed Central

    Scuotto, Maria; Rivieccio, Elisa; Varone, Alessia; Corda, Daniela; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Vellecco, Valentina; Cirino, Giuseppe; Virgilio, Antonella; Esposito, Veronica; Galeone, Aldo; Borbone, Nicola; Varra, Michela; Mayol, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Many antiproliferative G-quadruplexes (G4s) arise from the folding of GT-rich strands. Among these, the Thrombin Binding Aptamer (TBA), as a rare example, adopts a monomolecular well-defined G4 structure. Nevertheless, the potential anticancer properties of TBA are severely hampered by its anticoagulant action and, consequently, no related studies have appeared so far in the literature. We wish to report here that suitable chemical modifications in the TBA sequence can preserve its antiproliferative over anticoagulant activity. Particularly, we replaced one residue of the TT or TGT loops with a dibenzyl linker to develop seven new quadruplex-forming TBA based sequences (TBA-bs), which were studied for their structural (CD, CD melting, 1D NMR) and biological (fibrinogen, PT and MTT assays) properties. The three-dimensional structures of the TBA-bs modified at T13 (TBA-bs13) or T12 (TBA-bs12), the former endowed with selective antiproliferative activity, and the latter acting as potently as TBA in both coagulation and MTT assays, were further studied by 2D NMR restrained molecular mechanics. The comparative structural analyses indicated that neither the stability, nor the topology of the G4s, but the different localization of the two benzene rings of the linker was responsible for the loss of the antithrombin activity for TBA-bs13. PMID:26250112

  7. Using DNA-Stable Isotope Probing to Identify MTBE- and TBA-Degrading Microorganisms in Contaminated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Key, Katherine C.; Sublette, Kerry L.; Duncan, Kathleen; Mackay, Douglas M.; Scow, Kate M.; Ogles, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Although the anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has been documented in the laboratory and the field, knowledge of the microorganisms and mechanisms involved is still lacking. In this study, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify microorganisms involved in anaerobic fuel oxygenate biodegradation in a sulfate-reducing MTBE and TBA plume. Microorganisms were collected in the field using Bio-Sep® beads amended with 13C5-MTBE, 13C1-MTBE (only methoxy carbon labeled), or13C4-TBA. 13C-DNA and 12C-DNA extracted from the Bio-Sep beads were cloned and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to identify the indigenous microorganisms involved in degrading the methoxy group of MTBE and the tert-butyl group of MTBE and TBA. Results indicated that microorganisms were actively degrading 13C-labeled MTBE and TBA in situ and the 13C was incorporated into their DNA. Several sequences related to known MTBE- and TBA-degraders in the Burkholderiales and the Sphingomonadales orders were detected in all three13C clone libraries and were likely to be primary degraders at the site. Sequences related to sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-reducers, such as Geobacter and Geothrix, were only detected in the clone libraries where MTBE and TBA were fully labeled with 13C, suggesting that they were involved in processing carbon from the tert-butyl group. Sequences similar to the Pseudomonas genus predominated in the clone library where only the methoxy carbon of MTBE was labeled with 13C. It is likely that members of this genus were secondary degraders cross-feeding on 13C-labeled metabolites such as acetate. PMID:25525320

  8. Role of back diffusion and biodegradation reactions in sustaining an MTBE/TBA plume in alluvial media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasa, Ehsan; Chapman, Steven W.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Fogg, Graham E.; Scow, Kate M.; Mackay, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    A methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) / tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) plume originating from a gasoline spill in late 1994 at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) persisted for over 15 years within 200 feet of the original spill source. The plume persisted until 2010 despite excavation of the tanks and piping within months after the spill and excavations of additional contaminated sediments from the source area in 2007 and 2008. The probable history of MTBE concentrations along the plume centerline at its source was estimated using a wide variety of available information, including published details about the original spill, excavations and monitoring by VAFB consultants, and our own research data. Two-dimensional reactive transport simulations of MTBE along the plume centerline were conducted for a 20-year period following the spill. These analyses suggest that MTBE diffused from the thin anaerobic aquifer into the adjacent anaerobic silts and transformed to TBA in both aquifer and silt layers. The model reproduces the observation that after 2004 TBA was the dominant solute, diffusing back out of the silts into the aquifer and sustaining plume concentrations much longer than would have been the case in the absence of such diffusive exchange. Simulations also suggest that aerobic degradation of MTBE or TBA at the water table in the overlying silt layer significantly affected concentrations of MTBE and TBA by limiting the chemical mass available for back diffusion to the aquifer.

  9. Role of back diffusion and biodegradation reactions in sustaining an MTBE/TBA plume in alluvial media

    PubMed Central

    Rasa, Ehsan; Chapman, Steven W.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Fogg, Graham E.; Scow, Kate M.; Mackay, Douglas M.

    2012-01-01

    A methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) / tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) plume originating from a gasoline spill in late 1994 at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) persisted for over 15 years within 200 feet of the original spill source. The plume persisted until 2010 despite excavation of the tanks and piping within months after the spill and excavations of additional contaminated sediments from the source area in 2007 and 2008. The probable history of MTBE concentrations along the plume centerline at its source was estimated using a wide variety of available information, including published details about the original spill, excavations and monitoring by VAFB consultants, and our own research data. Two-dimensional reactive transport simulations of MTBE along the plume centerline were conducted for a 20-year period following the spill. These analyses suggest that MTBE diffused from the thin anaerobic aquifer into the adjacent anaerobic silts and transformed to TBA in both aquifer and silt layers. The model reproduces the observation that after 2004 TBA was the dominant solute, diffusing back out of the silts into the aquifer and sustaining plume concentrations much longer than would have been the case in the absence of such diffusive exchange. Simulations also suggest that aerobic degradation of MTBE or TBA at the water table in the overlying silt layer significantly affected concentrations of MTBE and TBA by limiting the chemical mass available for back diffusion to the aquifer. PMID:22115089

  10. Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in whole grain of rye, wheat and rice: Effects on linoleic and linolenic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaca, C. E.; Harms-Ringdahl, M.

    Changes in the fatty acid composition in lipids after γ-irradation of whole grain of wheat, rye and rice were examined. The radiosensitivity of linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) was studied up to a dose of 63 kGy in seeds with different water content and after a post-irradiation storage time of 2 months. At doses in the range recommended for grain desinfestation, i.e. 0.1-1.0 kGy, no detectable degradation of 18:2 and 18:3 was found, but at the highest dose applied, 63 kGy, a degradation in the range from a few percent up to 40% was observed. Under extreme conditions, i.e. pre- and post-irradation treatment with oxygen, or when the flour prepared from the seeds was mixed with water and heated before the extraction of the lipids, a more pronounced degradation of the unsaturated fatty acids was noticed. Lipid peroxidation induced by γ-irradation was estimated using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. High yields of the TBA-reactive material were formed in the three types of grain investigated corresponding to G-values in the range of 12-18. The influence on peroxidation yields of the water content of the seeds was studied in wheat. The origin of the TBA-reactive material formed in the seeds is not yet known, but could only to a minor extent be due to fatty acid peroxidation.

  11. More value from food waste: Lactic acid and biogas recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Ryu, Hoyoung; Chang, Yong-Keun; Triolo, Jin M; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 °C to 55 °C, with the highest performance attained at 50 °C. At 50 °C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration in the broth was 40 kg LA/m(3), corresponding to a yield of 1.6 mol LA/mol hexoseadded. Pyrosequencing results showed that Lactobacillus (97.6% of the total number of sequences) was the predominant species performing LA fermentation of FW. The fermented broth was then centrifuged and LA was extracted from the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further fermented to biogas by AD. At HRT 40 d (organic loading rate of 7 kg COD/m(3)/d), the highest volumetric biogas production rate of 3.5 m(3)/m(3)/d was achieved with a CH4 yield of 0.25 m(3) CH4/kg COD. The mass flow showed that 47 kg of LA and 54 m(3) of biogas could be recovered by the developed process from 1 ton of FW with COD removal efficiency of 70%. These products have a higher economic value 60 USD/ton FW compared to that of conventional AD (27 USD/ton FW).

  12. Longitudinal impedance measurement of an RK-TBA induction accelerating gap

    SciTech Connect

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, J.-S.; Houck, T.L.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Induction accelerating gap designs are being studied for Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) applications. The accelerating gap has to satisfy the following major requirements: hold-off of the applied accelerating voltage pulse, low transverse impedance to limit beam breakup, low longitudinal impedance at the beam-modulation frequency to minimize power loss. Various gap geometries, materials and novel insulating techniques were explored to optimize the gap design. We report on the experimental effort to evaluate the rf properties of the accelerating gaps in a simple pillbox cavity structure. The experimental cavity setup was designed using the AMOS, MAFIA and URMEL numerical codes. Longitudinal impedance measurements above beam-tube cut-off frequency using a single-wire measuring system are presented.

  13. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-03-30

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters.

  14. Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

  15. Monitoring of Used Frying Oils and Frying Times for Frying Chicken Nuggets Using Peroxide Value and Acid Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the condition of frying oil used for frying chicken nuggets in a deep fryer. The acidification of the frying oils used, soybean oil (SB), canola oil (CA), palm oil (PA), and lard (LA), were determined as peroxide value, acid value, and fatty acid composition, after chicken nuggets were fried in them for 101 times. The acid value and peroxide value obtained were 5.14 mg KOH/g and 66.03 meq/kg in SB, 4.47 mg KOH/g and 71.04 meq/kg in CA, 2.66 mg KOH/g and 15.48 meq/kg in PA, and 5.37 mg KOH/g and 62.92 meq/kg in LA, respectively. The ranges of the major fatty acid contents were palmitic acid, 8.91-45.84%; oleic acid, 34.74-58.68%; linoleic acid, 10.32-18.65%; and stearic acid, 2.28-10.86%.Used frying oils for food except animal products have a legal limit for the freshness standard, set by the Food Codex regulations (AV<2.5, POV<50). Therefore, this study could help develop a freshness standard for frying oils used for animal products such as chicken nuggets. Based on the quality limits associated with food regulations stated, we suggested that the estimated frying times before acceptable freshness was exceeded were 41 for SB, 38 for LA, 53 for CA, and 109 for PA. This data may be useful in determining food quality regulations for frying oil used for animal products. PMID:27857536

  16. Volatile fatty acids as an added value from biowaste.

    PubMed

    den Boer, Emilia; Łukaszewska, Agnieszka; Kluczkiewicz, Władysław; Lewandowska, Daria; King, Kevin; Reijonen, Tero; Kuhmonen, Tero; Suhonen, Anssi; Jääskeläinen, Ari; Heitto, Anneli; Laatikainen, Reino; Hakalehto, Elias

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to provide proof of concept of employing a co-culture of K. mobilis and E. coli for producing short and medium chain volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from kitchen biowaste and potato peels. To this aim, experiments were carried out at pilot-scale installation with a bioreactor of 250L. Different feeding strategies were tested under microaerobic conditions, at pH 6.0-6.5 in order to enhance chain elongation. Acetic acid and ethanol were dominating products in the initial stages of the bioprocess, but in a relatively short time of approx. 20-22h from the process start accumulation of propionic acid took place followed by a chain elongation to butyric and valeric acids. The highest final products yield of 325mg/g TS was achieved for the substrate load of 99.1g TS/L (VS of 91.1g/L) and pH 6.5, with the productivity of 448mg/L/h. However, the highest average VFAs chain length (3.77C) was observed in the process run with the loading of 63.2g TS/L and pH 6.0. In this study, we demonstrated that the existing symbiosis of the co-culture of K. mobilis and E. coli favours formation and chain elongation of VFA, induced most likely by the enhanced ethanol formation. Our finding differs from the previous research which focus mostly on anaerobic conditions of VFAs production. The results provide good basis for further optimisation of VFAs production process.

  17. Oil Biotechnology: Value-Added Products and Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During my 40+ years research career, I have been working on "biocatalysis" of hydrophobic organic compounds, both petroleum oil and vegetable oil, to convert them to value-added products. "Biocatalysis" is defined as the use of a biocatalyst such as whole microbial cells or enzymes, in an aqueous o...

  18. Value of furfural/ethanol coproduction from acid hydrolysis processes

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.; Calnon, M.; Feinberg, D.; Power, A.; Weiss, L.

    1983-08-01

    The benefits of two modifications in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic feedstocks for the production of ethanol fuels were investigated: marketing of the by-product furfural and xylose fermentation. Preliminary analysis indicate that the furfural by-product furfural and xylose fermentation. Perliminary analyses indicate that the furfural by-product credit is more beneficial at a minimum net profit of $0.08/lb of furfural. For this credit to have a major impact on ethanol production costs, new markets for large quantities of furfural must be identified. Furfural can be an alternative feedstock for hydrocarbon-based commodity chemicals. The costs and profitabilities of producing five chemicals from furfurals as opposed to conventional hydrocarbon-based feedstocks were studied. The furfural processes for production of styrene and butadiene were found to be marginally competitive or not competitive. The furfural processes for adipic acid, maleic anhydride, and butanol could be competitive. Results of analysis by a computer model of the petrochemical industry indicate that with furfural markets additional to these three furfural processes, over 2.5 x 10/sup 9/ gal of ethanol could be marketed at about $1.00/gal. Converting the xylose stream to ethanol has about the same effect on the selling price of ethanol as the furfural credit. The greatest ethanol production will result from xylose fermentation, but the furfural credit offers large near-term profits and has a more diversified impact on reducing petroleum product demand. 6 figures, 17 tables.

  19. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A.; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. PMID:22321859

  20. Chiral separation of phenylalanine and tryptophan by capillary electrophoresis using a mixture of β-CD and chiral ionic liquid ([TBA] [L-ASP]) as selectors.

    PubMed

    Yujiao, Wu; Guoyan, Wang; Wenyan, Zhao; Hongfen, Zhang; Huanwang, Jing; Anjia, Chen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a simple, effective and green capillary electrophoresis separation and detection method was developed for the quantification of underivatized amino acids (dl-phenylalanine; dl-tryptophan) using β-Cyclodextrin and chiral ionic liquid ([TBA] [l-ASP]) as selectors. Separation parameters such as buffer concentrations, pH, β-CD and chiral ionic liquid concentrations and separation voltage were investigated for the enantioseparation in order to achieve the maximum possible resolution. A good separation was achieved in a background electrolyte composed of 15 mm sodium tetraborate, 5 mm β-CD and 4 mm chiral ionic liquid at pH 9.5, and an applied voltage of 10 kV. Under optimum conditions, linearity was achieved within concentration ranges from 0.08 to 10 µg/mL for the analytes with correlation coefficients from 0.9956 to 0.9998, and the analytes were separated in less than 6 min with efficiencies up to 970,000 plates/m. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of amino acid enantiomers in compound amino acids injections, such as 18AA-I, 18AA-II and 3AA.

  1. Review of quantitative surveys of the length and stability of MTBE, TBA, and benzene plumes in groundwater at UST sites.

    PubMed

    Connor, John A; Kamath, Roopa; Walker, Kenneth L; McHugh, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative information regarding the length and stability condition of groundwater plumes of benzene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has been compiled from thousands of underground storage tank (UST) sites in the United States where gasoline fuel releases have occurred. This paper presents a review and summary of 13 published scientific surveys, of which 10 address benzene and/or MTBE plumes only, and 3 address benzene, MTBE, and TBA plumes. These data show the observed lengths of benzene and MTBE plumes to be relatively consistent among various regions and hydrogeologic settings, with median lengths at a delineation limit of 10 µg/L falling into relatively narrow ranges from 101 to 185 feet for benzene and 110 to 178 feet for MTBE. The observed statistical distributions of MTBE and benzene plumes show the two plume types to be of comparable lengths, with 90th percentile MTBE plume lengths moderately exceeding benzene plume lengths by 16% at a 10-µg/L delineation limit (400 feet vs. 345 feet) and 25% at a 5-µg/L delineation limit (530 feet vs. 425 feet). Stability analyses for benzene and MTBE plumes found 94 and 93% of these plumes, respectively, to be in a nonexpanding condition, and over 91% of individual monitoring wells to exhibit nonincreasing concentration trends. Three published studies addressing TBA found TBA plumes to be of comparable length to MTBE and benzene plumes, with 86% of wells in one study showing nonincreasing concentration trends.

  2. [Amino acid composition and biologic value of the proteins of several sorts of buckwheat].

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, N E; Kirilenko, S K

    1976-01-01

    The amino acids composition of summary proteins in unground buckwheat of four common and promising varieties grown in the Ukraine was investigated by using ion-exchange chromatography with an automatic analyzor Hd-1200 E. Between individual varieties of buckweheat no essential differences in the amino acids content were in evidence. The total proteins of the buckwheat grit contain high quantities of lysine, treonine, leucine, glutamic acid and arginine. The amino acids score was instrumental in determining the biological value and in eliciting amino acids limiting this value in different grits. These data may be made use of in the practice of public catering for estimating formulae of meals prepared with grits differently combined with other products securing an improved amino acids composition of ready-to-eat meals.

  3. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.

  4. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo

    2011-02-01

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.

  5. The effect of manuring on cereal and pulse amino acid δ(15)N values.

    PubMed

    Styring, Amy K; Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    Amino acid δ(15)N values of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains and rachis and broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, grown in manured and unmanured soil at the experimental farm stations of Rothamsted, UK and Bad Lauchstädt, Germany, were determined by GC-C-IRMS. Manuring was found to result in a consistent (15)N-enrichment of cereal grain amino acid δ(15)N values, indicating that manuring did not affect the metabolic routing of nitrogen (N) into cereal grain amino acids. The increase in cereal grain δ(15)N values with manuring is therefore due to a (15)N-enrichment in the δ(15)N value of assimilated inorganic-N. Greater variation was observed in the (15)N-enrichment of rachis amino acids with manuring, possibly due to enhanced sensitivity to changes in growing conditions and higher turnover of N in rachis cells compared to cereal grains. Total amino acid δ(15)N values of manured and unmanured broad beans and peas were very similar, indicating that the legumes assimilated N2 from the atmosphere rather than N from the soil, since there was no evidence for routing of (15)N-enriched manure N into any of the pulse amino acids. Crop amino acid δ(15)N values thus provide insights into the sources of N assimilated by non N2-fixing and N2-fixing crops grown on manured and unmanured soils, and reveal an effect of manure on N metabolism in different crop species and plant parts.

  6. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production.

  7. Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Lange, Anna; Fabarius, Jonathan; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Driven by the quest for sustainability, recent years have seen a tremendous progress in bio-based production routes from renewable raw materials to commercial goods. Particularly, the production of organic acids has crystallized as a competitive and fast-evolving field, related to the broad applicability of organic acids for direct use, as polymer building blocks, and as commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering and industrial market scenarios with focus on organic acids as top value products from biomass, accessible through fermentation and biotransformation.

  8. Nutritive value of globin-amino acid and complementary globin-cereal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Landmann, W A; Dill, C W; Young, C R

    1980-11-01

    Protein efficiency ratios (PER) were determined using male weanling rats fed diets containing bovine globin alone and with wheat and corn gluten. Simultaneous equations and graphical methods were devised for selecting combinations of globin and cereal proteins to provide optimal and suboptimal profiles of limiting amino acids. Supplementation of the globin with amino acids established isoleucine and methionine as limiting amino acids. Addition of globin, whose amino acid pattern is complementary to that of the cereal proteins, markedly improved the PER values of the proteins. However, growth rates of rats fed various combinations of proteins were not identical, even though PER values differed only slightly. The PER of combined proteins were not predictable from amino acid composition or from correlations between PER and chemical score based on National Research Council (NRC) requirements for essential amino acids. The inability of the optimal mixtures to meet expected nutritional performance clearly indicated that other factors affecting availability of amino acids are implicated. Nevertheless, mutual improvement of two incomplete proteins such as globin and wheat or corn gluten was demonstrated. Addition of globin to widely used diets consisting mainly of corn or wheat can be nutritionally beneficial.

  9. Amino acid composition and crude protein values of some Cyanobacteria from Çanakkale (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Akgül, Rıza; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Akgül, Füsun; Erduğan, Hüseyin

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) form an important component of integrated nutrient managements in agriculture and are exploited in commercial biotechnological ventures. In this study, Rivularia bullata (Poir) Berkeley ex Bornet & Flahault, Nostocs pongiaeforme C. Agardh ex Bornet & Flahault were researched for their amino acid composition and crude protein values. R. bullata was collected from coastal zones of the Gulf of Saros and N. spongiaeforme from the Ayazma Stream. The levels of amino acids were measured in algae samples using EZ: fast kits (EZ: fast GC/FID Protein Hydrolysate Amino Acid Kit) by gas chromatography. The crude proteins of samples were determined by the Kjeldahl method and were calculated using a nitrogen conversion factor of 6.25. Thirty-two amino acids were investigated, for N. spongiaeforme eight free essential amino acids (EAA), eight free non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and eleven other amino acids (OAA); for R. bullata eight EAA, eight NEAA and eight OAA were detected. Aspartic acid is the major constituent for both species. The total protein percents were determined for N. spongiaeforme as % 19.83 and for R. bullata as % 6.15. When considering the increasing world population and reducing natural products; Cyanobacteria will benew feed sources for all living.

  10. Nutritive value of high-oleic acid sunflower seed for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M L; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2005-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of high-oleic acid sunflower seed (HOASS) in broiler diets. In the first experiment, HOASS was included in a basal diet at 80, 160, 240, and 320 g/kg at the expense of the energy-yielding ingredients, and the AMEn values of the experimental diets were determined. The linear regression equation of AMEn values on rate of inclusion was calculated. Extrapolation value for the AMEn of HOASS at 100% inclusion was 4224 +/- 77 kcal/kg. In the second experiment, diets containing up to 200 g of HOASS/kg were given to broilers (Cobb) from 0 to 42 d, and performance parameters, nutrient digestibility, and AMEn value were determined at 12 and 42 d of age. Birds fed the diets containing 100 and 200 g HOASS/kg gained less weight (P < 0.001) than those fed the diet containing no HOASS at both ages. Differences in feed-to-gain ratio were only significant for the diet with the highest concentration of HOASS. Apparent digestibility of nutrients and dietary AMEn contents of diets increased with age; thus, the mean digestibility of diets for amino acid N and for total fatty acids increased from 82.1 and 68.0% at 12 d to 86.7 and 84.7% at 42 d, respectively, and AMEn content was improved by 6.5%. Inclusion of HOASS in the diet decreased the digestibilities of fat, oleic acid, and total fatty acids. A decrease in the digestibility of aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, valine, isoleucine, and AMEn with increasing inclusion level was also observed at 12 d of age.

  11. Cool excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (CELA) and tibial balloon angioplasty (TBA) in management of infragenicular arterial occlusion in critical lower limb ischemia (CLI).

    PubMed

    Sultan, Sherif; Tawfick, Wael; Hynes, Niamh

    2013-04-01

    We aim to compare cool excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (CELA) versus tibial balloon angioplasty (TBA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) with tibial artery occlusive disease. The primary end point is sustained clinical improvement (SCI) and amputation-free survival (AFS). The secondary end points are binary restenosis, target extremity revascularization (TER), and cost-effectiveness. From June 2005 to October 2010, 1506 patients were referred with peripheral vascular disease and 572 with CLI. A total of 80 patients underwent 89 endovascular revascularizations (EVRs) for tibial occlusions, 47 using TBA and 42 using CELA. All patients were Rutherford category 4 to 6. Three-year SCI was enhanced with CELA (81%) compared to TBA (63.8%; P = .013). Three-year AFS significantly improved with CELA (95.2%) versus TBA (89.4%; P = .0165). Three-year freedom from TER was significantly improved with CELA (92.9%) versus 78.7% TBA (P = .026). Three-year freedom from MACE was comparable in both the groups (P = .455). Patients with CELA had significantly improved quality time without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) at 3 years (10.5 months; P = .048) with incremental cost of €2073.19 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Tibial EVR provides exceptional outcome in CLI. The CELA has superior SCI, AFS, and freedom from TER, with improved Q-TWiST and cost-effectiveness.

  12. Determination of free fatty acids in pharmaceutical lipids by ¹H NMR and comparison with the classical acid value.

    PubMed

    Skiera, Christina; Steliopoulos, Panagiotis; Kuballa, Thomas; Diehl, Bernd; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    Indices like acid value, peroxide value, and saponification value play an important role in quality control and identification of lipids. Requirements on these parameters are given by the monographs of the European pharmacopeia. (1)H NMR spectroscopy provides a fast and simple alternative to these classical approaches. In the present work a new (1)H NMR approach to determine the acid value is described. The method was validated using a statistical approach based on a variance components model. The performance under repeatability and in-house reproducibility conditions was assessed. We applied this (1)H NMR assay to a wide range of different fatty oils. A total of 305 oil and fat samples were examined by both the classical and the NMR method. Except for hard fat, the data obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. The (1)H NMR method was adapted to analyse waxes and oleyloleat. Furthermore, the effect of solvent and in the case of castor oil the effect of the oil matrix on line broadening and chemical shift of the carboxyl group signal are discussed.

  13. Assessment of the value of a competitive protein binding radioassay of folic acid in the detection of folic acid deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, B J; Wickramasinghe, S N; Broom, G N; Litwinczuk, R A; Sims, J

    1984-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the Becton Dickinson Radioassay Kit (125I) for the the assay of red cell folate has been investigated. The assay was acceptable with regards to precision but was non-linear with changing packed cell volume. Sensitivity of the assay was satisfactory, with 24 of 25 folate deficient patients giving red cell folate values which fell below the reference range. Specificity of the assay in the detection of folate deficiency was less satisfactory. As with microbiological assays, a considerable proportion of vitamin B12 deficient patients had low red cell folate values. In addition, low concentrations were found in 12% of patients who were unlikely to be deficient in either vitamin B12 or folic acid. PMID:6470170

  14. [Blood deficiency values of polyunsaturated fatty acids of phospholipids, vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase as possible risk factors in the onset and development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Passi, S; De Luca, C; Picardo, M; Morrone, A; Ippolito, F

    1990-04-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin E (vit E) and polyunsatured fatty acids of phospholipids (PUFA-PL) as well as erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity are significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in patients HIV sero-positive (AIDS and ARC cases) both affected and not affected with seborrheic dermatitis and in 32% of HIV sero-negative intravenous drug abusers (IVDA, A subgroup) than in controls. The deficiency of PUFA-PL (mainly C20:3 n-6, C20:4 n-6 and C22:6 n-3) which is associated with a significant increase (p less than 0.001) of saturated palmitic and stearic acids and monounsaturated oleic acid, cannot be correlated to an active lipoperoxidative process. In fact the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive materials (TBA-RM) are not increased in the plasma of HIV sero-positive patients and A subgroup of IVDA. It is likely that the reduction of PUFA-PL is due to an inhibition of hepatic microsomal desaturase enzymes (delta 6 desaturase, delta 5 desaturase, delta 4 desaturase) which are involved in both n-6 and n-3 pathways. Since IVDA represent, and not only in Italy, a major risk category for HIV infection, we suggest that reduced blood levels of vit E, GSH-Px and particularly PUFA-PL may be added to the list of risk factors favouring the onset and the development of AIDS.

  15. Pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in urine: diagnostic and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E

    1990-01-01

    The sex- and age-related urinary excretion of pseudouridine/creatinine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid/creatinine was studied in 77 healthy subjects (24 children and 53 adults, 27 of whom were women). The highest values were found in the youngest children. We compared the excretion ratios of pseudouridine/creatinine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid/creatinine in women and men and found no significant differences between them. The excretion patterns may be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with urinary tract tumours and in predicting patients at risk of recurrences.

  16. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) < CAS60 (163.93 m(2)/g) < CAS90 (187.47 m(2)/g). The mean pore diameter increased in the order of CAS90 (170.59 Å) < CAS60 (211.60 Å) < CAS30 (249.70 Å). The regeneration of waste edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  17. Empirical parametrization of pK values for carboxylic acids in proteins using a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Garcia-Mira, Maria M; Plaza del Pino, Isabel M; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2005-04-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of theoretical electrostatic methods to predict the pK values of ionizable residues in proteins. However, predictions appear often to be still at the qualitative or semi-quantitative level. We believe that, with the increasing number experimentally available pK values for proteins of known structure, an alternative approach becomes feasible: the empirical parametrization of the experimental protein pK database. Of course, in the long term, this empirical approach is no substitute for rigorous electrostatic analysis but, in the short term, it may prove to have useful predictive power and it may help to pinpoint the main structural determinants of pK values in proteins. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of the parametrization approach by fitting (using a genetic algorithm as fitting tool) the database for carboxylic acid pK values in proteins on the basis of an empirical equation that takes into account the two following kinds of effects: (1) long-range charge-charge interactions; (2) interactions of the given carboxylic acid group with its environment in the protein, which are described in terms of contributions from the different kind of atoms present in the protein (atomic contributions).

  18. Summation solute hydrogen bonding acidity values for hydroxyl substituted flavones determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Whaley, William L; Okoso-amaa, Ekua M; Womack, Cody L; Vladimirova, Anna; Rogers, Laura B; Risher, Margaret J; Abraham, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    The flavonoids are a structurally diverse class of natural products that exhibit a broad spectrum of biochemical activities. The flavones are one of the most studied flavonoid subclasses due to their presence in dietary plants and their potential to protect human cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several flavone compounds also mediate beneficial actions by direct binding to protein receptors and regulatory enzymes. There is current interest in using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) to guide drug development based on flavone lead structures. This approach is most informative when it involves the use of accurate physical descriptors. The Abraham summation solute hydrogen bonding acidity (A) is a descriptor in the general solvation equation. It defines the tendency of a molecule to act as a hydrogen bond donor, or acid, when surrounded by solvent molecules that are hydrogen bonding acceptors, or bases. As a linear free energy relationship, it is useful for predicting the absorption and uptake of drug molecules. A previously published method, involving nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to evaluate A for the monohydroxyflavones (MHFs). Values of A ranged from 0.02, for 5-hydroxyflavone, to 0.69 for 4'-hydroxyflavone. The ability to examine separate NMR signals for individual hydroxyl groups allowed the investigation of intramolecular interactions between functional groups. The value of A for the position 7 hydroxyl group of 7-hydroxyflavone was 0.67. The addition of a position 5 hydroxyl group (in 5,7-dihydroxyflavone) increased the value of A for the position 7 hydroxyl group to 0.76. Values of A for MHFs were also calculated by the program ACD-Absolve and these agreed well with values measured by NMR. These results should facilitate more accurate estimation of the values of A for structurally complex flavones with pharmacological activities.

  19. Blood acid-base and serum electrolyte values in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed Central

    Bouda, J; Dávalos-Flores, J L; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Paasch-Martínez, L; Quiroz-Rocha, G F

    2000-01-01

    Acid-base, serum electrolyte, plasma protein, and packed cell volume (PCV) values were determined in venous blood samples from 30 red deer (Cervus elaphus) of both sexes showing no clinical signs of disease. The animals were 5 months of age and kept on pasture in the Valley of Mexico, at an altitude of 2450 m. Blood samples were collected without sedation. Mean blood values were: pH 7.411 +/- 0.041, pCO2 37.7 +/- 4.4 mmHg, base excess 0.7 +/- 3.2 mmol/L, actual bicarbonate 24.3 +/- 3.1 mmol/L, total CO2 25.3 +/- 3.2 mmol/L and anion gap 23.5 +/- 5.5 mmol/L. Mean serum electrolyte levels were: Na+ 142.3 +/- 2.5 mmol/L, Cl- 100.5 +/- 2.3 mmol/L, and K+ 7.03 +/- 1.03 mmol/L. Plasma protein and PCV values were 60.0 +/- 6.6 g/L and 0.47 +/- 0.05 L/L, respectively. Blood values determined in this study can be considered reference data for health control and disease diagnosis. PMID:11041499

  20. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%.

  1. Probing the transition state for nucleic acid hybridization using phi-value analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jandi; Shin, Jong-Shik

    2010-04-27

    Genetic regulation by noncoding RNA elements such as microRNA and small interfering RNA (siRNA) involves hybridization of a short single-stranded RNA with a complementary segment in a target mRNA. The physical basis of the hybridization process between the structured nucleic acids is not well understood primarily because of the lack of information about the transition-state structure. Here we use transition-state theory, inspired by phi-value analysis in protein folding studies, to provide quantitative analysis of the relationship between changes in the secondary structure stability and the activation free energy. Time course monitoring of the hybridization reaction was performed under pseudo-steady-state conditions using a single fluorophore. The phi-value analysis indicates that the native secondary structure remains intact in the transition state. The nativelike transition state was confirmed via examination of the salt dependence of the hybridization kinetics, indicating that the number of sodium ions associated with the transition state was not substantially affected by changes in the native secondary structure. These results propose that hybridization between structured nucleic acids undergoes a transition state leading to formation of a nucleation complex and then is followed by sequential displacement of preexisting base pairings involving successive small energy barriers. The proposed mechanism might provide new insight into physical processes during small RNA-mediated gene silencing, which is essential to selection of a target mRNA segment for siRNA design.

  2. High acidity tolerance in lichens with fumarprotocetraric, perlatolic or thamnolic acids is correlated with low pKa1 values of these lichen substances.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    The depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid as well as the depsides perlatolic and thamnolic acids are lichen secondary metabolites. Their first dissociation constants (pK(a1)) in methanol were determined to be 2.7 for perlatolic acid and 2.8 for fumarprotocetraric and thamnolic acids by UV spectroscopy. Lower pK(a1) values are, so far, not known from lichen substances. Several lichens producing at least one of these compounds are known for their outstanding tolerance to acidic air pollution. This is demonstrated by evaluating published pH preferences for central European lichens. The low pK(a1) values suggest that strong dissociation of the studied lichen substances is a prerequisite for the occurrence of lichens with these compounds on very acidic substrata, as protonated lichen substances of different chemical groups, but not their conjugated bases, are known to shuttle protons into the cytoplasm and thereby apparently damage lichens.

  3. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  4. Value of Coproduction of Ethanol and Furfural from Acid Hydrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.; Calnon, M.; Feinberg, D.; Power, A.; Weiss, L.

    1984-05-01

    In the acid hydrolysis of a cellulosic feedstock (wood, wood wastes, or crop residues), up to 3.65 lb of furfural may be coproduced with each gallon of ethanol for only the cost of recovering and purifying it. Each plant producing 50 x 106 gal/yr of ethanol would produce an amount of by-product furfural equal to the total current domestic production. Thus, the need arises for investigation into potentially suitable processes for deriving profitable end products from furfural and thus expanding the market. The objectives of this study were to determine the economic potential of five selected, large volume derivatives of furfural that could displace hydrocarbon-based chemicals, and the consequent value of furfural as a by-product to the cellulose hydrolysis process of ethanol production.

  5. Effects of Dietary Potential Acid Production Value on Productivity in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E. T.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, H. J.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, C.-H.; Ha, Jong K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the potential acid production value (PAPV) of major diets and to determine the relationship between dietary PAPV and dairy production traits. Estimation of PAPV of major cattle feeds was based on an in vitro technique, which determined the degree of Ca dissociation from CaCO3. Data on feeds and production traits were collected on 744 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows from five different farms. Grains had high PAPV with variable protein sources and by-products. High PAPV feedstuffs had a higher total gas production and lower pH compared to those with low PAPV. Dietary PAPV had a positive correlation with intake of dry matter, NDF, ADF, milk yield and milk solid production but a negative correlation with milk protein and milk fat concentration. Current results indicate that dietary PAPV can be utilized in predicting dairy production traits. PMID:25049610

  6. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  7. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  8. Lower pH values of weakly acidic refluxes as determinants of heartburn perception in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with normal esophageal acid exposure.

    PubMed

    de Bortoli, N; Martinucci, I; Savarino, E; Franchi, R; Bertani, L; Russo, S; Ceccarelli, L; Costa, F; Bellini, M; Blandizzi, C; Savarino, V; Marchi, S

    2016-01-01

    Multichannel impedance pH monitoring has shown that weakly acidic refluxes are able to generate heartburn. However, data on the role of different pH values, ranging between 4 and 7, in the generation of them are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different pH values of weakly acidic refluxes play a differential role in provoking reflux symptoms in endoscopy-negative patients with physiological esophageal acid exposure time and positive symptom index and symptom association probability for weakly acidic refluxes. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonresponders to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), were allowed a washout from PPIs before undergoing: upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and multichannel impedance pH monitoring. In patients with both symptom index and symptom association probability positive for weakly acidic reflux, each weakly acidic reflux was evaluated considering exact pH value, extension, physical characteristics, and correlation with heartburn. Forty-five patients with normal acid exposure time and positive symptom association probability for weakly acidic reflux were identified. The number of refluxes not heartburn related was higher than those heartburn related. In all distal and proximal liquid refluxes, as well as in distal mixed refluxes, the mean pH value of reflux events associated with heartburn was significantly lower than that not associated. This condition was not confirmed for proximal mixed refluxes. Overall, a low pH of weakly acidic reflux represents a determinant factor in provoking heartburn. This observation contributes to better understand the pathophysiology of symptoms generated by weakly acidic refluxes, paving the way toward the search for different therapeutic approaches to this peculiar condition of esophageal hypersensitivity.

  9. Insulin Fibrillization at Acidic and Physiological pH Values is Controlled by Different Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Noormägi, Andra; Valmsen, Karin; Tõugu, Vello; Palumaa, Peep

    2015-12-01

    Formation of amyloid-like fibrils by insulin was studied at different insulin concentrations, pH and temperatures. At low pH (pH 2.5) the insulin fibrillization occurred only at high ([10 lM) peptide concentrations, whereas at physiological pH values the fibril formation is inhibited at higher insulin concentrations. The enthalpy of activation Ea of the fibril growth at pH 2.5 equals to 33 kJ/mol, which is considerably lower than 84 kJ/mol at physiological pH. The fibrillization rate of insulin decreases with increasing pH at high, 250 lM concentration, which was opposite to the pH effect observed in 2.5 lM insulin solutions. The latter effect indicates that protonation of histidine residues seems to be important for the fibrillization of monomeric insulin, whereas the pH effect at high concentration may result from off-pathway oligomerization propensity. Together, the different effect of environmental factors on the insulin fibrillization suggest that the reaction rate is controlled by different molecular events in acidic conditions and at physiological pH values.

  10. Lipid and fatty acid metabolism in Ralstonia eutropha: relevance for the biotechnological production of value-added products.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Lu, Jingnan; Stahl, Ulf; Brigham, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Lipid and fatty acid metabolism has been well studied in model microbial organisms like Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The major precursor of fatty acid biosynthesis is also the major product of fatty acid degradation (β-oxidation), acetyl-CoA, which is a key metabolite for all organisms. Controlling carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis and from β-oxidation allows for the biosynthesis of natural products of biotechnological importance. Ralstonia eutropha can utilize acetyl-CoA from fatty acid metabolism to produce intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). R. eutropha can also be engineered to utilize fatty acid metabolism intermediates to produce different PHA precursors. Metabolism of lipids and fatty acids can be rerouted to convert carbon into other value-added compounds like biofuels. This review discusses the lipid and fatty acid metabolic pathways in R. eutropha and how they can be used to construct reagents for the biosynthesis of products of industrial importance. Specifically, how the use of lipids or fatty acids as the sole carbon source in R. eutropha cultures adds value to these biotechnological products will be discussed here.

  11. Estimated pKa values for the environmentally relevant C1 through C8 perfluorinated sulfonic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-10-14

    In order to estimate isomer-specific acidity constants (pKa) for the perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) environmental contaminants, the parameterization method 6 (PM6) pKa prediction method was extensively validated against a wide range of carbon oxyacids and related sulfonic/sulfinic acids. Excellent pKa prediction performance was observed for the carbon oxyacids using the PM6 method, but this approach was found to have a severe positive bias for sulfonic/sulfinic acids. To overcome this obstacle, a correlation was developed between non-adjusted PM6 pKa values and the corresponding experimentally obtained/estimated acidity constants for a range of representative alkyl, aryl and halogen-substituted sulfonic acids. Application of this correction to the PM6 values allows for extension of this computational method to a new acid functional group. When used to estimate isomer-specific pKa values for the C1 through C8 PFSAs, the modified PM6 approach suggests an adjusted pKa range from -5.3 to -9.0, indicating that all members of this class of well-known environmental contaminants will be effectively completely dissociated in aquatic systems.

  12. Adding value to plant oils and fatty acids: Biological transformation of fatty acids into ω-hydroxycarboxylic, α,ω-dicarboxylic, and ω-aminocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Mee; Lee, Jinwon; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-12-20

    Not only short chain ω-hydroxycarboxylic acids, α,ω-dicarboxylic acids, and ω-aminocarboxylic acids but also medium to long chain carboxylic acids are widely used as building blocks and intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Thereby, recent achievements in biological production of medium to long chain carboxylic acids are addressed here. ω-Hydroxycarboxylic and α,ω-dicarboxylic acids were synthesized via terminal CH bond oxygenation of fatty acids and/or internal oxidative cleavage of the fatty acid carbon skeletons. ω-Aminocarboxylic acids were enzymatically produced from ω-hydroxycarboxylic acids via ω-oxocarboxylic acids. Productivities and product yields of some of the products are getting close to the industrial requirements for large scale production.

  13. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated.

  14. Predictive value of serum uric acid in hospitalized adolescents and adults with acute asthma

    PubMed Central

    Abdulnaby, Nasser Keshar; Sayed, Ashraf Othman; Shalaby, Nehad Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background High serum uric acid (sUA) is an indicator of oxidative stress and is linked to tissue hypoxia in asthma. The objective of this case series was to investigate the prognostic role of sUA in patients with acute asthma exacerbations and the link between sUA and spirometric lung tests. Patients and methods This cross-sectional observational study included 120 patients with acute asthma exacerbations and 120 controls, categorized according to peak expiratory flow rate into moderate, and severe and life-threatening asthma. On admission, a detailed history was obtained and investigations were carried out regarding oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial blood gas, spirometry, sUA, number of asthma exacerbations, smoking status, history of previous hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and mechanical ventilation. Results The current study revealed higher sUA in asthmatic patients compared with healthy subjects and in severe asthma patients compared with moderate asthma patients (P<0.001). A positive correlation of sUA with asthma severity, number of asthma exacerbations and smoking index (r=0.6, 0.42 and 0.29, respectively, P<0.001) and a negative correlation of sUA with SaO2, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), percent predicted forced vital capacity, percent predicted forced expiratory volume (FEV%) and peak expiratory flow rate percent of predicted (PEFR%; r=−0.48, −0.29, −0.44, −0.44 and −0.66, respectively, P<0.001) were observed. Degree of asthma severity, number of asthma exacerbations, and smoking index were significant predictors of high sUA (R2=0.43, P<0.001) in multiple linear regression model 1. SaO2 and PEFR% were significant predictors of high uric acid (R2=0.50, P<0.001) in model 2. The sensitivity and specificity of sUA in predicting severity of asthma at the cutoff point of 6.3 mg/dL were 80% and 90%, respectively. The odds ratios of sUA, number of asthma exacerbations, and asthma duration were 5.4, 1.95 and 1

  15. Combination of amino acid/dipeptide with ligustrazine-betulinic acid as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Yan, Wen-Qiang; Xu, Xin; Wu, Gao-Rong; Zhang, Chen-Ze; Han, Yao-Tian; Chu, Fu-Hao; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Peng-Long; Lei, Hai-Min

    2017-04-21

    The lead compound TBA, 3β-Hydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene-28-oic acid-3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methyl ester, which exhibited promising antitumor activity and induced tumor cell apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, had previously been reported. Moreover, reports have revealed that the introduction of amino acid to betulinic acid could improve selective cytotoxicity as well as water solubility. Thus, a series of novel TBA amino acid and dipeptide derivatives were designed, synthesized and screened for selective cytotoxic activity against five cancer cell lines (HepG2, HT-29, Hela, BCG-823 and A549) and the not malignant cell line MDCK by standard MTT assay. Most of the tested TBA-amino acid and dipeptide analogues showed stronger anti-proliferative activity against all tested tumor cell lines than TBA. Among them, BA-25 exhibited the greatest cytotoxic activity on tumor cell lines (mean IC50 = 2.31 ± 0.78 μM), that was twofold than the positive drug cisplatin (DDP), while it showed lower cytotoxicity on MDCK cell line than DDP. Further cell apoptosis analyses indicated BA-25-induced apoptosis was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration.

  16. Nutritional value of protein hydrolysis products (oligopeptides and free amino acids) as a consequence of absorption and metabolism kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rerat, A.

    1995-01-01

    When pigs were submitted to duodenal infusion of solutions containing a large percentage of small peptides (PEP) or free amino acids with the same pattern (AAL) amino acids appear in the portal blood more rapidly and more uniformly after infusion of PEP then after infusion of AAL, with the notable exception of methionine for which the opposite was true. These differences were lowered when a carbohydrate (maltose dextrin) was present in the solution, but nevertheless remained significant for the first hour after the infusion. The long-term (8-hour) uptake of free amino acids into the liver and the peripheral tissues differed in profile according to the nature of the duodenal infusion. Peripheral uptake was appreciably less well balanced after infusion of free amino acids (deficiency of threonine and phenylalanine) than after infusion of small peptides (deficiency of methionine). Accordingly, in the rat, under conditions of discontinuous enteral nutrition the mixture of small peptides was of greater nutritive value than the mixture of free amino acids. It thus appears that the absorption kinetics which results in important variations in the temporal distribution of free amino acids in the tissues may be at the origin of transitory imbalances in tissue amino acid uptake, and as a result of a lower nutritive value.

  17. Measurement of δ13C values of soil amino acids by GC-C-IRMS using trimethylsilylation: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Mauro; Milin, Sylvie; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Signoret, Patrick; Hatté, Christine; Balesdent, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives as derivatization reagents for the compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of soil amino acids by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). We used non-proteinogenic amino acids to show that the extraction-derivatization-analysis procedure provides a reliable method to measure δ(13)C values of amino acids extracted from soil. However, we found a number of drawbacks that significantly increase the final total uncertainty. These include the following: production of multiple peaks for each amino acid, identified as di-, tri- and tetra-TMS derivatives; a number of TMS-carbon (TMS-C) atoms added lower than the stoichiometric one, possibly due to incomplete combustion; different TMS-C δ(13)C for di-, tri- and tetra-TMS derivatives. For soil samples, only four amino acids (leucine, valine, threonine and serine) provide reliable δ(13)C values with a total average uncertainty of 1.3 ‰. We conclude that trimethylsilyl derivatives are only suitable for determining the (13)C incorporation in amino acids within experiments using (13)C-labelled tracers but cannot be applied for amino acids with natural carbon isotope abundance until the drawbacks described here are overcome and the measured total uncertainty significantly decreased.

  18. Elevated First-Trimester Total Bile Acid is Associated with the Risk of Subsequent Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Wolin; Meng, Xiyan; Zhao, Weijing; Pan, Jiemin; Tang, Junling; Huang, Yajuan; Tao, Minfang; Liu, Fang; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to assess whether total bile acid (TBA) level in first trimester pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Biochemical parameters including serum TBA of 742 pregnant women were collected within 12 weeks of gestation and compared. At 24–28th weeks of gestation, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The perinatal data of 330 women were collected. The results demonstrated women with GDM (n = 268) had higher first-trimester serum levels of TBA compared with healthy subjects (n = 474) (2.3 ± 1.4 μmol/L vs. 1.9 ± 1.0 μmol/L, P < 0.001). TBA was independently associated with GDM [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–1.61, P < 0.001]. Compared to the first category of TBA, women in the highest category had a marked increase in risk for GDM (AOR, 7.72; 95% CI, 3.22–18.50, P < 0.001). In conclusion, higher first-trimester TBA levels, even within normal range, may help indicate increased risk of GDM. PMID:27667090

  19. Self-assembled structures and pKa value of oleic acid in systems of biological relevance.

    PubMed

    Salentinig, Stefan; Sagalowicz, Laurent; Glatter, Otto

    2010-07-20

    In the human digestion process, triglycerides are hydrolyzed by lipases to monoglycerides and the corresponding fatty acids. Here we report the self-assembly of structures in biologically relevant, emulsified oleic acid-monoolein mixtures at various pH values and oleic acid concentrations. Small-angle X-ray scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering were used to investigate the structures formed, and to follow their transitions while these factors were varied. The addition of oleic acid to monoolein-based cubosomes was found to increase the critical packing parameter in the system. Structural transitions from bicontinuous cubosomes through hexosomes and micellar cubosomes (Fd3m symmetry) to emulsified microemulsions occur with increasing oleic acid concentration. At sufficiently high oleic acid concentration, the internal particle structure was also found to strongly depend on the pH of the aqueous phase: transformations from emulsified microemulsion through micellar cubosomes, hexosomes, and bicontinuous cubosomes to vesicles can be observed as a function of increasing pH. The reversible transition from liquid crystals to vesicles occurs at intestinal pH values (between pH 7 and 8). The hydrodynamic radius of the particles decreases from around 120 nm for internally structured particles to around 60 nm for vesicles. All transitions with pH are reversible. Finally, the apparent pK(a) for oleic acid in monoolein could be determined from the change of structure with pH. This value is within the physiological pH range of the intestine and depends somewhat on composition.

  20. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P < 0.05) lower cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P < 0.05) in dry heating than in moist heating, and was characterized by the prevalence of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. On the whole, the response to cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  1. Microwave assisted conversion of microcrystalline cellulose into value added chemicals using dilute acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ching, Teck Wei; Haritos, Victoria; Tanksale, Akshat

    2017-02-10

    One of the grand challenges of this century is to transition fuels and chemicals production derived from fossil feedstocks to renewable feedstocks such as cellulosic biomass. Here we describe fast microwave conversion of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in water, with dilute acid catalyst to produce valuable platform chemicals. Single 10min microwave assisted treatment was able to convert >60% of MCC, with >50mol% yield of desirable products such as glucose, HMF, furfural and levulinic acid. Recycling of residual MCC with make-up fresh MCC resulted in an overall conversion of >93% after 5 cycles while maintaining >60% conversion in each cycle. Addition of isopropanol (70%v/v) as a co-solvent increased the yields of HMF and levulinic acid. This work shows for the first time proof of concept for complete conversion of recalcitrant microcrystalline cellulose in mild conditions of low temperature, dilute acid and short residence time using energy efficient microwave technology.

  2. Tables of critical values for examining compositional non-randomness in proteins and nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, M.; Holmquist, R.

    1975-01-01

    A binomially distributed statistic is defined to show whether or not the proportion of a particular amino acid in a protein deviates from random expectation. An analogous statistic is derived for nucleotides in nucleic acids. These new statistics are simply related to the classical chi-squared test. They explicitly account for the compositional fluctuations imposed by the finite length of proteins, and they are more accurate than previous tables.

  3. Enhancing essential amino acids and health benefit components in grain crops for improved nutritional values.

    PubMed

    Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Blanche, Sterling B; Linscombe, S D

    2009-01-01

    Improving essential amino acids or protein content, along with other phytonutrients in the food crops, will affect a great portion of the world population, especially in developing countries where rice grain is the main source of protein. Malnutrition, including deficiencies in protein/energy, iron/zinc, vitamin A, and iodine, causes a total 24,000 deaths per day worldwide. The problem is severe where rice is the major staple food. Protein deficiency involves both the quantity (amount) and quality (the content in essential amino acids) of the dietary protein. Various interventions, such as distribution, fortification, dietary diversification, and measures against infectious diseases, have been applied to reduce deficiency disorders. The problem, however, remains unsolved. Developing genetically novel lines with elevated content of essential amino acids together with other health benefit components becomes more feasible for the enhancement of breeding techniques, genomics, molecular manipulations, and genetic engineering. Advancement in basic genetic and genetic engineering has resulted in successful enrichment of some essential amino acids, such as lysine (Lys), tryptophan (Trp), and methionine (Met). Successful genetic enhancement has been largely restricted to the maize crop through enrichment of grain Lys and to some extends Trp. Since rice is the main source of calories and protein intake for billions of people, enhancing essential amino acids in rice represents a tremendous challenge. This paper will discuss and review the current status in basic genetics, molecular genetics, and genetic engineering associated with the enhancement of amino acids and other health benefit components in major grain crop improvement. Patents and future efforts associated with enhancing nutritional quality of the grain will also be reviewed as a concerted effort to solve the malnutrition problem and improve the quality of life worldwide.

  4. Contribution of oligosaccharide and polysaccharide digestion, and excreta losses of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids, to dietary metabolisable energy values in broiler chickens and adult cockerels.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Gomez, J; Chagneau, A M

    1995-09-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted, using both adult cockerels from a layer strain and 3-week-old broiler chickens. In the first experiment, one of the 2 diets investigated was composed mainly of maize and soyabean meals, the other one containing the latter ingredients diluted with 475 g/kg mature pea seeds. For these 2 diets, the apparent metabolisable energy values corrected to 0 nitrogen retention (AMEn) were derived, together with the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, amino acids, total lipids, starch, individual oligosaccharides, and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Excretions of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were also determined. 2. In the first experiment, the mean apparent digestibilities of starch, lipids, total amino acids, NSP, sucrose and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides in adult cockerels were 0.946, 0.785, 0.835, 0.045, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. In broiler chickens, they were 0.938, 0.675, 0.830, -0.016, 0.988 and 0.867, respectively. The bird type effects were significant (P < 0.05) for the digestibilities of starch, lipids, NSP (for the maize-soyabean meal diet, only) and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides. Broiler chickens excreted a mean of 11.032 g organic acids/kg diet against 4.190 in adult cockerels (P < 0.001). These digestibility measurements enabled the contribution made by each dietary component to the AMEn value of the diets to be calculated. AMEn values were lower in broiler chickens than in adult cockerels, with on average 0.8 MJ/kg dry matter difference resulting from bird type. This difference was accounted for by differences between bird types in energy supplied by lipids (34.0%), starch (7.5%), alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (8.7%), NSP (14.2%), and in energy losses from lactic acid excretion (16.4% of the difference in AMEn between bird types). 3. In the second experiment 2 diets were studied, consisting of a basal and the basal diluted with 30 g/kg lactose (a fermentable sugar in chickens) and 12 g/kg of a water

  5. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (P<0.05) age difference in blood values of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (P<0.05) sex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  6. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION IN WEST VIRGINIA: BENEFIT TRANSFER WITH PREFERENCE CALIBRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several thousand kilometers of West Virginia streams are degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), and the estimates for cleanup range in the billions of dollars. Not enough money is available to restore all the affected streams, so some way to prioritize those streams is needed. Ben...

  7. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION OF IMPAIRED WATERWAYS IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD), the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH ...

  8. The economic value of pelargonic acid as a natural herbicide in sweet bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic return on investment in respect to weed control management practices continue to be an essential element in use of naturally occurring substances for weed control in vegetable production. Pelargonic acid, although not certified as organic, is naturally occurring in many plants, animals, and...

  9. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD). Appalachian states have an especially large number of contaminated streams and rivers, and the USGS places AMD as the primary source...

  10. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH INCORPORATING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD). Appalachian states have an especially large number of contaminated streams and rivers, and the USGS places AMD as the primary source...

  11. Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S S W

    2003-02-28

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a pilot scale.

  12. Fatty Acid Composition of Different Collections of Coprinoid Mushrooms (Agaricomycetes) and Their Nutritional and Medicinal Values.

    PubMed

    Badalyan, Susanna M

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the free fatty acid (FA) composition of ethanol extracts obtained from mycelia of 30 genetically identified strains of 18 species of coprinoid mushrooms (CMs) or coprini belonging to clades Coprinellus (C. bisporus, C. curtus, C. disseminatus, C. domesticus, C. ellisii, C.flocculosus, C. micaceus, C. aff radians I, C. aff radians II, C. aff radians III, C. xanthothrix, Coprinellus sp. 4), Coprinopsis (C. cinerea, C. cothurnata, C. gonophylla, C. lagopides, C. maysoidispora, C. strossmayeri), and Coprinus (C. comatus) were evaluated using gas chromatography. Two unsaturated (lineolic, oleic) and 3 saturated (palmitic, stearic, myristic) FAs were detected in the tested mycelial samples. Amounts of unsaturated FAs prevailed over saturated FAs. Lineolic and palmitic acids were detected in all the species in high quantities (up to 64.73% and 53.82%, respectively). All 5 FAs were found in the Coprinus clade (family Agaricaceae) as opposed to the Coprinellus and Coprinopsis clades (family Psathyrellaceae). Based on the unsaturated and saturated FA content, the species from the clade Coprinellus were different from Coprinopsis species and C. comatus. The obtained data confirm that palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids are predominant in mushrooms, including coprini. The presence of large amounts of unsaturated FAs in the tested coprini make them an option for further studies to formulate novel mushroom-based dietary supplements and nutriceuticals.

  13. Value of acetic acid screening for flat genital condylomata in men.

    PubMed

    Schultz, R E; Skelton, H G

    1988-04-01

    Application of acetic acid solution to the genital skin followed by magnified examination permits the detection of grossly inapparent flat condylomata acuminata. To evaluate the accuracy of this screening method, the male sexual partners of 36 women with genital condylomata were examined by this method and biopsies were obtained when results were positive. Of 47 biopsies of acetowhite (the whitish change that occurs when an epithelial surface is stained with acetic acid) lesions there were 26 cases of histologically confirmed condylomata, 9 of koilocytotic atypia and 12 with false positive results. There were 25 men whose sexual partners had cervical condylomata and cervical dysplasia. In this subgroup, considered to be at higher risk for flat condylomata, the screening method revealed 15 cases of condylomata, 6 of koilocytotic atypia and 4 in which no changes by acetic acid could be found. The extensive involvement of genital skin with flat condylomata in this subgroup raises doubts as to the practicality of treatment. Nevertheless, before treatment is rendered a punch biopsy for confirmation of the screening test is advised.

  14. Kinetics of hyaluronan hydrolysis in acidic solution at various pH values.

    PubMed

    Tømmeraas, Kristoffer; Melander, Claes

    2008-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) was hydrolyzed using varying temperatures (40, 60, and 80 degrees C) and acid concentrations (0.0010, 0.010, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 M HCl). The degradation process was monitored by determination of weight average molecular weight ( M w) by size-exclusion chromatography with online multiangle laser light scattering, refractive index, and intrinsic viscosity detectors (SEC-MALLS-RI-visc) on samples taken out continuously during the hydrolysis. SEC-MALLS-RI-visc showed that the degradation gave narrow molecular weight distributions with polydispersity indexes ( M w/ M n) of 1.3-1.7. Kinetic plots of 1/ M w versus time gave linear plots showing that acid hydrolysis of HA is a random process and that it follows a first order kinetics. For hydrolysis in HCl at 60 and 80 degrees C, it was shown that the kinetic rate constant ( k h) for the degradation depended linearly on the acid concentration. Further, the dependence of temperature on the hydrolysis in 0.1 M HCl was found to give a linear Arrhenius plot (ln k h vs 1/ T), with an activation energy ( E a) of 137 kJ/mol and Arrhenius constant ( A) of 7.86 x 10 (15) h (-1). (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the product of extensive hydrolysis (48 h at 60 degrees C in 0.1 M HCl). No indication of de- N-acetylation of the N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) units or other byproducts were seen. Additionally, a low molecular weight HA was hydrolyzed in 0.1 M DCl for 4 h at 80 degrees C. It was shown that it was primarily the beta-(1-->4)-linkage between GlcNAc and glucuronic acid (GlcA) that was cleaved during hydrolysis at pH < p K a,GlcA. The dependence of the hydrolysis rate constant was further studied as a function of pH between -0.3 and 5. The degradation was found to be random (linear kinetic plots) over the entire pH range studied. Further, the kinetic rate constant was found to depend linearly on pH in the region -0.3 to 3. Above this pH (around the p K a of HA), the kinetic constant

  15. Monitoring changes in acid value, total polar material, and antioxidant capacity of oils used for frying chicken.

    PubMed

    Song, JuHee; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Young-Jun; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation products and tocol homologues were monitored in oils during chicken frying to determine the discarding point of highly used frying oils. Oils were heated without chicken for 170h while chicken frying was performed 130 cycles at 180°C. As heating time and frying cycles increased, all oxidation parameters including acid value, total polar materials (TPM), conjugated dienoic acid (CDA), and p-anisidine values (p-AV) increased significantly (p<0.05). γ-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol had the lowest stability in oils during heating or frying processes compared to other tocol homologues. TPM values over 24% were obtained after about 109h for heated oil and 100 cycles for oils used to fry chicken. A decrease of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in isooctane and methanol was highly correlated with the formation of TPM in oils during the frying process. Both DPPH loss and TPM values could be applied to determine the discarding points of highly used frying oils.

  16. [The diagnostic value of the radioimmunological estimation of prostatic acid phosphatase. Comparative value of the measurement of enzyme activity (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tellier, J L; Chatal, J F; Bourdin, S; Auvigne, J; Etienne, P; Faye, R

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunological estimation of prostatic acid phosphatase was carried out in 72 reference subjects, 46 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy, 106 patients with untreated prostatic carcinoma and 25 patients with a carcinoma of some other origin. The mean concentration in non-acidified serum was 1.3 +/- 0.4 (M +/- SD) ng/ml for the reference group and 1.6 +/- 0.8 ng/ml for the benign hypertrophy group. The upper limit of discriminatory values for the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma was fixed at 3 ng/ml. Taking this value, the overall percentage of positive results for carcinoma of the prostate was 61% (65/106). The number of cases with a value greater than 3 ng/ml was 3/18 (17%) for stage A, 8/27 (30%) for stage B, 7/13 (54%) for stage C and 47/48 (98%) for stage D. 8% (2/25) of carcinomas of another origin gave a positive result. The results of estimation using the radioimmunological technique were compared with those obtained by the measurement of enzyme activity using para nitro-phenyl phosphate as a substrate in 34 untreated prostatic carcinomas (all stages mixed together). When measurements by both techniques were carried out under the same ideal conditions using fresh sera as soon as possible after the blood was drawn, the result was abnormal in 10 cases out of 12 (83%) for the radioimmunological method and in 8 cases out of 12 (67%) for the measurement of enzyme activity. By contrast, under routine conditions, the positive percentage figures were 77% (17/22) for the radioimmunological technique and only 36% (8/22) for the measurement of enzyme activity. It would thus appear that radioimmunological measurement is more reliable than the measurement of enzyme activity.

  17. Metabolizable energy values and amino acid availability of vetch (Vicia sativa) and ervil (Vicia ervilia) seeds soaked in water and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Farran, M T; Barbour, G W; Uwayjan, M G; Ashkarian, V M

    2001-07-01

    In two experiments we evaluated the effect of water and acetic acid soaking on ME, apparent amino acid (AA) availability, and true AA availability of vetch (V) and ervil (E) seeds. In Experiment 1, the feedstuffs were untreated (U) V or coarsely ground V soaked in water (1:10, wt/vol) at 40 C for 72 h with a water change every 12 h (40WV), vetch soaked in 1% acetic acid for 24 h at 40 C (40AAV) or at room temperature (RTAAV), or dehulled soybean meal (SBM). In Experiment 2, E seeds were subjected to the same soaking methods, and the ingredients were UE, 40WE, 40AAE, RTAAE, and SBM. Each feedstuff was precision-fed to five individually caged mature ISA Brown roosters. A group of five roosters was used to correct for metabolic and endogenous energy and amino acid losses. The AME, AMEn, TME, and TMEn of UV and UE (in parentheses) were 2,558 (2,663), 2,840 (3,098), 3,026 (3,154), and 2,934 (3,176) kcal/kg DM, respectively, and were, in general, higher than those of SBM. The TMEn of V increased as a result of soaking in water or acetic acid, whereas that of E decreased in 40WE and RTAAE by 492 and 920 kcal/kg DM, respectively (P < 0.05). The apparent availability of most essential amino acids in UV and UE was lower (P < 0.05) than that of SBM. Acetic acid soaking of V, irrespective of temperature, and E at 40 C resulted in apparent AA availability similar to that of SBM except for Met. The true AA availability of V treated or not, and that of E soaked at 40 C, were similar to that of SBM. Results indicated that UV and UE are energy rich ingredients but detrimental to amino acid availability. Soaking the seeds in acetic acid at room temperature and at 40 C improved the nutritional value of V and E, respectively.

  18. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J. J.; Appa Rao, V.; Babu, R. Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Materials and Methods: Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application. PMID:27051203

  19. Cereal grain, rachis and pulse seed amino acid δ15N values as indicators of plant nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Styring, Amy K; Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Natural abundance δ(15)N values of plant tissue amino acids (AAs) reflect the cycling of N into and within plants, providing an opportunity to better understand environmental and anthropogenic effects on plant metabolism. In this study, the AA δ(15)N values of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains and rachis and broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, grown at the experimental farm stations of Rothamsted, UK and Bad Lauchstädt, Germany, were determined by GC-C-IRMS. It was found that the δ(15)N values of cereal grain and rachis AAs could be largely attributed to metabolic pathways involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism. The relative (15)N-enrichment of phenylalanine can be attributed to its involvement in the phenylpropanoid pathway and glutamate has a δ(15)N value which is an average of the other AAs due to its central role in AA-N cycling. The relative AA δ(15)N values of broad bean and pea seeds were very different from one another, providing evidence for differences in the metabolic routing of AAs to the developing seeds in these leguminous plants. This study has shown that AA δ(15)N values relate to known AA biosynthetic pathways in plants and thus have the potential to aid understanding of how various external factors, such as source of assimilated N, influence metabolic cycling of N within plants.

  20. Optimization of pH values to formulate the bireagent kit for serum uric acid assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Chen, Yuanxiang; Yang, Xiaolan; Zhao, Hua; Hu, Xiaolei; Pu, Jun; Liao, Juan; Long, Gaobo; Liao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation of the bireagent kit for serum uric acid assay was developed based on the effects of pH on enzyme stability. At 4 °C, half-lives of uricases from Bacillus fastidious and Arthrobacter globiforms were longer than 15 months at pH 9.2, but became shorter at pH below 8.0; half-lives of ascorbate oxidase and peroxidase were comparable at pH 6.5 and 7.0, but became much shorter at pH higher than 7.4. In the new formulation of the bireagent kit, Reagent A contained peroxidase, 4-aminoantipyrine, and ascorbate oxidase in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.5; Reagent B contained B. fastidious or A. globiforms uricase in 50 mM sodium borate buffer at pH 9.2; Reagents A and B were mixed at 4:1 to produce a final pH from 7.2 to 7.6 for developing a stable color. The new bireagent kit consumed smaller quantities of three enzymes for the same shelf life. With the new bireagent kit, there were linear responses of absorbance at 546 nm to uric acid up to 34 mM in reaction mixtures and a good correlation of uric acid levels in clinical sera with those by a commercial kit, but stronger resistance to ascorbate. Therefore, the new formulation was advantageous.

  1. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Derivatives: Therapeutic Value for Inflammatory, Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Arkadiusz; Mosińska, Paula; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are bioactive lipids which modulate inflammation and immunity. They gained recognition in nutritional therapy and are recommended dietary supplements. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the usefulness of PUFAs in active therapy of various gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. In this review we briefly cover the systematics of PUFAs and their metabolites, and elaborate on their possible use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) with focus on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and colorectal cancer (CRC). Each section describes the latest findings from in vitro and in vivo studies, with reports of clinical interventions when available. PMID:27990120

  2. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES IN AN ACIDIC AQUEOUS SOLUTION WITH FORMALDEHYDE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, C.M.

    1959-06-01

    A method is given for reducing Pu to the tetravalent state and lowering the high acidity of dissolver solutions containing U and Pu. Formaldehyde is added to the HNO/sub 3/ solution of U and Pu to effect a formaldehyde to HNO/sub 3/ molar ratio of 0.375:1 to 1.5:1. The Pu can then be removed from the solution by carrier precipitation using BiPO/sub 4/ or by ion exchange. (T.R.H.)

  3. Recent Progress on the Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    SciTech Connect

    R.Mitchell, A; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S W

    2004-07-06

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6- trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a larger scale. In FY 03, a 10 g per batch process was developed with good results. Development for a one pound per batch system is required as part of overall scale up process for producing TATB from the surplus feedstocks.

  4. Nutritional value of 15 corn gluten meals for growing pigs: chemical composition, energy content and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Zuo, Lei; Wang, Fengli; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, energy content and amino acid digestibility for corn gluten meals (CGM) and to develop prediction equations for estimating energy content and amino acid digestibility for growing pigs based on the chemical characteristics of these meals. The 15 CGM tested were obtained from seven Chinese companies. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the digestible (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) of the 15 CGM. The 18 growing barrows (38 +/- 4 kg) were assigned to three 6 x 6 Latin square designs. The 15 CGM test diets were formulated to contain 19.20% CGM, which replaced 20% of the energy supplied by corn and crystalline amino acid in the basal diet. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the apparent (AID) and standardised (SID) ileal digestibility of the crude protein (CP) and amino acids in the 15 CGM using chromic oxide as an inert marker. The 18 growing barrows (25 +/- 2 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula were assigned to three 6 x 6 Latin square designs. The 15 test diets contained 35% of one of the 15 CGM as the sole source of amino acids in the diet. The results showed a considerable variation in the chemical composition of CGM within and among plants. On dry matter basis, the DE and ME content of the CGM ranged from 18.8 to 21.0 MJ/kg and from 18.0 to 19.9 MJ/kg, respectively. There were no significant differences in the AID and SID for CP, arginine, lysine, glycine and proline among the 15 CGM, however, for all the other amino acids, significant differences were found for their AID and SID. With R2 values exceeding 0.50, the DE of CGM can be predicted accurately from CP and fibre content and ME from starch and fibre content. Suitable prediction equations for SID of methionine were also developed.

  5. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  6. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Zhou, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a hydrometallurgical process has been proposed to recover valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media. Leaching efficiencies as high as 97%, 95%, 94%, and 99% of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li were achieved under the optimal leaching experimental conditions of citric acid concentration of 2 mol L(-1), leaching temperature of 80 °C, leaching time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 30 ml g(-1), and 2 vol. % H2O2. For the metals recovery process, nickel and cobalt were selectively precipitated by dimethylglyoxime reagent and ammonium oxalate sequentially. Then manganese was extracted by Na-D2EHPA and the manganese-loaded D2EHPA was stripped with sulfuric acid. The manganese was recovered as MnSO4 in aqueous phase and D2EHPA could be reused after saponification. Finally, lithium was precipitated by 0.5 mol L(-1) sodium phosphate. Under their optimal conditions, the recovery percentages of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li can reach 98%, 97%, 98%, and 89%, respectively. This is a relatively simple route in which all metal values could be effectively leached and recovered in citric acid media.

  7. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-08

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  8. Clinical Value of Teichoic Acid Antibody Titers in the Diagnosis and Management of the Staphylococcemias

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Arnold S.; Tillman, David B.; Concepcion, Nelydia; Guze, Lucien B.

    1980-01-01

    Differentiation of endocarditic from nonendocarditic Staphylococcus aureus (SA) septicemia is prognostically and therapeutically important. A study of 68 cases of either SA or streptococcal sepsis, including 50 cases of SA sepsis of both cardiac and noncardiac origin, was done to determine the presence and titer of serum teichoic acid antibodies (TAA's) by double immunodiffusion. Thirty-seven uninfected controls were also examined. There was no statistical difference in either incidence or peak TAA titers in endocardial versus deepseated, extracardiac SA sepsis. However, in both of these groups, incidence and peak titers were significantly higher than in intravascular catheter-related SA sepsis, streptococcal endocarditis and controls (P<0.05). Peak TAA titers in SA sepsis develop on admission or shortly thereafter (6 to 11 days) and permit early decisions on degree of tissue infection, likelihood of metastatic seeding and necessity for higher-dose, longer-term antibiotic therapy. Cases of catheter-related SA sepsis with no clinical evidence of metastatic SA seeding and with negative or low-titered (1:1) TAA's were classified as superficial sepsis. Treatment consisted of short-term, low-dose antistaphylococcal regimens and catheter removal. In posttherapy follow-up after 6 to 12 weeks, all of the patients were cured and no signs of endocarditis or deepseated SA infection developed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7385834

  9. Calculating the iodine value for Italian heavy pig subcutaneous adipose tissue from fatty acid methyl ester profiles.

    PubMed

    Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro; Minelli, Giovanna; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Ulrici, Alessandro; Macchioni, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    In this work, different equations were compared as for their effectiveness in predicting the iodine value (IV), based on fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of Italian heavy pigs. In particular, six equations were tested: AOCS (1); modified AOCS (2), including all unsaturated FA (UFA); regression models obtained using the stepwise regression procedure as variable selection method, calculated considering only UFA (3) or all the FA (4); regression models obtained using the backward elimination procedure, calculated considering only UFA (5) or all the FA (6). The comparison of the equations performance, estimated using an external test set, showed that the use of regression models led to significant enhancements of prediction accuracy with respect to the AOCS equations. Using both equations 4 and 6, the average paired differences between experimental and predicted IV values were not statistically significant. Therefore, it is possible to use these equations for IV estimation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Italian heavy pigs.

  10. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  11. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Tong; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Xue, Bao-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (<45 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal activation with aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution. They were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electronic microscope-X-ray energy dispersive analysis and temperature programmed desorption method. HT-Ca presented both acidic and basic due to the formation of Mg4Al2(OH)14 · 3H2O, Mg2Al(OH)7 and AlO(OH) nanocrystals to esterify and transesterify oils with high acid value (AV). Under conditions of 5 wt% HT-Ca, 160 °C, 30/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4h, 93.4% Jatropha biodiesel yield was obtained at AV of 6.3 mg KOH/g with 4 cycles (biodiesel yield>86%). It was further found that it can resist free fatty acids, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment.

  12. [Protein and energy value of spiruline blue algae supplemented by amino acids: digestive and metabolic utilization by the growing rat].

    PubMed

    Vermorel, M; Toullec, G; Dumond, D; Pion, R

    1975-01-01

    Protein and energy value of 6 samples of "Spirulina" was studied on growing rats in 1972 and 1973. Sample RL 1(Spirulina platensis, originating from Tchad) was grown in artifical conditions in a laboratory. Others samples (Spirulina maxima) were grown in the solar evaporator near Mexico, washed and dried either on heated rollers (MR8, MR13) or by spraying (MA 7, MA10). Sample MA10 D corresponds to sample MA10, bleached by ethanol plus acetone (Baron, 1975). Each Spirulina sample was the only protein source of balanced, starch diets. The diets were supplemented in essential amino acids (E.A.A.) according to the requirements of growing rats (table 1). The ratios [(digestible nitrogen/metabolisable energy (EM] of the Spirulina diets were similar to that of the control diets containing herring meal. The diets were fed to groups of 15 to 17 growing rats. Energy and nitrogen balances were established by the comparative slaughter technique. Blood and muscle samples were taken at slaughter for the determination of free amino acids levels.

  13. Effects of propionic acid and of copper sulfate on the nutritional value of diets containing moldy corn for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bartov, I

    1983-11-01

    Diets containing moldy corn (in which fat levels were restored or not restored by soybean oil) were supplemented with either propionic acid (PA) or copper sulfate (CS), and their nutritional value for young broiler chicks was evaluated. The fat content of a diet containing good quality grains decreased slightly, whereas that of diets containing moldy grains decreased markedly, during the 30 days of the experiment. The PA (.3%), but not CS (600 ppm), almost completely prevented this decrease. Dietary metabolizable energy (ME), retention of dry matter and protein, and the performance of the chicks fed the diet containing the moldy corn were markedly depressed. Neither CS, nor soybean oil supplementation, nor a combination of the two, counteracted these effects. Supplementation with PA however, significantly (P less than .05) increased dietary ME, increased retention of dry matter and protein, and improved performance of chicks fed the moldy grains. The combination of PA and soybean oil supplementation yielded essentially the same results as the diet containing the good corn. It is concluded, therefore, that the nutritional value of diets containing moldy grains can be completely restored if their fat content is increased in proportion to the amount lost in the moldy grains and an efficient fungistat is used.

  14. Fertilizer effects on yield, mineral and amino acid composition, dietary fibre content and nutritive value of leeks.

    PubMed

    Eppendorfer, W H; Eggum, B O

    1996-02-01

    In pot experiments with greatly differing rates of N, P, S, K and Ca, dry matter (DM) yields of leek stems varied from 25 to 164 g/pot. Total-N and NO3-N concentrations varied from 1.18 to 3.56% and from 10 to 1515 ppm in DM, respectively. Both N applications and P and K deficiency greatly increased total-N and NO3-N content. S applications increased total-S content from 0.047 to 0.359% in DM, of which between approximately 100 to 25% were found in methionine+cystine. Total-N/total-S ratios decreased from 57 to 6 with the highest S level. P and K applications increased their respective content in DM two- and threefold. Severe Ca deficiency reduced Ca content from 0.495 to 0.045%. Iron, zinc, manganese and copper contents varied from 33-69, 14-26, 11-34 and 3.1-5.7 ppm in DM, respectively. Increasing N contents, whether due to N applications or P or K deficiency, decreased the content of all essential and some other amino acids in crude protein. Both S and severe P deficiency had a pronounced negative effect on amino acid composition and chemical score. Only glutamic acid (glutamine) and arginine were increased by increasing N contents. However, expressed as g/kg DM the concentrations of all amino acids were positively correlated with protein content. S and P deficiency reduced total dietary fibre (TDF) content of DM from 28.3 to 18.6% and 17.4%, respectively, of which between 53 and 60% were insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). Digestible energy (DE) was positively correlated with protein content (r = 0.90**). In N-balance trials with rats, increasing protein concentrations (50% of total protein given as casein and supplemented with 1% methionine) raised the true digestibility (TD) of the protein from 44 to 72%. The biological value (BV) of protein was generally high, with a mean of 91.7. N deficiency tended to increase and S deficiency tended to decrease the BV.

  15. Evaluation of oxidative stress via total antioxidant status, sialic acid, malondialdehyde and RT-PCR findings in sheep affected with bluetongue

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, I.; Aksit, H.; Sait, A.; Kaya, F.; Aksit, D.; Gokmen, M.; Baca, A. Unsal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious infectious disease of ruminants. The disease agent bluetongue virus (BTV) is classified in the Reoviridae family Orbivirus. Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to determine serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative stres (TAS), total sialic acid (TSA), ceruloplasmin, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), cholesterol, creatinine, albumin, and total protein levels in sheep with and without bluetongue (BT). Materials and Methods The study included 13 Sakiz crossbreed sheep, aged 1–4 years and usually in the last stage of pregnancy, as the BT group and a control group consisting of 10 healthy sheep. All sheep were clinically examined before collecting blood samples. Serum ALT, AST, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, GGT, total protein, creatinine and TAS levels were measured using commercially available kits as per manufacturer's recommendations using a Biochemistry Auto Analyzer (Sinnowa D280, China). Serum lipid peroxidation was estimated through a previously described method in which MDA reacts with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a coloured complex at a maximum absorbance of 535 nm. The TSA value was measured at 549 nm using the method described by Warren (1959): sialic acid was oxidised to formyl-pyruvic acid, which reacts with TBA to form a pink product. The ceruloplasmin concentration was measured according to Sunderman and Nomoto (1970): ceruloplasmin and p-phenylenediamine formed a coloured oxidation product that was proportional to the concentration of serum ceruloplasmin. Real time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR were performed as described by Shaw and others (2007). Results Biochemistry analysis of serum showed that in the BT group, TSA, MDA, triglyceride and ALT and AST were higher and that ceruloplasmin and TAS were lower than in the control group. Serum albumin, cholesterol, creatinine, total protein and GGT did

  16. Resolving the bulk δ 15N values of ancient human and animal bone collagen via compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of constituent amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styring, Amy K.; Sealy, Judith C.; Evershed, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotope analysis is a fundamental tool in assessing dietary preferences and trophic positions within contemporary and ancient ecosystems. In order to assess more fully the dietary contributions to human tissue isotope values, a greater understanding of the complex biochemical and physiological factors which underpin bulk collagen δ 15N values is necessary. Determinations of δ 15N values of the individual amino acids which constitute bone collagen are necessary to unravel these relationships, since different amino acids display different δ 15N values according to their biosynthetic origins. A range of collagen isolates from archaeological faunal and human bone ( n = 12 and 11, respectively), representing a spectrum of terrestrial and marine protein origins and diets, were selected from coastal and near-coastal sites at the south-western tip of Africa. The collagens were hydrolysed and δ 15N values of their constituent amino acids determined as N-acetylmethyl esters (NACME) via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The analytical approach employed accounts for 56% of bone collagen nitrogen. Reconstruction of bulk bone collagen δ 15N values reveals a 2‰ offset from bulk collagen δ 15N values which is attributable to the δ 15N value of the amino acids which cannot currently be determined by GC-C-IRMS, notably arginine which comprises 53% of the nitrogen unaccounted for (23% of the total nitrogen). The δ 15N values of individual amino acids provide insights into both the contributions of various amino acids to the bulk δ 15N value of collagen and the factors influencing trophic position and the nitrogen source at the base of the food web. The similarity in the δ 15N values of alanine, glutamate, proline and hydroxyproline reflects the common origin of their amino groups from glutamate. The depletion in the δ 15N value of threonine with increasing trophic level indicates a fundamental difference between

  17. Diagnostic value of the rectal ammonia tolerance test, fasting plasma ammonia and fasting plasma bile acids for canine portosystemic shunting.

    PubMed

    van Straten, G; Spee, B; Rothuizen, J; van Straten, M; Favier, R P

    2015-06-01

    Portosystemic shunting (PSS) often results in hyperammonaemia and, consequently, hepatic encephalopathy. This retrospective study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) and other test performance metrics for the ammonia tolerance test (ATT), serum fasting bile acids (FBA), serum fasting ammonia concentration (FA), and combinations of these tests for their association with PSS in dogs. Medical records of 271 dogs suspect for PSS (symptomatic group) and 53 dogs returning for evaluation after surgical closure of a congenital PSS (CPSS post-surgical control group) were analysed. In the symptomatic group, ATT at 40 min (T40), and the FBA had the highest sensitivity (100% and 98%, respectively) and NPV (100% and 96%, respectively) for PSS. The combination of increased FBA and FA had the highest specificity (97%), with a PPV of 97%, and a positive likelihood ratio of 29. In the CPSS post-surgical control group, the specificity and PPV of FA and the combination of increased FBA/FA were both 100%. In purebred populations, the NPV of all tests was 100%. Consequently, PSS would be ruled out in a symptomatic dog with normal FBA or ATT (T40) and would be highly probable when both FBA and FA are increased. Increased FA was conclusive for PSS in dogs evaluated for post-surgical closure of a CPSS. FBA was the most suitable test for screening purposes.

  18. Difference between Extra- and Intracellular T1 Values of Carboxylic Acids Affects the Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Kinetics by Hyperpolarized NMR.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Pernille Rose; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Lerche, Mathilde H

    2016-10-17

    Incomplete knowledge of the longitudinal relaxation time constant (T1 ) leads to incorrect assumptions in quantitative kinetic models of cellular systems, studied by hyperpolarized real-time NMR. Using an assay that measures the intracellular signal of small carboxylic acids in living cells, the intracellular T1 of the carboxylic acid moiety of acetate, keto-isocaproate, pyruvate, and butyrate was determined. The intracellular T1 is shown to be up to four-fold shorter than the extracellular T1 . Such a large difference in T1 values between the inside and the outside of the cell has significant influence on the quantification of intracellular metabolic activity. It is expected that the significantly shorter T1 value of the carboxylic moieties inside cells is a result of macromolecular crowding. An artificial cytosol has been prepared and applied to predict the T1 of other carboxylic acids. We demonstrate the value of this prediction tool.

  19. Seasonal variations in bulk tissue, fatty acid and monosaccharide delta(13)C values of leaves from mesotrophic grassland plant communities under different grazing managements.

    PubMed

    Dungait, Jennifer A J; Docherty, Gordon; Straker, Vanessa; Evershed, Richard P

    2010-03-01

    Leaves of 26 grass, herb, shrub and tree species were collected from mesotrophic grasslands to assess natural variability in bulk, fatty acid and monosaccharide delta(13)C values under different grazing management (cattle- or deer-grazed) on three sample dates (May, July and October) such that interspecific and spatiotemporal variations in whole leaf tissues and compound-specific delta(13)C values could be determined. The total mean leaf bulk delta(13)C value for plants was -28.9 per thousand with a range of values spanning 7.5 per thousand. Significant interspecific variation between bulk leaf delta(13)C values was only determined in October (P=<0.001) when delta(13)C values of the leaf tissues from both sites was on average 1.5 per thousand depleted compared to during July and May. Samples from May were significantly different between fields (P=0.03) indicating an effect from deer- or cattle-grazing in young leaves. The average individual monosaccharide delta(13)C value was 0.8 per thousand higher compared with whole leaf tissues. Monosaccharides were the most abundant components of leaf biomass, i.e. arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose, and therefore, fluctuations in their individual delta(13)C values had a major influence on bulk delta(13)C values. An average depletion of ca. 1 per thousand in the bulk delta(13)C values of leaves from the deer-grazed field compared to the cattle-grazed field could be explained by a general depletion of 1.1 per thousand in glucose delta(13)C values, as glucose constituted >50% total leaf monosaccharides. In October, delta(13)C values of all monosaccharides varied between species, with significant variation in delta(13)C values of mannose and glucose in July, and mannose in May. This provided an explanation for the noted variability in the tissue bulk delta(13)C values observed in October 1999. The fatty acids C(16:0), C(18:2) and C(18:3) were highly abundant in all plant species. Fatty acid delta(13)C values were

  20. Strategic design and refinement of Lewis acid-base catalysis by rare-earth-metal-containing polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Sugawa, Midori; Kikukawa, Yuji; Kamata, Keigo; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2012-06-18

    Efficient polyoxometalate (POM)-based Lewis acid-base catalysts of the rare-earth-metal-containing POMs (TBA(6)RE-POM, RE = Y(3+), Nd(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Tb(3+), or Dy(3+)) were designed and synthesized by reactions of TBA(4)H(4)[γ-SiW(10)O(36)] (TBA = tetra-n-butylammonium) with RE(acac)(3) (acac = acetylacetonato). TBA(6)RE-POM consisted of two silicotungstate units pillared by two rare-earth-metal cations. Nucleophilic oxygen-enriched surfaces of negatively charged POMs and the incorporated rare-earth-metal cations could work as Lewis bases and Lewis acids, respectively. Consequently, cyanosilylation of carbonyl compounds with trimethylsilyl cyanide ((TMS)CN) was efficiently promoted in the presence of the rare-earth-metal-containing POMs via the simultaneous activation of coupling partners on the same POM molecules. POMs with larger metal cations showed higher catalytic activities for cyanosilylation because of the higher activation ability of C═O bonds (higher Lewis acidities) and sterically less hindered Lewis acid sites. Among the POM catalysts examined, the neodymium-containing POM showed remarkable catalytic performance for cyanosilylation of various kinds of structurally diverse ketones and aldehydes, giving the corresponding cyanohydrin trimethylsilyl ethers in high yields (13 substrates, 94-99%). In particular, the turnover frequency (714,000 h(-1)) and the turnover number (23,800) for the cyanosilylation of n-hexanal were of the highest level among those of previously reported catalysts.

  1. Production of a value-added hydroxy fatty acid, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid from high oleic safflower oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA), originally found in small amount mainly from plant systems, are good examples of the structurally modified lipids, rendering special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared to normal fatty acids. Based on these properties, HFAs possess high industrial ...

  2. Nitrification in a Biofilm at Low pH Values: Role of In Situ Microenvironments and Acid Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gieseke, Armin; Tarre, Sheldon; Green, Michal; de Beer, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of nitrifying bacteria to acidic conditions is a well-known phenomenon and generally attributed to the lack and/or toxicity of substrates (NH3 and HNO2) with decreasing pHs. In contrast, we observed strong nitrification at a pH around 4 in biofilms grown on chalk particles and investigated the following hypotheses: the presence of less acidic microenvironments and/or the existence of acid-tolerant nitrifiers. Microelectrode measurements (in situ and under various experimental conditions) showed no evidence of a neutral microenvironment, either within the highly active biofilm colonizing the chalk surface or within a control biofilm grown on a nonbuffering (i.e., sintered glass) surface under acidic pH. A 16S rRNA approach (clone libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridizations) did not reveal uncommon nitrifying (potentially acid-tolerant) strains. Instead, we found a strongly acidic microenvironment, evidence for a clear adaptation to the low pH in situ, and the presence of nitrifying populations related to subgroups with low Kms for ammonia (Nitrosopira spp., Nitrosomonas oligotropha, and Nitrospira spp.). Acid-consuming (chalk dissolution) and acid-producing (ammonia oxidation) processes are equilibrated on a low-pH steady state that is controlled by mass transfer limitation through the biofilm. Strong affinity to ammonia and possibly the expression of additional functions, e.g., ammonium transporters, are adaptations that allow nitrifiers to cope with acidic conditions in biofilms and other habitats. PMID:16751543

  3. Inferring Phytoplankton, Terrestrial Plant and Bacteria Bulk δ¹³C Values from Compound Specific Analyses of Lipids and Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Sami J; Peltomaa, Elina; Hiltunen, Minna; Jones, Roger I; Hahn, Martin W; Biasi, Christina; Brett, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope mixing models in aquatic ecology require δ13C values for food web end members such as phytoplankton and bacteria, however it is rarely possible to measure these directly. Hence there is a critical need for improved methods for estimating the δ13C ratios of phytoplankton, bacteria and terrestrial detritus from within mixed seston. We determined the δ13C values of lipids, phospholipids and biomarker fatty acids and used these to calculate isotopic differences compared to the whole-cell δ13C values for eight phytoplankton classes, five bacterial taxa, and three types of terrestrial organic matter (two trees and one grass). The lipid content was higher amongst the phytoplankton (9.5±4.0%) than bacteria (7.3±0.8%) or terrestrial matter (3.9±1.7%). Our measurements revealed that the δ13C values of lipids followed phylogenetic classification among phytoplankton (78.2% of variance was explained by class), bacteria and terrestrial matter, and there was a strong correlation between the δ13C values of total lipids, phospholipids and individual fatty acids. Amongst the phytoplankton, the isotopic difference between biomarker fatty acids and bulk biomass averaged -10.7±1.1‰ for Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae, and -6.1±1.7‰ for Cryptophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Diatomophyceae. For heterotrophic bacteria and for type I and type II methane-oxidizing bacteria our results showed a -1.3±1.3‰, -8.0±4.4‰, and -3.4±1.4‰ δ13C difference, respectively, between biomarker fatty acids and bulk biomass. For terrestrial matter the isotopic difference averaged -6.6±1.2‰. Based on these results, the δ13C values of total lipids and biomarker fatty acids can be used to determine the δ13C values of bulk phytoplankton, bacteria or terrestrial matter with ± 1.4‰ uncertainty (i.e., the pooled SD of the isotopic difference for all samples). We conclude that when compound-specific stable isotope analyses become more widely available, the determination of

  4. Inferring Phytoplankton, Terrestrial Plant and Bacteria Bulk δ¹³C Values from Compound Specific Analyses of Lipids and Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Sami J.; Peltomaa, Elina; Hiltunen, Minna; Jones, Roger I.; Hahn, Martin W.; Biasi, Christina; Brett, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope mixing models in aquatic ecology require δ13C values for food web end members such as phytoplankton and bacteria, however it is rarely possible to measure these directly. Hence there is a critical need for improved methods for estimating the δ13C ratios of phytoplankton, bacteria and terrestrial detritus from within mixed seston. We determined the δ13C values of lipids, phospholipids and biomarker fatty acids and used these to calculate isotopic differences compared to the whole-cell δ13C values for eight phytoplankton classes, five bacterial taxa, and three types of terrestrial organic matter (two trees and one grass). The lipid content was higher amongst the phytoplankton (9.5±4.0%) than bacteria (7.3±0.8%) or terrestrial matter (3.9±1.7%). Our measurements revealed that the δ13C values of lipids followed phylogenetic classification among phytoplankton (78.2% of variance was explained by class), bacteria and terrestrial matter, and there was a strong correlation between the δ13C values of total lipids, phospholipids and individual fatty acids. Amongst the phytoplankton, the isotopic difference between biomarker fatty acids and bulk biomass averaged -10.7±1.1‰ for Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae, and -6.1±1.7‰ for Cryptophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Diatomophyceae. For heterotrophic bacteria and for type I and type II methane-oxidizing bacteria our results showed a -1.3±1.3‰, -8.0±4.4‰, and -3.4±1.4‰ δ13C difference, respectively, between biomarker fatty acids and bulk biomass. For terrestrial matter the isotopic difference averaged -6.6±1.2‰. Based on these results, the δ13C values of total lipids and biomarker fatty acids can be used to determine the δ13C values of bulk phytoplankton, bacteria or terrestrial matter with ± 1.4‰ uncertainty (i.e., the pooled SD of the isotopic difference for all samples). We conclude that when compound-specific stable isotope analyses become more widely available, the determination of

  5. Comparison of 5 monoclonal antibodies for immunopurification of human butyrylcholinesterase on Dynabeads: KD values, binding pairs, and amino acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong; Brimijoin, Stephen; Hrabovska, Anna; Targosova, Katarina; Krejci, Eric; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger of nerve agents and organophosphorus pesticides. Mass spectrometry methods detect stable nerve agent adducts on the active site serine of HuBChE. The first step in sample preparation is immunopurification of HuBChE from plasma. Our goal was to identify monoclonal antibodies that could be used to immunopurify HuBChE on Dynabeads Protein G. Mouse anti-HuBChE monoclonal antibodies were obtained in the form of ascites fluid, dead hybridoma cells stored frozen at −80°C for 30 years, or recently frozen hybridoma cells. RNA from 4 hybridoma cell lines was amplified by PCR for determination of their nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Full-length light and heavy chains were expressed, and the antibodies purified from culture medium. A fifth monoclonal was purchased. The 5 monoclonal antibodies were compared for ability to capture HuBChE from human plasma on Dynabeads Protein G. In addition, they were evaluated for binding affinity by Biacore and ELISA. Epitope mapping by pairing analysis was performed on the Octet Red96 instrument. The 5 monoclonal antibodies, B2 12-1, B2 18-5, 3E8, mAb2, and 11D8, had similar KD values of 10−9 M for HuBChE. Monoclonal B2 18-5 outperformed the others in the Dynabeads Protein G assay where it captured 97% of the HuBChE in 0.5 ml plasma. Pairing analysis showed that 3E8 and B2 12-1 share the same epitope, 11D8 and B2 18-5 share the same epitope, but mAb2 and B2 12-1 or mAb2 and 3E8 bind to different epitopes on HuBChE. B2 18-5 was selected for establishment of a stable CHO cell line for production of mouse anti-HuBChE monoclonal. PMID:26343001

  6. Comparison of 5 monoclonal antibodies for immunopurification of human butyrylcholinesterase on Dynabeads: KD values, binding pairs, and amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Brimijoin, Stephen; Hrabovska, Anna; Targosova, Katarina; Krejci, Eric; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2015-10-05

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger of nerve agents and organophosphorus pesticides. Mass spectrometry methods detect stable nerve agent adducts on the active site serine of HuBChE. The first step in sample preparation is immunopurification of HuBChE from plasma. Our goal was to identify monoclonal antibodies that could be used to immunopurify HuBChE on Dynabeads Protein G. Mouse anti-HuBChE monoclonal antibodies were obtained in the form of ascites fluid, dead hybridoma cells stored frozen at -80 °C for 30 years, or recently frozen hybridoma cells. RNA from 4 hybridoma cell lines was amplified by PCR for determination of their nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Full-length light and heavy chains were expressed, and the antibodies purified from culture medium. A fifth monoclonal was purchased. The 5 monoclonal antibodies were compared for ability to capture HuBChE from human plasma on Dynabeads Protein G. In addition, they were evaluated for binding affinity by Biacore and ELISA. Epitope mapping by pairing analysis was performed on the Octet Red96 instrument. The 5 monoclonal antibodies, B2 12-1, B2 18-5, 3E8, mAb2, and 11D8, had similar KD values of 10(-9) M for HuBChE. Monoclonal B2 18-5 outperformed the others in the Dynabeads Protein G assay where it captured 97% of the HuBChE in 0.5 ml plasma. Pairing analysis showed that 3E8 and B2 12-1 share the same epitope, 11D8 and B2 18-5 share the same epitope, but mAb2 and B2 12-1 or mAb2 and 3E8 bind to different epitopes on HuBChE. B2 18-5 was selected for establishment of a stable CHO cell line for production of mouse anti-HuBChE monoclonal.

  7. Production of a value added compound from the H-acid waste water-Bioflocculants by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunying; Xu, Aihua; Wang, Buyun; Yang, Xianghui; Hong, Wentao; Yang, Baokun; Chen, Changhong; Liu, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiangang

    2014-10-01

    A novel strain (designated as ZCY-7) which could convert H-acid into bioflocculants was isolated from H-acid wastewater sludge. Conditions for bioflocculants production were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and determined to be inoculum size 9.65%, initial pH 7.0, and CODCr of the H-acid wastewater 520mg/L. The highest flocculating efficiency achieved for kaolin suspension was 95.1%, after 60h cultivation. The yielded bioflocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide (82.4%) and protein (14.2%), and maintained its flocculating activity in 0.4% (w/w) kaolin suspensions over pH 2-8 and 20-80°C. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that amino, amide and hydroxyl groups were present in the bioflocculant molecules. A viable alternative treatment technology of H-acid wastewater using this novel strain is suggested, which could largely reduce bioflocculants costs. In addition, flocculating mechanism investigation reveals that the bioflocculant could cause kaolin suspension instability by means of charge neutralization firstly and then promoted the aggregation of suspension particles by adsorption and bridge. It is evident from the results that H-acid wastewater could be used as a source to manufacture bioflocculants.

  8. Current evidence for the diagnostic value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Sofue, Keitaro; Murakami, Takamichi

    2016-08-01

    A variety of imaging techniques, including ultrasonography (US), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography combined with CT scan (PET/CT), are available for diagnosis and treatment planning in liver metastasis. Contrast-enhanced MDCT is a relatively non-invasive, widely available and standardized method for hepatic work-up. Gadoxetic acid (gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; EOB Primovist®]) is a recently developed liver-specific hepatobiliary MR contrast agent that offers both dynamic imaging as well as liver-specific static hepatocyte imaging, referred to as the hepatobiliary phase. Following contrast injection, this technique reveals dynamic vascular phases (arterial, portal venous and delayed phases), in addition to the hepatobiliary phase upon uptake by functional hepatocytes. The overall sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was significantly higher than that of contrast-enhanced CT. Specifically, the higher sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was observed in lesions smaller than 1 cm in diameter. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is considered an extremely useful tool for the diagnosis of liver metastases. Future studies will focus on diagnostic algorithms involving combinations of modalities such as MRI, MDCT and/or (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT, which may impact the treatment plan for these patients.

  9. Measurement of the individual pKa values of acidic residues of hen and turkey lysozymes by two-dimensional 1H NMR.

    PubMed Central

    Bartik, K; Redfield, C; Dobson, C M

    1994-01-01

    The pH dependence of the two-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of hen and turkey egg-white lysozymes has been recorded over the pH range 1-7. By monitoring the chemical shifts of the resonances of the various protons of ionizable residues, individual pKa values for the acidic residues have been determined for both proteins. The pKa values are displaced, with the exception of those of the residues in the active site cleft, by an average of 1 unit to low pH compared to model compounds. PMID:8038389

  10. Treatment of electronic waste to recover metal values using thermal plasma coupled with acid leaching--a response surface modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Rath, Swagat S; Nayak, Pradeep; Mukherjee, P S; Roy Chaudhury, G; Mishra, B K

    2012-03-01

    The global crisis of the hazardous electronic waste (E-waste) is on the rise due to increasing usage and disposal of electronic devices. A process was developed to treat E-waste in an environmentally benign process. The process consisted of thermal plasma treatment followed by recovery of metal values through mineral acid leaching. In the thermal process, the E-waste was melted to recover the metal values as a metallic mixture. The metallic mixture was subjected to acid leaching in presence of depolarizer. The leached liquor mainly contained copper as the other elements like Al and Fe were mostly in alloy form as per the XRD and phase diagram studies. Response surface model was used to optimize the conditions for leaching. More than 90% leaching efficiency at room temperature was observed for Cu, Ni and Co with HCl as the solvent, whereas Fe and Al showed less than 40% efficiency.

  11. Value of random urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid levels in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuroblastoma: comparison with 24-hour urine collections.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, M; Morris, C L; Ramnaraine, M L; Bowers, L D; Krivit, W

    1985-02-01

    Urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) levels were determined in random samples and in 24-hour collections from 13 patients with neuroblastoma and 22 patients without neuroblastoma. Random sample levels were compared with levels in 24-hour collections and showed a positive correlation of 95% for HVA (N = 59) and 93% for VMA (N = 52). No false positives or false negatives occurred using random samples for diagnosis. Nonneuroblastoma (normal) HVA (N = 126) and VMA (N = 119) levels are reported for different age groups. Sequential random HVA and VMA determinations in patients with neuroblastoma during and after therapy are shown. Random urinary HVA and VMA levels are shown to be adequate for utilization in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and sequential determinations of random HVA and VMA are shown to be helpful in the follow-up of those patients.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids, nutrient retention values, and sensory meat eating quality in cooked and raw Australian lamb.

    PubMed

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated omega-3 intramuscular fatty acids in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops. Meats, denuded of external fats were cooked by means of conductive dry-heat using a fry grilling hot plate, to a core temperature of 70°C. An untrained consumer panel assessed meat appearance, aroma, tenderness, juiciness, taste and overall liking. Results showed no compositional alterations (P>0.05) to omega-3 fatty acids due to cooking treatment, whereas on absolute terms (mg/100g muscle) omega-3 fatty acids significantly (P<0.05) increased. The mean EPA+DHA content of the cooked meat at 32.8±2.3mg/100g muscle exceeded the minimum 30mg/100g per edible portion required for the defined Australian classification as 'source' long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 for cooked lamb. A 3.4% intramuscular fat content in the initial raw meat was sufficient to maintain acceptable overall sensory eating quality. Results endorse the application of this cooking method to enable delivery of health beneficial long-chain omega-3 fatty acids of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops to consumers without impediments to sensory eating properties.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids from the coastal marine fish of Bay of Bengal and their therapeutic value.

    PubMed

    Bera, Rabindranath; Dhara, Tushar K; Bhadra, Ranjan; Majumder, Gopal C; Sen, Parimal C

    2010-12-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) significantly present in marine fish oil emerge as preventive agents for combating many health problems specially in chronic or metabolic disorders. The fish in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal has remained unexplored with respect to EPA/DHA enriched PUFA content in its oils, although it may be a potential source in harnessing the health benefit. In this study, seven varieties of the coastal fish were analysed for the content of EPA/DHA. The one locally known as lotte, (Harpadon nehereus) though has low content of total lipids, was found to have high EPA/DHA in its oil. The phospholipids rich fraction was extracted from the total fish oil. The EPA/DHA enriched PUFA was isolated to investigate the potential use for health benefits. EPA/DHA is found to act as protective agent against mercury poisoning studied in cell culture as well as in animal mode. It is found to be highly preventive in diabetes. The lotte is available in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal adjoining West Bengal, India in large scale and it is the first report showing EPA/DHA enriched PUFA in these fish oil that can be availed to harness in important health benefits.

  14. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large round bales.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Bertram, M G

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from 2 cuttings harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large round bales. A total of 87 large round bales (diameter = 1.5m) were included in the study; of these, 45 bales served as controls, whereas 42 were treated with a commercial propionic acid-based preservative at mean application rates of 0.5±0.14 and 0.7±0.19% of bale weight, expressed on a wet (as is) or dry matter basis, respectively. Initial bale moisture concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 40.4%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, and heating characteristics were summarized for each bale as heating degree days (HDD) >30°C. For acid-treated bales, the regression relationship between HDD and initial bale moisture was best fitted to a quadratic model in which the linear term was dropped to improve fit (Y=2.02x(2) - 401; R(2)=0.77); control hays were best fitted to a nonlinear model in which the independent variable was squared [Y=4,112 - (4,549×e(-0.000559x*x)); R(2)=0.77]. Based on these regressions, acid-treated bales accumulated more HDD than control hays when the initial bale moisture was >27.7%; this occurred largely because acid treatment tended to prolong active heating relative to control hays. Linear regressions of recoveries of dry matter on HDD did not differ on the basis of treatment, yielding a common linear relationship of Y=-0.0066x+96.3 (R(2)=0.75). Regressions relating changes (post-storage - pre-storage) in concentrations of several nutritional components (neutral detergent fiber, lignin, ash, crude protein, and total digestible nutrients) with HDD for acid-treated hays typically exhibited more inflection points or were higher-ordered polynomial regressions than those of control hays. These more complex responses probably reflected the perturbation

  15. Dynamic monitoring of plasma amino acids and carnitine during chemotherapy of patients with alimentary canal malignancies and its clinical value

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhenghua; Wang, Qingjun; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the plasma amino acid and carnitine characteristics in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies during chemotherapy and to identify markers for the early diagnosis and evaluation of adverse reactions and prognosis of the digestive tract malignant tumor patients. Methods Blood samples of 30 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies were collected at four time points: before chemotherapy, the first day after chemotherapy (+1 day), bone marrow depression period (+14 days), and hematopoietic recovery period (+21 days). The plasma amino acids and carnitine from those 30 patients were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. Simultaneously, the levels of 21 amino acids were detected in 30 healthy individuals, who were considered as control. Biochemical indexes were also detected at four time points, adverse reactions were recorded during the chemotherapy process, and patients were followed up for 1 year to observe time to progression (TTP) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results Compared to healthy people in the control group, patients with malignancies showed significantly increased levels of plasma amino acids such as Arg, Asp, Cit, Gly, Orn, Tyr, Val, and carnitine (such as C2). The levels of compounds such as C3, Asn, Leu, Lys, Pip, Pro, C0, C5:1 decreased significantly before chemotherapy. The levels of Cit, Cys, Lys, Pro, Tyr, Val, C0, and C2 decreased significantly on the second day of chemotherapy (+1 day), whereas the level of C3 increased significantly. During myelosuppression (+14 days), the levels of Asp, Cit, Met, and Orn were observed to still decrease significantly, whereas the level of Val appeared to increase significantly. The levels of Asp, Glu, and Met were clearly different among patients with gastric carcinoma, rectal cancer, and colon cancer. Compared to the control group, aspartate amino transferase and alanine

  16. Penicillanic acid sulfone: interaction with RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Kemal, C; Knowles, J R

    1981-06-23

    The interaction of the sulfone of penicillanic acid with the TEM-2 beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli has been investigated as a function of pH between pH 7.0 and 9.6. The first-formed acyl-enzyme suffers one of three fates: deacylation, tautomerization to a bound enamine that transiently inhibited the enzyme, and a process (possibly transimination) that leads to enzyme inactivation. The observed changes in ultraviolet absorbance are consistent with the initially observed product of deacylation being the enamine tautomer (4) of the imine from malonsemialdehyde and penicillamine sulfinate. The same enamine can be generated nonenzymically from the sulfone at high pH. The transiently inhibited enzyme appears to be the same enamine attached to the enzyme by an ester linkage. The rather complex kinetic behavior can be deconvuluted by exploiting the effect of pH on the partitioning of the acyl-enzyme between deacylation and the transiently inhibited form of the enzyme. The pathways followed by penicillanic acid sulfone provide a model for the behavior of a number of other reagents that inactivate the beta-lactamase.

  17. Evaluation of the value of near infrared (NIR) spectromicroscopy for the analysis of glycyrrizhic acid in licorice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Dai, Sheng-Yun; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported that hyperspectral data could be employed to qualitatively elucidate the spatial composition of tablets of Chinese medicinal plants. To gain more insights into this technology, a quantitative profile provided by near infrared (NIR) spectromicroscopy was further studied by determining the glycyrrhizic acid content in licorice, Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Thirty-nine samples from twenty-four different origins were analyzed using NIR spectromicroscopy. Partial least squares, interval partial least square (iPLS), and least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR) methods were used to develop linear and non-linear calibration models, with optimal calibration parameters (number of interval numbers, kernel parameter, etc.) being explored. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the iPLS model were 0.717 7% and 0.936 1 in the prediction set, respectively. The RMSEP and R(2) of LS-SVR model were 0.515 5% and 0.951 4 in the prediction set, respectively. These results demonstrated that the glycyrrhizic acid content in licorice could barely be analyzed by NIR spectromicroscopy, suggesting that good quality quantitative data are difficult to obtain from microscopic NIR spectra for complicated Chinese medicinal plant materials.

  18. Antibacterial protection by enterocin AS-48 in sport and energy drinks with less acidic pH values.

    PubMed

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The low pH and acid content found in sports and energy drinks are a matter of concern in dental health. Raising the pH may solve this problem, but at the same time increase the risks of spoilage or presence of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, commercial energy drinks were adjusted to pH 5.0 and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes (drinks A to F), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus licheniformis (drink A) during storage at 37 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was able to grow in drink A and survived in drinks D and F for at least 2 days. Addition of enterocin AS-48 (1 microg/ml final concentration) rapidly inactivated L. monocytogenes in all drinks tested. S. aureus and B. cereus also survived quite well in drink A, and were completely inactivated by 12.5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 25 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. B. licheniformis was able to multiply in drink A, but it was completely inactivated by 5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 12.5 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. Results from the present study suggest that enterocin AS-48 could be used as a natural preservative against these target bacteria in less acidic sport and energy drinks.

  19. Influence of nitrogen source and pH value on undesired poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation of a protease producing Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Lena; Kauffmann, Kira; Wengeler, Timo; Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Büchs, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus spp. are used for the production of industrial enzymes but are also known to be capable of producing biopolymers such as poly(γ-glutamic acid). Biopolymers increase the viscosity of the fermentation broth, thereby impairing mixing, gas/liquid mass and heat transfer in any bioreactor system. Undesired biopolymer formation has a significant impact on the fermentation and downstream processing performance. This study shows how undesirable poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation of an industrial protease producing Bacillus licheniformis strain was prevented by switching the nitrogen source from ammonium to nitrate. The viscosity was reduced from 32 to 2.5 mPa s. A constant or changing pH value did not influence the poly(γ-glutamic acid) production. Protease production was not affected: protease activities of 38 and 46 U mL(-1) were obtained for ammonium and nitrate, respectively. With the presented results, protease production with industrial Bacillus strains is now possible without the negative impact on fermentation and downstream processing by undesired poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation.

  20. Lower n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid values in patients with phenylketonuria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Fekete, Katalin; Decsi, Tamás

    2013-07-01

    The mainstream of phenylketonuria (PKU) management is lifelong restriction of protein intake; however, this dietary restriction may be accompanied by insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). The objective of this review was to assess whether significant depletion of LCPUFA can be detected in PKU patients on low-protein diet and whether LCPUFA supplementation is an effective way to increase the availability of LCPUFA in PKU patients. The method included structured search strategy on Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases, with formal inclusion/exclusion criteria, data extraction procedure, and meta-analysis. We evaluated 9 case-control studies and 6 randomized controlled trials, dated from the inception of the databases to 2012. The meta-analysis of the case-control studies showed significantly lower values of both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in all biomarkers investigated and that of arachidonic acid in total plasma lipids in PKU patients as compared with healthy controls. There were sufficient data to demonstrate that dietary DHA supplementation of patients with PKU significantly increases the contribution of DHA to total plasma lipids. In summary, suboptimal LCPUFA status, especially that of n-3 LCPUFA, can be detected in PKU patients. Supplementing DHA to the diet of PKU patients may improve their LCPUFA status; however, further research is needed to determine the optimal supplementation dosage and to establish beneficial functional outcomes.

  1. Assessment of technological options and economical feasibility for cyanophycin biopolymer and high-value amino acid production

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhuis, Nico; Giuseppin, Marco; Toonen, Marcel; Franssen, Henk; Scott, Elinor; Sanders, Johan; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Major transitions can be expected within the next few decades aiming at the reduction of pollution and global warming and at energy saving measures. For these purposes, new sustainable biorefinery concepts will be needed that will replace the traditional mineral oil-based synthesis of specialty and bulk chemicals. An important group of these chemicals are those that comprise N-functionalities. Many plant components contained in biomass rest or waste stream fractions contain these N-functionalities in proteins and free amino acids that can be used as starting materials for the synthesis of biopolymers and chemicals. This paper describes the economic and technological feasibility for cyanophycin production by fermentation of the potato waste stream Protamylasse™ or directly in plants and its subsequent conversion to a number of N-containing bulk chemicals. PMID:17876577

  2. Effects of sulphur, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and water stress on dietary fibre fractions, starch, amino acids and on the biological value of potato protein.

    PubMed

    Eppendorfer, W H; Eggum, B O

    1994-06-01

    In pot experiments with greatly differing rates of N, P, K, and S, and 3 levels of water, dry matter (DM) yields of tubers varied from 28 to 454 g/pot. Especially P-, K- and S-deficiency reduced the starch content of boiled potatoes, from P from 74 to 59% in DM. S-deficiency increased soluble, insoluble and total digestible fibre (TDF) from about 9 to 12.4% TDF in DM of boiled potatoes. Lignin content of fresh potato DM was increased from 0.7 to 2.0 and from 0.8 to 3.7% by P- and K-deficiency. P-deficiency considerably increased arabinose, galactose, and uronic acid, and decreased glucose content. N-application and P-, K- and S-deficiency increased total- and NO3-N concentrations which varied from 1.32 to 3.67% and from 17 to 400 ppm in DM. Water stress slightly decreased total-N content. Increasing N in DM, due to high N-rates or P- or K-deficiency, decreased concentrations in crude protein (CP) of all essential amino acids, whereas aspartic acid (asparagine) increased. S-deficiency caused particularly strong decreases in concentrations of essential amino acids from 1.28 to 0.49, 1.62 to 1.10, 5.24 to 3.68, and 5.59 to 2.57 g/16 g N of cystine, methionine, lysine and leucine, respectively. Glutamic acid (glutamine) content was increased from 15.7 to 27.6 g/16 g N by S-deficiency. Expressed as g amino acid/kg DM, all amino acid concentrations increased with increasing % N in DM. In N-balance trials with rats, increasing crude protein concentrations in DM of boiled potatoes increased the true digestibility (TD) of the protein from 72 to 90 but decreased the biological value (BV) from 89 to 65. S-deficiency caused a further reduction of the BV to 45. Excluding S-deficiency treatments, linear regression equations between CP concentrations and BV and TD gave correlation coefficients r of -0.94*** and 0.82***, respectively. There was close agreement between changes of BV and concentrations of first limiting amino acids (chemical score), with r = 0.96***.

  3. New Method for Determining Isotopic Values of Glutamic Acid and Phenylalanine for Estimation of Precise Trophic Position in Food Web Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, T.; Broek, T.; McCarthy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Compound Specific Isotope Analysis of Amino Acids (CSI-AA) has emerged as a highly precise new method of determining trophic levels of both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Multiple studies have now shown that δ15N values for glutamic acid (Glu) and phenylalanine (Phe) can be coupled to provide extremely precise estimates of trophic position in diverse food web studies. The standard gas chromatography—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) approach is presently limited to a select number of labs since necessary equipment is both expensive and not widely accessible. Furthermore, typical GC-IRMS δ15N precision (±1‰) is significantly lower than usual bulk δ15N values (±0.1‰), thus presenting a considerable setback for precise trophic level calculations. In this study, we develop a new dual-column method to purify Glu and Phe using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phe is purified using an analytical scale reverse phase column embedded with anionic ion-pairing reagents and collected using automated fraction collection. Glu is separated from the non-polar amino acids using the same column and further purified using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) cation and anion-exchange column and collected via automated fraction collection. Isotopic analysis of the purified AAs is then conducted on an elemental analyzer—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS). As a test of this method, we present and compare the trophic position of five marine organisms—cyanobacteria, deep-sea bamboo coral, juvenile and adult white sea bass, and harbor seal, calculated using Glu and Phe δ15N values produced by both GC-IRMS and our HPLC-EA-IRMS approach. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the HPLC-EA-IRMS method is a viable alternative to GC-IRMS, which should allow accurate trophic position estimates to be made by more researchers using more readily available instrumentation.

  4. Recovery of young brown trout (Salmo trutta) in acidified streams: What are the critical values for acid-neutralizing capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesthagen, T.; Fiske, P.; Saksgård, R.

    2016-12-01

    The recovery of young allopatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) grouped into YoY (age 0+) and older parr (age ≥1+) fish, was studied in acid-sensitive streams in a Norwegian watershed during a 24-year-period (1987-2010). Their abundance was assessed by electrofishing. Most sites typically had 5.0-5.5 in pH, 0.4-0.7 mg L-1 Ca, 10-20 μg L-1 inorganic toxic aluminum (Ali) and acid-neutralizing capacity adjusted for organic acids (ANCOAA) of - 15 to +25 μeq L-1. Densities of both YoY and older parr increased significantly during the study period. Water quality also improved in recent years with respect to pH (5.8-6.0), Ali (5-15 μg L-1) and ANCOAA (10-20 μeq L-1). However, some negative trends in both fish density and water chemistry were found during both the first (1987-1993) and last years (2004-2008) of the study. Initially, YoY densities remained at about 16-20 specimens 100 m-2 (1987-1990), declined to 10-15 specimens 100 m-2 in the early/mid 1990s, and rosed to 30-50 specimens 100 m-2 in recent years (1997-2010). Their densities correlated significantly with ANCOAA, and at least three stages in the recovery process were recognised: (i) Low density with 10-20 specimens 100 m-2 at -18 to -5 μeq L-1, (ii) medium and unstable density with 20-30 specimens 100 m-2 at -5 to 10 μeq L-1, and (iii) increasing density to 40-50 specimens 100 m-2 at 10-25 μeq L-1. The decline in brown trout density in the early-mid 1990s coincided with high sea salt depositions, which caused increased acidification. Component 1 in a PCA explained 51% of the variation in fish densities, including conductivity, Mg, Ca, Na, alkalinity and TOC. Component 2 explained an additional 31% of the variation, including pH, Ali and ANCOAA. Multiple regression analysis coefficients showed that the two components explained 41% of the variance in total fish density. Young brown trout suffered a high mortality during the initial phase of the study in spite of relative low levels of Ali. This is

  5. A program for calculation of intrapulmonary shunts, blood-gas and acid-base values with a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B C; Tucker, W K; Kirby, R R

    1975-01-01

    With a desk-top, programmable calculator, it is now possible to do complex, previously time-consuming computations in the blood-gas laboratory. The authors have developed a program with the necessary algorithms for temperature correction of blood gases and calculation of acid-base variables and intrapulmonary shunt. It was necessary to develop formulas for the Po2 temperature-correction coefficient, the oxyhemoglobin-dissociation curve for adults (withe necessary adjustments for fetal blood), and changes in water vapor pressure due to variation in body temperature. Using this program in conjuction with a Monroe 1860-21 statistical programmable calculator, it is possible to temperature-correct pH,Pco2, and Po2. The machine will compute alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, oxygen saturation (So2), oxygen content (Co2), actual HCO minus 3 and a modified base excess. If arterial blood and mixed venous blood are obtained, the calculator will print out intrapulmonary shunt data (Qs/Qt) and arteriovenous oxygen differences (a minus vDo2). There also is a formula to compute P50 if pH,Pco2,Po2, and measured So2 from two samples of tonometered blood (one above 50 per cent and one below 50 per cent saturation) are put into the calculator.

  6. The Value of PIC Cystography in Detecting De Novo and Residual Vesicoureteral Reflux after Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Injection.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B W; Hemphill, M; Wettengel, K; Kropp, B P; Frimberger, D

    2011-01-01

    The endoscopic injection of Dx/HA in the management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has become an accepted alternative to open surgery. In the current study we evaluated the value of cystography to detect de novo contralateral VUR in unilateral cases of VUR at the time of Dx/HA injection and correlated the findings of immediate post-Dx/HA injection cystography during the same anesthesia to 2-month postoperative VCUG to evaluate its ability to predict successful surgical outcomes. The current study aimed to evaluate whether an intraoperatively performed cystogram could replace postoperative studies. But a negative intraoperative cystogram correlates with the postoperative study in only 80%. Considering the 75-80% success rate of Dx/HA implantation, the addition of intraoperative cystograms cannot replace postoperative studies. In patients treated with unilateral VUR, PIC cystography can detect occult VUR and prevent postoperative contralateral new onset of VUR.

  7. Preservation of hatchery waste by lactic acid fermentation. 2. Large-scale fermentation and feeding trial to evaluate feeding value.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, A C; Patterson, P H

    1997-09-01

    Two waste streams from a Leghorn hatchery were preserved and recycled by fermentation with a by-product carbohydrate and extrusion processing into new feed ingredients that were evaluated with broiler chickens. Cockerel chicks (CC) and a 60:40 ratio of CC:shell waste (CC:SW) were fermented in 189-L barrels for 21 d following grinding, then mixing with a liquid culture (0.2%) and carbohydrate source at 15 and 16.66%, respectively. At 2 wk, pH was 4.44 and 5.09 for the CC and CC:SW products compared with higher values of 6.54 and 6.98 for the raw ingredients at the onset. Negligible hydrogen sulfide and no ammonia gas were recorded during the fermentation period. At 21 d, the fermented CC and CC:SW were extruded, dried, and ground to meals containing CP and TMEn levels of 47.4%, 3,187 kcal/kg, and 33.1%, 2,696 kcal/kg, respectively. Broiler chickens were fed a control diet and the CC (5 and 10%) and CC:SW (2.5 and 5%) ingredient diets with corn and soybean meal for 6 wk to evaluate feeding value and carcass yield. Body weight, gain and feed conversion at 42 d for birds fed diets supplemented with CC or CC:SW at all levels were comparable to those of the control. Diets supplemented with hatchery by-product had no negative effect on carcass measurements except ready to cook carcass and wing yield, which were significantly greater for the 10% CC:SW birds than for the control. These data indicate that nutrient dense hatchery by-products can be preserved with fermentation up to 21 d and support broiler live performance and carcass yield as dietary ingredients equal to or better than a corn-soybean meal control.

  8. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  9. A unique quantitative method of acid value of edible oils and studying the impact of heating on edible oils by UV-Vis spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenle; Li, Na; Feng, Yuyan; Su, Shujun; Li, Tao; Liang, Bing

    2015-10-15

    UV-Vis spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used effectively to study the impact of heating on edible oils (corn oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil and sesame oil) and determine their acid value. Analysis of their first derivative spectra showed that the peak at 370 nm was a common indicator of the heated oils. Partial least squares regression (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) were applied to building individual quantitative models of acid value for each kind of oil, respectively. The PLS models had a better performance than PCR models, with determination coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9904-0.9977 and root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.0230-0.0794 for the prediction sets of each kind of oil, respectively. An integrate quantitative model built by support vector regression for all the six kinds of oils was also developed and gave a satisfactory prediction with a R(2) of 0.9932 and a RMSE of 0.0656.

  10. Conversion of distiller's grain into fuel alcohol and a higher-value animal feed by dilute-acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Melvin P; Nagle, Nicholas J; Jennings, Edward W; Ibsen, Kelly N; Aden, Andy; Nguyen, Quang A; Kim, Kyoung H; Noll, Sally L

    2004-01-01

    Over the past three decades ethanol production in the United States has increased more than 10-fold, to approx 2.9 billion gal/yr (mid-2003), with ethanol production expected to reach 5 billion gal/yr by 2005. The simultaneous coproduction of 7 million t/yr of distiller's grain (DG) may potentially drive down the price of DG as a cattle feed supplement. The sale of residual DG for animal feed is an important part of corn dry-grind ethanol production economics; therefore, dry-grind ethanol producers are seeking ways to improve the quality of DG to increase market penetration and help stabilize prices. One possible improvement is to increase the protein content of DG by converting the residual starch and fiber into ethanol. We have developed methods for steam explosion, SO2, and dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of DG for evaluation as a feedstock for ethanol production. The highest soluble sugar yields (approximately 77% of available carbohydrate) were obtained by pretreatment of DG at 140 degrees C for 20 min with 3.27 wt% H2SO4. Fermentation protocols for pretreated DG were developed at the bench scale and scaled to a working volume of 809 L for production of hydrolyzed distiller's grain (HDG) for feeding trials. The pretreated DG was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A, with ethanol yields of 73% of theoretical from available glucans. The HDG was air-dried and used for turkey-feeding trials. The inclusion of HDG into turkey poult (as a model non-ruminant animal) diets at 5 and 10% levels, replacing corn and soybean meal, showed weight gains in the birds similar to controls, whereas 15 and 20% inclusion levels showed slight decreases (-6%) in weight gain. At the conclusion of the trial, no negative effects on internal organs or morphology, and no mortality among the poults, was found. The high protein levels (58-61%) available in HDG show promising economics for incorporation of this process into corn dry-grind ethanol plants.

  11. Effects of sample aging on total cholesterol values determined by the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid and Liebermann-Burchard procedures.

    PubMed

    Wood, P D; Bachorik, P S; Albers, J J; Stewart, C C; Winn, C; Lippel, K

    1980-04-01

    To investigate the comparability of three commonly used methods for determination of total cholesterol in plasma in several studies, we used fresh plasma samples as well as plasmas and reference sera that had been stored frozen at -15 degrees C for as long as several years. Duplicate determinations by the manual method of Abell et al. (J. Biol. Chem. 195: 357, 1952) were compared with estimates from one to five continuous-flow analyzers by the ferric chloride-sulfuric acid procedure and also with estimates from five to 13 continuous-flow analyzers by the Liebermann-Burchard procedure with calibrator, as part of the laboratory standardization activities of the Lipid Research Clinics. The agreement among all three procedures was generally within acceptable limits (within 5% of the manual method) when plasmas or sera were fresh or had been frozen for less than one month. Results by the manual method of Abell et al. agreed well with those by the automated Liebermann-Burchard method for samples that had been stored at -15 degrees C for as long as two years. However, the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid procedure often showed unacceptably high values (as compared with those from the manual method) for samples that had been stored frozen for a year or more. With the ferric chloride-sulfuric acid method, measured cholesterol concentration increased about 2.5% per year of storage for at least two years. We conclude that reference sera of plasmas that have been kept in long-term frozen storage (-15 degrees C) are not suitable for ongoing standardization of the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid assay for cholesterol.

  12. Prognostic value of FLT3 mutations in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Barragán, Eva; Montesinos, Pau; Camos, Mireia; González, Marcos; Calasanz, Maria J.; Román-Gómez, José; Gómez-Casares, Maria T.; Ayala, Rosa; López, Javier; Fuster, Óscar; Colomer, Dolors; Chillón, Carmen; Larrayoz, María J.; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; González-Campos, José; Manso, Félix; Amador, Maria L.; Vellenga, Edo; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene mutations are frequent in acute promyelocytic leukemia but their prognostic value is not well established. Design and Methods We evaluated FLT3-internal tandem duplication and FLT3-D835 mutations in patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based chemotherapy enrolled in two subsequent trials of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatías Malignas (PETHEMA) and Hemato-Oncologie voor Volwassenen Nederland (HOVON) groups between 1996 and 2005. Results FLT3-internal tandem duplication and FLT3-D835 mutation status was available for 306 (41%) and 213 (29%) patients, respectively. Sixty-eight (22%) and 20 (9%) patients had internal tandem duplication and D835 mutations, respectively. Internal tandem duplication was correlated with higher white blood cell and blast counts, lactate dehydrogenase, relapse-risk score, fever, hemorrhage, coagulopathy, BCR3 isoform, M3 variant subtype, and expression of CD2, CD34, human leukocyte antigen-DR, and CD11b surface antigens. The FLT3-D835 mutation was not significantly associated with any clinical or biological characteristic. Univariate analysis showed higher relapse and lower survival rates in patients with a FLT3-internal tandem duplication, while no impact was observed in relation to FLT3-D835. The prognostic value of the FLT3-internal tandem duplication was not retained in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutations are associated with several hematologic features in acute promyelocytic leukemia, in particular with high white blood cell counts, but we were unable to demonstrate an independent prognostic value in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens. PMID:21685470

  13. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the Udenfriend's system.

    PubMed

    Wakizaka, A; Imai, Y

    1974-11-01

    The autocatalytic oxidation of linoleate was observed in the incubation mixture containing ferrous ion and ascorbic acid as the catalysts (Undenfriend's system). The rate of oxidation of linoleate was estimated wither by the TBA method, iodometry or by the measurement of the absorbance at 235 nm. Reaction products were analyzed by TLC, GLC and UV-, IR-, NMR- and mass spectrometries. The main oxidized products were assumed to have one oxygen atom at the position of carbon 9 or 13 of linoleate or two oxygen atoms at the both positions of the original acid. The conjugated double bond was formed at carbon 10 and 12 of the carbon chain of linoleate.

  14. Kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction (aspartame degradation) as affected by polyol-induced changes in buffer pH and pK values.

    PubMed

    Chuy, S; Bell, L N

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction, aspartame degradation, were examined as affected by the changes in pH and pK(a) values caused by adding polyols (sucrose, glycerol) to phosphate buffer. Sucrose-containing phosphate buffer solutions had a lower pH than that of phosphate buffer alone, which contributed, in part, to reduced aspartame reactivity. A kinetic model was introduced for aspartame degradation that encompassed pH and buffer salt concentrations, both of which change with a shift in the apparent pK(a) value. Aspartame degradation rate constants in sucrose-containing solutions were successfully predicted using this model when corrections (that is, lower pH, lower apparent pK(a) value, buffer dilution from the polyol) were applied. The change in buffer properties (pH, pK(a)) from adding sucrose to phosphate buffer does impact food chemical stability. These effects can be successfully incorporated into predictive kinetic models. Therefore, pH and pK(a) changes from adding polyols to buffer should be considered during food product development.

  15. Effect of weak acid preservatives on growth of bakery product spoilage fungi at different water activities and pH values.

    PubMed

    Suhr, K I; Nielsen, P V

    2004-08-15

    Inhibition of spoilage organisms from bakery products by weak acid preservatives in concentrations of 0%, 0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3% (w/v) was investigated experimentally on a substrate media with water activity (a(w)) and pH ranging from sourdough-fermented acidic rye bread to alkaline intermediate moisture sponge cake types (a(w) 0.80-0.95, pH 4.7-7.4). Initially, rye bread conditions (a(w) 0.94-0.97 and pH 4.4-4.8) in combination with calcium propionate were investigated. Results showed that the highest concentration of propionate (0.3%) at all conditions apart from high a(w) (0.97) and high pH (4.8) totally inhibited fungal growth for a 2-week period, with the exception of Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium commune and Eurotium rubrum. Characteristically for the major spoiler of rye bread, P. roqueforti, all three isolates tested were stimulated by propionate and the stimulation was significantly enhanced at high water activity levels. The effect of propionate on production of secondary metabolites (mycophenolic acid, rugulovasine, echinulin, flavoglaucin) was also studied, and variable or isolate dependent results were found. Subsequently, a screening experiment representing a wider range of bakery products was conducted using calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. The obtained data was modelled using survival analysis to determine 'spoilage-free time' for the fungi. At the low a(w) level (0.80) only Eurotium species grew within the test period of 30 days. Higher water activity levels as well as higher pH values decreased spoilage-free times of the fungi. The preservative calcium propionate was less effective than potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate.

  16. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  17. How Closely Do the δ13C Values of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plants Reflect the Proportion of CO2 Fixed during Day and Night?1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant δ13C values provide an index of the proportions of CO2 fixed during daytime and nighttime was assessed. Shoots of seven CAM species (Aloe vera, Hylocereus monocanthus, Kalanchoe beharensis, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Kalanchoe pinnata, Vanilla pauciflora, and Xerosicyos danguyi) and two C3 species (teak [Tectona grandis] and Clusia sp.) were grown in a cuvette, and net CO2 exchange was monitored for up to 51 d. In species exhibiting net dark CO2 fixation, between 14% and 73.3% of the carbon gain occurred in the dark. δ13C values of tissues formed inside the cuvette ranged between −28.7‰ and −11.6‰, and correlated linearly with the percentages of carbon gained in the light and in the dark. The δ13C values for new biomass obtained solely during the dark and light were estimated as −8.7‰ and −26.9‰, respectively. For each 10% contribution of dark CO2 fixation integrated over the entire experiment, the δ13C content of the tissue was, thus, approximately 1.8‰ less negative. Extrapolation of the observations to plants previously surveyed under natural conditions suggests that the most commonly expressed version of CAM in the field, “the typical CAM plant,” involves plants that gain about 71% to 77% of their carbon by dark fixation, and that the isotopic signals of plants that obtain one-third or less of their carbon in the dark may be confused with C3 plants when identified on the basis of carbon isotope content alone. PMID:12177497

  18. An on-line near-infrared (NIR) transmission method for determining depth profiles of fatty acid composition and iodine value in porcine adipose fat tissue.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Petersen, Henrik; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2012-02-01

    The present work describes a measurement method using spatially resolved near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to determine porcine carcass fat quality as a function of the distance to the skin by estimating its iodine value (IV). The new method is capable of performing on-line carcass grading at full production speed (approximately 1000 carcasses per hour). The method is demonstrated in an experiment where 35 carcasses were sampled at an abattoir, selected from three feeding groups. The NIR transmission instrument was applied on the loin of each carcass, and a parallel reference sample was removed and processed into 1.8 mm thick disks, representing a depth-of-fat profile from the loin. The disks were analyzed for fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) and for IV. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the obtained GC reference values clearly showed that the feeding regimes can be differentiated. Using interval partial least squares (iPLS) regression, a model was produced that can predict the IV of the fat at a given measured depth with a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 1.44. The results show how the IV varies as a function of feeding regime and as a function of fat depth. The maximum variation found within a single depth profile was 10.1 IV from the skin to the innermost part of the fat layers. In the sample material investigated the average span in IV between the average values of the two porcine backfat layers was 6.4 IV (the maximum difference was 8.6 IV). The new method can provide the abattoir with new chemical information about fat quality and production quality that will open new possibilities of meat/carcass grading and product development.

  19. How closely do the delta(13)C values of Crassulacean Acid metabolism plants reflect the proportion of CO(2) fixed during day and night?

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2002-08-01

    The extent to which Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant delta(13)C values provide an index of the proportions of CO(2) fixed during daytime and nighttime was assessed. Shoots of seven CAM species (Aloe vera, Hylocereus monocanthus, Kalanchoe beharensis, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Kalanchoe pinnata, Vanilla pauciflora, and Xerosicyos danguyi) and two C(3) species (teak [Tectona grandis] and Clusia sp.) were grown in a cuvette, and net CO(2) exchange was monitored for up to 51 d. In species exhibiting net dark CO(2) fixation, between 14% and 73.3% of the carbon gain occurred in the dark. delta(13)C values of tissues formed inside the cuvette ranged between -28.7 per thousand and -11.6 per thousand, and correlated linearly with the percentages of carbon gained in the light and in the dark. The delta(13)C values for new biomass obtained solely during the dark and light were estimated as -8.7 per thousand and -26.9 per thousand, respectively. For each 10% contribution of dark CO(2) fixation integrated over the entire experiment, the delta(13)C content of the tissue was, thus, approximately 1.8 per thousand less negative. Extrapolation of the observations to plants previously surveyed under natural conditions suggests that the most commonly expressed version of CAM in the field, "the typical CAM plant," involves plants that gain about 71% to 77% of their carbon by dark fixation, and that the isotopic signals of plants that obtain one-third or less of their carbon in the dark may be confused with C(3) plants when identified on the basis of carbon isotope content alone.

  20. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  1. [H2O2 oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines over Mg2+ ion exchanged clinoptilolite and solventless solid state acid decomposition of ester to 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid].

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Takashi; Sato, Kanji; Nomura, Masayuki; Nakata, Shinichi

    2009-10-01

    The acid property of alkali and alkali earth cation exchanged clinoptiolites were observed by micro-calorimetry of NH(3) adsorption at 200 degrees C. The reaction rates on decomposition of tert-butyl acetate (TBA) over clinoptilolites was proportional to the acid strength. 1,4-Dihydropyridines were oxidized to corresponding Pyridines in high yields at room temperature by H(2)O(2) aqueous solution over Mg(2+) ion exchanged clinoptilolte (CZ-Mg) in acetone. Solventless acid ester decomposition of Di-tert-butyl 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate to 3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid was effected using CZ-Mg at 170 degrees C.

  2. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  3. Neuroprotective role of lipoic acid against acute toxicity of N-acetylaspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Pederzolli, Carolina Didonet; Rosa, Andrea Pereira; de Oliveira, Amanda Szekir; Coelho, Juliana G; Becker, Débora da Luz; Dalazen, Giovana Reche; Moraes, Tarsila Barros; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S

    2010-11-01

    N-Acetylaspartic acid (NAA) accumulates in Canavan disease, a severe inherited neurometabolic disorder clinically characterized by mental retardation, hypotonia, macrocephaly, and seizures. The mechanisms of brain damage in this disease remain poorly understood. Recent studies developed by our research group showed that NAA induces oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo in cerebral cortex of rats. Lipoic acid is considered as an efficient antioxidant which can easily cross the blood-brain barrier. Considering the absence of specific treatment to Canavan disease, this study evaluates the possible prevention of the oxidative stress promoted by NAA in vivo by the antioxidant lipoic acid to preliminarily evaluate lipoic acid efficacy against pro-oxidative effects of NAA. Fourteen-day-old Wistar rats received an acute administration of 0.6 mmol NAA/g body weight with or without lipoic acid (40 mg/kg body weight). Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, hydrogen peroxide content, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), spontaneous chemiluminescence, protein carbonyl content, total antioxidant potential, and DNA-protein cross-links were assayed in the cerebral cortex of rats. CAT, GPx activities, and total antioxidant potential were significantly reduced, while hydrogen peroxide content, TBA-RS, spontaneous chemiluminescence, and protein carbonyl content were significantly enhanced by acute administration of NAA. Those effects were all prevented by lipoic acid pretreatment. Our results clearly show that lipoic acid may protect against the oxidative stress promoted by NAA. This could represent a new therapeutic approach to the patients affected by Canavan disease.

  4. The assessment of diffuse pollution from acid-mine drainage using an updated and revised diatom assessment procedure as an added-value bio-monitoring tool.

    PubMed

    Archibald, C G M; Taylor, J C

    2007-01-01

    Three data sources (physico-chemistry, bio-monitoring and eco-toxicology) are currently used in South Africa to establish environmental water quality conditions. Environmental water quality in turn is key information required for the "ecological reserve determination" of river reaches. Bio-monitoring in South Africa has been limited in recent times mostly to the use of the SASS procedure which relies on invertebrates only. This paper describes the re-introduction of a diatom-based water quality assessment as an added-value bio-monitoring tool. A specific example is discussed citing the response of diatom assemblages to diffuse pollution from acid mine drainage and how effective diatoms are as indicators of ecological integrity and river recovery measured downstream of the area of impact. The advantages of applying this bio-monitoring technique over other biological measures are presented in the context of technological advances in rapid image processing, species identification and software applications of diatom-based water quality indices. The valuable records of the diatom assemblages of the past, held in the South African Diatom Collection at the CSIR (KwaZulu-Natal), can now be accessed and interpreted as historical environmental water quality reference points for several rivers in South Africa.

  5. Glucose intolerance in dairy goats with pregnancy toxemia: Lack of correlation between blood pH and beta hydroxybutyric acid values.

    PubMed

    Lima, Miguel S; Cota, João B; Vaz, Yolanda M; Ajuda, Inês G; Pascoal, Rita A; Carolino, Nuno; Hjerpe, Charles A

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the response to a glucose tolerance test in dairy goats with pregnancy toxemia (PT), in healthy, pregnant, non-lactating dairy goats in the last month of gestation (HP), and in healthy, lactating, non-pregnant, dairy goats in mid-lactation (HL). A 500 mL volume of a 5% glucose solution was administered by the IV route. Blood glucose concentrations returned to pre-infusion levels by 90 min in all 8 HL goats, and by 180 min in all 8 HP goats. In contrast, concentrations of blood glucose were still significantly above pre-infusion levels at 180 min post-infusion in all 8 PT goats. Thus, marked glucose intolerance was demonstrated in the PT goats, and mild intolerance was noted in the HP goats. In 25 goats diagnosed with PT and having blood beta hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) values ≥ 2.9 mmol/L, the correlation coefficient for BHBA with blood pH was non-significant.

  6. Glucose intolerance in dairy goats with pregnancy toxemia: Lack of correlation between blood pH and beta hydroxybutyric acid values

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Miguel S.; Cota, João B.; Vaz, Yolanda M.; Ajuda, Inês G.; Pascoal, Rita A.; Carolino, Nuno; Hjerpe, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the response to a glucose tolerance test in dairy goats with pregnancy toxemia (PT), in healthy, pregnant, non-lactating dairy goats in the last month of gestation (HP), and in healthy, lactating, non-pregnant, dairy goats in mid-lactation (HL). A 500 mL volume of a 5% glucose solution was administered by the IV route. Blood glucose concentrations returned to pre-infusion levels by 90 min in all 8 HL goats, and by 180 min in all 8 HP goats. In contrast, concentrations of blood glucose were still significantly above pre-infusion levels at 180 min post-infusion in all 8 PT goats. Thus, marked glucose intolerance was demonstrated in the PT goats, and mild intolerance was noted in the HP goats. In 25 goats diagnosed with PT and having blood beta hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) values ≥ 2.9 mmol/L, the correlation coefficient for BHBA with blood pH was non-significant. PMID:27247464

  7. Screening for latent acute intermittent porphyria: the value of measuring both leucocyte delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase and erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen-1-synthase activities.

    PubMed Central

    McColl, K E; Moore, M R; Thompson, G G; Goldberg, A

    1982-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of haem biosynthesis characterised by reduced activity of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen-1-(URO) synthase and compensatory increased activity of the rate controlling enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) synthase. Subjects with the disorder should be identified as they are at risk of developing severe porphyric attacks if exposed to a variety of drugs or chemicals. We have assessed the value of measuring the activities of ALA synthase and URO synthase in peripheral blood cells as a means of identifying latent cases in affected families. In AIP subjects, ALA synthase activity was increased and URO synthase decreased compared to controls, through there was considerable overlap between the two groups when either enzyme was examined alone. When both enzymes were examined together, all but one of the 19 AIP patients had both increased ALA synthase activity (greater than 250 nmol ALA/g protein/h) and reduced URO synthase activity (less than 25.1 nmol URO/l RBC/h), whereas none of the 62 controls showed this enzyme pattern. Examination of 35 asymptomatic first degree blood relatives of AIP patients showed that 17 (49%) had the porphyric enzyme pattern with no sex bias. The combined study of these two enzymes permits accurate detection of latent cases of AIP and confirms its autosomal dominant inheritance. PMID:7120315

  8. Synergic effect of acetal-based resin by blending with poly[4-hydroxy styrene-co-tert-butyl acrylate-co-4-(3-cyano-1,5-di-tert-butyl carbonyl pentyl styrene)] (P(HS-TBA-CBPS)) on the profiles of 248 nm chemically amplified resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sik; Lee, Dong H.; Cho, Sook H.; Im, Kwang H.; Yim, Yun-Gill; Kim, Deog-Bae; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2002-07-01

    We prepared ter-polymer of hydroxystyrene, tert-butyl acrylate and 4-(3-cyano-1,5-di-tert-butyl carbonyl pentyl styrene) (P(HS-TBA-CBPS)) and discussed a characteristic of prepared polymer. As TBA, newly introduced monomer increases, contrast of resist is improved. And the prepared polymer was blended with poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-4-(1-ethylethoxystyrene)) (EE-PHS). The synergic effect on a resist performance in KrF lithography by the combination of high and low activation energy system was shown. A resist using blending polymer was shown a good performance on resolution and LER(Line Edge Roughness) than resist using polymer separately. Based on the results, it was found that high performance KrF resist could be obtained by optimization of polymer blending.

  9. Critical assessment of the diagnostic value of feline alpha1-acid glycoprotein for feline infectious peritonitis using the likelihood ratios approach.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Saverio; Saverio, Paltrinieri; Giordano, Alessia; Alessia, Giordano; Tranquillo, Vito; Vito, Tranquillo; Guazzetti, Stefano; Stefano, Guazzetti

    2007-05-01

    Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) increases in the blood of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a lethal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). However, the diagnostic potential of AGP might be limited because AGP also increases in pathophysiological conditions other than FIP. In this retrospective study, the diagnostic potential of serum AGP concentration was evaluated on the basis of the pretest probability of disease, according to the Bayesian approach. Serum AGP levels from cats with FIP (group 1; n = 58) and without FIP (group 2; n = 104) were evaluated. Non-FIP cats were further subgrouped as follows: 2a) inflammation (n = 26), 2b) asymptomatic FCoV infection (n = 49), 2c) injection-site sarcoma (n = 19), 2d) postvaccination (n = 7), and 2e) specific pathogen free (n = 3). Standard descriptive analyses by group and empirical receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve estimation were performed. Ordinary logistic regression analysis was performed to derive an estimate of the continuous likelihood ratio to produce the posttest probability of disease for any combination of pretest probability and serum AGP value. The comparison of serum AGP levels in the different groups and the analysis of the ROC curve confirmed that serum AGP is a powerful discriminating marker for FIP. The Bayesian approach demonstrated that when the pretest probability of FIP is high, based on history and clinical signs (groups 1 or 2a), moderate serum AGP levels (1.5-2 mg/ml) can discriminate cats with FIP from others, while only high serum AGP levels (>3 mg/ml) can support a diagnosis of FIP in cats with a low pretest probability of disease (groups 2b to 2e).

  10. Protective effect of propofol against kainic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates: comparison with trolox and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung; Jang, Young-Ho; Lee, Seong-Ryong

    2005-07-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of propofol with that of trolox and melatonin for reduction of lipid peroxidation in vitro. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of kainic acid (KA; 10 mM), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 10 mM), or ferrous ammonium sulfate (5 microM) to mouse brain homogenate, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were used as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Propofol, trolox, and melatonin reduced KA-, H2O2-, and ferrous ammonium sulfate-induced lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. In reducing KA-induced lipid peroxidation, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of antioxidants were as follows: propofol (11.33 mM), trolox (4.00 mM), and melatonin (9.72 mM). In reducing H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation, IC50 values of antioxidants were as follows: propofol (56.86 mM), trolox (33.34 mM), and melatonin (26.63 mM). In reducing ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation, IC50 values of antioxidants were as follows: propofol (49.57 mM), trolox (60.35 mM), and melatonin (22.02 mM). Under the in vitro conditions of this experiment, propofol was an excellent and a very potent antioxidant in inhibiting KA-, H2O2-, and ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates. We conclude that the antioxidant properties of propofol at clinically relevant anesthetic concentrations may have a neuroprotective effect.

  11. In Situ Biodegradation of MTBE and TBA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water at most UST spills sites in Kansas contains both MTBE and benzene, and both contaminants must be effectively treated to close the sites. Soil vacuum extraction, and air sparging are common treatment technologies in Kansas. The technologies supply oxygen to support ...

  12. Observation of pH Value in Electrokinetic Remediation using various electrolyte (MgSO4, KH2PO4 and Na(NO3)) for Barren Acidic Soil at Ayer Hitam, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norashira, J.; Zaidi, E.; Aziman, M.; Saiful Azhar, A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Barren acidic soil collected at Ayer Hitam, Johor Malaysia was recorded at pH value of 2.36 with relative humidity of 86%. This pH value is not suitable for the growth of any plants especially for the soil stabilization purposes. Gradation weathering within the range of 4 to 6 indicates an incomplete/partial weathering process. The soil grade in this range is known as a black shale mudstone. Beside, this also influences to a factor of the high surface water runoff at this particular soil species. As the acidic pH become a major problem for soil fertilizing hence an appropriate technique was implemented known as using ‘Electrokinetic Remediation’, EKR. This technique has a great potential in changing the soil pH value from acidic to less acidic and also kept maintain the pH at the saturated rate of electrochemical process. This research study presents the monitoring data of pH value due to the effect of various electrolyte consist of 0.5M of MgSO4, KH2PO4, and Na(NO3). Here, the distilled water (DW) was used as reference solution. The electric field was provided by dipping two pieces of identical rectangular aluminum foil as anode and cathode. The EKR was conducted under a constant voltage gradient of 50 V/m across the sample bulk at 0.14 m length measured between both electrodes. The data collection was conducted during the total period of 7 days surveillance. The variation of pH values at the remediation area between anode and cathode for various type of electrolyte indicates that there are a significant saturated value as it reaches 7 days of treatment. During the analysis, it is found that the highest pH value at the remediation area after 7 days treatment using Na(NO3), KH2PO4 and MgSO4 was 3.93, 3.33 and 3.39 respectively. Hence from the last stage of pH value observation, it can be conclude that the best electrolyte for barren soil treatment is Na(NO3) whereby it contribute to highest pH value and turn the soil to be less acidic.

  13. pKa values of hyodeoxycholic and cholic acids in the binary mixed micelles sodium-hyodeoxycholate-Tween 40 and sodium-cholate-Tween 40: Thermodynamic stability of the micelle and the cooperative hydrogen bond formation with the steroid skeleton.

    PubMed

    Poša, Mihalj; Pilipović, Ana; Bećarević, Mirjana; Farkaš, Zita

    2017-01-01

    Due to a relatively small size of bile acid salts, their mixed micelles with nonionic surfactants are analysed. Of the special interests are real binary mixed micelles that are thermodynamically more stable than ideal mixed micelles. Thermodynamic stability is expressed with an excess Gibbs energy (G(E)) or over an interaction parameter (βij). In this paper sodium salts of cholic (C) and hyodeoxycholic acid (HD) in their mixed micelles with Tween 40 (T40) are analysed by potentiometric titration and their pKa values are determined. Examined bile acids in mixed micelles with T40 have higher pKa values than free bile acids. The increase of ΔpKa acid constant of micellary bound C and HD is in a correlation with absolute values of an interaction parameter. According to an interaction parameter and an excess Gibbs energy, mixed micelle HD-T40 are thermodynamically more stable than mixed micelles C-T40. ΔpKa values are higher for mixed micelles with Tween 40 whose second building unit is HD, related to the building unit C. In both micellar systems, ΔpKa increases with the rise of a molar fraction of Tween 40 in binary mixtures of surfactants with sodium salts of bile acids. This suggests that, ΔpKa can be a measure of a thermodynamic stabilization of analysed binary mixed micelles as well as an interaction parameter. ΔpKa values are confirmed by determination of a distribution coefficient of HD and C in systems: water phase with Tween 40 in a micellar concentration and 1-octanol, with a change of a pH value of a water phase. Conformational analyses suggests that synergistic interactions between building units of analysed binary micelles originates from formation of hydrogen bonds between steroid OH groups and polyoxyethylene groups of the T40. Relative similarity and spatial orientation of C3 and C6 OH group allows cooperative formation of hydrogen bonds between T40 and HD - excess entropy in formation of mixed micelle. If a water solution of analysed binary

  14. Structural and spectroscopic study of 6,7-dicyano-substituted lumazine with high electron affinity and proton acidity.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Ken-ichi; Nagahara, Kenta; Yoshii, Yuuya; Hoshino, Norihisa; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2013-05-02

    The introduction of cyano groups into lumazine (pteridine-2,4-(1H,3H)dione) at the C6 and C7 positions enhances its electron affinity, proton acidity, and solubility in solvents. As a result, 6,7-dicyanolumazine (DCNLH2) forms charge transfer (CT) complexes with donors such as tetrathiafulvalene, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and readily dissociates a proton from the N1 nitrogen to form a monoanionic salt with tetrabutylammonium (TBA(+)). Crystal structures of the CT complexes consist of mixed stacks in which DCNLH2 interacts with donors in face-to-face configurations, but they form intermolecular hydrogen bonds differently depending on the donor type. In the TBA(+) salt, two deprotonated DCNLH(-) monoanions form a unique dianionic dimer connected by two centrosymmetric hydrogen bonds, N3-H···O-C2, which is electronically isolated by the presence of bulky TBA(+) countercations and the absence of a proton at the N1 hydrogen-bonding site. This dimer fluoresces yellowish green (fluorescence quantum yield Φ = 0.04). Because the DCNLH(-) anion only shows weak blue fluorescence in aqueous solution (Φ < 0.01), we suggest that the dimer formation is responsible for the fluorescence enhancement with a large emission band shift to the low-energy side.

  15. The value of grip test, lysophosphatidlycholines, glycerophosphocholine, ornithine, glucuronic acid decrement in assessment of nutritional and metabolic characteristics in hepatitis B cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Yin, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Xiao, Huijuan; Qi, Yumei; Liu, Shuye; Qian, Baoxin; Wang, Fengmei; Han, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The liver is essential for the regulation of energy, protein and amino acids, as well as in other aspects of metabolism. To identify efficient indexes for evaluation of nutritional status and metabolic characteristics during different Child-Pugh stages of hepatitis B cirrhosis, 83 patients and 35 healthy individuals were enrolled in our study. We found that grip strength, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), body fat and skeletal muscle of the patients were reduced compared to the control group (P<0.05). Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography data combined with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) showed that levels of a variety of metabolites, including lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs), glycerophosphocholine, ornithine and glucuronic acid were reduced in the serum of patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis (P<0.001). However, glycerophosphoserine and taurocholic acid levels were higher than in the control group (P<0.001). Moreover, grip strength was correlated with the Child-Pugh score (P<0.05). Serum albumin, total cholesterol, LDL, LysoPCs, glycerophosphocholine, ornithine, glucuronic acid, glycerophosphoserine and taurocholic acid were correlated with the Child-Pugh score (P<0.01). These findings suggested that grip strength and the above small molecular substances might be considered as sensitive and important indexes for evaluating nutritional status and metabolic characteristics of patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis, which may help assess prognosis and adjust nutritional treatment.

  16. Metabolism, microflora effects, and genotoxicity in haloacetic acid-treated cultures of rat cecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G M; Swank, A E; Brooks, L R; Bailey, K C; George, S E

    2001-04-01

    Haloacetic acids are by-products of drinking water disinfection. Several compounds in this class are genotoxic and have been identified as rodent hepatocarcinogens. Enzymes produced by the normal intestinal bacteria can transform some promutagens and procarcinogens to their biologically active forms. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of the cecal microbiota on the mutagenicity of haloacetic acids, and to look at changes in the microbiota populations and enzyme activities associated with exposure to haloacetic acids. PYG medium containing 1 mg/ml of monochloroacetic (MCA), monobromoacetic (MBA), dichloroacetic (DCA), dibromoacetic (DBA), trichloroacetic (TCA), tribromoacetic (TBA), or bromochloroacetic (BCA) acid was inoculated with rat cecal homogenate and incubated anaerobically at 37 degrees C. Growth curves were performed with enumeration of the microflora populations on selective media. Mutagenicity in a Salmonella microsuspension bioassay was determined after incubation for various lengths of time, with or without the cecal microbiota. At 15 h of incubation, enzyme assays determined the activities for beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase, azoreductase, nitroreductase, dechlorinase, and dehydrochlorinase. The haloacetic acids, with the exception of BCA, were toxic to the cecal microbiota, and especially to the enterococci. DBA, TBA, and BCA were mutagenic in the microsuspension assay, but the presence of the intestinal flora did not significantly alter the mutagenicity. BCA increased the activities of several enzymes, and therefore has the potential to affect the biotransformation of co-exposed compounds.

  17. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  18. Low abdominal NIRS values and elevated plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in a premature piglet model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify early markers of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we hypothesized that continuous abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (A-NIRS) measurement of splanchnic tissue oxygen saturation and intermittent plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (pI-FABP) measured every 6 hours can detect NEC...

  19. Some features of the effect the pH value and the physicochemical properties of boric acid have on mass transfer in a VVER reactor's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, A. V.; Kritskii, V. G.; Rodionov, Yu. A.; Berezina, I. G.

    2013-07-01

    Certain features of the effect of boric acid in the reactor coolant of nuclear power installations equipped with a VVER-440 reactor on mass transfer in the reactor core are considered. It is determined that formation of boric acid polyborate complexes begins under field conditions at a temperature of 300°C when the boric acid concentration is equal to around 0.065 mol/L (4 g/L). Operations for decontaminating the reactor coolant system entail a growth of corrosion product concentration in the coolant, which gives rise to formation of iron borates in the zones where subcooled boiling of coolant takes place and to the effect of axial offset anomalies. A model for simulating variation of pressure drop in a VVER-440 reactor's core that has invariable parameters during the entire fuel campaign is developed by additionally taking into account the concentrations of boric acid polyborate complexes and the quantity of corrosion products (Fe, Ni) represented by the ratio of their solubilities.

  20. Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated (Super 13)C Chemical Shifts and pK[subscript a] Values of Para-Substituted Benzoic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongyi Wang

    2005-01-01

    A study uses the ChemDraw nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) tool to process 15 para-substituted benzoic acids and generate (super 13)C NMR chemical shifts of C1 through C5. The data were plotted against their pK[subscript a] value and a fairly good linear fit was found for pK[subscript a] versus delta[subscript c1].

  1. Acid tolerance of acid-adapted and nonadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 following habituation (10 degrees C) in fresh beef decontamination runoff fluids of different pH values.

    PubMed

    Samelis, John; Kendall, Patricia; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2004-04-01

    This study evaluated survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43895 during exposure to pH 3.5 following its habituation for 2 or 7 days at 10 degrees in fresh beef decontamination waste runoff fluid mixtures (washings) containing 0, 0.02, or 0.2% of lactic or acetic acids. Meat washings and sterile water (control) were initially inoculated with approximately 5 log CFU/ml of acid- and nonadapted E. coli O157:H7 cells cultured (30 degrees C, 24 h) in broth with and without 1% glucose, respectively. After 2 days, E. coli O157:H7 survivors from acetate washings (pH 3.7 to 4.7) survived at pH 3.5 better than E. coli O157:H7 survivors from lactate washings (pH 3.1 to 4.6), especially when the original inoculum was acid adapted. Also, although E. coli O157:H7 habituated in sterile water for 2 days survived well at pH 3.5, the corresponding survivors from nonacid water meat washings (pH 6.8) were rapidly killed at pH 3.5, irrespective of acid adaptation. After 7 days, E. coli O157:H7 survivors from acetate washings (pH 3.6 to 4.7) continued to resist pH 3.5, whereas those from lactate washings died off. This loss of acid tolerance by E. coli O157:H7 was due to either its low survival in 0.2% lactate washings (pH 3.1) or its acid sensitization in 0.02% lactate washings, in which a Pseudomonas-like natural flora showed extensive growth (> 8 log CFU/ml) and the pH increased to 6.5 to 6.6. Acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 populations habituated in water washings (pH 7.1 to 7.3) for 7 days continued to be acid sensitive, whereas nonadapted populations increased their acid tolerance, a response merely correlated with their slight (< 1 log) growth at 10 degrees C. These results indicate that the expression of high acid tolerance by acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 can be maintained or enhanced in acid-diluted meat decontamination waste runoff fluids of pH levels that could permit long-term survival at 10 degrees C. Previous acid adaptation, however, could reduce the growth

  2. Behavior of Surface-Anchored Poly(acrylic acid) Brushes with Grafting Density Gradients on Solid Substrates: 1. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,T.; Gong, P.; Szleifer, I.; Vicek, P.; Subr, V.; Genzer, J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe experiments pertaining to the formation of surface-anchored poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes with a gradual variation of the PAA grafting densities on flat surfaces and provide detailed analysis of their properties. The PAA brush gradients are generated by first covering the substrate with a molecular gradient of the polymerization initiator, followed by the 'grafting from' polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from these substrate-bound initiator centers, and finally converting the PtBA into PAA. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the wet thickness of the grafted PAA chains in aqueous solutions at three different pH values (4, 5.8, and 10) and a series of ionic strengths (IS). Our measurements reveal that at low grafting densities, s, the wet thickness of the PAA brush (H) remains relatively constant, the polymers are in the mushroom regime. Beyond a certain value of s, the macromolecules enter the brush regime, where H increases with increasing s. For a given s, H exhibits a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the IS. At large IS, the H is small because the charges along PAA are completely screened by the excess of the external salt. As IS decreases, the PAA enters the so-called salt brush (SB) regime, where H increases. At a certain value of IS, H reaches a maximum and then decreases again. The latter is a typical brush behavior in so-called osmotic brush (OB) regime. We provide detailed discussion of the behavior of the grafted PAA chains in the SB and OB regimes.

  3. Limiting values of diffusion coefficients of glycine, alanine, [Formula: see text]-amino butyric acid, norvaline and norleucine in a relevant physiological aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Diana M; Verissimo, Luis M P; Barros, Marisa C F; Rodrigues, Daniela F S L; Rodrigo, Maria Melia; Esteso, Miguel A; Romero, Carmen M; Ribeiro, Ana C F

    2017-02-01

    The side chain effect on transport in ionic aqueous salt solutions was investigated for [Formula: see text]-amino acids glycine, alanine, [Formula: see text]-amino butyric acid, norvaline, and norleucine --that together define a chemical homologous series based on the length of the characteristic side chain which increases from zero to four carbons, respectively. Binary mutual diffusion coefficients at infinitesimal concentration in aqueous solutions of NaCl (0.15 mol kg (-1)) are measured by means of Taylor dispersion technique for this series and significant differences were found against previous published results for identical systems in pure water. In this way, NaCl effect on the transport of each amino acid is thus assessed and discussed in terms of salting-out effects. Also, solvated Stokes hydrodynamic radii were computed for the series showing comparable results in water and NaCl solution. The new information should prove useful in the design and characterization of transport-controlled systems in physiological and pharmacological studies.

  4. Testing compound-specific δ13C of amino acids in mussels as a new approach to determine the average 13C values of primary production in littoral ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhshoori, N. L.; Larsen, T.; McCarthy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids (CSI-AA) is a technique used to decouple trophic enrichment patterns from source changes at the base of the food web. With this new emerging tool, it is possible to precisely determine both trophic position and δ15N or δ13C source values in higher feeding organisms. While most work to date has focused on nitrogen (N) isotopic values, early work has suggested that δ13C CSI-AA has great potential as a new tracer both to a record δ13C values of primary production (unaltered by trophic transfers), and also to "fingerprint" specific carbon source organisms. Since essential amino acids (EAA) cannot be made de novo in metazoans but must be obtained from diet, the δ13C value of the primary producer is preserved through the food web. Therefore, the δ13C values of EAAs act as a unique signature of different primary producers and can be used to fingerprint the dominant carbon (C) source driving primary production at the base of the food web. In littoral ecosystems, such as the California Upwelling System (CUS), the likely dominant C sources of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) pool are kelp, upwelling phytoplankton or estuarine phytoplankton. While bulk isotopes of C and N are used extensively to resolve relative consumer hierarchy or shifting diet in a food web, we found that the δ13C bulk values in mussels cannot distinguish exact source in littoral ecosystems. Here we show 15 sites within the CUS, between Cape Blanco, OR and La Jolla, CA where mussels were sampled and analyzed for both bulk δ13C and CSI-AA. We found no latitudinal trends, but rather average bulk δ13C values for the entire coastal record were highly consistent (-15.7 ± 0.9‰). The bulk record would suggest either nutrient provisioning from kelp or upwelled phytoplankton, but 13C-AA fingerprinting confines these two sources to upwelling. This suggests that mussels are recording integrated coastal phytoplankton values, with the enriched

  5. The effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes on growth, metabolizable energy value, and nitrogen utilization of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Squires, M W; Naber, E C; Toelle, V D

    1992-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato pomace on gain, feed to gain ratio, nitrogen utilization, and ME of diets for broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, both treated and untreated tomato pomace was included in broiler diets at a 10 or 20% level. Results indicated that the level or antinutritional factors present in untreated tomato cannery waste did not appreciably depress any measured production parameter. Hence, it appeared that untreated tomato cannery wastes might be used as a feed ingredient in low-energy poultry diets (broiler breeder and laying hen recycling rations), ruminant diets, and as a protein source in regions of the world where such feed ingredients are scarce. The second experiment was designed to test the effect of alkali concentration and treatment time of tomato pomace on the performance of broiler chicks. Alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of broiler chicks over those of untreated tomato waste controls. Results indicated that the increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of the chicks were due in part to the acid neutralization phase of the alkali treatment. Alkali treatment apparently affects the tomato cannery wastes almost instantaneously, as differences among actual treatment times and concentrations were small. However, only the highest alkali treatment increased the pH of the tomato cannery waste above 7, suggesting that a true alkali treatment might cause additional improvements in gain and feed to gain ratio when fed to broiler chicks.

  6. Novel impedimetric dopamine biosensor based on boronic acid functional polythiophene modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Senel, Mehmet; Cevik, Emre

    2017-03-01

    In this study we report a new, simple and first impedimetric biosensor based on 3-Thienyl boronic acid for dopamine detection. Biosensor electrode preparation is 1min long by simple electro-polymerization of 3-Thienyl boronic acid and copolymer Thiophene P(TBA0.50Th0.50). Strong interaction between dopamine and thin layer of boronic acid has provided bio-sensing electrode high selectivity and stability, linear range of 7.8 to 125μM, and detection limit of 0.3μM. Characterization and optimization studies were conducted using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammogram (CV). In order to test reliability of proposed biosensor real sample application study has been conducted using non-diluted human urine and it has been found that biosensor selectivity and recovery is excellent. As well P(TBA0.50Th0.50) based electrode and dopamine interaction has been proven by single frequency impedance measurements. Biosensors acquired good reproducibility, stability, selectivity and very low interference.

  7. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  8. Sensory quality of short- and long-term frozen stored pork products. Influence of diets varying in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and iodine value.

    PubMed

    Hallenstvedt, E; Øverland, M; Rehnberg, A; Kjos, N P; Thomassen, M

    2012-01-01

    Predicting aspects of pork quality is becoming increasingly important from a nutritional as well as a technological point of view. Here, the influence of increasing PUFA and iodine values (IV) in feed and pigs on sensory qualities of short- and long-term frozen stored products was investigated. Entire male and female grower-finisher pigs were fed diets with iodine value products of 48 (LowIVP), 77 (MedIVP) or 99 (HighIVP) according to a restricted feeding scale. Ribs, chops and meat balls were short- (0-3 months) and long-term (6-9 months) frozen stored before sensory profiling. C18:2n-6 increased linearly in backfat with increased dietary inclusion. No negative effect on sensory quality was found in short-term stored products. After long-term storage the lean chops was the product most affected. Increasing the dietary IVP led to an increased rancid and total odour and flavour intensity, and to reduced meat and sour odour and flavour.

  9. Diagnostic value of serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and amino acid patterns in several schistosomal and non-schistosomal disorders as compared to other biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S A; Gad, M Z

    1996-08-01

    Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme and amino acid (a.a) patterns were evaluated in comparison to several other biochemical parameters for liver and renal function with the objective of clarifying the differential diagnosis of hepatic disorders and predicting the outcome of schistosomal infection in Egyptian patients. Patients examined included those with complicated hepatic disorders and others with different stages of schistosomal infestation, hepatoma or bladder cancer, in addition to a normal control group. Several biochemical parameters appeared to be useful in establishing consistent differences or similarities between the studied groups. Examples are; elevated serum AST/ALT ratio and methionine content in chronic schistosomiasis, elevated serum urea/creatinine ratio and leucine content in all schistosomal patients and extremely high levels of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in the urine of non-schistosomal bladder cancer patients. In addition, characteristic LDH isoenzyme profiles distinguish between the studied groups, in particular separating chronic schistosomiasis from schistosomal bladder cancer and hepatoma from other hepatic disorders.

  10. Added value of next generation gene panel analysis for patients with elevated methylmalonic acid and no clinical diagnosis following functional studies of vitamin B12 metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pupavac, Mihaela; Tian, Xia; Chu, Jordan; Wang, Guoli; Feng, Yanming; Chen, Stella; Fenter, Remington; Zhang, Victor W; Wang, Jing; Watkins, David; Wong, Lee-Jun; Rosenblatt, David S

    2016-03-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) based gene panel testing is increasingly available as a molecular diagnostic approach for inborn errors of metabolism. Over the past 40 years patients have been referred to the Vitamin B12 Clinical Research Laboratory at McGill University for diagnosis of inborn errors of cobalamin metabolism by functional studies in cultured fibroblasts. DNA samples from patients in which no diagnosis was made by these studies were tested by a NGS gene panel to determine whether any molecular diagnoses could be made. 131 DNA samples from patients with elevated methylmalonic acid and no diagnosis following functional studies of cobalamin metabolism were analyzed using the 24 gene extended cobalamin metabolism NGS based panel developed by Baylor Miraca Genetics Laboratories. Gene panel testing identified two or more variants in a single gene in 16/131 patients. Eight patients had pathogenic findings, one had a finding of uncertain significance, and seven had benign findings. Of the patients with pathogenic findings, five had mutations in ACSF3, two in SUCLG1 and one in TCN2. Thus, the NGS gene panel allowed for the presumptive diagnosis of 8 additional patients for which a diagnosis was not made by the functional assays.

  11. Studies on Diarrhea in Neonatal Calves III. Acid-base and Serum Electrolyte Values in Normal Calves from Birth to Ten Days of Age

    PubMed Central

    Butler, D. G.; Willoughby, R. A.; McSherry, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    A detailed clinical examination was conducted and blood samples were collected from a total of 151 normal calves as soon as possible after birth and at two to three day intervals until the calves were ten days old. The mean venous pH values for calves from birth to ten days of age was 7.38 ± 0.05. The mean serum sodium, potassium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, calcium and chloride ion concentrations in normal calves from birth to ten days of age were 148 ± 13, 5.4 ± 0.8, 2.1 ± 0.4, 4.3 ± 0.8, 5.6 ± 0.5, 95 ±5, mEq/litre respectively. The mean serum osmolality in normal calves from birth to ten days of age was 280 ± 12 mOsm/litre. PMID:4251412

  12. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Fareed

    2016-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries.

  13. Assessing the Accuracy and Precision of Inorganic Geochemical Data Produced through Flux Fusion and Acid Digestions: Multiple (60+) Comprehensive Analyses of BHVO-2 and the Development of Improved "Accepted" Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Scudder, R.; Dunlea, A. G.; Anderson, C. H.; Murray, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The use of geological standard reference materials (SRMs) to assess both the accuracy and the reproducibility of geochemical data is a vital consideration in determining the major and trace element abundances of geologic, oceanographic, and environmental samples. Calibration curves commonly are generated that are predicated on accurate analyses of these SRMs. As a means to verify the robustness of these calibration curves, a SRM can also be run as an unknown item (i.e., not included as a data point in the calibration). The experimentally derived composition of the SRM can thus be compared to the certified (or otherwise accepted) value. This comparison gives a direct measure of the accuracy of the method used. Similarly, if the same SRM is analyzed as an unknown over multiple analytical sessions, the external reproducibility of the method can be evaluated. Two common bulk digestion methods used in geochemical analysis are flux fusion and acid digestion. The flux fusion technique is excellent at ensuring complete digestion of a variety of sample types, is quick, and does not involve much use of hazardous acids. However, this technique is hampered by a high amount of total dissolved solids and may be accompanied by an increased analytical blank for certain trace elements. On the other hand, acid digestion (using a cocktail of concentrated nitric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) provides an exceptionally clean digestion with very low analytical blanks. However, this technique results in a loss of Si from the system and may compromise results for a few other elements (e.g., Ge). Our lab uses flux fusion for the determination of major elements and a few key trace elements by ICP-ES, while acid digestion is used for Ti and trace element analyses by ICP-MS. Here we present major and trace element data for BHVO-2, a frequently used SRM derived from a Hawaiian basalt, gathered over a period of over two years (30+ analyses by each technique). We show that both digestion

  14. High performance ion chromatography of haloacetic acids on macrocyclic cryptand anion exchanger.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Horvath, Krisztian; Perrachon, Daniela; Prelle, Ambra; Tófalvi, Renáta; Sarzanini, Corrado; Hajós, Péter

    2008-04-11

    A new high performance ion chromatographic method has been developed for the separation of the nine chlorinated-brominated haloacetic acids (HAAs) that are the disinfection by-products of chlorination of drinking water, using a macrocycle-based adjustable-capacity anion-exchange separator column (IonPac Cryptand A1). A gradient method based on theoretical and experimental considerations has been optimized in which 10 mM NaOH-LiOH step gradient was performed at the third minute of the analysis. The optimized method allowed us to separate the nine HAAs and seven possibly interfering inorganic anions in less than 25 min with acceptable resolution. The minimum concentrations detectable for HAAs were between 8.0 (MBA) and 210 (TBA) microg L(-1), with linearity included between 0.9947 (TBA) and 0.9998 (MBA). To increase sensitivity, a 25-fold preconcentration step on a reversed phase substrate (LiChrolut EN) has been coupled. Application of this method to the analysis of haloacetic acids in real tap water samples is illustrated.

  15. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  16. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  17. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  18. Redeeming Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitwell, Stuart C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an essay on organizational transformation and the way successful marketing transformations redeem a sense of value. Focuses on challenges faced by not-for-profit institutions, current changes in the library profession, and implications of the American Library Association's Goal 2000. A sidebar summarizes an interview with the director of…

  19. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  20. A new hyaluronic acid pH sensitive derivative obtained by ATRP for potential oral administration of proteins.

    PubMed

    Fiorica, Calogero; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Di Stefano, Mauro; Calascibetta, Filippo; Giammona, Gaetano

    2013-11-30

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been successfully employed to obtain a new derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA) able to change its solubility as a function of external pH and then to be potentially useful for intestinal release of bioactive molecules, included enzymes and proteins. In particular, a macroinitiator has been prepared by linking 2-bromo-2-methypropionic acid (BMP) to the amino groups of ethylenediamino derivative of tetrabutyl ammonium salt of HA (HA-TBA-EDA). This macroinititor, named HA-TBA-EDA-BMP has been used for the ATRP of sodium methacrylate (MANa) using a complex of Cu(I) and 2,2'-bipyridyl (Byp) as a catalyst. The resulting copolymer, named HA-EDA-BMP-MANa, has been characterized by (1)H NMR and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analyses. A turbidimetric analysis has showed its pH sensitive behavior, being insoluble in simulated gastric fluid but soluble when pH increases more than 2.5. To confirm the ability of HA-EDA-BMP-MANa in protecting peptides or proteins from denaturation in acidic medium, α-chymotrypsin has been chosen as a model of protein molecule and its activity has been evaluated after entrapment into HA-EDA-BMP-MANa chains and treatment under simulated gastric conditions. Finally, cell compatibility has been evaluated by performing a MTS assay on murine dermal fibroblasts cultured with HA-EDA-BMP-MANa solutions.

  1. Microbial carbon cycling in oligotrophic regional aquifers near the Tono Uranium Mine, Japan as inferred from δ 13C and Δ 14C values of in situ phospholipid fatty acids and carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Amano, Yuki; Slater, Gregory F.; Dias, Robert F.; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mandernack, Kevin W.

    2010-07-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in deep subsurface environments, but their role in the global carbon cycle is not well-understood. The natural abundance δ 13C and Δ 14C values of microbial membrane phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were measured and used to assess the carbon sources of bacteria in sedimentary and granitic groundwaters sampled from three boreholes in the vicinity of the Tono Uranium Mine, Gifu, Japan. Sample storage experiments were performed and drill waters analyzed to characterize potential sources of microbial contamination. The most abundant PLFA structures in all waters sampled were 16:0, 16:1ω7 c, cy17:0, and 18:1ω7 c. A PLFA biomarker for type II methanotrophs, 18:1ω8 c, comprised 3% and 18% of total PLFAs in anoxic sedimentary and granitic waters, respectively, sampled from the KNA-6 borehole. The presence of this biomarker was unexpected given that type II methanotrophs are considered obligate aerobes. However, a bacterium that grows aerobically with CH 4 as the sole energy source and which also produces 56% of its total PLFAs as 18:1ω8 c was isolated from both waters, providing additional evidence for the presence of type II methanotrophs. The Δ 14C values determined for type II methanotroph PLFAs in the sedimentary (-861‰) and granite (-867‰) waters were very similar to the Δ 14C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in each water (˜-850‰). This suggests that type II methanotrophs ultimately derive all their carbon from inorganic sources, whether directly from DIC and/or from CH 4 produced by the reduction of DIC. In contrast, δ 13C values of type II PLFAs in the sedimentary (-93‰) and granite (-60‰) waters indicate that these organisms use different carbon assimilation schemes in each environment despite very similar δ13C values (˜-95‰) for each water. The δ 13C PLFA values (-28‰ to -45‰) of non-methanotrophic bacteria in the KNA-6 LTL water do not clearly distinguish between heterotrophic and autotrophic

  2. Engineering E. coli for the biosynthesis of 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (3HBL) and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) as value-added chemicals from glucose as a sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Martin, Collin H; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-09-01

    3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (3HBL) is a versatile chiral synthon, deemed a top value-added chemical from biomass by the DOE. We recently reported the first biosynthetic pathway towards 3HBL and its hydrolyzed form, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) in recombinant Escherichia coli using glucose and glycolic acid as feedstocks and briefly described their synthesis solely from glucose. Synthesis from glucose requires integration of the endogenous glyoxylate shunt with the 3,4-DHBA/3HBL pathway and co-overexpression of seven genes, posing challenges with respect to expression, repression of the glyoxylate shunt and optimal carbon distribution between the two pathways. Here we discuss engineering this integration. While appropriate media and over-expression of glyoxylate shunt enzymes helped overcome repression, two orthogonal expression systems were employed to address the expression and carbon distribution challenge. Synthesis of up to 0.3g/L of 3HBL and 0.7g/L of 3,4-DHBA solely from glucose was demonstrated, amounting to 24% of the theoretical maximum.

  3. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING THORIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Schubert, J.

    1959-08-01

    An improved ion exchange method is described for recovery of uranium and thorium values as separate functions from an aqueous acidic solution containing less than 10/sup -3/ M thorium ions and between 0.1 and 1 M uranyl ions. The solution is passed through a bed of cation exchange resin in the acid form to adsorb all the thorium ions and a portion of the uranyl ions. The uranium is eluted by means of aqueous 0.1 to 0.4 M sulfuric acid. The thorium may then be stripped from the resin by elution with aqueous 0.5 M oxalic acid.

  4. Planning Value vs Earned Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    20 196 10 98 7 Postmortem 4 200 2 100 Les Dupaix - 17Earned Value Duration Charts Gantt (Bar) Chart Si lmp e Can show dependencies Tracking planned vs...7 7 4 2 Identify Requirements 78 86 39 43 4 6 96 103 43 3 Match Requirements 20 106 10 53 5 7 24 127 53 to Phases 4 Identify Risk Areas 20 126 10 63

  5. Valuing hope.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  6. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  7. An amplified electrochemiluminescent aptasensor using Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites as a signal enhancement tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Nan; Zhang, Xia; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal tag fabrication, the C60 nanoparticles (C60NPs) were prepared and then coated with 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) by π-π stacking interactions. Afterwards, thiosemicarbazide (TSC) was linked with PTCA functionalized C60NPs via amidation for further assembling Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Finally, detection aptamer of thrombin (TBA 2) was labeled on the ECL signal amplification tag of AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs. Herein, TSC, with the active groups of -NH2 and -SH, was selected and introduced into the ECL S2O82-/O2 system for the first time, which could not only offer the active groups of -SH to absorb AuNPs for TBA 2 anchoring but also remarkably enhance the ECL signal of the S2O82-/O2 system by the formation of TSC-PTC/C60NPs for signal amplification. Meanwhile, the sensing interface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by AuNPs/graphene (AuNPs/GR) nanocomposites with the large specific surface area and the active sites, followed by immobilization of thiol-terminated thrombin capture aptamer (TBA 1). With the formation of the sandwich-type structure of TBA 1, TB, and TBA 2 signal probes, a desirable enhanced ECL signal was measured in the testing buffer of an S2O82-/O2 solution for detecting TB. The aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship for TB detection in the range of 1 × 10-5-10 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 fM.A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal

  8. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  9. Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    PubMed

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-15

    The present study evaluated the quality of pistachio oil, as a function of irradiation, to determine the dose level causing undesirable changes to pistachio oil. Physicochemical fatty acid composition, acidity value, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and colour of pistachio oil extracted from samples treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation were determined. Gamma irradiation caused the alteration of fatty acids of pistachio oil which showed a decrease in oleic acid (C18:1) and an increase in linoleic acid (C18:2). All other fatty acids remained unaffected after irradiation. The higher used doses (2 and 3 kGy) decreased acidity value, peroxide value and iodine value, and increased specification number, with no effect on TBA value. Irradiation had a significant effect on colour values of pistachio oil. Parameters L, a and b increased at doses of 1 and 2 kGy.

  10. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  11. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    SciTech Connect

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18/sup 0/C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18/sup 0/C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found.

  12. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  13. Values in Education and Education in Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, J. Mark, Ed.; Taylor, Monica J., Ed.

    The major purpose of this book is to set out some of the key issues and debates relating to the importance of values in education and of education in values. After an introductory chapter about the concept of values and values education, part 1 provides a variety of perspectives on the values that underpin contemporary education. The introduction…

  14. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H Y; Yi, J Q; Piao, X S; Li, P F; Zeng, Z K; Wang, D; Liu, L; Wang, G Q; Han, X

    2013-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME) value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fermented soybean meal (FSBM), and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW) of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE) and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg) weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments' diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05). The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05). For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05). Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05) and better fecal score (p<0.05) than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC and

  15. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. Y.; Yi, J. Q.; Piao, X. S.; Li, P. F.; Zeng, Z. K.; Wang, D.; Liu, L.; Wang, G. Q.; Han, X.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME) value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fermented soybean meal (FSBM), and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW) of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE) and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg) weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments’ diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05). The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05). For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05). Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05) and better fecal score (p<0.05) than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC and

  16. EPA Region 9 Targeted Brownfields Assessment (TBA) Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides contractor assistance for property assessment to determine eligibility for up to $100,000 worth of technical assistance. Use this assessment form for properties in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Hawaii.

  17. USTC & TBA Guidelines for Tennis Court & Running Track Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    Guidelines are presented on tennis court and track and field construction that reflect the latest developments in construction technology, methodology, and practice. Based on contributions from experienced certified tennis court and track builders, material suppliers and design professionals, this manual examines each of the critical areas of…

  18. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  19. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  20. Azelaic acid.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M

    1987-12-01

    This review is an update on the literature accumulated over the past 10 years following the original observation that azelaic acid, a naturally occurring and nontoxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, possesses significant biologic properties and a potential as a therapeutic agent. These studies have shown that azelaic acid is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase and other oxidoreductases in vitro and that it inhibits mitochondrial respiration. It can also inhibit anaerobic glycolysis. Both in vitro and in vivo it has an antimicrobial effect on both aerobic and anaerobic (Propionibacterium acnes) microorganisms. In tissue culture it exerts a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on malignant melanocytes, associated with mitochondrial damage and inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Tumoral cell lines not containing tyrosinase are equally affected. Normal cells in culture exposed to the same concentrations of the diacid that are toxic for tumoral cells are in general not damaged. Radioactive azelaic acid has been shown to penetrate tumoral cells at a higher level than normal cells of the corresponding line. Topically applied (a 20% cream), it has been shown to be of therapeutic value in skin disorders of different etiologies. Its beneficial effect on various forms of acne (comedogenic, papulopustular, nodulocystic) has been clearly demonstrated. Particularly important is its action on abnormal melanocytes, which has led to the possibility of obtaining good results on melasma and highly durable therapeutic responses on lentigo maligna. It is also capable of causing regression of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but its role in melanoma therapy remains to be investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  2. Plasma chemistry references values in psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Lumeij, J T; Overduin, L M

    1990-04-01

    Reference values for 17 plasma chemical variables in African greys. Amazons, cockatoos and macaws were established for use in avian clinical practice. The inner limits are given for the percentiles P(2.5) and P(97.5) with a probability of 90%. The following variables were studied: urea, creatinine, uric acid, urea/uric acid ratio, osmolality, sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, bile acids, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio. Differences between methods used and values found in this study and those reported previously are discussed.

  3. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Karsloğlu, Betül; Çiçek, Ümran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p<0.05). After drying stage, free fatty acid values of traditional style and heat processed fermented sausages were between 10.54-13.01% and 6.56-8.49%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of traditionally processed fermented sausages were between 0.220-0.450 mg·kg(-1), and TBA values of heat processed fermented sausages were in a range of 0.405-0.795 mg·kg(-1). Oleic and linoleic acids were predominant fatty acids in all fermented sausages. It was seen that fermented sausage groups produced with starter culture had lower TBA and FFA values in comparison with the control groups, and heat application inhibited the lipase enzyme activity and had an improving effect on lipid oxidation. As a result of these effects, heat processed fermented sausages had lower FFA and higher TBA values than the traditionally processed groups.

  4. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  5. Comparison of liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) for the determination of collagen amino acid δ13C values for palaeodietary and palaeoecological reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Philip J H; Honch, Noah V; Evershed, Richard P

    2011-10-30

    Results are presented of a comparison of the amino acid (AA) δ(13)C values obtained by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS). Although the primary focus was the compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of bone collagen AAs, because of its growing application for palaeodietary and palaeoecological reconstruction, the results are relevant to any field where AA δ(13)C values are required. We compare LC/IRMS with the most up-to-date GC/C/IRMS method using N-acetyl methyl ester (NACME) AA derivatives. This comparison involves the analysis of standard AAs and hydrolysates of archaeological human bone collagen, which have been previously investigated as N-trifluoroacetyl isopropyl esters (TFA/IP). It was observed that, although GC/C/IRMS analyses required less sample, LC/IRMS permitted the analysis of a wider range of AAs, particularly those not amenable to GC analysis (e.g. arginine). Accordingly, reconstructed bulk δ(13)C values based on LC/IRMS-derived δ(13)C values were closer to the EA/IRMS-derived δ(13)C values than those based on GC/C/IRMS values. The analytical errors for LC/IRMS AA δ(13)C values were lower than GC/C/IRMS determinations. Inconsistencies in the δ(13)C values of the TFA/IP derivatives compared with the NACME- and LC/IRMS-derived δ(13)C values suggest inherent problems with the use of TFA/IP derivatives, resulting from: (i) inefficient sample combustion, and/or (ii) differences in the intra-molecular distribution of δ(13)C values between AAs, which are manifested by incomplete combustion. Close similarities between the NACME AA δ(13)C values and the LC/IRMS-derived δ(13)C values suggest that the TFA/IP derivatives should be abandoned for the natural abundance determinations of AA δ(13)C values.

  6. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  7. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  8. Values and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D., Ed.

    Every social studies teacher must consciously move to relate his course to the value dilemmas of youth and the value-laden issues of our time. A variety of writings by youth have been included to serve as source materials for classroom teachers and to provide significant insights into the values of youth. The section, Values in the Classroom:…

  9. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  10. Differential activation of pregnane X receptor by carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Seow, Chun Ling; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2017-03-10

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the expression of many genes, including those involved in drug metabolism and transport, and has been linked to various diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we determined whether carnosic acid and other chemicals in rosemary extract (carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid) are PXR activators. As assessed in dual-luciferase reporter gene assays, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, activated human PXR (hPXR) and mouse PXR (mPXR), whereas carnosol and ursolic acid, but not carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid, activated rat PXR (rPXR). Dose-response experiments indicated that carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid activated hPXR with EC50 values of 0.79, 2.22, and 10.77μM, respectively. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, transactivated the ligand-binding domain of hPXR and recruited steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), SRC-2, and SRC-3 to the ligand-binding domain of hPXR. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, increased hPXR target gene expression, as shown by an increase in CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and ABCB1 mRNA expression in LS180 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Rosmarinic acid did not attenuate the extent of hPXR activation by rifampicin, suggesting it is not an antagonist of hPXR. Overall, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, are hPXR agonists, and carnosic acid shows species-dependent activation of hPXR and mPXR, but not rPXR. The findings provide new mechanistic insight on the effects of carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid on PXR-mediated biological effects.

  11. [Nutritional value of sesame seeds].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N

    2011-01-01

    Literature data on the nutritional value of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), their use in feeding the world population and food production are presented. Sesame seeds contain up to 55% oil and 20% protein. Sesame proteins are limited by lysine but rich in tryptophan and methionine. Sesame oil is rich in linoleic and oleic acids, the predominance of gamma-tocopherol over the other isomers of vitamin E and high content of fat-soluble lignans (sesamin and sesamolin). Thanks to recent sesame oil has a phytoestrogen activity; it has a cholesterol-lowering effect.

  12. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  13. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  14. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  15. Improving functional value of meat products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  16. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  17. Values in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wees, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Teaching for values instead of knowledge would significantly change education. Could the psychosocial values of goodness, beauty, search for truth, social organization, and economics be rank ordered? Can and how should such life-survival values as health, sex, aggression and self-defense, language, and love be taught in school? (Author/SB)

  18. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  19. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  20. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  1. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  2. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  3. Evalution on nutritive value of Portunus trituberculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu-Rong, Su; Tai-Wu, Li; Ming-Jin, Ding; Chien, Paul K.

    1997-06-01

    This study on the nutritive indexes (total nitrogen, amino acids, crude fats, inorganic elements, unsaturated fatty acids) of meat, male and female reproductive gland of Portunus trituberculatus showed that their nutritive value is in the order meat>female reproductive gland>male reproductive gland and that they do not raise the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents of the serum of the animals which eat them but increase the contents of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the animal's blood. These findings implied that people who have high blood lipid and aortic atheroma can safely use them as food. This study showed that P. trituberculatus has high nutritive value.

  4. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  5. Predictive value of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein for left ventricular remodelling and clinical outcome of hypertensive patients with mild-to-moderate aortic valve diseases.

    PubMed

    Iida, M; Yamazaki, M; Honjo, H; Kodama, I; Kamiya, K

    2007-07-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), a marker of acute myocardial infarction and a soluble cytosolic protein, may be released following left ventricular remodelling in cardiac overloaded hearts caused by hypertension, aortic regurgitation (AR) or aortic stenosis (AS). Our aim was to investigate if H-FABP levels are associated with left ventricular remodelling and clinical outcome in hypertensive patients with AR or AS. H-FABP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, and left ventricular dimension at systole corrected for body surface area (LVDs/BSA) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were determined by echocardiography in hypertensive patients with mild-to-moderate AR (n=78), those with mild-to-moderate AS (n=73) and those without valvular heart diseases (HT) (n=50). H-FABP levels were significantly higher in AR (4.9+/-3 ng/ml) and in AS (4.5+/-3) than in HT (3.4+/-1) and BNP (65+/-73 pg/ml, 76+/-75, 35+/-22). H-FABP correlated with LVDs/BSA in AR (beta=0.23, P<0.05), and RWT in AS (beta=0.18, P<0.05) after adjustment for age, gender and all the other variables. AS and AR patients were prospectively followed up for cardiac events during 34+/-19 months. A multivariate Cox hazard analysis indicated H-FABP was an independent predictor of outcome both in AR (relative risk (RR)=7.61, 95% CI=2.39-25.3) and AS (RR=13.6, 95% CI=3.27-66.9). H-FABP, associated with left ventricular remodelling, is useful in predicting clinical outcome in hypertensive patients with mild-to-moderate aortic valve diseases.

  6. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  7. Recovery of uranium from acid media by macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Rao, P.R.V.; Nandy, K.K.

    1996-11-01

    The extraction of uranium from various acid media such as nitric acid, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and perchloric acid by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA) has been studied. The distribution coefficients for the extraction of uranium by the MPBPA resin are compared with the corresponding values reported in literature for the conventional sulphonic acid resin. The results clearly indicate the suitability of the MPBPA resin to recover uranium from different types of acid solutions of widely ranging acidities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Highly sensitive detection of cancer cells with an electrochemical cytosensor based on boronic acid functional polythiophene.

    PubMed

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Senel, Mehmet; Sagir, Tugba; Isik, Sevim

    2017-04-15

    The detection of cancer cells through important molecular recognition target such as sialic acid is significant for the clinical diagnosis and treatment. There are many electrochemical cytosensors developed for cancer cells detection but most of them have complicated fabrication processes which results in poor reproducibility and reliability. In this study, a simple, low-cost, and highly sensitive electrochemical cytosensor was designed based on boronic acid-functionalized polythiophene. In cytosensors fabrication simple single-step procedure was used which includes coating pencil graphite electrode (PGE) by means of electro-polymerization of 3-Thienyl boronic acid and Thiophen. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used as an analytical methods to optimize and measure analytical performances of PGE/P(TBA0.5Th0.5) based electrode. Cytosensor showed extremely good analytical performances in detection of cancer cells with linear rage of 1×10(1) to 1×10(6) cellsmL(-1) exhibiting low detection limit of 10 cellsmL(-1) and incubation time of 10min. Next to excellent analytical performances, it showed high selectivity towards AGS cancer cells when compared to HEK 293 normal cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-hMSCs). This method is promising for future applications in early stage cancer diagnosis.

  9. Gallic acid grafting modulates the oxidative potential of ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic SC-45.

    PubMed

    Corazzari, Ingrid; Tomatis, Maura; Turci, Francesco; Ferraris, Sara; Bertone, Elisa; Prenesti, Enrico; Vernè, Enrica

    2016-12-01

    Magnetite-containing glass-ceramics are promising bio-materials for replacing bone tissue after tumour resection. Thanks to their ferrimagnetic properties, they generate heat when subjected to an alternated magnetic field. In virtue of this they can be employed for the hyperthermic treatment of cancer. Moreover, grafting anti-cancer drugs onto their surface produces specific anti-neoplastic activity in these biomaterials. Gallic acid (GA) exhibits antiproliferative activity which renders it a promising candidate for anticancer applications. In the present paper, the reactivity of ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic SC-45 grafted with GA (SC-45+GA) was studied in terms of ROS release, rupture of the C-H bond of the formate molecule and Fenton reactivity by EPR/spin trapping in acellular systems. The ability of these materials to cause lipid peroxidation was assessed by UV-vis/TBA assay employing linoleic acid as a model of membrane lipid. The results, compared to those obtained with SC-45, showed that GA grafting (i) significantly enhanced the Fenton reactivity and (ii) restored the former reactivity of SC-45 towards both the C-H bond and linoleic acid which had been completely suppressed by prolonged contact with water. Fe(2+) centres at the surface are probably implicated. GA, acting as a pro-oxidant, reduces Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) by maintaining a supply of Fe(2+) at the surface of SC-45+GA.

  10. Effect of immersion chilling of broiler chicken carcasses in monochloramine on lipid oxidation and halogenated residual compound formation.

    PubMed

    Axtell, Stephen P; Russell, Scott M; Berman, Elliot

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of immersion chilling of broiler chicken carcasses in tap water (TAP) or TAP containing 50 ppm of monochloramine (MON) with respect to chloroform formation, total chlorine content, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, and fatty acid profiles. Ten broiler chicken carcasses were chilled in TAP or MON for 6 h. After exposure, the carcasses were removed and cut in half along the median plane into right and left halves. After roasting the left halves, samples of the breast, thigh, and skin (with fat) were collected, subjected to fatty acid profiling, and assayed for chloroform, total chlorine, and TBA. The uncooked right halves of each carcass were stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days and then roasted. After roasting these right halves, samples of breast, thigh, and skin (with fat) were collected from each carcass half, subjected to fatty acid profiling, and assayed for chloroform, total chlorine, and TBA. There were no statistical differences between TAP- and MON-treated fresh or stored products with regard to chloroform levels, total chlorine content, TBA values, or fatty acid profiles.

  11. The problem with value

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  12. The Value of the P Value.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research.

  13. Demands, values, and burnout

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Michael P.; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. DESIGN National mailed survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. RESULTS Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. CONCLUSION W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater

  14. Values Take Center Stage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    of mind? Think about the many other circumstances where your mood, outlook, and effectiveness are influenced by values that may be unconscious and...a leader’s values. Aspiring leaders everywhere identify role models, including Abraham Lincoln, Nelson Mandela , Mahatma Gandhi, George Washington...and others whose strongly held and effectively communicated values contrib- uted to their profound impact. While there are many differ- ent

  15. Deodorants, value, and performance.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, L N

    1997-11-01

    For the health-care market, like the deodorant market, the message is clear: Add value or your product will not be competitive. For physicians of all specialties, the best way to add value is to measure and improve performance. Performance measurement is critical to improvement in health care. Without measurement, there can be no improvement in quality. Without improvement in quality, there is no added value. Oncologists can take at least two actions to add value for their health plans: (1) measure practice performance and demonstrate a quality improvement; and (2) become the personal-care physician for cancer patients.

  16. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed.

  17. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  18. Work Values across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  19. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  20. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  1. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  2. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  3. Cognitive and Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machamer, Peter; Douglas, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Hugh Lacey's separation of cognitive values and social values in discussions of the nature of science. Claims that attempting to distinguish between cognitive and social ignores crucial complexities in the development and use of knowledge. Proposes that the proper distinction be between legitimate and illegitimate reasons in science as…

  4. Do We Value Caring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  5. How I Taught Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Annis

    2005-01-01

    Values are principles or standards that people have decided are desirable to live by. The question of whether values can or should be taught to college students has been debated for decades, with the pros incorporating moral concepts into curricula and the antes scorning such efforts as not only inappropriate but also intellectually dull. In this…

  6. Sustaining NCTE Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  7. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  8. Method for selectively reducing plutonium values by a photochemical process

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Horace A.; Toth, Louis M.; Bell, Jimmy T.

    1978-01-01

    The rate of reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) in nitric acid solution containing a reducing agent is enhanced by exposing the solution to 200-500 nm electromagnetic radiation. Pu values are recovered from an organic extractant solution containing Pu(IV) values and U(VI) values by the method of contacting the extractant solution with an aqueous nitric acid solution in the presence of a reducing agent and exposing the aqueous solution to electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength of 200-500 nm. Under these conditions, Pu values preferentially distribute to the aqueous phase and U values preferentially distribute to the organic phase.

  9. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  10. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  11. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  12. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  13. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  14. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  15. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  16. RECOVERY AND SEPARATION OF LITHIUM VALUES FROM SALVAGE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Hansford, D.L.; Raabe, E.W.

    1963-08-20

    Lithium values can be recovered from an aqueous basic solution by reacting the values with a phosphate salt soluble in the solution, forming an aqueous slurry of the resultant aqueous insoluble lithium phosphate, contacting the slurry with an organic cation exchange resin in the acid form until the slurry has been clarified, and thereafter recovering lithium values from the resin. (AEC)

  17. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF THORIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1959-04-21

    The separation of thorium values from rare earth metals contained ln aqueous solutions by means of extraction with a water immiscible alkyl phosphate diluted with a hydrocarbon such as hexane is described. While the extraction according to this invention may be carried out from any aqueous salt solution, it is preferred to use solutions containing free mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid and in particular nitric acid are sultable in a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 7 normal. The higher acid concentration results in higher extraction values.

  19. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  20. Quantity and quantity value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Giordani, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    The concept system around ‘quantity’ and ‘quantity value’ is fundamental for measurement science, but some very basic issues are still open on such concepts and their relation. This paper argues that quantity values are in fact individual quantities, and that a complementarity exists between measurands and quantity values. This proposal is grounded on the analysis of three basic ‘equality’ relations: (i) between quantities, (ii) between quantity values and (iii) between quantities and quantity values. A consistent characterization of such concepts is obtained, which is then generalized to ‘property’ and ‘property value’. This analysis also throws some light on the elusive concept of magnitude. A preliminary version of this paper was presented and discussed at the Joint International IMEKO TC1, TC7 & TC13 Symposium, 31 August to 2 September 2011, Jena, Germany.

  1. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  2. Working with Missing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    2005-01-01

    Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood…

  3. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  4. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  5. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  6. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  7. Kinetic resolution of racemic carboxylic acids through asymmetric protolactonization promoted by chiral phosphonous acid diester.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Masayuki; Sakakura, Akira; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2013-06-07

    Chiral phosphonium salts induce the kinetic resolution of racemic α-substituted unsaturated carboxylic acids through asymmetric protolactonization. Both the lactones and the recovered carboxylic acids are obtained with high enantioselectivities and high S (= kfast/kslow) values. Asymmetric protolactonization also leads to the desymmetrization of achiral carboxylic acids. Notably, chiral phosphonous acid diester not only induced the enantioselectivity but also promoted protolactonization.

  8. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue.

  9. Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid and its derivatives : Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Marek J.

    1981-11-01

    Infrared spectra of hydrogen-bonded salicylic acid, O-deutero-salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid crystals have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Interpretation of these spectra was based on the Witkowski-Maréchal model. Semi-quantitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be achieved with the simplest form of this model, with values of interaction parameters transferable for equivalent intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  10. Getting Value from Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2004-03-01

    During the past decade the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly, as recently documented in Robert Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000). The vertically integrated single-firm research-through-product value chains of the twentieth century are gone, replaced by value chains the various elements of which can come from different firms in different parts of the world as described, e.g., by Henry W. Cheesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). The consequences of this change are profound for national R policy, the R strategies of specific firms, and individual researchers. (See e.g., C. B. Duke, How to get value from R, Physics World, 17 (August 1997), 17.) In this presentation I sketch the strategies that firms employ to generate value from their research. Then I discuss the ingredients that are required to implement these strategies by creating value chains to deliver the fruits of research to customers. I indicate how the role of physical sciences is changing as unique hardware, based on advanced research in the physical sciences, becomes an increasingly minor (and often outsourced) component of integrated systems offerings. I close by noting implications of these developments on the nature of the careers that physicists can expect in industry and on the skills and cultural attributes that are required to be successful in the new industrial research environment.

  11. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  12. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  13. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  14. Technostress and Library Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  15. Values and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    The idea of a democratic society based on human rights and social justice is the social issue examined in this book which is one of a series on challenges and choices in American values. The format followed in the series includes the following for secondary students: case studies illustrating the issue by focusing on human institutions, factual…

  16. Classifying Values by Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gündüz, Mevlüt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to make a new classification regarding the fact that the current classifications may change constantly because of values? gaining a different dimension and importance every single day. In this research descriptive research, which was used frequently in qualitative research methods, was preferred. This research was…

  17. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  18. Researching Values in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  19. Implementing Target Value Design.

    PubMed

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  20. Making People Feel Valued.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergueson, Susan; Aimone, Logan

    2002-01-01

    Suggests many quick, easy and inexpensive ways to help make staff members of student publications feel valued and keep staff motivation levels high. Includes additional articles that describe how an editor can support efforts to motivate, suggest that staff retreats lead to success, note how banquets serve as reward, and suggest some favorite…

  1. Changing Values & Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

    A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

  2. Whose Religious Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Public schools, since their founding in America in 1647, have reflected the demographic characteristics of the communities in which they are located. Because the United States has, until recently, been mostly Protestant Christian, many schooling practices have built upon the values of this faith. Pupils have sung Christmas songs at Christmas…

  3. Adding Value through Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Stephen S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    PPG's training department enhanced its value to the organization by getting closer to its internal customer and helping them build the competencies needed to meet business goals. Techniques included the training, development, and education process model and a professional development sourcebook clarifying competencies and activities for acquiring…

  4. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  5. Planting Seeds - Growing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Judith L.

    2004-01-01

    Nurturing positive values with youth often involves connecting with them during times of internal struggle and relating these struggles to external influences in their lives. Care and support provided by adults is crucial in these times, even when a youth's outward expression of struggles create conflict or concern. In this article, the author…

  6. Not Without Value. Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, George H.

    2002-01-01

    To reverse the decline in volunteerism in education, administrators must understand the difference between true volunteering and participation coerced under the guise of volunteering. Appreciation is essential for promoting volunteerism, for no one wishes to be considered without value. But if coercion and exploitation are part of the growing…

  7. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  8. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  9. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  10. Crystal Structure and Antitumor Activity of the Novel Zwitterionic Complex of tri-n-Butyltin(IV) with 2-Thiobarbituric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Vasilios I.; Hadjikakou, Sotiris K.; Hadjiliadis, Nick; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Light, Mark E.; Hursthouse, Mike; Metsios, Apostolos K.; Karkabounas, Spyros

    2008-01-01

    A novel tri-n-butyl(IV) derivative of 2-thiobarbituric acid (HTBA) of formula [(n-Bu)3Sn(TBA) H2O] (1) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and 119Sn-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The crystal structure of complex 1 has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis at 120(2) K. The geometry around Sn(IV) is trigonal bipyramidal. Three n-butyl groups and one oxygen atom from a deprotonated 2-thiobarbituric ligand are bonded to the metal center. The geometry is completed with one oxygen from a water molecule. Compound 1 exhibits potent, in vitro, cytotoxicity against sarcoma cancer cells (mesenchymal tissue) from the Wistar rat, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, benzo[a]pyrene) carcinogenesis. In addition, the inhibition caused by 1, in the rate of lipoxygenase (LOX) catalyzed oxidation reaction of linoleic acid to hyperoxolinoleic acid, has been also kinetically and theoretically studied. The results are compared to that of cisplatin. PMID:18401456

  11. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  12. Arginine: Its pKa value revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Carolyn A; Platzer, Gerald; Okon, Mark; Garcia-Moreno E, Bertrand; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2015-01-01

    Using complementary approaches of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy, we have determined that the equilibrium acid dissociation constant (pKa value) of the arginine guanidinium group is 13.8 ± 0.1. This is substantially higher than that of ∼12 often used in structure-based electrostatics calculations and cited in biochemistry textbooks. The revised intrinsic pKa value helps explains why arginine side chains in proteins are always predominantly charged, even at pH values as great as 10. The high pKa value also reinforces the observation that arginine side chains are invariably protonated under physiological conditions of near neutral pH. This occurs even when the guanidinium moiety is buried in a hydrophobic micro-environment, such as that inside a protein or a lipid membrane, thought to be incompatible with the presence of a charged group. PMID:25808204

  13. Arginine: Its pKa value revisited.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Carolyn A; Platzer, Gerald; Okon, Mark; Garcia-Moreno, Bertrand E; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2015-05-01

    Using complementary approaches of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy, we have determined that the equilibrium acid dissociation constant (pKa value) of the arginine guanidinium group is 13.8 ± 0.1. This is substantially higher than that of ∼ 12 often used in structure-based electrostatics calculations and cited in biochemistry textbooks. The revised intrinsic pKa value helps explains why arginine side chains in proteins are always predominantly charged, even at pH values as great as 10. The high pKa value also reinforces the observation that arginine side chains are invariably protonated under physiological conditions of near neutral pH. This occurs even when the guanidinium moiety is buried in a hydrophobic micro-environment, such as that inside a protein or a lipid membrane, thought to be incompatible with the presence of a charged group.

  14. Microbial production of value-added nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Guleria, Sanjay; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Yan, Yajun

    2016-02-01

    Nutraceuticals are important natural bioactive compounds that confer health-promoting and medical benefits to humans. Globally growing demands for value-added nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of human diseases have rendered nutraceuticals a multi-billion dollar market. However, supply limitations and extraction difficulties from natural sources such as plants, animals or fungi, restrict the large-scale use of nutraceuticals. Metabolic engineering via microbial production platforms has been advanced as an eco-friendly alternative approach for production of value-added nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. Microbial platforms like the most widely used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered as versatile cell factories for production of diverse and complex value-added chemicals such as phytochemicals, prebiotics, polysaccaharides and poly amino acids. This review highlights the recent progresses in biological production of value-added nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering approaches.

  15. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  16. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  17. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  18. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values."

  19. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  20. Education: A Core Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William F., Jr.

    2001-09-01

    1. Teaching our Children. ACS should develop an intensive course in modern teaching methods, challenges and responsibilities, and press for streamlined teacher certification procedures for advanced degree or life experience chemists.
    2. Teaching our Future Colleagues. As President I will encourage companies to make scientists with special skills available to universities, and will encourage universities to utilize these scientists to round out areas of study not covered by their existing faculty.
    3. Teaching our Members. ACS should develop functional and management-related courses for scientists to facilitate career advancement from the bench to research management or from science to business.
    4. Teaching the Public. The President is the most visible representative of the Society, and should devote significant time to communication with lay audiences.
    Value Matters. My first priority as President will be to increase value creation, communication and quantification so members can easily identify programs that fill their needs and exceed their expectations.

  1. On establishing reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J H; Mullen, K

    1978-01-01

    In order to establish a range of reference values for any characteristic one can use Gaussian or nonparametric techniques, whichever are most appropriate. One has the choice of calculating tolerance intervals or percentile intervals. A tolerance interval is said to contain, say 95% of the population with probability, say 0.90. A percentile interval simply simply calculates the values between which 95% of the observations fall. If the data can be said to have a Gaussian distribution, the same precision can be obtained with smaller sample sizes than using the nonparametric techniques. In some cases, data which are not Gaussian can be transformed into a Gaussian form and hence make use of the more efficient Gaussian techniques. In both cases, the data should be checked for outliers or rogue observations and these should be eliminated if the testing procedure fails to imply that they are an integral part of the data. PMID:688072

  2. The value of anecdote.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Juan C; Parodi, Federico E

    2014-04-01

    Anecdote is defined as "a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident" and are not often deemed scientifically valuable (www.merriam-webster.com). Anecdotes can be analyzed, however, and those observations can become the initiation of important and groundbreaking work. In this article, we describe aecdotes of several cases which by themselves had seemingly little value. The value was added later, when these concepts were extrapolated to important projects, which expanded into series of experiences, which were reproducible and able to be analyzed and judged as valuable devices and/or methods. The authors recognize that some of the images are old and not of great quality but the information provided is as complete as possible and reliable.

  3. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  4. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  5. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  6. Values in health care.

    PubMed

    Gish, O

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the paper is concerned with the health care values of various groups; namely, those which are resource oriented, disease oriented, political decision-makers, organized sellers and purchasers of health care and patients. These groups are further divided according to selected political/ideological and socio-economic characteristics, essentially along capitalist and socialist lines. Some of the ways in which the values held by these groups are determined, formulated and, by implication at least, changed and the political, economic and other bases for some of their practical applications are identified. The second part of the paper focuses upon values in public health education and related practice. It is argued that to become more useful to the 'health of the public' the new public health worker will have to become more activist, assuming an adversarial stance toward the market economy in capitalist countries and oppressive governmental structures everywhere. A wider integration of knowledge concerning the effects of health of all types of economic, social and political practices is required; this, in turn, would contribute to the emergence of alternative forms of public health analysis and practice. The recognition of wider forms of public health leadership should follow, coupled with organizational changes directed at the greater participation of popular groupings in all types of public health activities.

  7. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  8. The value of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2008-11-01

    In addition to its intrinsic value (nature working as it is; species are the product of a long history of continuing evolution by means of ecological processes, and so they have the right to continued existence), biodiversity also plays a fundamental role as ecosystem services in the maintenance of natural ecological processes. The economic or utilitarian values of biodiversity rely upon the dependence of man on biodiversity; products that nature can provide: wood, food, fibers to make paper, resins, chemical organic products, genes as well as knowledge for biotechnology, including medicine and cosmetic sub-products. It also encompasses ecosystem services, such as climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for commercial fish, some organisms that can create soil fertility through complex cycles and interactions, such as earthworms, termites and bacteria, in addition to fungi responsible for cycling nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur and making them available to plant absorption. These services are the benefits that people indirectly receive from natural ecosystem functions (air quality maintenance, regional climate, water quality, nutrient cycling, reproductive habitats of commercial fish, etc.) with their related economic values.

  9. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  10. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  11. PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY ELECTRODEPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Whal, A.C.

    1958-04-15

    A process is described of separating plutonium values from an aqueous solution by electrodeposition. The process consists of subjecting an aqueous 0.1 to 1.0 N nitric acid solution containing plutonium ions to electrolysis between inert metallic electrodes. A current density of one milliampere io one ampere per square centimeter of cathode surface and a temperature between 10 and 60 d C are maintained. Plutonium is electrodeposited on the cathode surface and recovered.

  12. Acid precipitation in southeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ahern, J.; Baird, C.

    1983-09-01

    Snowfall, snowpack, and rainfall samples were collected in Laramie, Wyoming and in the Snowy Range west of Laramie from March to June 1981 to determine the occurrence and sources of acid precipitation in southeast Wyoming. Electrodes measured different pH values in the samples; however, fast-response electrodes yielded higher and apparently more accurate pH measurements. The pH values in the Laramie precipitation and snowpack were typically greater than 5.0, but all the Snowy Range snowpack pH values were less than 5.0. The lower pH values in the Snowy Range snowpack were caused by higher concentrations of the acid-forming nitrate and lower concentrations of the neutralizing calcium. Two organic species, formate and acetate, were detected in the Laramie samples, but had no significant influence on the acidity of the samples. 33 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  13. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  14. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  15. Vacancy ion-exclusion chromatography of haloacetic acids on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masanobu; Xu, Qun; Taoda, Hiroshi; Ding, Ming-Yu; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-05-16

    A new and simple approach is described for the determination of the haloacetic acids (such as mono-, di- and trichloroacetic acids) usually found in drinking water as chlorination by-products after disinfection processes and acetic acid. The new approach, termed vacancy ion-exclusion chromatography, is based on an ion-exclusion mechanism but using the sample solution as the mobile phase, pure water as the injected sample, and a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column (TSKgel OApak-A) as the stationary phase. The addition of sulfuric acid to the mobile phase results in highly sensitive conductivity detection with sharp and well-shaped peaks, leading to excellent and efficient separations. The elution order was sulfuric acid, dichloroacetic acid, monochloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and acetic acid. The separation of these acids depends on their pKa values. Acids with lower pKa values were eluted earlier than those with higher pKa, except for trichloroacetic acid due to a hydrophobic-adsorption effect occurring as a side-effect of vacancy ion-exclusion chromatography. The detection limits of these acids in the present study with conductivity detection were 3.4 microM for monochloroacetic acid, 0.86 microM for dichloroacetic acid and 0.15 microM for trichloroacetic acid.

  16. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid: exploring the thermodynamic landscape of cluster growth.

    PubMed

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2014-09-11

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures without the further possibility for attachment of either sulfuric acid or pinic acid. This suggests that pinic acid cannot be a key species in the first steps in nucleation, but the favorable interactions between sulfuric acid and pinic acid imply that pinic acid can contribute to the subsequent growth of an existing nucleus by condensation.

  17. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  18. Computational study on the acidic constants of chiral Brønsted acids in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Xue, Xiao-Song; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2014-05-16

    The pK(a) values of a series of chiral Brønsted acids, including N-triflylphosphoramides, bis(sulfonyl)imides, bis(sulfuryl)imides, dicarboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and N-phosphinyl phosphoramides, were predicted by using the SMD/M06-2x/6-311++G(2df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) method in DMSO. The results revealed that the calculated pKa values ranged from -9.06 to 12.18 for different types of acids. The influence of acidic strength on reactivity and stereoselectivity was discussed using the calculated acidity data. Given that the choice of catalyst with appropriate acidity is the primary condition, several new catalyst candidates were designed by calculating corresponding pK(a) values of parent acids.

  19. The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia

    2005-01-01

    The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated.

  20. Nutritional values of waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredickson, Leigh H.; Reid, Fredric A.

    1988-01-01

    wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements can be used to develop waterfowl management strategies. For example, nutrient content of foods, nutritional requirements of waterfowl, and the cues waterfowl use in locating and selecting foods are all kinds of information that managers need to encourage use of habitats by feeding waterfowl. Waterfowl nutritional needs during the annual cycle and the nutritional values of natural foods and crops will be discussed below.

  1. Effects of irradiation on trans fatty acids formation in ground beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Mônica S.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Mancini-filho, Jorge

    2002-03-01

    In order to give the consumer the assurance that meat processed by irradiation is a safe product, a great deal of research has been developed in the world. The effect of irradiation on the hygienic quality of meat and meat products is considered as related to the control of meat-borne parasites of humans; elimination of pathogens from fresh meat and poultry; and elimination of pathogens from processed meat. Lipid oxidation and associated changes are the major causes of the quality deterioration of meat during storage. Irradiation of lipids induces the production of free radicals, which react with oxygen, leading to the formation of carbonyls, responsible for alterations in food nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Trans fatty acids are present in ground beef and can also be formed during its processing. Interestingly, the trans fatty acids, due to their chemical and physical characteristics, show more resistance to the oxidizing process. This property motivated us to investigate the level of the trans fatty acids, as well as the level of oxidation in irradiated ground beef. Irradiation of ground beef was performed by gamma rays from a 60Co source. The applied radiation doses were 0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0; 5.0; 6.0; 7.0 and 8.0 kGy. Lipid peroxidation in terms of TBA number and carbonyl content was monitored during storage. The sample characteristics and trans fatty acids composition were measured, following irradiation and after 60 and 90 days of storage at -10°C.

  2. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  3. Acid Rain

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Is Doing Acid Rain Program Cross-State Air Pollution Rule Progress Reports Educational Resources Kid's Site for ... Monitoring National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Exit Interstate Air Pollution Transport Contact Us to ask a question, provide ...

  4. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid can hide signs that you lack vitamin B12, which can cause nerve damage. 10 Do I ... Rosenberg, I.H., et al. (2007). Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis and cognitive ...

  5. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  6. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  7. Application of artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) to predict the changes of anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, Total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity during storage of red bayberry juice based on fractal analysis and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Jiang, Lingling; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Kong, Xuecheng; Lu, Hongfei

    2011-01-26

    Artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were developed to predict the changes of anthocyanin (AC), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenols (TP), total flavonoid (TF), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (SA) in bayberry juice during storage based on fractal analysis (FA) and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values. The results show the root mean squared error (RMSE) of ANN-FA decreased 2.44 and 12.45% for AC (RMSE = 18.673 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.939) and AA (RMSE = 8.694 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.935) compared with PLSR-RGB, respectively. In addition, PLSR-FA (RMSE = 5.966%, R(2) = 0.958) showed a 12.01% decrease in the RMSE compared with PLSR-RGB for predicting SA. For the prediction of TP and TF, however, both models showed poor performances based on FA and RGB. Therefore, ANN and PLSR combined with FA may be a potential method for quality evaluation of bayberry juice during processing, storage, and distribution, but the selection of the most adequate model is of great importance to predict different nutritional components.

  8. Activated carbon catalyzed persulfate oxidation of Azo dye acid orange 7 at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiying; Yang, Xin; Shao, Xueting; Niu, Rui; Wang, Leilei

    2011-02-15

    Persulfate (PS) oxidative degradation of azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) in an aqueous solution was studied in the presence of suspended granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient temperature (e.g., 25°C). It was observed that there existed a remarkable synergistic effect in the GAC/PS combined system. Higher PS concentration and GAC dosage resulted in higher AO7 degrading rates. Near-neutral was the optimal initial pH. Adsorption had an adverse effect on AO7 degradation. AO7 had not only a good decolorization, but a good mineralization. The decomposition of PS followed a first-order kinetics behavior both in the presence and in the absence of AO7. Radical mechanism was studied and three radical scavengers (methanol (MA), tert-butanol (TBA), phenol) were used to determine the kind of major active species taking part in the degradation of AO7 and the location of degradation reaction. It was assumed that the degradation of AO7 did not occur in the liquid phase, but in the porous bulk and boundary layer on the external surface of GAC. SO(4)(-•) or HO•, generated on or near the surface of GAC, played a major role in the AO7 degradation. Finally, the recovery performance of GAC was studied through the GAC reuse experiments.

  9. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-07

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

  10. Energy and American values

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  11. Network connectivity value.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne

    2017-02-23

    In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant.

  12. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  13. Value of periangiography hydration.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, M D; Puyau, F A

    1984-11-01

    The value of contrast dye to the planning and evaluation of cardiovascular disease cannot be overestimated. However, adverse renal sequellae may cause the surgeon to hesitate in obtaining an arteriogram, especially in patients with compromised renal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of renal dysfunction in patients requiring angiography. Standard contrast angiography for cerebral or peripheral vascular disease was administered to 150 consecutive patients (89 men and 61 women), with an average age of 63.3 years (range 49 to 89 years). All patients received 100 to 150 ml of dye, with a concentration of approximately 50% iodine. Patients were hydrated with 0.5 N saline/5% dextrose, intravenously, for 8 hours before the procedure (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). In 31 patients (11 women and 20 men) the serum BUN and/or creatinine levels were elevated (mean BUN value of 48 +/- 9 mg/dl; mean creatinine level of 2.8 +/- 0.6 mg/dl). The patients with abnormal renal function received an additional 300 to 500 ml of intravenous fluid, plus 20 to 40 mg intravenous furosemide, 1 hour before roentgenography to establish a diuresis. All patients were hydrated for 6 hours after angiography with the same solution at the same rate (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). There were no episodes of compromised renal or cardiopulmonary dysfunction because of contrast angiography. In no patient did the BUN or creatinine level rise, nor was there evidence of acute tubular necrosis, as documented by oliguria and abnormal cells in the urine. Angiography is a safe procedure, even with patients who may have compromised renal function, if appropriate prehydration/posthydration and diuretic measures are undertaken.

  14. Variations in IC(50) values with purity of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Neeley, Elizabeth; Fritch, George; Fuller, Autumn; Wolfe, Jordan; Wright, Jessica; Flurkey, William

    2009-09-02

    The effects of various inhibitors on crude, commercial and partially purified commercial mushroom tyrosinase were examined by comparing IC(50) values. Kojic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, tropolone, methimazole, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate had relatively similar IC(50) values for the crude, commercial and partially purified enzyme. 4-Hexylresorcinol seemed to have a somewhat higher IC(50) value using crude extracts, compared to commercial or purified tyrosinase. Some inhibitors (NaCl, esculetin, biphenol, phloridzin) showed variations in IC(50) values between the enzyme samples. In contrast, hydroquinone, lysozyme, Zn(2+), and anisaldehyde showed little or no inhibition in concentration ranges reported to be effective inhibitors. Organic solvents (DMSO and ethanol) had IC(50) values that were similar for some of the tyrosinase samples. Depending of the source of tyrosinase and choice of inhibitor, variations in IC(50) values were observed.

  15. Distinct effects of sorbic acid and acetic acid on the electrophysiology and metabolism of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    van Beilen, J W A; Teixeira de Mattos, M J; Hellingwerf, K J; Brul, S

    2014-10-01

    Sorbic acid and acetic acid are among the weak organic acid preservatives most commonly used to improve the microbiological stability of foods. They have similar pKa values, but sorbic acid is a far more potent preservative. Weak organic acids are most effective at low pH. Under these circumstances, they are assumed to diffuse across the membrane as neutral undissociated acids. We show here that the level of initial intracellular acidification depends on the concentration of undissociated acid and less on the nature of the acid. Recovery of the internal pH depends on the presence of an energy source, but acidification of the cytosol causes a decrease in glucose flux. Furthermore, sorbic acid is a more potent uncoupler of the membrane potential than acetic acid. Together these effects may also slow the rate of ATP synthesis significantly and may thus (partially) explain sorbic acid's effectiveness.

  16. Reference change values.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Callum G

    2011-09-30

    Reference change values (RCV) provide objective tools for assessment of the significance of differences in serial results from an individual. The concept is simple and the calculation easy, since all laboratories know their analytical imprecision (CV(A)) and estimates of within-subject biological variation (CV(I)) are available for a large number of quantities. Generally, CV(I) are constant over time, geography, methodology and in health and chronic stable disease. The formula is RCV=2(1/2) · Z · (CV(A)(2) + CV(I)(2))(1/2), where Z is the number of standard deviations appropriate to the probability. Correct interpretation of the semantics describing the clinical use of RCV is vital for selection of the Z-score. Many quantities of clinically importance exist for which good estimates of RCV are unavailable. Derivation of CV(I) may be difficult for such quantities: flair and imagination are required in selecting populations with chronic but stable disease on whom CV(I) can be determined. RCV can be used for delta-checking and auto-verification and laboratory information management systems (LIMS) can be adapted to do this. Recently, log-normal transformation to obtain unidirectional RCV has been used. Gaps in knowledge of RCV still require filling since the need for measures of change is clearly expressed in guidelines.

  17. Effect of chicken skin on the quality characteristics of semi-dried restructured jerky.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Han, Doo-Jeong; Choi, Ji-Hun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of skin on the textural properties of semi-dried jerky produced with different acid treatments. Jerky was prepared with no skin (control) or with 1, 3, or 5% chicken skin. After hand mixing (for 3 min) and tumbling (for 30 min) to distribute the curing ingredients, the cured meats were dried for 180 min at 55°C, for 180 min at 65°C, and finally for 60 min at 75°C. The presence of skin was shown to result in a higher fat content, TBA value, and metmyoglobin due to the high fat content of the skin. In contrast, acid treatment decreased the TBA value and metmyoglobin in jerky relative to samples that were not subjected to acid treatment. The presence of skin also improved the moisture contents, processing yields, and mechanical tenderness.

  18. Combined 3D-QSAR, Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Study on Derivatives of Peptide Epoxyketone and Tyropeptin-Boronic Acid as Inhibitors Against the β5 Subunit of Human 20S Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianling; Zhang, Hong; Xiao, Zhengtao; Wang, Fangfang; Wang, Xia; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-01-01

    An abnormal ubiquitin-proteasome is found in many human diseases, especially in cancer, and has received extensive attention as a promising therapeutic target in recent years. In this work, several in silico models have been built with two classes of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) by using 3D-QSAR, homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The study resulted in two types of satisfactory 3D-QSAR models, i.e., the CoMFA model (Q2 = 0.462, R2pred = 0.820) for epoxyketone inhibitors (EPK) and the CoMSIA model (Q2 = 0.622, R2pred = 0.821) for tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives (TBA). From the contour maps, some key structural factors responsible for the activity of these two series of PIs are revealed. For EPK inhibitors, the N-cap part should have higher electropositivity; a large substituent such as a benzene ring is favored at the C6-position. In terms of TBA inhibitors, hydrophobic substituents with a larger size anisole group are preferential at the C8-position; higher electropositive substituents like a naphthalene group at the C3-position can enhance the activity of the drug by providing hydrogen bond interaction with the protein target. Molecular docking disclosed that residues Thr60, Thr80, Gly106 and Ser189 play a pivotal role in maintaining the drug-target interactions, which are consistent with the contour maps. MD simulations further indicated that the binding modes of each conformation derived from docking is stable and in accord with the corresponding structure extracted from MD simulation overall. These results can offer useful theoretical references for designing more potent PIs. PMID:21673924

  19. Method for the isolation of citric acid and malic acid in Japanese apricot liqueur for carbon stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Oe, Takaaki; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2017-02-15

    A method for detecting the undeclared addition of acidic ingredients is required to control the authenticity of Japanese apricot liqueur. We developed an analytical procedure that minimizes carbon isotope discrimination for measurement of the δ(13)C values of citric and malic acid isolated from Japanese apricot liqueur. Our results demonstrated that freeze-drying is preferable to nitrogen spray-drying, because it does not significantly affect the δ(13)C values of citric acid and results in smaller isotope discrimination for malic acid. Both 0.1% formic acid and 0.2% phosphoric acid are acceptable HPLC mobile phases for the isolation of citric and malic acid, although the δ(13)C values of malic acid exhibited relatively large variation compared with citric acid following isolation using either mobile phase. The developed procedure allows precise δ(13)C measurements of citric and malic acid isolated from Japanese apricot liqueur.

  20. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1993-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  1. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  2. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  3. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C) were evaluated during storage period of 21 days. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and free fatty acids (FFA) of ghee samples were analyzed during the study. PV, TBA and FFA of ghee samples increased significantly while radical scavenging activity (RSA) of ghee samples decreased significantly at accelerated temperature (T3) as compared to the temperatures at T1 and T2. Effect of storage temperature on development of peroxides and TBA of ghee samples was significantly higher than the effect of treatment and storage period while treatment had more significant effect on the change in FFA and RSA as compared to storage temperature and storage period. Ghee incorporated with orange peel extract (OPE) showed stronger activity in quenching DPPH radicals and least development of PV, TBA and FFA than ghee incorporated with BHA and control. The study revealed that orange peel could be a good natural source of antioxidants which can be used in fat rich food products like ghee to retard oxidative deterioration.

  4. An Introduction to Value Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, Kalman

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes consciousness as a quality which differentiates a human being from other living organisms. Excerpts various perspectives that are value-analyzed to illustrate two assumptions: (1) thinking leads to valuing and values and (2) all psychological perspectives are based upon some value system which can be identified. (JAC)

  5. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention.

  6. Visible light absorption of TiO{sub 2} materials impregnated with tungstophosphoric acid ethanol–aqueous solution at different pH values. Evidence about the formation of a surface complex between Keggin anion and TiO{sub 2} surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rengifo-Herrera, Julián A. Blanco, Mirta N.; Pizzio, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TPA impregnation on TiO{sub 2} particles was done at different initial pH values. • Powders characterization evidenced the possible existence of TPA–TiO{sub 2} complexes. • Keggin anion complexed on TiO{sub 2} would be responsible of visible light absorption. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} particles prepared by the sol–gel method were impregnated at different pH values (1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0) with a water–ethanol solution (50% V/V) of tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) (0.012 M). Similar preparation was carried out to synthesize TiO{sub 2} impregnated with [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2−} (TiW). These materials were characterized by different techniques such as UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance of {sup 31}P ({sup 31}P MAS NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman). Results revealed that TPA–TiO{sub 2} materials exhibit visible light absorption only when impregnation was done at pH 1.0 (TiTPA1) and 2.0 (TiTPA2). TiW powder did not show visible light absorption. XRD patterns show the presence of peaks at 2θ = 25.4° (1 0 1), 37.9° (0 0 4), 47.8° (2 0 0) and 54.3° associated to the anatase phase. Solid NMR, FT-IR and FT-Raman characterization showed that TiTPA1 and TiTPA2 samples contain Keggin ([PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3−}) and lacunary anions ([PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]{sup 7−}) respectively. On the other hand, FT-Raman results revealed a blue shifting and broadening of the band at 141 cm{sup −1} corresponding to anatase TiO{sub 2} and moreover, a broadening of bands at 900–1100 cm{sup −1} attributed to Keggin structures of TPA. Both spectral changes could be related to the formation of a surface complex between the Keggin anion of TPA and TiO{sub 2} surfaces. This interaction should be responsible for visible light absorption.

  7. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance

  8. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  9. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 007 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 79 - 43 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revi

  10. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  11. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  12. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  13. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  14. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  15. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Anchoring the gas-phase acidity scale: From formic acid to methanethiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyet, Nicole; Villano, Stephanie M.; Bierbaum, Veronica M.

    2009-06-01

    We have measured the gas-phase acidities of nine compounds: formic acid, acetic acid, 1,3-propanedithiol, 2-methyl-2-propanethiol, 3-methyl-1-butanethiol, 2-propanethiol, 1-propanethiol, ethanethiol, and methanethiol, with acidities ranging from 338.6 to 351.1 kcal mol-1 using proton transfer kinetics and the resulting equilibrium constants. These acids were anchored to the well-known acidity of hydrogen sulfide; the measured acidities are in good agreement with previous experimental values, but error bars are significantly reduced. The gas-phase acidity of 3-methyl-1-butanethiol was determined to be 347.1 (5) kcal mol-1; there were no previous measurements of this value. Entropies of deprotonation were calculated and enthalpies of deprotonation were determined.

  18. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  19. Section III: Examining American Values: Value Choices Since Revolutionary Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The statements of Erik Erikson and Urie Bronfenbrenner on American values are followed by a values clarification exercise and an activity based on biographical sketches of five Americans who lived before and after the American Revolution. (KM)

  20. Integrating Value and Utility Concepts into a Value Decomposition Model for Value-Based Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönkkö, Mikko; Frühwirth, Christian; Biffl, Stefan

    Value-based software engineering (VBSE) is an emerging stream of research that addresses the value considerations of software and extends the traditional scope of software engineering from technical issues to business-relevant decision problems. While the concept of value in VBSE relies on the well-established economic value concept, the exact definition for this key concept within VBSE domain is still not well defined or agreed upon. We argue the discourse on value can significantly benefit from drawing from research in management, particularly software business. In this paper, we present three aspects of software: as a technology, as a design, and as an artifact. Furthermore, we divide the value concept into three components that are relevant for software product development companies and their customers: intrinsic value, externalities and option value. Finally, we propose a value decomposition matrix based on technology views and value components.

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy of four weak acids as antifungal preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture model food systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Wilson, Mark; Chapman, Belinda; Hocking, Ailsa D

    2010-02-01

    The potential efficacy of four weak acids as preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture foods was assessed using a glycerol based agar medium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, % wt./wt.) of each acid was determined at two pH values (pH 5.0, pH 6.0) and two a(w) values (0.85, 0.90) for five food spoilage fungi, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium roqueforti. Sorbic acid, a preservative commonly used to control fungal growth in low-acid intermediate moisture foods, was included as a reference. The MIC values of the four acids were lower at pH 5.0 than pH 6.0 at equivalent a(w) values, and lower at 0.85 a(w) than 0.90 a(w) at equivalent pH values. By comparison with the MIC values of sorbic acid, those of caprylic acid and dehydroacetic acid were generally lower, whereas those for caproic acid were generally higher. No general observation could be made in the case of capric acid. The antifungal activities of all five weak acids appeared related not only to the undissociated form, but also the dissociated form, of each acid.

  2. Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Intrigued by the notion that effective teaching is as much about relationship as it is about "technical" proficiency, the author examines the values of teachers that inform classroom relationships, and poses the question as to whether there are particular teacher values that are necessary for quality values education. This question is…

  3. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  4. Nonconventional techniques for separation of biosynthetic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kloetzer, Lenuţa; Poştaru, Mădălina; Cheptea, Corina; Caşcaval, D; Galaction, Anca-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids can be obtained by biosynthesis, by protein hydrolysis or by extraction from natural sources. The most efficient methods are the first two, but the separation of amino acids from fermentation broths or protein hydrolysates is rather difficult. Amino acids dissociate in aqueous solutions, forming characteristic ionic species depending on the solution pH-value. These properties make amino acids to be hydrophilic at any pH-value. This paper presents a review of the separation studies of some amino acids by nonconventional methods, namely individual or selective reactive extraction. Separation of some amino acids from their mixture obtained either by fermentation or protein hydrolysis by reactive extraction with different extractants indicated the possibility of the amino acids selective separation as a function of the pH-value of aqueous solution correlated with the acidic or basic character of each amino acid.

  5. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  6. Achieving Value in Primary Care: The Primary Care Value Model.

    PubMed

    Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation.

  7. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  8. Private Values and Public Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Benjamin

    1978-01-01

    Explores the relationships among social change, values, and education. Concludes that educators should inquire into and teach about values through classic works by authors such as Homer, Plato, Ibsen, and Mark Twain. (Author/DB)

  9. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making. PMID:23898252

  10. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  11. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-03-31

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

  12. Work Values of Singaporean Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    This study attempted to determine the predominant work values among Singaporean students, possible changes in the work values of adolescents as they proceed from early to late adolescence, and the role of gender in forming work values. Using a cross-sectional design and stratified random sampling techniques, a sample of 645 boys and 735 girls was…

  13. Identifying and Clarifying Organizational Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda S.

    2000-01-01

    Of the 14 organizational values ranked by a majority of 146 New Mexico Cooperative Extension educators as extremely valued, 9 were extremely evident in organizational policies and procedures. A values audit such as this forms an important initial step in strategic planning. (SK)

  14. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  15. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  16. 78 FR 53380 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF64 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal... Making (NPRM); request for comments. SUMMARY: The FHWA proposes to update the existing value engineering... Leuderalbert, Value Engineering and Utilities Program Manager, FHWA Office of Program Administration,...

  17. 76 FR 36410 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Parts 627 RIN 2125-AF40 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal Highway... notice proposes updated regulations to enhance the integration of value engineering (VE) analysis in the...-131 on Value Engineering. These revisions will also address certain findings contained in a...

  18. 77 FR 15250 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF40 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal Highway... of value engineering (VE) analysis in the planning and development of highway improvement projects... Value Engineering. These revisions also will address certain findings contained in a 2007 Office...

  19. The Logic of Values Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazepides, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

  20. Teacher Values in Teaching Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joseph E.; Harako, Eiichiro Atom

    1994-01-01

    Examines teachers' perceived values about recycling and how their values then influence the teaching of recycling. Results suggest that the teachers surveyed have a strong supportive feeling toward recycling and consequently impose their values onto their students in the teaching/learning exchange. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/MDH)

  1. Making Values Education Everyone's Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzner, Louis I.; Nieman, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    Adults are typically required to make values-based decisions multiple times each day. Why, then, should a discussion of values not be explicit across the college curriculum and intentionally integrated into the cocurriculum? The authors describe a place where the work of values education is widely shared. (Contains 9 notes.)

  2. Valuing Diversity: The Primary Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Janet Brown

    Noting that children who learn to accept and value human diversity will develop the open, flexible approach to life that is needed in today's world, this book examines ways to help young children learn to appreciate cultural diversity in the classroom. Following introductory chapters on the value of diversity and a child's right to the valuing of…

  3. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  4. Student Development and Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, John D., Comp.

    1982-01-01

    In five articles explores the value development of college students. Surveyed student personnel administrators to investigate ethical issues and values in student development and educational approaches to values development. Presents an approach to student ethical development. Discusses a rationale for developmental education considering…

  5. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  6. Uric acid in childhood essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Prebis, J W; Gruskin, A B; Polinsky, M S; Baluarte, H J

    1981-05-01

    Serum uric acid concentrations and the fractional excretion of uric acid were determined in 31 children from 3 1/2 to 18 years of age with essential hypertension. While on an unrestricted sodium intake, elevated serum values of uric acid were found in 13 of 31 (42%) of the children. After ingesting a low-sodium diet (200 mg/day) for three days, mean serum uric acid values increased by 0.7 mg/dl (P less than 0.001). There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum uric acid concentrations and fractional excretion of uric acid during the normal and low-sodium diet. This study indicates that the major factor leading to hyperuricemia in our hypertensive patients was a decrease in urate clearance. Insofar as hyperuricemia may represent a cardiovascular risk factor, this abnormality already exists in a significant fraction of hypertensive children and adolescents.

  7. Make your values mean something.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Patrick M

    2002-07-01

    Take a look at this list of corporate values: Communication. Respect. Integrity. Excellence. They sound pretty good, don't they? Maybe they even resemble your own company's values. If so, you should be nervous. These are the corporate values of Enron, as claimed in its 2000 annual report. And they're absolutely meaningless. Indeed, most values statements, says the author, are bland, toothless, or just plain dishonest. And far from being harmless, as some executives assume, they're often highly destructive. Empty values statements create cynical and dispirited employees and undermine managerial credibility. But coming up with strong values--and sticking to them--isn't easy. Organizations that want their values statements to really mean something should follow four imperatives. First, understand the different types of values: core, aspirational, permission-to-play, and accidental. Confusing them with one another can bewilder employees and make management seem out of touch. Second, be aggressively authentic. Too many companies view a values initiative in the same way they view a marketing launch: a onetime event measured by the initial attention it receives, not by its content. Third, own the process. Values initiatives are about imposing a set of fundamental, strategically sound beliefs on a broad group of people. That's why the best values efforts are driven by small teams. Finally, weave core values into everything. It's not enough to hang your values statement on the wall; it must be integrated into every employee-related process--hiring methods, performance management systems, even dismissal policies. Living by stated corporate values is difficult. But the benefits of doing so can be profound; so can the damage from adopting a hollow set of corporate values.

  8. Beyond Values Clarification: Addressing Client Values in Clinical Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonow, Jordan T; Follette, William C

    2009-01-01

    Ethical principles of psychology, as exemplified in the American Psychological Association (APA) Code of Ethics (2002), provide impractical advice for addressing client values during psychotherapy. These principles seem to argue that each client's values should be respected and protected at all times, except in cases in which this would result in harm to the client or the general public. Although the code is appropriately designed as a defense against potential and actual abuses of professional power, this general proscription against directly targeting client values for change is based on an understanding of values that grants them special ontological status and has resulted in limited clinical interventions focusing solely on “values clarification.” With its strong foundation in a unified philosophical system, clinical behavior analysis offers a sophisticated alternative approach to values that both defines what they are and identifies when they can be ethically targeted to improve the lives of clients. PMID:22478514

  9. Reduction of hypervalent chromium in acidic media by alginic acid.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Fernando A; Bellú, Sebastian E; González, Juan C; Sala, Luis F

    2014-12-19

    Selective oxidation of carboxylate groups present in alginic acid by Cr(VI) affords CO2, oxidized alginic acid, and Cr(III) as final products. The redox reaction afforded first-order kinetics in [alginic acid], [Cr(VI)], and [H(+)], at fixed ionic strength and temperature. Kinetic studies showed that the redox reaction proceeds through a mechanism which combines Cr(VI)→Cr(IV)→Cr(II) and Cr(VI)→Cr(IV)→Cr(III) pathways. The mechanism was supported by the observation of free radicals, CrO2(2+) and Cr(V) as reaction intermediates. The reduction of Cr(IV) and Cr(V) by alginic acid was independently studied and it was found to occur more than 10(3) times faster than alginic acid/Cr(VI) reaction, in acid media. At pH 1-3, oxo-chromate(V)-alginic acid species remain in solution during several hours at 15°C. The results showed that this abundant structural polysaccharide present on brown seaweeds is able to reduce Cr(VI/V/IV) or stabilize high-valent chromium depending on pH value.

  10. Acidic domains around nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, G; Pack, G R

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogen ion concentration in the vicinity of DNA was mapped out within the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Experimental conditions were modeled by assuming Na-DNA to be solvated in a buffer solution containing 45 mM Tris and 3 mM Mg cations at pH 7.5. Three regions of high H+ concentration (greater than 10 microM) are predicted: one throughout the minor groove of DNA and two localized in the major groove near N7 of guanine and C5 of cytosine for a G.C base pair. These acidic domains correlate well with the observed covalent binding sites of benzo[a]pyrene epoxide (N2 of guanine) and of aflatoxin B1 epoxide (N7 of guanine), chemical carcinogens that presumably undergo acid catalysis to form highly reactive carbocations that ultimately bind to DNA. It is suggested that these regions of high H+ concentration may also be of concern in understanding interactions involving proteins and noncarcinogenic molecules with or near nucleic acids. PMID:2123348

  11. δ(13)C values of some succulent plants from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus

    1979-01-01

    δ(13)C values were determined in 20 succulents from Madagascar. The values were indicative of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in 10 species of the Didiereaceae, 4 species of the Euphorbiaceae, 2 species of the Crassulaceae and 1 species of the Cucurbitaceae. The Didiereaceae and Euphorbiaceae studied are major components of a high biomass xerophytic flora in the semi-arid southwest and south of Madagascar. Three species of the Euphorbiaceae with succulent stems and non-succulent leaves, which were cultivated outdoors in the Tananarive Botanic Garden, showed C3 like δ(13)C values for both leaves and stems. δ(13)C values of leaf and stem material from a similar species, collected in the south of Madagascar, indicated Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.

  12. An Acidity Scale for Binary Oxides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the classification of binary oxides as acidic, basic, or amphoteric. Demonstrates how a numerical scale for acidity/basicity of binary oxides can be constructed using thermochemical data for oxoacid salts. Presents the calculations derived from the data that provide the numeric scale values. (TW)

  13. Physiological activities of hydroxyl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the search of value-added products from surplus soybean oil, we produced many new hydroxy fatty acids through microbial bioconversion. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial products, such as resins, waxes, nylons plastics, lubricants, cosmetics, and additives in coatings and...

  14. Historical perspectives on fatty acid chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  15. Science Notes: Dilution of a Weak Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Wai, Chooi Khee

    2014-01-01

    This "Science note" arose out of practical work involving the dilution of ethanoic acid, the measurement of the pH of the diluted solutions and calculation of the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], for each diluted solution. The students expected the calculated values of K[subscript a] to be constant but they found that the…

  16. A Universal Base in a Specific Role: Tuning up a Thrombin Aptamer with 5-Nitroindole

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Varizhuk, Anna M.; Pozmogova, Galina E.; Smirnov, Igor P.; Kolganova, Natalia A.; Timofeev, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we describe new modified analogs of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) containing 5-nitroindole residues. It has been shown that all modified TBAs form an anti-parallel G-quadruplex structure and retain the ability to inhibit thrombin. The most advanced TBA variant (TBA-N8) has a substantially increased clotting time and two-fold lower IC50 value compared to the unmodified prototype. Molecular modelling studies suggest that the improved anticoagulant properties of TBA-N8 result from changes in the binding mode of the analog. A modified central loop in TBA-N8 is presumed to participate in the binding of the target protein. Studies of FAM labelled TBA and TBA-N8 showed an improved binding affinity of the modified aptamer and provided evidence of a direct interaction between the modified central loop and thrombin. Our findings have implications for the design of new aptamers with improved binding affinities.

  17. A Universal Base in a Specific Role: Tuning up a Thrombin Aptamer with 5-Nitroindole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Varizhuk, Anna M.; Pozmogova, Galina E.; Smirnov, Igor P.; Kolganova, Natalia A.; Timofeev, Edward N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study we describe new modified analogs of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) containing 5-nitroindole residues. It has been shown that all modified TBAs form an anti-parallel G-quadruplex structure and retain the ability to inhibit thrombin. The most advanced TBA variant (TBA-N8) has a substantially increased clotting time and two-fold lower IC50 value compared to the unmodified prototype. Molecular modelling studies suggest that the improved anticoagulant properties of TBA-N8 result from changes in the binding mode of the analog. A modified central loop in TBA-N8 is presumed to participate in the binding of the target protein. Studies of FAM labelled TBA and TBA-N8 showed an improved binding affinity of the modified aptamer and provided evidence of a direct interaction between the modified central loop and thrombin. Our findings have implications for the design of new aptamers with improved binding affinities.

  18. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value.

  19. METHOD OF PREPARING PROTACTINIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.; Larson, R.G.; Thompson, R.C.; Van Winkle, Q.

    1959-05-19

    Separation and purification from initial acid leaches of pitchblende of Pa is described. This supernatant acid solution is treated with alkali metal carbonates to precipitate Pa. Silica is removed from the precipitate by hydroxide treatment. The Pa residue is dissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and Pa is concentrated by cyclic precipitations with MnO/sub 2/. The last solution is hydrolyzed to precipitate Pa. The Pa precipitate contains Ti and Zr which are removed by ion exchange. (T.R.H.)

  20. Novel composite material polyoxovanadate@MIL-101(Cr): a highly efficient electrocatalyst for ascorbic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Diana M; Barbosa, André D S; Pires, João; Balula, Salete S; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Freire, Cristina

    2013-12-26

    A novel hybrid composite material, PMo10V2@MIL-101 was prepared by the encapsulation of the tetra-butylammonium (TBA) salt of the vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdate [PMo10V2O40](5-) (PMo10V2) into the porous metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr). The materials characterization by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preparation of the composite material without disruption of the MOF porous structure. Pyrolytic graphite electrodes modified with the original components (MIL-101(Cr), PMo10V2), and the composite material PMo10V2@MIL-101 were prepared and their electrochemical responses were studied by cyclic voltammetry. Surface confined redox processes were observed for all the immobilized materials. MIL-101(Cr) showed one-electron reduction process due to chromium centers (Cr(III) → Cr(II)), while PMo10V2 presented five reduction processes: the peak at more positive potentials is attributed to two superimposed 1-electron vanadium reduction processes (V(V) → V(IV)) and the other four peaks to Mo-centred two-electron reduction processes (Mo(VI) → Mo(V)). The electrochemical behavior of the composite material PMo10V2@MIL-101 showed both MIL-101(Cr) and PMo10V2 redox features, although with the splitting of the two vanadium processes and the shift of the Mo- and Cr- centered processes to more negative potentials. Finally, PMo10V2@MIL-101 modified electrode showed outstanding enhanced vanadium-based electrocatalytic properties towards ascorbic acid oxidation, in comparison with the free PMo10V2, as a result of its immobilization into the porous structure of the MOF. Furthermore, PMo10V2@MIL-101 modified electrode showed successful simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid and dopamine.

  1. Value-added products from vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new comp...

  2. Nurses' professional and personal values.

    PubMed

    Rassin, Michal

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure professional and personal values among nurses, and to identify the factors affecting these values. The participants were 323 Israeli nurses, who were asked about 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The three fundamental professional nursing values of human dignity, equality among patients, and prevention of suffering, were rated first. The top 10 rated values all concerned nurses' responsibility towards patients. Altruism and confidentiality were not highly rated, and health promotion and nursing research were rated among the last three professional values. For personal (instrumental) values, honesty, responsibility and intelligence were rated first, while ambition and imagination were rated 14th and 16th respectively out of 18. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found among some personal and professional values rated as functions of culture, education, professional seniority, position and field of expertise. The results may assist in understanding the motives of nurses with different characteristics and help to promote their work according to professional ethical values.

  3. Serum sialic acid and CEA concentrations in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hogan-Ryan, A; Fennelly, J J; Jones, M; Cantwell, B; Duffy, M J

    1980-04-01

    The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage.

  4. The influence of dicarboxylic acids: Oxalic acid and tartaric acid on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Ahmadi Jaya; Setyawati, Harsasi; Hamami, Murwani, Irmina Kris

    2016-03-01

    Glass ionomer cement (GIC) has limitation on the mechanical properties especially compressive strength. The change of compressive strength of GIC by adding oxalic acid and tartaric acid has been investigated. Oxalic acid and tartaric acid was added to the liquid components at concentrations of 0 - 15% (w/w). Powder component of GIC was made from optimum experimental powder glass SiO2-Al2O3-CaF2. GIC was characterized by compressive strength test, SEM-EDX and FTIR. The addition of tartaric acid to GIC has greater improvement than addition of oxalic acid. The addition of tartaric acid at 10 % (w/w) to GIC has greatest value of compressive strength.

  5. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS) assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS) activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the extracts of H Bara

  6. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  7. Beyond Values Clarification: Addressing Client Values in Clinical Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonow, Jordan T.; Follette, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical principles of psychology, as exemplified in the American Psychological Association (APA) Code of Ethics (2002), provide impractical advice for addressing client values during psychotherapy. These principles seem to argue that each client's values should be respected and protected at all times, except in cases in which this would result in…

  8. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  9. Value Orientations [and] Leader's Guide for the Value Orientations Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Cornelius Lee

    A values exercise suitable for secondary school students is divided into three sections. The first section, an introduction to students, explains the concepts of and interrelationships between basic human needs, culture, values orientation, and global perspectives. The intent of the exercise, to help students appreciate how a set of value…

  10. The value of life and the value of life extension.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics.

  11. Measuring values with the Short Schwartz's Value Survey.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Verkasalo, Markku

    2005-10-01

    The reliability and validity of the Short Schwartz's Value Survey (SSVS) was examined in 4 studies. In Study 1 (N = 670), we examined whether value scores obtained with the SSVS correlate with those obtained with Schwartz's Value Survey (SVS; Schwartz, 1992, 1996) and the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001) and whether the quasi-circular structure of values can be found with the SSVS. In Study 2 (N = 3,261), we replicated the quasi-circular structure in a more heterogeneous sample and assessed whether the SSVS can differentiate appropriately between gender, religiosity, students from different fields, and supporters of left- and right-wing political parties. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined the test-retest reliability of the SSVS and in Study 4 (N = 38), time saving gained by the SSVS compared to the SVS. The results show that the new scale had good reliability and validity and that the values measured by the SSVS were arrayed on a circle identical to the theoretical structure of values. We also provided equations that can be used in future studies to measure individuals' scores on the 2 main value dimensions, Self-Transcendence and Conservation.

  12. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  13. Value-based Insurance Design.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-02-17

    The increasing awareness of the scarcity of health care resources is forcing the health care industry to improve quality while lowering the cost. One method by which employers and insurance companies are attempting to do this is with value-based insurance design. In these plans, patients pay a lower amount for certain services that are considered high value and a higher amount for services that are considered low value.

  14. Value-based Insurance Design.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-03-01

    The increasing awareness of the scarcity of health care resources is forcing the health care industry to improve quality while lowering the cost. One method by which employers and insurance companies are attempting to do this is with value-based insurance design. In these plans, patients pay a lower amount for certain services that are considered high value and a higher amount for services that are considered low value.

  15. ANION EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Raby, B.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for selectively separating radium, bismuth, poloniums and lead values from a metallic mixture of thc same. The mixture is dissolved in aqueous hydrochloric acid and the acidity is adjusted to between 1 to 2M in hydrochloric acid to form the anionic polychloro complexes of polonium and bismuth. The solution is contacted with a first anion exchange resin such as strong base quaternary ammonia type to selectively absorb the polonium and bismuth leaving the radium and lead in the effluent. The effluent, after treatment in hydrochloric acid to increase the hydrochloric acid concentration to 6M is contacted with a second anion exchange iesin of the same type as the above to selectively adsorb the lead leaving the radium in the effluent. Radium is separately recovered from the effluent from the second exchange column. Lead is stripped from the loaded resin of the second column by treatment with 3M hydrochloric acid solution. The loaded resin of the first column is washed with 8M hydrochloric acid solution to recover bismuth and then treated with strong nitric acid solution to recover polonium.

  16. Achieving Value in Primary Care: The Primary Care Value Model

    PubMed Central

    Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation. PMID:26951592

  17. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  19. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  20. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  1. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  2. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  3. Congruence and functions of personal and cultural values: do my values reflect my culture's values?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald

    2006-11-01

    Two studies are described examining the correlation between self- and culture-referenced values at a culture level (Study 1) and correlation between self- and culture-referenced values and self-reported behavior at an individual level (Study 2). It is found that values related to individual-group relationships (embeddedness) and expression and experience of affective feelings and emotions (affective autonomy) are significantly correlated at a culture level. In Study 2, culture-referenced values are shown to correlate with behaviors attached to social norms, whereas self-rated values are found to correlate with behaviors that are not norm-governed. Implications for measurement of cultural values and cultural and cross-cultural research designs are discussed.

  4. Social Value and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…

  5. Values Strategies for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemin, Marion, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a reference for teachers to use in incorporating values education into all subject areas through the activities listed in the book. The book contains 16 chapters, of which about half provide guidelines, discussion and activities related to values in general, and half suggest activities specific to individual areas of study. In the…

  6. Personality, Sex, and Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde; Hartman, Timothy

    1978-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPA) and the Ohio Work Values Inventory (OWVI) were administered to 115 undergraduates. A two-factor MANOVA was performed with personality types (VPI) and sex as independent variables and work values (OWVI) as dependent variables. The F-ratios for main effects were significant. (Author/SJL)

  7. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  8. Modern Science and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    Designed to provide scientific personnel, policymakers, and the public with a succinct summary of the public aspects of scientific issues, this book focuses on how values and science intersect and how social values can be brought to bear on complex technical enterprises. Themes examined include: (1) relation of science and technology to human…

  9. Marital Therapy and Changing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi-Hoshmand, Lisa

    1976-01-01

    Implications of Feminist and Humanistic values for marriage are conceptualized. Their effects on therapist orientation and definitions of the viable marriage are discussed, together with proposed alternatives in marital intervention. It is concluded that value orientations and standards of positive mental health could provide therapists and…

  10. The Value of Location Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvrcek, Dan; Kumpost, Marek; Matyas, Vashek; Danezis, George

    The value attached to privacy has become a common notion in the press, featuring frequent stories of people selling sensitive personal information for a couple of dollars. Syverson argues [1] that we should incorporate the risk of data misuse into our reasoning about privacy valuations. Yet there are doubts as to whether people can, and do, value their privacy correctly and appropriately.

  11. How Is Physician Work Valued?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Lahey, Stephen J; Nichols, Francis C; Levett, James M; Johnston, George Gilbert; Freeman, Richard K; St Louis, James D; Painter, Julie; Yohe, Courtney; Wright, Cameron D; Kanter, Kirk R; Mayer, John E; Naunheim, Keith S; Rich, Jeffrey B; Bavaria, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Strategies to value physician work continue to evolve. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database have an increasingly important role in this evolution. An understanding of the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) system (American Medical Association [AMA], Chicago, IL) and the Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) is necessary to comprehend how physician work is valued. In 1965, with the dawn of increasingly complex medical care, immense innovation, and the rollout of Medicare, the need for a common language describing medical services and procedures was recognized as being of critical importance. In 1966, the AMA, in cooperation with multiple major medical specialty societies, developed the CPT system, which is a coding system for the description of medical procedures and medical services. The RUC was created by the AMA in response to the passage of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, legislation of the United States of America Federal government that mandated that the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services adopt a relative value methodology for Medicare physician payment. The role of the RUC is to develop relative value recommendations for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. These recommendations include relative value recommendations for new procedures or services and also updates to relative value recommendations for previously valued procedures or services. These recommendations pertain to all physician work delivered to Medicare beneficiaries and propose relative values for all physician services, including updates to those based on the original resource-based relative value scale developed by Hsaio and colleagues. In so doing, widely differing work and services provided can be reviewed and comparisons of their relative value (to each other) can be established. The resource-based relative value scale assigns value to physician services using relative value units (RVUs), which consist

  12. Determination and occurrence of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides and their transformation products in groundwater using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McManus, Sarah-Louise; Moloney, Mary; Richards, Karl G; Coxon, Catherine E; Danaher, Martin

    2014-12-10

    A sensitive method was developed and validated for ten phenoxyacetic acid herbicides, six of their main transformation products (TPs) and two benzonitrile TPs in groundwater. The parent compounds mecoprop, mecoprop-p, 2,4-D, dicamba, MCPA, triclopyr, fluroxypr, bromoxynil, bentazone, and 2,3,6-trichlorobenzoic acid (TBA) are included and a selection of their main TPs: phenoxyacetic acid (PAC), 2,4,5-trichloro-phenol (TCP), 4-chloro-2-methylphenol (4C2MP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (T2P), and 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BrAC), as well as the dichlobenil TPs 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid (DBA) which have never before been determined in Irish groundwater. Water samples were analysed using an efficient ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method in an 11.9 min separation time prior to detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The limit of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.00008 and 0.0047 µg·L(-1) for the 18 analytes. All compounds could be detected below the permitted limits of 0.1 µg·L(-1) allowed in the European Union (EU) drinking water legislation. The method was validated according to EU protocols laid out in SANCO/10232/2006 with recoveries ranging between 71% and 118% at the spiked concentration level of 0.06 µg·L(-1). The method was successfully applied to 42 groundwater samples collected across several locations in Ireland in March 2012 to reveal that the TPs PAC and 4C2MP were detected just as often as their parent active ingredients (a.i.) in groundwater.

  13. Valuing Puget Sound’s Valued Ecosystems Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    tively new field of “ecological economics” incorporates a combination of utilitarian and “ecologistic” values. More broadly, the writings of Aldo ... Leopold have become a touch- stone for many contemporary thinkers on environmental ethics, values and aesthetics. In his much cited essay, The Land...Ethic, Leopold said, “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it

  14. PROCESS USING POTASSIUM LANTHANUM SULFATE FOR FORMING A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Angerman, A.A.

    1958-10-21

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values in an oxidation state not greater than +4 from fluoride-soluble fission products. The process consists of adding to an aqueous acidic solution of such plutonium values a crystalline potassium lanthanum sulfate precipitate which carries the plutonium values from the solution.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  16. The value of innovation under value-based pricing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘value of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the value of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the value of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime value of an innovative drug (i.e., the value of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the value of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total value of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of value of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime value of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share

  17. Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nu...

  18. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  19. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions.

  20. ISO 14001 EMS VALUE PROPOSITION.

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.

    2001-11-06

    The objective of this report is to identify business opportunities and value for Battelle Organizations to undertake IS0 14001 Environmental Management System Implementation and registration to the international standard as a corporate strategic initiative.

  1. Environmental values in American culture

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of humans on the environment are mostly unintended. But people throughout the world have become more aware of these effects and have begun to try to control them, both through individual action and through government policy. Such efforts at control are based on people`s understanding of the environment and on their values toward it. The title of this important book, Environmental Values in American Culture, is deceptive. It is about understanding as much as values. It provides a more thorough account of the forces that shape our behavior than a study of values alone would provide. Its main concern is the attitude of US citizens toward global warming (the greenhouse effect), but its conclusions surely have more general significance. The book is also well written and easily understood (except for one chapter on individual differences) by a complete newcomer to the field. It deserves a wide audience.

  2. Teaching Values in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Richard A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the major criticisms that have appeared in the literature and argues that values clarification should not be used in the public schools or by such quasi-public agencies as Scouts, Planned Parenthood, and 4-H. (JOW)

  3. Determination of acidity constants of acid-base indicators by second-derivative spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Derya; Alkan, Mahir

    2000-12-01

    A method for calculation of acid-base dissociation constants of monoprotic weak organic acids whose acid and base species have overlapping spectra from absorptiometric and pH measurements is described. It has been shown that the second-derivative spectrophotometry can effectively be used for determining the dissociation constants, when dissociation constants obtained for methyl orange and bromothymol blue were compared with the values given in the literature.

  4. Acaricidal activity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaofei; Miao, Xiaolou; Lv, Huiping; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jiqin; He, Hua; Yang, Zhiqiang; Pan, Hu

    2014-06-01

    Usnic acid, a major active compound in lichens, was first isolated in 1884. Since then, usnic acid and its sodium salt (sodium usnic acid) have been used in medicine, perfumery, cosmetics, and other industries due to its extensive biological activities. However, its acaricidal activity has not been studied. In this paper, we investigated the acaricidal activity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. After evaluating the acaricidal activity and toxicity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid in vitro, the results showed that at doses of 250, 125, and 62.5 mg/ml, usnic acid and sodium usnic acid can kill mites with 91.67, 85.00, and 55.00% and 100, 100, and 60.00% mortality after treatment 24 h. The LT50 values were 4.208, 8.249, and 16.950 h and 3.712, 7.339, and 15.773 h for usnic acid and sodium usnic acid, respectively. Sodium usnic acid has a higher acaricidal activity than usnic acid, which may be related to the difference in their structures.

  5. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels.

  6. Conversion of lesquerolic acid to 14-oxo-11(Z)-eicosenoic acid by genetically variable Sphingobacterium multivorum strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated new microbial systems for their ability to convert lesquerolic acid (LQA; 14-hydroxy-11(Z)-eicosenoic acid) to value-added products. A strain of Sphingobacterium multivorum (NRRL B-23212) was found previously to convert LQA to 14-oxo-11(Z)-eicosenoic acid (14-OEA), as determined by ...

  7. Adsorption kinetics of silicic acid on akaganeite.

    PubMed

    Naren, Gaowa; Ohashi, Hironori; Okaue, Yoshihiro; Yokoyama, Takushi

    2013-06-01

    As part of a series of studies on the interaction between ferric ions and silicic acid in the hydrosphere, the adsorption of silicic acid on akaganeite was investigated kinetically at various pH values. The adsorption of silicic acid increased with increasing pH over an initial pH range of 4-11.5. In the kinetic experiment, the Cl(-) was released from akaganeite much faster than silicic acid was adsorbed. From this result, we concluded that chloride ions bound on the surface of akaganeite are released and Fe-OH or Fe-O(-) sites are formed, which then acts as an adsorption site for silicic acid. The uptake mechanism of silicic acid by akaganeite is significantly different from that by schwertmannite, despite the presence of the same tunnel structure.

  8. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-04-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  9. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I.; Kopylov, Alexei M.; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Golovin, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4 µs in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange. PMID:21893589

  10. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Reshetnikov, Roman V; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I; Kopylov, Alexei M; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Makarov, Alexander A; Golovin, Andrey V

    2011-12-01

    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4 µs in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange.

  11. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  12. Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups in the Tri-Border Area (TBA) of South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    northwest corner of Misiones 9 Demographia: Brasil [Brazil]: Cities (Municipalities) Over 100,000...Population: 1996. [http://www.demographia.com/db- brasil -city96.htm] 10 “Homicide Rate Declines in Foz do Iguaçu,” A Gazeta do Iguaçu [Foz do Iguaçu...http://www.estado.estadao.com.br/editorias/2003/03/16/int026.html]; and Policarpo Junior, “Ele esteve no Brasil ” [He Was in Brazil], Veja on-line, no

  13. Effects of tea polyphenol on quality and shelf life of pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Wenjiao, Fan; Yunchuan, Chen; Junxiu, Sun; Yongkui, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tea polyphenol on quality and shelf life of pork sausages stored at 20 °C for 42 days were examined. The control and the treated sausage samples added with 0.03 % tea polyphenol were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable counts and lactic acid bacteria counts), physical (Hunter color of L(*), a(*), b(*)), chemical (pH, TBA value) and sensory characteristics. It was found that samples added with tea polyphenol showed lower changes in total viable count, pH, TBA value and sensory characteristics than control samples, respectively. The results indicated that the sausage samples with tea polyphenol added was to enable the good quality and sensory characteristics than the control sausage samples and prolonged the shelf life of the sausages.

  14. Removal of heavy metals from water effluents using supermacroporous metal chelating cryogels.

    PubMed

    Onnby, Linda; Giorgi, Camilla; Plieva, Fatima M; Mattiasson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Applications of IDA in, for example, immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography for purification of His-tagged proteins are well recognized. The use of IDA as an efficient chelating adsorbent for environmental separations, that is, for the capture of heavy metals, is not studied. Adsorbents based on supermacroporous gels (cryogels) bearing metal chelating functionalities (IDA residues and ligand derived from derivatization of epoxy-cryogel with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine followed by the treatment with bromoacetic acid (defined as TBA ligand)) have been prepared and evaluated on capture of heavy metal ions. The cryogels were prepared in plastic carriers, resulting in desired mechanical stability and named as macroporous gel particles (MGPs). Sorption and desorption experiments for different metals (Cu²+, Zn²+, Cd²+, and Ni²+ with IDA adsorbent and Cu²+ and Zn²+ with TBA adsorbent) were carried out in batch and monolithic modes, respectively. Obtained capacities with Cu²+ were 74 μmol/mL (TBA) and 19 μmol/mL gel (IDA). The metal removal was higher for pH values between pH 3 and 5. Both adsorbents showed improved sorption at lower temperatures (10°C) than at higher (40°C) and the adsorption significantly dropped for the TBA adsorbent and Zn²+ at 40°C. Desorption of Cu²+ by using 1 M HCl and 0.1 M EDTA was successful for the IDA adsorbent whereas the desorption with the TBA adsorbent needs further attention. The result of this work has demonstrated that MGPs are potential treatment alternatives within the field of environmental separations and the removal of heavy metals from water effluents.

  15. Role of iron in asbestos-body-induced oxidant radical generation.

    PubMed

    Governa, M; Amati, M; Fontana, S; Visona I; Botta, G C; Mollo, F; Bellis, D; Bo, P

    1999-11-12

    Asbestos bodies (AB) were harvested from human lung tissue digests and isolated from uncoated asbestos fibers. Samples containing 1000 AB were added to a reactive solution to investigate the ability of AB to oxidize deoxy-D-ribose and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide as determined by formation of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive products. Three types of asbestos fibers were tested for comparison, since they are known to be able to produce ROS. The absorbance values measured with 1000 AB were significantly higher than those observed with 1000 fibers of the three types of asbestos. Since in our reaction system the only source of transition metals was the iron-rich AB, data suggest iron derived from the ferritin coating of AB was involved in oxidant generation. Addition of iron to AB enhanced TBA-reactive product formation, while chelation of Fe with deferoxamine reduced this reaction. Hydroxyl radical scavengers 1,3-dimethyl-2-thiourea (DMTU) and mannitol (MN) also effectively blocked TBA-reactive product generation. Data indicate the importance of Fe in AB-induced oxidant damage. With the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to AB, incubation in the reactive solution gave very high amounts of TBA-reactive products, but using a reactive solution devoid of ascorbate, very low amounts of TBA-reactive products were generated. In the latter condition, the superoxide of cell membranes probably reduced and removed iron from AB-coating ferritin, but less effectively than ascorbate. Further after the possible reoxidation of Fe2+, Fe3+ could be coordinated by lactoferrin. Since such availability of reductant is never approached in living systems, the iron in the AB coating is unlikely to function as a catalyst of Fenton-type reactions in vivo.

  16. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  17. Role of hepatic transporters in prevention of bile acid toxicity after partial hepatectomy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Csanaky, Iván L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Tanaka, Yuji; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-01-01

    The enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids (BAs) is important in several physiological processes. Although there has been considerable research on liver regeneration after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx), little is known about how the liver protects itself against BA toxicity during regeneration. In this study, various BAs in plasma and liver, the composition of micelle-forming bile constituents, as well as gene expression of the main hepatobiliary transporters were quantified in sham-operated and PHx mice 24 and 48 h after surgery. PHx did not influence the hepatic concentrations of taurine-conjugated BAs (T-BA) but increased the concentration of glycine-conjugated (G-BA) and unconjugated BAs. Total BA excretion (μg·min−1·g liver wt−1) increased 2.4-fold and was accompanied by a 55% increase in bile flow after PHx. The plasma concentrations of T-BAs (402-fold), G-BAs (17-fold), and unconjugated BAs (500-fold) increased. The mRNA and protein levels of the BA uptake transporter Ntcp were unchanged after PHx, whereas the canalicular Bsep protein increased twofold at 48 h. The basolateral efflux transporter Mrp3 was induced at the mRNA (2.6-fold) and protein (3.1-fold) levels after PHx, which may contribute to elevated plasma BA and bilirubin levels. Biliary phospholipid excretion was nearly doubled in PHx mice, most likely owing to increased mRNA expression of the phospholipid transporter, Mdr2. In conclusion, the remnant liver after PHx excretes 2.5-fold more BAs and three times more phospholipids per gram liver than the sham-operated mouse liver. Upregulation of phospholipid transport may be important in protecting the biliary tract from BA toxicity during PHx. PMID:19497955

  18. Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, K

    1980-01-01

    The practice of sprouting of cereal grains has become popular in the western world. Sprouted grains are thought of as having exceptional nutritive value. Sprouting is easy and can be done without sophisticated equipment. Untreated seeds of good quality and high germination percentage are placed in an environment of adequate water, a desirable temperature, and a certain composition of gases in the atmosphere for several days for sprouting. The sprouts can be kept for a few days to over a week under refrigeration. They can be used in many different foods including breakfast items, salads, soups, casseroles, pasta, and baked products. Sprouting of grains causes increased enzyme activity, a loss of total dry matter, an increase in total protein, a change in amino acid composition, a decrease in starch, increases in sugars, a slight increase in crude fat and crude fiber, and slightly higher amounts of certain vitamins and minerals. Most of the increases in nutrients are not true increases, however. They simply reflect the loss of dry matter, mainly in the form of carbohydrates, due to respiration during sprouting. As total carbohydrates decreases, the percentage of other nutrients increases. There are no nutritional evaluations of cereal sprouts in humans. Animal studies with cattle, pigs, chickens, and rats have failed to show a superior nutritive value of sprouted grains over ungerminated grains. Studies with humans are not likely to produce more encouraging results.

  19. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  20. New highly toxic bile acids derived from deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid.

    PubMed

    Májer, Ferenc; Sharma, Ruchika; Mullins, Claire; Keogh, Luke; Phipps, Sinead; Duggan, Shane; Kelleher, Dermot; Keely, Stephen; Long, Aideen; Radics, Gábor; Wang, Jun; Gilmer, John F

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared a new panel of 23 BA derivatives of DCA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) in order to study the effect of dual substitution with 3-azido and 24-amidation, features individually associated with cytotoxicity in our previous work. The effect of the compounds on cell viability of HT-1080 and Caco-2 was studied using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Compounds with high potency towards reduction of cell viability were further studied using flow cytometry in order to understand the mechanism of cell death. Several compounds were identified with low micromolar IC₅₀ values for reducing cell viability in the Caco-2 and HT1080 cell lines, making them among the most potent BA apoptotic agents reported to date. There was no evidence of relationship between overall hydrophobicity and cytotoxicity supporting the idea that cell death induction by BAs may be structure-specific. Compounds derived from DCA caused cell death through apoptosis. There was some evidence of selectivity between the two cell lines studied which may be due to differing expression of CD95/FAS. The more toxic compounds increased ROS production in Caco-2 cells, and co-incubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blunted pro-apoptotic effects. The properties these compounds suggest that there may be specific mechanism(s) mediating BA induced cell death. Compound 8 could be useful for investigating this phenomenon.

  1. Value based care in hepatology.

    PubMed

    Strazzabosco, Mario; Allen, John I; Teisberg, Elizabeth O

    2017-01-10

    The migration from legacy fee-for-service reimbursement to payments linked to high value health care is accelerating in the United States because of new legislation and re-design of payments from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Since patients with chronic diseases account for substantial use of health care resources, payers and health systems are focusing on maximizing the value of care for these patients. Since chronic liver diseases impose a major health burden worldwide affecting the health and lives of many individuals and families as well as substantial costs for individuals and payers, hepatologists must understand how they can improve their practices . Hepatologists practice a high-intensity cognitive sub-specialty, using complex and costly procedures and medications. High value patient care requires multi-disciplinary coordination, labor-intensive support for critically ill patients and effective chronic disease management. Under current fee for service reimbursement, patient values, medical success and financial success all can be misaligned. Many current attempts to link health outcomes to reimbursement are based on compliance with process measures with less emphasis on outcomes that matter most to patients, thus slowing transformation to higher-value team-based care. Outcome measures that reflect the entire cycle of care are needed to assist both clinicians and administrators in improving quality and value of care. A comprehensive set of outcome measures for liver diseases is not currently available. Numerous researchers now are attempting to fill this gap by devising and testing outcome indicators and patients reported outcomes (PROMs) for the major liver conditions. These indicators will provide tools to implement a value-based approach for patients with chronic liver diseases to compare results and value of care between referral centers, to perform health technology assessment and to guide decision-making processes for health

  2. Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass - Volume I, Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol.

  3. Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass: Volume I -- Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Werpy, T.; Petersen, G.

    2004-08-01

    This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol.

  4. Transporting values by technology transfer.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Leonardo D

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of new medical technologies into a developing country is usually greeted with enthusiasm as the possible benefits become an object of great anticipation and provide new hope for therapy or relief. The prompt utilization of new discoveries and inventions by a medical practitioner serves as a positive indicator of high standing in the professional community. But the transfer of medical technology also involves a transfer of concomitant values. There is a danger that, in the process of adopting a particular technology, the user takes for granted the general utility and desirability of the implements and procedures under consideration without recognizing the socio-cultural peculiarities of the adopting country. A sensitivity to the social conditions and cultural traditions is important so that the emergence of new values can be examined critically and the transfer of necessary technology can be effected smoothly. In the Philippines, efforts to boost patronage of transplant technology appear to have overlooked this need for socio-cultural sensitivity. Legislative fiat cannot be used to override deep-seated values. There is a need to be more sensitive to the possible confrontation of values that the transfer of technology brings in order to avoid the erosion of indigenous socio-cultural values and minimize the intrusiveness of beneficial medical technology.

  5. Can Value Added Add Value to Teacher Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The five thoughtful papers included in this issue of "Educational Researcher" ("ER") raise new questions about the use of value-added methods (VAMs) to estimate teachers' contributions to students' learning as part of personnel evaluation. The papers address both technical and implementation concerns, considering potential…

  6. Values Education, the Judgment of Value and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidle, William R.

    If individuals have an objectified, firm understanding of themselves as subjects who exist within a basic self-constituting process for knowing and valuing, they will discover that their authenticity as human beings exists in fulfilling the requirements through which this self-constituting process effectively expresses itself. Self-appropriation…

  7. Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

    2014-07-10

    Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications.

  8. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  9. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  10. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  11. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  12. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid ...

  13. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  14. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  15. Application of a continuous distribution model for proton binding by humic acids extracted from acidic lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rhea, J.R.; Young, T.C. )

    1987-01-01

    The proton binding characteristics of humic acids extracted from the sediments of Cranberry Pond, an acidic water body located in the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State, were explored by the application of a nultiligand distribution model. The model characterizes a class of proton binding sites by mean log K values and the standard deviations of log K values and the mean. Mean log K values and their relative abundances were determined directly from experimental titration data. The model accurately predicts the binding of protons by the humic acids for pH values in the range 3.5 to 10.0.

  16. Application of a continuous distribution model for proton binding by humic acids extracted from acidic lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhea, James R.; Young, Thomas C.

    1987-10-01

    The proton binding characteristics of humic acids extracted from the sediments of Cranberry Pond, an acidic water body located in the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State, were explored by the application of a multiligand distribution model. The model characterizes a class of proton binding sites by mean log K values and the standard deviations of log K values about the mean. Mean log K values and their relative abundances were determined directly from experimental titration data. The model accurately predicts the binding of protons by the humic acids for pH values in the range 3.5 to 10.0.

  17. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told.

  18. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  19. The Value of Certainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    It is clear that Earth science data are valued, in part, for their ability to provide some certainty about the past state of the Earth and about its probable future states. We can sharpen this notion by using seven categories of value ● Warning Service, requiring latency of three hours or less, as well as uninterrupted service ● Information Service, requiring latency less than about two weeks, as well as unterrupted service ● Process Information, requiring ability to distinguish between alternative processes ● Short-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of five years or less, e.g. crop insurance ● Mid-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of twenty-five years or less, e.g. power plant siting ● Long-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of a century or less, e.g. one hundred year flood planning ● Doomsday Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable statistical record that is useful for reducing the impact of `doomsday' scenarios While the first two of these categories place high value on having an uninterrupted flow of information, and the third places value on contributing to our understanding of physical processes, it is notable that the last four may be placed on a common footing by considering the ability of observations to reduce uncertainty. Quantitatively, we can often identify metrics for parameters of interest that are fairly simple. For example, ● Detection of change in the average value of a single parameter, such as global temperature ● Detection of a trend, whether linear or nonlinear, such as the trend in cloud forcing known as cloud feedback ● Detection of a change in extreme value statistics, such as flood frequency or drought severity For such quantities, we can quantify uncertainty in terms

  20. Transfer of value from fit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E Tory; Chen Idson, Lorraine; Freitas, Antonio L; Spiegel, Scott; Molden, Daniel C

    2003-06-01

    People experience regulatory fit when they pursue a goal in a manner that sustains their regulatory orientation (E. T. Higgins, 2000). Five studies tested whether the value experienced from regulatory fit can transfer to a subsequent evaluation of an object. In Studies 1 and 2, participants gave the same coffee mug a higher price if they had chosen it with a strategy that fit their orientation (eager strategy/promotion; vigilant strategy/prevention) than a strategy that did not fit. Studies 3-5 investigated possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Value transfer was independent of positive mood, perceived effectiveness (instrumentality), and perceived efficiency (ease), and occurred for an object that w as independent of the fit process itself. The findings supported a value confusion account of transfer.