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Sample records for acid total bilirubin

  1. Unbound free fatty acids from preterm infants treated with intralipid decouples unbound from total bilirubin potentially making phototherapy ineffective.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Thomas; Kathiravan, Suganya; Stahl, Gary E; Huber, Andrew H; Kleinfeld, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g) infants have poor outcomes, often compromised by bilirubin neurotoxicity. We measured unbound bilirubin (Bf) and unbound free fatty acid (FFAu) levels in 5 ELBW infants in a trial examining the effects of pharmacologic ductal closure on infants treated with Intralipid infusion (3 g/kg/day). The levels for all infants (mean ± SD) were: total serum bilirubin (TSB) 4.6 ± 1.7 mg/dl, FFAu 376 ± 496 nM, and Bf 42 ± 30 nM. Of the 3 infants who died, 2 had TSB <5.9 mg/dl but FFAu >580 nM and Bf >75 nM. Multiple regression revealed a major effect on Bf levels due to FFAu, indicating that Intralipid elevated levels of FFAu and Bf. Indomethacin or ibuprofen reduced Bf levels, most likely by reducing FFAu levels through lipase inhibition. Because displacement of Bf by FFAu decouples Bf from TSB, phototherapy may not reduce the risk of bilirubin or FFAu toxicity in Intralipid-treated ELBW infants.

  2. Total Serum Bilirubin Predicts Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency Better Than Serum Bile Acids in Infants with Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Venkat, Veena L.; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Magee, John C.; Turmelle, Yumirle; Arnon, Ronen; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Hertel, Paula M.; Karpen, Saul J; Kerkar, Nanda; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Molleston, Jean; Murray, Karen F.; Ng, Vicky L.; Raghunathan, Trivellore; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwartz, Kathleen; Sherker, Averell H.; Sokol, Ronald J.; Teckman, Jeffrey; Wang, Kasper; Whitington, Peter F.; Heubi, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fat soluble vitamin (FSV) deficiency is a well-recognized consequence of cholestatic liver disease and reduced intestinal intraluminal bile acids. We hypothesized that serum bile acids (SBA) would predict biochemical FSV deficiency better than serum total bilirubin level (TB) in infants with biliary atresia. Methods Infants enrolled in the Trial of Corticosteroid Therapy in Infants with Biliary Atresia (START) after hepatoportoenterostomy were the subjects of this investigation. Infants received standardized FSV supplementation and monitoring of TB, SBA and vitamin levels at 1, 3 and 6 months. A logistic regression model was used with the binary indicator variable insufficient/sufficient as the outcome variable. Linear and non-parametric correlations were made between specific vitamin measurement levels and either TB or SBA. Results The degree of correlation for any particular vitamin at a specific time point was higher with TB than SBA (higher for TB in 31 circumstances versus 3 circumstances for SBA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) shows that TB performed better than SBA (AUC 0.998 vs. 0.821). Including both TB and SBA did not perform better than TB alone (AUC 0.998). Conclusion We found that TB was a better predictor of FSV deficiency than SBA in infants with biliary atresia. The role of SBA as a surrogate marker of FSV deficiency in other cholestatic liver diseases, such as PFIC, alpha-one antitrypsin deficiency and Alagille syndrome where the pathophysiology is dominated by intrahepatic cholestasis, warrants further study. PMID:25419594

  3. Bilirubin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Total Bilirubin; TBIL; Neonatal Bilirubin; Direct Bilirubin; Conjugated Bilirubin; Indirect Bilirubin; Unconjugated Bilirubin Formal ... Hepatitis B ; Hepatitis C ; Complete Blood Count ; Urinalysis ; Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Haptoglobin ; Reticulocyte Count All content on ...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1113 - Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1113 Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system....

  5. 21 CFR 862.1113 - Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1113 Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system....

  6. 21 CFR 862.1113 - Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1113 Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system....

  7. 21 CFR 862.1113 - Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1113 Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system....

  8. 21 CFR 862.1113 - Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1113 Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system....

  9. Association between flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption and total serum bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Mahoney, Sara E

    2015-03-01

    Emerging work demonstrates that serum bilirubin is a novel biomarker implicated in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, we have a limited understanding of the influence of flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption on bilirubin levels, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey were used (n = 1783; 18-85 years of age), with analyses performed in 2014. Total serum bilirubin was measured from a blood sample. Using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), a flavonoid index variable was created summing the frequency of consumption of flavonoid-rich foods. After adjustments, greater consumption of flavonoid-rich fruits and vegetables was positively associated with bilirubin levels. Our findings suggest an association between flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption and bilirubin levels. If confirmed by prospective and experimental studies, then regular consumption of flavonoid-rich fruits and vegetables should be promoted to increase levels of bilirubin.

  10. Effects of total bilirubin on the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without potential liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bian, Lu-Qin; Li, Rong-Zhen; Zhang, Zheng-Yun; Jin, Yan-Ji; Kang, Hyung-Wook; Fang, Zhen-Zhu; Park, Youn-Soo; Choi, Yoon-Ho

    2013-11-01

    It is still uncertain whether total bilirubin per se is a risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and no study has so far examined this important issue. This study was designed to assess the sheer effects of total bilirubin on the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without potential liver disease. In the present study, postmenopausal female subjects without potential liver disease (n = 918) who underwent measurement of bone mineral density were enrolled. Correlation and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between total bilirubin and other variables. As a result, subjects with osteoporosis had a significantly lower total bilirubin level (P = 0.005). A 0.1 mg/dl increase in total bilirubin was associated with reduced odds ratio of the risk by 38 % for osteoporosis [OR 0.62 (95 % CI 0.52-0.88), P = 0.012] after adjustment for several variables. Total bilirubin was independently associated with BMD [coefficient = 0.41, 95 % CI (0.35-0.47), P < 0.001 for lumbar spine and coefficient = 0.44, 95 % CI (0.36-0.48), P < 0.001 for femur neck]. A positive correlation could be observed with significant difference between total bilirubin and z-score (r = 0.33, P < 0.001 for lumbar spine and r = 0.37, P < 0.001 for femur neck) and total bilirubin was positively correlated with serum calcium (r = 0.13, P < 0.001) as well. Therefore, this study demonstrates an independent inverse association between total bilirubin and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without potential liver disease. Total bilirubin would be useful as a provisional new risk factor of osteoporosis in such a population.

  11. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed.

  12. Serum total bilirubin levels are negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome in aged Chinese women: a community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, P.; Sun, D.M.; Wu, D.H.; Li, T.M.; Liu, X.Y.; Liu, H.Y.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated serum total bilirubin levels as a predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigated the relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1728 participants over 65 years of age from Eastern China. Anthropometric data, lifestyle information, and previous medical history were collected. We then measured serum levels of fasting blood-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bilirubin, as well as alanine aminotransferase activity. The prevalence of MetS and each of its individual component were calculated per quartile of total bilirubin level. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlation between serum total bilirubin levels and MetS. Total bilirubin level in the women who did not have MetS was significantly higher than in those who had MetS (P<0.001). Serum total bilirubin quartiles were linearly and negatively correlated with MetS prevalence and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in females (P<0.005). Logistic regression showed that serum total bilirubin was an independent predictor of MetS for females (OR: 0.910, 95%CI: 0.863–0.960; P=0.001). The present study suggests that physiological levels of serum total bilirubin might be an independent risk factor for aged Chinese women, and the prevalence of MetS and HTG are negatively correlated to serum total bilirubin levels. PMID:28146216

  13. The kinetics of oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. V.; Kochergin, B. A.; Antina, E. V.

    2012-07-01

    The results of a comparative study of the oxidation of bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and their mixture in aqueous solutions under the action of air oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are presented. The observed and true rate constants for the oxidation reactions were determined. It was shown that the oxidation of tetrapyrrole pigment occurred under these conditions bypassing the stage of biliverdin formation to monopyrrole products. Simultaneous oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid was shown to be accompanied by the inhibition of ascorbic acid oxidation by bilirubin, whereas ascorbic acid itself activated the oxidation of bilirubin.

  14. A comparison between transcutaneous and total serum bilirubin in healthy-term greek neonates with clinical jaundice.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, Charalambos; Adramerina, Alkistis; Limnaios, Stefanos; Symeonidis, Symeon; Spanou, Chrysoula; Malakozi, Marina; Mpampalis, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of transcutaneous bilirubin meters has been assessed in newborns from various ethnic backgrounds. However, there are limited data on Greek newborns. Our study examined the accuracy of transcutaneous bilirubin measurements in clinically jaundiced healthy-term Greek newborns, using total serum bilirubin as the reference standard, in order to re-evaluate our local guidelines about neonatal jaundice. Clinically jaundiced newborns requiring total serum bilirubin level estimation were recruited prospectively. 368 pairs of total serum bilirubin/transcutaneous bilirubin measurements were taken in 222 newborns, using a direct spectrophotometric device and the BiliCheck device, respectively. The level of agreement between the obtained transcutaneous bilirubin and total serum bilirubin values was assessed. Our data were analysed using the Stata/SE 12.0 (StataCorp LP, USA) statistical programme. The mean (± SD) TSB was 225.4 ± 25.4 μmol/l and the mean (± SD) TcB was 237.9 ± 21.0 μmol/l. The correlation between the values was poor (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.439; Lin's concordance coefficient 0.377 [95% CI 0.301 to 0.453]; P<0.001). The Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that transcutaneous bilirubin measurements tended to overestimate the total serum bilirubin value (mean difference 12.5 ± 24.9 μmol/l), with wide 95% limits of agreement (-36.2 μmol/l to 61.3 μmol/l). Transcutaneous bilirubin values did not correlate well with total serum bilirubin values, being often imprecise in predicting the actual total serum bilirubin levels. This permits us to continue estimating total serum bilirubin in clinically jaundiced newborns according to our local guidelines, in order to safely decide the appropriate care plan.

  15. [Haemolysis and turbidity influence on three analysis methods of quantitative determination of total and conjugated bilirubin on ADVIA 1650].

    PubMed

    Gobert De Paepe, E; Munteanu, G; Schischmanoff, P O; Porquet, D

    2008-01-01

    Plasma bilirubin testing is crucial to prevent the occurrence of neonatal kernicterus. Haemolysis may occur during sampling and interfere with bilirubin determination. Moreover, lipidic infusions may induce plasma lipemia and also interfere with bilirubin measurement. We evaluated the interference of haemolysis and lipemia with three methods of total and direct bilirubin measurement adaptated on an Advia 1650 analyser (Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics) : Synermed (Sofibel), Bilirubin 2 (Siemens) and Bilirubin Auto FS (Diasys). The measurement of total bilirubin was little affected by haemolysis with all three methods. The Bilirubin 2 (Siemens) method was the less sensitive to haemolysis even at low bilirubin levels. The measurement of conjugated bilirubin was significantly altered by low heamoglobin concentrations for Bilirubin Auto FS(R) (30 microM or 0,192 g/100 mL haemoglobin) and for Synermed (60 microM or 0,484 g/100 mL haemoglobin). In marked contrast, we found no haemoglobin interference with the Direct Bilirubin 2 reagent which complied with the method validation criteria from the French Society for Biological Chemistry. The lipemia up to 2 g/L of Ivelip did not affect neither the measurement of total bilirubin for all three methods nor the measurement of conjugated bilirubin with the Diasys and Siemens reagents. However, we observed a strong interference starting at 0,5 g/L of Ivelip with the Synermed reagent. Our data suggest that both Siemens and Diasys methods allow to measure accurately total and conjugated bilirubin in hemolytic and lipemic samples, nevertheless, the Siemens methodology is less affected by these interferences.

  16. Lower Serum Bilirubin and Uric Acid Concentrations in Patients with Parkinson's Disease in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Sun, Li; Hao, Meng-Wei; Hu, Zhao-Ting

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the correlation between bilirubin and uric acid (UA) concentrations and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Chinese population. A total of 425 PD patients and 460 controls were included in the current study. Patients were diagnosed by a neurologist and assessed using the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale. Venous blood samples were collected, and bilirubin and UA concentrations were analyzed. Compared to controls, indirect bilirubin (IBIL) and UA concentrations were lower in PD patients (P IBIL = 0.015, P UA = 0.000). Serum IBIL in different age subgroups and H&Y stage subgroups were also lower compared to the control group (P IBIL = 0.000, P UA = 0.000) but were not significantly different among these subgroups. Females in the control group had significantly lower serum IBIL and UA concentrations than males (P IBIL = 0.000, P UA = 0.000) and the PD group (P IBIL = 0.027, P UA = 0.000). In early PD (patients with <2-year medical history and no treatment), serum IBIL and UA concentrations were also lower than the controls (P IBIL = 0.013, P UA = 0.000). Although IBIL concentration was positively correlated with UA concentration in controls (R IBIL = 0.229, P IBIL = 0.004), this positive association was not observed in the PD group (R IBIL = -0.032, P IBIL = 0.724). Decreased levels of serum IBIL and UA were observed in PD patients. It is possible that individuals with decreased serum bilirubin and UA concentrations lack the endogenous defense system to prevent peroxynitrite and other free radicals from damaging and destroying dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. Our results provide a basis for further investigation into the role of bilirubin in PD.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. Simple, Reagentless Quantification of Total Bilirubin in Blood Via Microfluidic Phototreatment and Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brandon L; Wyckoff, Sarah L; Haverstick, Doris M; Landers, James P

    2017-03-07

    Total bilirubin (T-Bil) is an important clinical diagnostic marker that is measured frequently by physicians to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of multiple medical conditions. The work demonstrated here utilizes the 48-year-old mechanism of phototherapy that is commonly implemented in the treatment of infants with exaggerated physiologic and pathologic jaundice but adapts it to the microfluidic level for the ultimate purpose of total bilirubin quantitation. After acquisition of a small volume of blood (<10 μL) and through subsequent separation (plasma + red blood cells), a 3 μL plasma sample was imaged by a portable scanner and analyzed through a custom algorithm for color intensity. After blue light irradiation for 10 min at 470 nm, the sample was reimaged and analyzed. The resulting intensities obtained pre- and postimaging (clearly observed through a color change from yellow to clear) were then utilized to calculate the total bilirubin concentration. A total of 34 blood samples were analyzed with microfluidic photo treatment-image analysis (μPIA) and were found to have a Deming-regression slope of 0.97 (R(2) = 0.960) when compared to the total bilirubin values determined in the clinical laboratory. We demonstrate the implementation of a centrifugal microdevice fabricated through the Print, Cut, and Laminate (PCL) method that accepts eight whole blood samples and provides the capabilities to not only quantitate total bilirubin (Deming-regression slope of 0.95, R(2) = 0.990) but allow future integration with excess plasma sufficient for additional downstream clinical assays. This work will highlight the inexpensive nature of the analysis (absence of caustic, viscous, or additional reagents), the simplicity (does not require any chemical reactions), speed (sample-to-answer in <15 min), insusceptibility to biofouling (no protein matrix effects, hemoglobin interferences, and minimized turbidity), low volume plasma requirement (3 μL), and the

  2. Efficient voltammetric discrimination of free bilirubin from uric acid and ascorbic acid by a CVD nanographite-based microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Taurino, Irene; Van Hoof, Viviane; Magrez, Arnaud; Forró, László; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

    2014-12-01

    We report a novel electrochemical sensor based on nanographite grown on platinum microelectrodes for the determination of bilirubin in the presence of normal concentrations of albumin. The albumin is a protein with an intrinsic ability to bind the bilirubin therefore reducing the concentration of the free electroactive metabolite in human fluids. In addition, the proposed device permits the discrimination of free bilirubin from two interferents, uric acid and ascorbic acid, by the separation of their oxidation peaks in voltammetry. Preliminary measurements in human serum prove that the proposed nanostructured platform can be used to detect bilirubin.

  3. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  4. High serum total bilirubin as a protective factor against hip bone loss in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Koh, Jung-Min; Ahn, Seong Hee; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Eun Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Kim, Ghi Su

    2013-06-01

    Bilirubin is known to have a physiologic role as an antioxidant that efficiently scavenges peroxyl radicals and suppresses oxidation, and oxidative stress has detrimental effects on bone metabolism. In the present study, we performed a 3-year longitudinal study of healthy middle-aged men, investigating the association between serum total bilirubin concentrations and annualized changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The study enrolled a total of 917 Korean men aged 40 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations with an average follow-up interval of 3 years. BMD at proximal femur sites was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the same equipment at baseline and follow-up. The overall mean annualized rates of bone loss at the total femur, femoral neck, and trochanter were -0.25 %/year, -0.34 %/year, and -0.44 %/year, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the rates of bone loss at all proximal femur sites were significantly attenuated in a dose-response fashion across increasing bilirubin concentrations (P = 0.006-0.046). Moreover, compared to subjects in the lowest bilirubin quartile category, those in the highest bilirubin quartile category showed significantly less bone loss at all proximal femur sites after adjustment for confounding factors (P = 0.010-0.048). This study provides the first clinical evidence that serum total bilirubin could be a protective marker against future bone loss, especially in subjects without liver diseases.

  5. Does corticosteroid treatment cause prolonged recovery and increased total bilirubin level in severe ADAMTS-13-deficient TTP patient?

    PubMed

    Sayiner, Zeynel Abidin; Acik, Didar Yanardag; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Subari, Salih; Mete, Ayse Ozlem; Dai, M Sinan

    2015-10-01

    A 41-year-old female patient complaining of fatigue, headache, mild confusion, and rush on her lower extremities was admitted to our emergency department. Laboratory tests revealed that he had anemia, thrombocytopenia, and increased levels of indirect bilirubin and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood tests. Direct and indirect Coombs tests were negative, and fragmented erythrocytes were observed in peripheral blood smears. The patient was diagnosed with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The best supportive care was provided. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone treatments were administered. On the 10th day of treatment, LDH level and fragmented red blood cells in peripheral blood smear were decreased, but his direct and indirect bilirubin levels increased despite the fact that he was treated with 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone and TPE. The patient had severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency. After discontinued steroids treatment, his bilirubin level normalized within 4 days. On the 4th day after bilirubin level normalized, vincristine treatment was administered. TPE was also continued. There was no consensus about the optimal schedule for discontinuing plasmapheresis therapy, and also we observed total bilirubin level improvement with discontinued corticosteroid treatment. In this case, corticosteroid treatment was linked with the increase of total bilirubin level in severe ADAMTS-13-deficient TTP patient.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... or serum. Measurements of the levels of bilirubin, an organic compound formed during the normal...

  7. Total bilirubin level may be a biomarker of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wei; Guo, Dan; Yang, Ligang; Wang, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recently, the number of the studies on the relationship between the total bilirubin level (TBL) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) is increasing, but their results were not consistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to analyze the relationship between TBL and the risk of DN. We searched 5 databases before October 31, 2016, and reviewed the reference list of relevant articles. The fixed or random-effects model was used to pool risk estimates. We conducted the dose–response meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between TBL and the risk of DN. Our meta-analysis showed that TBL in the DN group was lower than that in diabetes without the kidney disease (NDN) group (standard mean difference [SMD]: −0.63, 95% CI: −0.80, −0.46). The result of each subgroup also showed that TBL in the DN group was lower than that in the NDN group. The result of meta-regression indicated that duration of diabetes mellitus might be the source of heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also showed that there was a significant negative relationship between TBL and the risk of DN (OR: 0.86, 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). The results of subgroup analysis were similar to those of SMD; no sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were robust. We observed a linear association between TBL and the risk of DN, and there was a negative dose–response association between TBL and the risk of DN. In conclusion, bilirubin may be used as a biomarker of DN. It helps early diagnosis and effective therapeutic strategies on DN. PMID:28072721

  8. The Bilirubin Binding Panel: A Henderson-Hasselbalch Approach to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Ahlfors, Charles E

    2016-10-01

    Poor plasma bilirubin binding increases the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity in newborns with hyperbilirubinemia. New laboratory tests may soon make it possible to obtain a complete bilirubin binding panel when evaluating these babies. The 3 measured components of the panel are the plasma total bilirubin concentration (BTotal), which is currently used to guide clinical care; the bilirubin binding capacity (BBC); and the concentration of non-albumin bound or free bilirubin (BFree). The fourth component is the bilirubin-albumin equilibrium dissociation constant, KD, which is calculated from BTotal, BBC, and BFree The bilirubin binding panel is comparable to the panel of components used in the Henderson-Hasselbalch approach to acid-base assessment. Bilirubin binding population parameters (not prospective studies to determine whether the new bilirubin binding panel components are better predictors of bilirubin neurotoxicity than BTotal) are needed to expedite the clinical use of bilirubin binding. At any BTotal, the BFree and the relative risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity increase as the KD/BBC ratio increases (ie, bilirubin binding worsens). Comparing the KD/BBC ratio of newborns with BTotal of concern with that typical for the population helps determine whether the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity varies significantly from the inherent risk at that BTotal Furthermore, the bilirubin binding panel individualizes care because it helps to determine how aggressive intervention should be at any BTotal, irrespective of whether it is above or below established BTotal guidelines. The bilirubin binding panel may reduce anxiety, costs, unnecessary treatment, and the likelihood of undetected bilirubin neurotoxicity.

  9. pKa and aggregation of bilirubin: titrimetric and ultracentrifugation studies on water-soluble pegylated conjugates of bilirubin and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Boiadjiev, Stefan E; Watters, Kimberly; Wolf, Steven; Lai, Bryon N; Welch, William H; McDonagh, Antony F; Lightner, David A

    2004-12-14

    A water-soluble conjugate (1) with intact carboxyl groups was prepared by addition of poly(ethylene glycol) thiol (MPEG-SH) regiospecifically to the exo vinyl group of bilirubin. (1)H and (13)C NMR and absorbance spectroscopy in CDCl(3) and DMSO-d(6) confirmed the assigned structure and showed that pegylation did not disrupt the hydrogen-bonded ridge-tile conformation of the pigment moiety. Aqueous solutions of 1 were optically clear, but NMR signals were seen only from the MPEG portion and none from the tetrapyrrole, consistent with dissolved assemblies containing aggregated bilirubin cores within mobile polyether chains. On alkalinization (pH >12), signals from the pigment moiety reappeared. Titrimetric measurements on 1 in water showed the pK(a)'s of the two carboxyl groups to be similar (average 6.42). Control studies with pegylated half-esters of succinic, suberic, brassylic, thapsic, and 1,20-eicosanedioic acid showed that pegylation per se has little, if any, effect on carboxyl ionization. However, aggregation increases the apparent pK(a) by approximately 1-2 units. The molecularity of bilirubin in solution was further characterized by ultracentrifugation. Over the pH range 8.5-10 in buffer, bilirubin formed multimers with aggregation numbers ranging from approximately 2-7. Bilirubin is monomeric in DMSO or CHCl(3) at approximately 2 x 10(-)(5) M, but aggregation occurred when the CHCl(3) was contaminated with trace adventitious (perhaps lipoidal) impurities. These observations show that aggregation increases the pK(a)'s of aliphatic carboxylic acids relative to their monomer values in water. They are consistent with earlier (13)C NMR-based estimates of approximately 4.2 and approximately 4.9 for the aqueous pK(a)'s of bilirubin and similar studies of bilirubin in micellar bile-salt solutions. Together with earlier work, they confirm that the pK(a)'s of bilirubin are about normal for aliphatic carboxyls and suggest that the high (>7.5) values occasionally

  10. Differential impact of serum total bilirubin level on cerebral atherosclerosis and cerebral small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonguk; Yoon, Seung-Jae; Woo, Min-Hee; Kim, Sang-Heum; Kim, Nam-Keun; Kim, Jinkwon; Kim, OK-Joon; Oh, Seung-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Background A low serum total bilirubin (T-bil) level is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. However, the differential impact of the serum T-bil level on cerebral atherosclerosis and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is still unclear. Methods We evaluated serum T-bil levels from 1,128 neurologically healthy subjects. Indices of cerebral atherosclerosis (extracranial arterial stenosis [ECAS] and intracranial arterial stenosis [ICAS]), and indices of SVD (silent lacunar infarct [SLI], and moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities [msWMH]) were evaluated by the use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography. Results In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for confounding variables, subjects within middle T-bil (odds ratio [OR]: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41–0.97) and high T-bil tertiles (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.33–0.86) showed a lower prevalence of ECAS than those in a low T-bil tertile. Although subjects with a high T-bil tertile had a lower prevalence of ICAS than those with a low T-bil tertile, the statistical significance was marginal after adjusting for confounding variables. There were no significant differences in the proportions of subjects with SLI and msWMH across serum T-bil tertile groups. Conclusions The serum T-bil level is negatively associated with cerebral atherosclerosis, especially extracranial atherosclerosis, but not with SVD. PMID:28319156

  11. UGT1A1∗28 relationship with abnormal total bilirubin levels in chronic hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Marcelo Moreira Tavares; Vaisberg, Victor Van; Abreu, Rodrigo Martins; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; daSilvaFerreira, Camila; Nasser, Paulo Dominguez; Paschoale, Helena Scavone; Carrilho, Flair José; Ono, Suzane Kioko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gilbert syndrome (GS) is a frequent benign clinical condition, marked by intermittent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, mostly due to the polymorphism uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1∗28 (UGT1A1∗28). Hyperbilirubinemia has been reported in a GS patient undergoing hepatitis C treatment, and other UGT isoforms polymorphisms have been linked to worse outcomes in viral hepatitis. Yet, little is known to GS contributions’ to the liver disease scenario. Our aim was to assess UGT1A1 genotypes’ frequency in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and correlate with total bilirubin (TB). This is a case–control study in a large tertiary medical center. Cases were CHC patients confirmed by hepatitis C virus (HCV)–polymerase chain reaction. Exclusion criteria were hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Control were healthy blood donors. UGT1A1 promoter region gene genotyping was performed, and bilirubin serum levels were available for HCV patients. Genotypes and alleles frequencies were similar in case (n = 585; P = 0.101) and control groups (n = 313; P = 0.795). Total bilirubin increase was noticed according to thymine–adenine repeats in genotypes (P < 0.001), and the TB greater than 1 mg/dL group had more UGT1A1∗28 subjects than in the group with TB values <1 mg/dL (18.3 vs 5.3; P < 0.001). Bilirubin levels are linked to the studied polymorphisms, and this is the first time that these findings are reported in a chronic liver disease sample. Among patients with increased TB levels, the frequency of UGT1A1∗28 is higher than those with normal TB. Personalized care should be considered to GS, regarding either abnormal bilirubin levels or drug metabolism. PMID:28296739

  12. Biliary and urinary excretion rates and serum concentration changes of four bilirubin photoproducts in Gunn rats during total darkness and low or high illumination.

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, S; Ogino, T; Yokoyama, T; Isobe, K; Itoh, S; Yamakawa, T; Hashimoto, T

    1984-01-01

    On cycled exposure of Gunn rats to total darkness and low and high illumination, biliary excretion rates of (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin increased up to approx. 10-fold from the mean basal values of 1.2 and 0.2 microgram/h to the mean maximum values of 25.2 and 4.2 micrograms/h respectively, and at the same time those of (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also increased, but at very much lower rates than those of the first-mentioned two. During the low illumination only (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin appeared in the urine; during the high illumination (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also appeared, showing a similar excretion pattern to that observed in the bile, but the total urinary excretion rates were lower than the total biliary excretion rates. The serum bilirubin concentrations fell gradually to lower values, accompanied by an increment in (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, but (EZ)-cyclobilirubin was not detected. It is concluded that during phototherapy the predominant pathway for the removal of bilirubin from the body in the Gunn rat is by biliary excretion of the geometric photoisomers (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, derived from Z----E isomerization, and the structural photoisomer (EZ)-cyclobilirubin, formed from intramolecular endo-vinyl cyclization. PMID:6477496

  13. Total bilirubin level in relation to excipients in parenteral morphine sulfate administered to seriously ill newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lesko, S M; Mitchell, A A

    1994-10-01

    We examined exposure to excipients in different morphine sulfate preparations in relation to maximum total bilirubin level during the first 5 days of life among 155 infants admitted to a newborn intensive care unit. Sixty-six (43%), 47 (30%), and 42 (27%) newborns were exposed to chlorobutanol, phenol and neither excipient, respectively. Mean maximum total bilirubin in the first 5 days of life among newborns not exposed to chlorobutanol or phenol was 10.8 mg/dL (184 mumol/L). After adjusting for birthweight, race, sex, and use of phototherapy, the maximum total bilirubin level among newborns exposed to phenol was 1.4 mg/dL (24 mumol/L) higher than the maximum level among newborns exposed to neither excipient (P < 0.05); the corresponding difference associated with chlorobutanol exposure was 1.6 mg/dL (27 mumol/L) (P < 0.02). Further adjustment for potential confounding by the major risk factors for hyperbilirubinaemia did not materially change the results. While unconfirmed, these findings support the growing concern that excipients added to parenteral medications may not be 'inactive' as is often assumed, and that the safety of such exposures in seriously ill newborn infants needs to be studied further.

  14. Total Serum Bilirubin within Three Months of Hepatoportoenterostomy Predicts Short-term Outcomes in Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Shneider, Benjamin L.; Magee, John C.; Karpen, Saul J.; Rand, Elizabeth B.; Narkewicz, Michael R.; Bass, Lee M.; Schwarz, Kathleen; Whitington, Peter F.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Kerkar, Nanda; Haber, Barbara; Rosenthal, Philip; Turmelle, Yumirle P.; Molleston, Jean P.; Murray, Karen F.; Ng, Vicky L.; Wang, Kasper S.; Romero, Rene; Squires, Robert H.; Arnon, Ronen; Sherker, Averell H.; Moore, Jeffrey; Ye, Wen; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively assess the value of serum total bilirubin (TB) within 3 months of hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE) in infants with biliary atresia (BA) as a biomarker predictive of clinical sequelae of liver disease in the first two years of life. Study design Infants with BA undergoing HPE between June 2004-January 2011 were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter study. Complications were monitored until 2 years of age or the earliest of liver transplant (LT), death, or study withdrawal. TB below 2 mg/dL (34.2 μM) at any time in the first 3 months (TB<2.0, all others = TB≥2) after HPE was examined as a biomarker, using Kaplan-Meier survival and logistic regression. Results Fifty percent (68/137) of infants had TB<2.0 in the first 3 months after HPE. Transplant-free survival at 2 years was significantly higher in the TB<2.0 group vs. TB≥2 (86% vs. 20%, p<0.0001). Infants with TB≥2 had diminished weight gain (p<0.0001), greater probability of developing ascites (OR 6.4, 95% CI 2.9–14.1, p<0.0001), hypoalbuminemia (OR 7.6, 95% CI 3.2–17.7, p< 0.0001), coagulopathy (OR 10.8, 95% CI 3.1–38.2, p=0.0002), LT (OR 12.4, 95% CI 5.3–28.7, p<0.0001), or LT or death (OR 16.8, 95% CI 7.2–39.2, p<0.0001). Conclusions Infants whose TB does not fall below 2.0 mg/dL within 3 months of HPE were at high risk for early disease progression, suggesting they should be considered for LT in a timely fashion. Interventions increasing the likelihood of achieving TB <2.0 mg/dL within 3 months of HPE may enhance early outcomes. PMID:26725209

  15. Inverse association between serum total bilirubin levels and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Sook; Lee, Sung Won; Mo, Eun Young; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have suggested that bilirubin, a potent innate antioxidant, plays a protective role against cardiovascular and microvascular disease. This study investigated the association between serum concentrations of total bilirubin (TB) and the presence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in Korean diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study involved 1207 patients aged more than 30 years with type 2 diabetes. DPN was assessed according to clinical symptoms and physical examinations using Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument examination score, 10-g monofilament sensation, and current perception threshold. The subjects were stratified into gender-specific tertiles based on TB values, and the relationship between the TB values and DPN was analyzed. Compared with patients within the lowest TB tertile, those with higher TB levels consisted of patients with shorter duration of diabetes, lower HbA1c, better renal function, and less autonomic neuropathy, retinopathy, and albuminuria. Serum TB levels were inversely associated with DPN. In multivariate analysis for the development of DPN after adjusting for potential confounding factors including retinopathy, albuminuria, and autonomic neuropathy, the TB levels were inversely associated with the presence of DPN, both as a continuous variable [odds ratio (OR) per log standard deviation (SD) 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.97; P = 0.022] and when categorized in tertiles (the highest vs. the lowest tertile; OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.99; P = 0.046). Low serum bilirubin levels are significantly associated with DPN, independently of classic risk factors and other microvascular complications. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether serum bilirubin has a prognostic significance on DPN.

  16. Body Fat Percentage Is a Major Determinant of Total Bilirubin Independently of UGT1A1*28 Polymorphism in Young Obese

    PubMed Central

    Kohlova, Michaela; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Fernandes, João; Costa, Elísio; Catarino, Cristina; Aires, Luísa; Mansilha, Helena Ferreira; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Rêgo, Carla; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bilirubin has potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism (TA repeats in the promoter region) is a major determinant of bilirubin levels and recent evidence suggests that raised adiposity may also be a contributing factor. We aimed to study the interaction between UGT1A1 polymorphism, hematological and anthropometric variables with total bilirubin levels in young individuals. Methods 350 obese (mean age of 11.6 years; 52% females) and 79 controls (mean age of 10.5 years; 59% females) were included. Total bilirubin and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, hemogram, anthropometric data and UGT1A1 polymorphism were determined. In a subgroup of 74 obese and 40 controls body composition was analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies were 49.9%, 42.7% and 7.5% for 6/6, 6/7 and 7/7 genotypes, respectively. Patients with 7/7 genotype presented the highest total bilirubin levels, followed by 6/7 and 6/6 genotypes. Compared to controls, obese patients presented higher erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin and CRP levels, but no differences in bilirubin or in UGT1A1 genotype distribution. Body fat percentage was inversely correlated with bilirubin in obese patients but not in controls. This inverse association was observed either in 6/7 or 6/6 genotype obese patients. UGT1A1 polymorphism and body fat percentage were the main factors affecting bilirubin levels within obese patients (linear regression analysis). Conclusion In obese children and adolescents, body fat composition and UGT1A1 polymorphism are independent determinants of total bilirubin levels. Obese individuals with 6/6 UGT1A1 genotype and higher body fat mass may benefit from a closer clinical follow-up. PMID:24901842

  17. Influence of Clinical Status on the Association Between Plasma Total and Unbound Bilirubin and Death or Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Oh, William; Stevenson, David K.; Tyson, Jon E.; Morris, Brenda H.; Ahlfors, Charles E.; Bender, G. Jesse; Wong, Ronald J.; Perritt, Rebecca; Vohr, Betty R.; Van Meurs, Krista P.; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Das, Abhik; Phelps, Dale L.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the influence of clinical status on the association between total plasma bilirubin and unbound bilirubin on death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age in extremely low birth weight infants. Method Total plasma biirubin and unbound biirubin were measured in 1,101 extremely low birth weight infants at 5±1 day of age. Clinical criteria were used to classify infants as clinically stable or unstable. Survivors were examined at 18–22 months corrected age by certified examiners. Outcome variables were death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss, and death prior to follow-up. For all outcomes, the interaction between bilirubin variables and clinical status was assessed in logistic regression analyses adjusted for multiple risk factors. Results Regardless of clinical status, an increasing level of unbound bilirubin was associated with higher rates of death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss and death before follow-up. Total plasma bilirubin values were directly associated with death or neurodevelopmental impairment, death or cerebral palsy, death or hearing loss, and death before follow-up in unstable infants, but not in stable infants. An inverse association between total plasma bilirubin and death or cerebral palsy was found in stable infants. Conclusions In extremely low birth weight infants, clinical status at 5 days of age affects the association between total plasma and unbound bilirubin and death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months of corrected age. An increasing level of UB is associated a higher risk of death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes regardless of clinical status. Increasing levels of total plasma bilirubin are directly associated with increasing risk of death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in unstable, but not in stable infants. PMID:20105142

  18. Bilirubin as an antioxidant in micelles and lipid bilayers: its contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Patricia D; Drake, Emily C; Ross, L; Barclay, C

    2007-08-15

    The antioxidant capacities, antioxidant activities, k(inh), and stoichiometric factors, n, of water-soluble derivatives of bilirubin (BR), BR-human serum albumin (BR-HSA), and BR-ditaurate disodium conjugate (BRC) were determined in aqueous/lipid dispersions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles/methyl linoleate and in bilayers of dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) during initiation by water-soluble azo-bis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (ABAP). The inhibition rate constants for BRC and BR-HSA were similar in micelles (k(inh) approximately 1.3 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), where n approximately 2, whereas the k(inh) for BR-HSA dropped by (1/2) in bilayers. The dimethyl ester of bilirubin (BRDE) gave a k(inh) only one-tenth that of the vitamin E analog, pentamethylhydroxychroman (PMHC) in SDS micelles/methyl linoleate when initiated by lipid-soluble azo-bis-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile (DMVN). Biliverdin hydrochloride (BVHCl) was NOT an effective peroxyl radical-trapping agent in the micellar phase during initiation by ABAP or DMVN containing methyl linoleate but it inhibited oxygen uptake in the aqueous phase. Both BRC and BR-HSA extended the total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP) of human blood plasma and their contribution to TRAP was in the range of 5-10% of the natural TRAP of blood plasma, depending on the BR content determined in the blood plasma.

  19. Breast milk jaundice: an in vitro study of the effect of free fatty acids on the bilirubin-serum albumin complex.

    PubMed

    Yong, F C; Cheah, S S

    1977-08-01

    Oleic and palmitic acids at concentrations above 1.1 mg percent (40 micrometer) are capable of displacing bilirubin from the serum albumin-bilirubin conjugates. The release of bilirubin is also demonstrated by thin layer gel chromatography. Since both oleate and palmitate constitute the major fatty acids in breast milk, the results may indicate that the development of jaundice in breast-fed infants could result at least in part from elevated levels of free fatty acids present in the blood serum of these neonates.

  20. Formation of bilirubin glucoside

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kim Ping

    1971-01-01

    1. Rat liver microsomal preparation can effect the transglucosylation from UDP-glucose to bilirubin in the presence of Mg2+. 2. Other nucleotides, namely CDP-glucose, ADP-glucose and GDP-glucose, were not active as glucosyl donors. 3. Only trace amounts of galactose, galacturonic acid and N-acetylglucosamine were conjugated to bilirubin when their respective UDP derivatives were used in the reaction mixture. 4. The azobilirubin glucosides produced by coupling with p-diazobenzenesulphonic acid and diazotized ethyl anthranilic acid were separable from the corresponding azobilirubin glucuronides by t.l.c. 5. The glucoside was, however, hydrolysed by both β-glucosidase and various preparations of β-glucuronidase; azobilirubin and glucose were liberated in the process. 6. Kinetic studies showed that the effects of pH and Mg2+ on the two conjugating systems were similar. 7. The specific activities of hepatic bilirubin UDP-glucosyltransferase, expressed as μg of bilirubin `equivalents' conjugated/h per mg of protein, are respectively 1.7 and 2.4 for male and female rats. 8. The Km values for bilirubin and UDP-glucose are 5.7×10−5m and 1.6×10−3m respectively. 9. The glucoside and glucuronide conjugations of bilirubin are discussed in relation to the availability of the conjugating agents and aglycone in the liver. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5144254

  1. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid/glycinergic synaptic transmission in mediating bilirubin-induced hyperexcitation in developing auditory neurons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin-Lu; Liang, Min; Shi, Hai-Bo; Wang, Lu-Yang; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2016-01-05

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical phenomenon observed in human newborns. A high level of bilirubin can result in severe jaundice and bilirubin encephalopathy. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying bilirubin excitotoxicity are unclear. Our previous studies showed the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glycine switches from excitatory to inhibitory during development in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), one of the most sensitive auditory nuclei to bilirubin toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the roles of GABAA/glycine receptors in the induction of bilirubin hyperexcitation in early developing neurons. Using the patch clamp technique, GABAA/glycine receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded from bushy and stellate cells in acute brainstem slices from young mice (postnatal day 2-6). Bilirubin significantly increased the frequency of sIPSCs, and this effect was prevented by pretreatments of slices with either fast or slow Ca(2+) chelators BAPTA-AM and EGTA-AM suggesting that bilirubin can increase the release of GABA/glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. Using cell-attached recording configuration, we found that antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors strongly attenuated spontaneous spiking firings in P2-6 neurons but produced opposite effect in P15-19 neurons. Furthermore, these antagonists reversed bilirubin-evoked hyperexcitability in P2-6 neurons, indicating that excitatory action of GABA/glycinergic transmission specifically contribute to bilirubin-induced hyperexcitability in the early stage of development. Our results suggest that bilirubin-induced enhancement of presynaptic release GABA/Glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms may play a critical role in mediating neuronal hyperexcitation associated with jaundice, implicating potential new strategies for predicting, preventing, and treating bilirubin neurotoxicity.

  2. Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2009-08-01

    Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

  3. Ameliorative Effect of Vanillic Acid on Serum Bilirubin, Chronotropic and Dromotropic Properties in the Cholestasis-Induced Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Atefipour, Narges; Dianat, Mahin; Badavi, Mohammad; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The liver modulates several important roles, such as metabolism and liver cirrhosis, which have several cardiovascular problems. Due to preservative role of antioxidant agents in cardiovascular disease, consequently, many of them are applied as medicinal plants in traditional medicine. Vanillic acid (VA), as an antioxidant agent, has a principal preservative role on some diseases. In this study, the effect of vanillic acid was examined on heart rate (as chronotropic property), P-R interval (as dromotropic property), and serum bilirubin in cholestasis-induced model rats. Methods In this study, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g were allocated into four groups, and each group contained eight rats as follows: Control (normal saline, 1 ml/kg, gavage, daily for 4 weeks), cirrhotic (normal saline, 1 ml/kg, gavage, daily for 4 weeks), vanillic acid (10 mg/kg, gavage, daily for 4 weeks), cirrhotic treated with vanillic acid (10 mg/kg, gavage, daily for 4 weeks). Chronic biliary cirrhosis was induced in cirrhotic groups by four weeks Bile Duct Ligation (BDL). At the first day and four weeks after surgery, the animals were anesthetized, electrocardiograms were recorded (lead II), and chronotropic and dromotropic properties (HR and PR interval) were investigated. At the end of experimental duration, the animals were anesthetized, and blood samples were taken to measure serum bilirubin. The results were analyzed using t-test and one-way ANOVA by SPSS software, version 22. Results After induced of BDL, the results presented that laboratory parameter (bilirubin) in the cirrhotic group significantly increased compared to the control group. The P-R interval was reduced in the cirrhotic group compared to the control group, and there was no significant difference between heart rate in all groups. Bilirubin were reduced in cirrhotic groups treated with vanillic acid (VA) compared to cirrhotic group and also administration of VA in the cirrhotic treated with

  4. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease Tumors ... duct stricture Biliary system Bilirubin blood test Cirrhosis Gallstones Hepatitis Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Review Date 5/ ...

  5. Bilirubin Binding Capacity in the Preterm Neonate.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sanjiv B

    2016-06-01

    Total serum/plasma bilirubin (TB), the biochemical measure currently used to evaluate and manage hyperbilirubinemia, is not a useful predictor of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in premature infants. Altered bilirubin-albumin binding in premature infants limits the usefulness of TB in premature infants. In this article, bilirubin-albumin binding, a modifying factor for bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity, in premature infants is reviewed.

  6. Predictive Value of Total Serum Bilirubin within 6 Hour of Birth for the Development of Hyperbilirubinemia After 72 hours of Birth

    PubMed Central

    Vanaki, Raghavendra; Badakali, Ashok V.; Pol, Ramesh R; Yelamali, Bhuvaneshwari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neonatal jaundice is benign and no intervention might be required, but jaundice can be associated with an underlying disease condition, which therefore warrants accurate and unbiased estimation of bilirubin. Total Serum Bilirubin (TSB) measurements (at discharge between 18 hours and 72 hours) can be used to predict the chances of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia. Materials and Methods The present hospital-based prospective study was undertaken to determine the predictive value of serum bilirubin before 6 hours of life for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term neonates. One hundred and fifty healthy term newborns delivered during January 2013–December 2013 at Hanagal Shri Kumareshwara Hospital and Research Centre, S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot Karnataka, India, were included in the study. Serum bilirubin levels were estimated twice, first, within 6 hours of life and second, after 72 hours of life. Bilirubin values were plotted on previously published nomograms. Sensitivity, specificity of the test was established. Results A measure of TSB levels (within 6 hours of life) across the study population, showed that maximum number of infants (70/150) had TSB level between 4.1 and 5.5 mg/dL and 16 infants had TSB level >5.6 mg/dL. The TSB levels (after 72 hours of life) showed that maximum newborns (83/150) had TSB levels between 12.8 and 15.3 mg/dL and 9 infants had TSB levels between 7.7 and 10.2mg/dL. Eighteen infants developed hyperbilirubinemia. Newborns with TSB value of >4.95mg/dL within 6hours of life had developed significant hyperbilirubinemia after 72 hours of life with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 89% (p=0.0001), which was highly statistically significant. Conclusion A TSB level of >5 mg/dL within 6 hours of birth would serve as a predictor for risk of subsequent hyperbilirubinemia in the near future. PMID:27790538

  7. Newborn jaundice technologies: unbound bilirubin and bilirubin binding capacity in neonates.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sanjiv B; Lamola, Angelo A

    2011-06-01

    Neonatal jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia), which is extremely common in neonates, can be associated with neurotoxicity. A safe level of bilirubin has not been defined in either premature or term infants. Emerging evidence suggest that the level of unbound (or "free") bilirubin has a better sensitivity and specificity than total serum bilirubin for bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. Although recent studies suggest the usefulness of free bilirubin measurements in managing high-risk neonates, including premature infants, no widely available method exists to assay the serum free bilirubin concentration. To keep pace with the growing demand, in addition to reevaluation of old methods, several promising new methods are being developed for sensitive, accurate, and rapid measurement of free bilirubin and bilirubin binding capacity. These innovative methods need to be validated before adopting for clinical use. We provide an overview of some promising methods for free bilirubin and binding capacity measurements with the goal to enhance research in this area of active interest and apparent need.

  8. Pretreatment direct bilirubin and total cholesterol are significant predictors of overall survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Jianlin; Lou, Yuqing; Hu, Song; Yu, Keke; Li, Rong; Zhang, Xueyan; Jin, Bo; Han, Baohui

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the prediction of pretreatment circulating bilirubin and cholesterol for overall survival in 459 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Circulating total bilirubin, direct bilirubin (DB), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured at baseline. The mean age (standard deviation) of all study patients was 58.7 (10.5) years, and 42.9% of them was males. Ever smokers accounted for 27.0% and lung adenocarcinoma for 90.4%. The median follow-up time and survival time were 29.5 and 34.9 months, respectively. Patients with higher DB had a 1.68-fold increased risk of death compared with patients with lower DB (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.30, p = 0.001), while patients with higher TC were at a 63% reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower TC (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.20-0.67, p = 0.001). As for HDL-C, patients with higher levels had the risk of death reduced by 46% (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-1.00, p = 0.049) compared with patients with lower levels. After the Bonferroni correction, only DB and TC were significantly associated with NSCLC survival. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that pretreatment DB was identified as a significant risk factor, yet TC as a protective factor, for overall survival in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations.

  9. Total serum bile acid as a potential marker for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma without jaundice.

    PubMed

    Sombattheera, Sutthikan; Proungvitaya, Tanakorn; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Wongkham, Sopit; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Luvira, Vor; Proungvitaya, Siriporn

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is difficult when patients do not show jaundice. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using the total serum bile acid (TSBA) level as an aid for the diagnosis of CCA in patients without jaundice. For this purpose, TSBA of the following groups were measured using a Beckman Synchron CX4 clinical chemistry analyzer: 60 cases of CCA with total serum bilirubin ≤2 mg/dL (low total bilirubin group, LTB); 32 cases of CCA with total serum bilirubin >2 mg/dL (high total bilirubin group, HTB); and 115 healthy controls. Liver function parameters such as serum cholesterol, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also examined. The results showed that the TSBA of both LTB and HTB groups of the CCA patients were significantly higher than that of the healthy controls. Also, significant correlation was observed between TSBA and total bilirubin levels in the HTB group of CCA patients. However, no such correlation was seen in the LTB group. The cut-off value of TSBA was determined for the LTB group of CCA patients using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and it was 6.05 μmol/L with the sensitivity and specificity of 46.7% and 84.4%, respectively. In addition, the ALP level was correlated well with the TSBA level and ALP in HTB group was significantly higher than that of LTB group. Moreover, the combination of high TSBA and high ALP levels gave higher specificity up to 97.4%. TSBA might be useful for the diagnosis of CCA patients without jaundice.

  10. Simple and sensitive method for the quantification of total bilirubin in human serum using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride as a chromogenic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Dinesh, Rangappa; Shrestha, Ashwinee Kumar

    2010-11-01

    We here describe a new spectrophotometric method for measuring total bilirubin in serum. The method is based on the cleavage of bilirubin giving formaldehyde which further reacts with diazotized 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride giving blue colored solution with maximum absorbance at 630 nm. Sensitivity of the developed method was compared with Jendrassik-Grof assay procedure and its applicability has been tested with human serum samples. Good correlation was attained between both methods giving slope of 0.994, intercept 0.015, and R2 = 0.997. Beers law obeyed in the range of 0.068-17.2 μM with good linearity, absorbance y = 0.044 Cbil + 0.003. Relative standard deviation was 0.006872, within day precision ranged 0.3-1.2% and day-to-day precision ranged 1-6%. Recovery of the method varied from 97 to 102%. The proposed method has higher sensitivity with less interference. The obtained product was extracted and was spectrally characterized for structural confirmation with FT-IR, 1H NMR.

  11. Interaction of bilirubin with human erythrocyte membranes. Bilirubin binding to neuraminidase- and phospholipase-treated membranes.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Aono, S; Semba, R; Kashiwamata, S

    1987-11-15

    Saturable bilirubin binding to human erythrocyte membranes was measured before and after digestion with neuraminidase and phospholipases. Neuraminidase-treated erythrocyte membranes did not show any change in their binding properties, indicating that gangliosides could be excluded as candidates for saturable bilirubin-binding sites on erythrocyte membranes. Although bilirubin-binding properties of the membranes did not change after phospholipase D digestion, either, phospholipase C treatment greatly enhanced bilirubin binding. Thus it is suggested that a negatively charged phosphoric acid moiety of phospholipids on the membrane surface may play a role to prevent a large amount of bilirubin from binding to the membranes. Further saturable bilirubin binding to inside-out sealed erythrocyte membrane vesicles showed values comparable with those of the right-side-out sealed membranes, suggesting that the bilirubin-binding sites may be distributed on both outer and inner surfaces of the membranes, or may exist in the membranes where bilirubin may be accessible from either side.

  12. Intermolecular interactions in the bilirubin-cholate-silica system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, N. N.; Golovkova, L. P.; Severinovskaya, O. V.

    2007-06-01

    Bilirubin-cholate interactions in aqueous solutions were studied. The constants of binding of bilirubin with taurocholate dimers and taurodeoxycholate trimers were calculated. The adsorption of bilirubin and cholates on the surface of highly dispersed silica was studied. It was shown that taurine-conjugated cholates are poorly adsorbed from micellar solutions on the silica surface, the specific amount of bilirubin adsorbed decreases with increasing concentration of cholates in the solution, the affinity of free bilirubin for the silica surface is independent of the nature of the cholic acid, and that the affinity of cholate-bilirubin complexes for the silica surface is lower than the affinity of free bilirubin.

  13. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Bilirubin A A A What's in this article? What ... Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What It Is A bilirubin test measures the level of bilirubin (a byproduct ...

  14. Effect of bilirubin on triglyceride synthesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianwei; Lee, Eun Seong; Baek, Seon Ha; Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to elucidate the effect of bilirubin on dyslipidemia and nephropathy in a diabetes mellitus (DM) type I animal model. Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into control, DM, and bilirubin-treated DM (Bil) groups. The Bil group was injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg bilirubin 3 times per week and hepatoma cells were cultured with bilirubin at a concentration of 0.3 mg/dL. The Bil group showed lower serum creatinine levels 5 weeks after diabetes onset. Bilirubin treatment also decreased the amount of mesangial matrix, lowered the expression of renal collagen IV and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and reduced the level of apoptosis in the kidney, compared to the DM group. These changes were accompanied by decreased tissue levels of hydrogen superoxide and NADPH oxidase subunit proteins. Bilirubin decreased serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TGs), as well as the TG content in the liver tissues. Bilirubin suppressed protein expression of LXRα, SREBP-1, SCD-1, and FAS, factors involved in TG synthesis that were elevated in the livers of DM rats and hepatoma cells under high-glucose conditions. In conclusion, bilirubin attenuates renal dysfunction and dyslipidemia in diabetes by suppressing LXRα and SREBP-1 expression and oxidative stress.

  15. [Total synthesis of nordihydroguaiaretic acid].

    PubMed

    Wu, A X; Zhao, Y R; Chen, N; Pan, X F

    1997-04-01

    beta-Keto ester(5) was obtained from vanilin through etherification, oxidation and condensation with acetoacetic ester, (5) on oxidative coupling reaction by NaOEt/I2 produced dimer (6) in high yield. Acid catalyzed cyclodehydration of (6) gave the furan derivative(7), and by a series of selective hydrogenation nordihydroguaiaretic acid, furoguaiacin dimethyl ether and dihydroguaiaretic acid dimethyl ether were synthesized.

  16. Bilirubin-albumin binding, bilirubin/albumin ratios, and free bilirubin levels: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Hulzebos, Christian V; Dijk, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    Treatment for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is predominantly based on one parameter, i.e., total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. Yet, overt kernicterus has been reported in preterm infants at relatively low TSB levels, and it has been repeatedly shown that free unconjugated bilirubin (freeUCB) levels, or bilirubin/albumin (B/A) ratios for that matter, are more closely associated with bilirubin neurotoxicity. In this article, we review bilirubin-albumin binding, UCBfree levels, and B/A ratios in addition to TSB levels to individualize and optimize treatment especially in preterm infants. Methods to measure bilirubin-albumin binding or UCBfree are neither routinely performed in Western clinical laboratories nor incorporated in current management guidelines on unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. For bilirubin-albumin binding, this seems justified because several of these methods have been challenged, and sufficiently powered prospective trials on the clinical benefits are lacking. Technological advances in the measurement of UCBfree may provide a convenient means for integrating UCBfree measurements into routine clinical management of jaundiced infants. A point-of-care method, as well as determination of UCBfree levels in various newborn populations, is desirable to learn more about variations in time and how various clinical pathophysiological conditions affect UCBfree levels. This will improve the estimation of approximate UCBfree levels associated with neurotoxicity. To delineate the role of UCBfree in the management of jaundiced (preterm) infants, trials are needed using UCBfree as treatment parameter. The additional use of the B/A ratio in jaundiced preterms has been evaluated in the Bilirubin Albumin Ratio Trial (BARTrial; Clinical Trials: ISRCTN74465643) but failed to demonstrate better neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants <32 weeks assigned to the study group. Awaiting a study in which infants are assigned to be managed solely on the basis of their B

  17. Correlations between periparturient serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, bilirubin, and urea and the occurrence of clinical and subclinical postpartum bovine endometritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Postpartum endometritis in cattle is a multifactorial disease with high economic impact. Both, clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SCE) result in decreased reproductive performance. Results from in vitro studies led to the implication that non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), bilirubin, and urea could be used as predictors for endometritis in veterinary practice. In this field study, we set out to establish optimal predictor cut points of these metabolic parameters for the detection of CE and SCE. Serum samples were collected one week prior to parturition (wk -1), in the first week postpartum (wk +1) and between 28 and 35 days postpartum (wk +5) from 209 Holstein-Friesian cows. At wk +5, all cows were examined for signs of CE and SCE. Results Higher concentrations of urea at wk +1 were associated with increased odds of CE (OR = 1.7, P = 0.04) in primiparous (PP) cows. A predictor cut point of 3.9 mmol/L (sensitivity: 61%, specificity: 70%) was determined. In multiparous (MP) cows, the logistic regression model revealed that higher concentrations of NEFA at wk -1 were associated with increased odds of CE and SCE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 9.1, P = 0.05; healthy vs. SCE: OR = 12.1, P = 0.04). A predictor cut point of 0.3 mmol/L (sensitivity: 38%, specificity: 87% and sensitivity: 35%, specificity: 89%, respectively) was determined. Increasing concentrations of urea at wk +5 were associated with decreased odds of CE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 0.6, P = 0.01; SCE vs. CE: OR = 0.5, P = 0.03). A predictor cut point of 3.8 mmol/L (sensitivity: 52%, specificity: 81%) was determined. For BHBA and bilirubin relationships with CE or SCE were not detected. Conclusions The corresponding combinations of sensitivity and specificity of the determined predictor cut points were not satisfactory for practical use. Thus, the analysed parameters, i.e. NEFA, BHBA, bilirubin, and urea, at the chosen time points, i.e. at wk -1, at wk +1

  18. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    MedlinePlus

    ... two forms in the body: indirect (unconjugated) and direct (conjugated). Indirect bilirubin, which doesn't dissolve in ... liver to be changed into the soluble form, direct bilirubin. Why It's Done Healthy newborns — especially those ...

  19. Serum Total Bilirubin, not Cholelithiasis, is Influenced by UGT1A1 Polymorphism, Alpha Thalassemia and βs Haplotype: First Report on Comparison between Arab-Indian and African βs Genes

    PubMed Central

    Alkindi, Said Y.; Pathare, Anil; Al Zadjali, Shoaib; Panjwani, Vinodhkumar; Wasim, Fauzia; Khan, Hammad; Chopra, Pradeep; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Alkindi, Salam

    2015-01-01

    Background We explored the potential relationship between steady state serum bilirubin levels and the incidence of cholelithiasis in the context of UGT1A1 gene A(TA)nTAA promoter polymorphism in Omani sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients, homozygotes for African (Benin and Bantu) and Arab-Indian βS haplotypes, but sharing the same microgeographical environment and comparable life style factors. Methods 136 SCA patients were retrospectively studied in whom imaging data including abdominal CT scan, MRI or Ultrasonography were routinely available. Available data on the mean steady state hematological/biochemical parameters (n=136), βs haplotypes(n=136), α globin gene status (n=105) and UGT1A1 genotypes (n=133) were reviewed from the respective medical records. Results The mean serum total bilirubin level was significantly higher in the homozygous UGT1A1(AT)7 group as compared to UGT1A1(AT)6 group. Thus, not cholelithiasis but total serum bilirubin was influenced by UGT1A1 polymorphism in this SCA cohort. Conclusion As observed in other population groups, the UGT1A1 (AT)7 homozygosity was significantly associated with raised serum total bilirubin level, but the prevalence of gallstones in the Omani SCA patients was not associated with α thalassaemia, UGT1A1 polymorphism, or βs haplotypes. PMID:26543529

  20. Bilirubin clearance and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus root in phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in mice.

    PubMed

    Maity, Soumya; Nag, Nivedita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Adhikari, Soumyakanti; Mazumder, Santasree

    2013-09-01

    The ability of ethanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus root (EEPA) to decrease bilirubin level and oxidative stress in phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in mice was investigated. Administration of phenylhydrazine (75 mg/kg b.w.) significantly elevated total and unconjugated serum bilirubin level compared to control mice. EEPA (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w., oral) dose-dependently reduced the bilirubin level. EEPA treatment also upregulated hepatic CAR and CYP3A1, accounting for its ability to facilitate bilirubin clearance. A single dose of EEPA (20 mg/kg b.w.) induced higher level of bilirubin clearance than phototherapy, widely used for treating neonatal jaundice. Furthermore, phenylhydrazine administration significantly increased MDA, protein carbonyl, and total thiol content and lowered the GSH level along with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in erythrocyte compared to the control group. Single administration of EEPA (20 mg/kg b.w.) significantly reversed the trend. Presence of gallic acid, gentisic acid, and ortho-coumaric acid in EEPA was identified by HPLC analysis. Amongst these, the major phenolic constituent, gallic acid, exhibited significant bilirubin-lowering effect. These results suggested that P. amarus may be beneficial in reducing bilirubin level as well as oxidative stress in neonatal jaundice.

  1. Biology of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

    2016-06-01

    Phototherapy is the main treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In acute treatment of extreme hyperbilirubinemia, intensive phototherapy may have a role in 'detoxifying' the bilirubin molecule to more polar photoisomers, which should be less prone to crossing the blood-brain barrier, providing a 'brain-sparing' effect. This article reviews the biology of bilirubin isomers. Although there is evidence supporting the lower toxicity of bilirubin photoisomers, there are studies showing the opposite. There are methodologic weaknesses in most studies and better-designed experiments are needed. In an infant acutely threatened by bilirubin-induced brain damage, intensified phototherapy should be used expediently and aggressively.

  2. Bilirubin oxidation in brain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T W

    2000-01-01

    Bilirubin is a product of heme catabolism which by virtue of its lipid solubility can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain. Neonatal jaundice is a common transitional phenomenon which is due to the combination of increased heme catabolism and rate limitations as far as hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion of bilirubin. In the great majority of cases this is an innocuous condition, which is even posited to have some beneficial effects due to the ability of bilirubin to quench free oxygen radicals. However, because bilirubin is neurotoxic, hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn may exceptionally result in death in the neonatal period, or survival with severe neurological sequelae (kernicterus). Bilirubin enters the brain through an intact blood-brain barrier. Clearance of bilirubin from brain partly involves retro-transfer through the blood-brain barrier, and possibly also through the brain-CSF barrier into CSF. Work in our lab during the past 5 years has substantiated earlier work which had suggested that bilirubin may also be metabolized in brain. The responsible enzyme is found on the inner mitochondrial membrane, and oxidizes bilirubin at a rate of 100-300 pmol bilirubin/mg protein/minute. The enzyme activity is lower in the newborn compared with the mature animal, and is also lower in neurons compared with glia. Studies of different rat strains have documented genetic variability. The enzyme is cytochrome-c-dependent, but has as yet not been unequivocally identified. The rate of oxidation of bilirubin is such that this enzyme probably contributes meaningfully to the clearance of bilirubin from brain.

  3. Change in Serum Bilirubin Level as a Predictor of Incident Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, You-Bin; Lee, Seung-Eun; Jun, Ji Eun; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Aim Serum bilirubin level was negatively associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in previous cross-sectional studies. However, bilirubin variance preceding the development of MetS has yet to be investigated. We aimed to determine the effect of change in bilirubin concentration on the risk of incident MetS in healthy Korean adults. Methods We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of subjects who had undergone at least four yearly health check-ups between 2006 and 2012. Of 24,185 total individuals who received annual check-ups, 11,613 non-MetS participants with a baseline bilirubin level not exceeding 34.2 μmol/l were enrolled. We evaluated the association between percent change in bilirubin and risk of incident MetS. Results During 55,407 person-years of follow-up, 2,439 cases of incident MetS developed (21.0%). Baseline serum bilirubin level clearly showed no association with the development of MetS in men but an independent significant inverse association in women which attenuated (hence may be mediated) by elevated homeostatic model assessment index 2 for insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). However, increased risk for incident MetS was observed in higher percent change in bilirubin quartiles, with hazard ratios of 2.415 (95% CI 2.094–2.785) in men and 2.156 (95% CI 1.738–2.675) in women in the fourth quartile, compared to the lowest quartile, after adjusting for age, smoking status, medication history, alanine aminotransferase, uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate, fasting glucose, baseline diabetes mellitus prevalence, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index. The hazard ratios per one standard deviation increase in percent change in bilirubin as a continuous variable were 1.277 (95% CI 1.229–1.326) in men and 1.366 (95% CI 1.288–1.447) in women. Conclusions Increases in serum bilirubin concentration were positively associated with a higher risk of incident MetS. Serum bilirubin increment might

  4. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-11-09

    A transcutaneous bilirubin detector is designed comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient. 6 figures.

  5. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    A transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

  6. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-03-04

    This invention consists of a transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

  7. Asymmetric Total Syntheses of Megacerotonic Acid and Shimobashiric Acid A

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Scott W.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric total syntheses of the α-benzylidene-γ-butyrolactone natural products megacerotonic acid and shimobashiric acid A have been accomplished in nine and 11 steps, respectively, from simple, commercially available starting materials. The key step for each synthesis is the (arene)RuCl(monosulfonamide)-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution-asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (DKR-ATH) of racemic α,δ-diketo-β-aryl esters to establish the absolute stereochemistry. Intramolecular diastereoselective Dieckmann cyclization forms the lactone core, and ketone reduction/alcohol elimination installs the α-arylidene. PMID:25699999

  8. Bilirubin measurements in neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Gregory J.

    2000-04-01

    Infant Jaundice is a physiologic condition of elevated bilirubin in the tissue that affects nearly 60 percent of all term newborns and virtually 100 percent of premature infants. The high production of bilirubin in the newborn circulatory system and the inability of the immature liver to process and eliminate it case the condition. When the bilirubin levels rise, it starts to deposit in the baby's skin and in the brain. The deposits in the brain can cause neurologic impairment and death. The BiliCheck is a handheld, battery-powered device that measures the level of jaundice non-invasively using BioPhotonics at the point of care. The result is displayed on an LCD screen immediately, so physicians can now make treatment decision without waiting for results to return from the lab. The BiliCheck System has been marketed worldwide since April of 1998 and has received FDA clearance for use in the USA on pre-photo therapy infants in March of 1999.

  9. Studies on the molecular significance in the interaction of bilirubin with collagen.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Usharani; Gladstone Christopher, Jayakumar; Chandrasekaran, Bangaru; Jonnalagadda, Raghava Rao; Balachandran, Unni Nair; Kohsaku, Kawakami

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation is aimed to understand the physiological significance of bilirubin interaction with collagen. In human skin, collagen absorbs both free bilirubin and serum bound bilirubin from the human system. Interaction between bilirubin and collagen depends on time, temperature and concentration of bilirubin. There is an increase in the aggregation rate of collagen in the presence of biliruibin. At physiological condition, 125 nM of bilirubin is the maximum concentration absorbed by per mg of collagen molecule. Bilirubin accelerates the lateral growth of collagen fibrils by shifting its rate of nucleation. Moreover, collagen-bilirubin complex exhibit a tendency to undergo adsorption onto the surface of the fibroblast cells, showing detrimental effects on fibroblasts proliferations. Based on the collagen binding assays, the binding of bilirubin to collagen is found to be electrostatic in nature, which confirms binding between the amino acid fragment of α1 (I) region of collagen and carboxyl group of bilirubin. The biotinylated bilirubin derivatives show better binding to α1 (I) chain rather than α2 (I) chains which clearly designates that bilirubin shows greater affinity to α1 chains of collagen. This novel approach directs to reduce the occurrence of bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemia patients.

  10. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  11. Functionalized Magnetic Fe3O4-β-Cyclodextran Nanoparticles for Efficient Removal of Bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Han, Lulu; Chu, Simin; Wei, Houliang; Ren, Jun; Xu, Li; Jia, Lingyun

    2016-06-01

    Bilirubin (BR), as a lipophilic toxin, can binds and deposits in various tissues, especially the brain tissue, leading to hepatic coma and even death. Magnetic nanoparticles adsorbent modified by β-cyclodextran (Fe3O4-β-CD) was developed to remove the BR from the plasma. Fe3O4-β-CD nanoparticles was prepared through Schiff base reaction between the polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified Fe3O4 and aldehyde-functionalized β-CD, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Under optimized conditions, the Fe3O4-β-CD adsorbent could adsorb 225.6 mg/g free BR in PBS and reach the adsorption equilibrium within 90 min mainly through hydrophobic interaction; Moreover, the adsorbent displayed better adsorption capability in a dialysis system for BSA-bound bilirubin, plasma bilirubin and total bile acid, and the removal rates of those were 66%, 31% and 41% respectively. Because of the advantages of fast separation and purification process, low preparation cost, good adsorption capability for plasma bilirubin, Fe3O4-β-CD may become an economical and promising absorbent of BR for clinical applications.

  12. The Relationship Between Serum Bilirubin Concentration and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mehmet; Demir, Canan; Uyan, Umut; Melek, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated that higher serum bilirubin inhibits the inflammation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; also there is a relationship between serum bilirubin and cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between bilirubin and atrial fibrillation (AF) is still unknown. In our study, we compared serum bilirubin, between nonvalvular AF patients and controls. Materials and Method One hundred and two patients with nonvalvular chronic AF without any other cardiovascular disease (mean age 62.51 ± 5.88) were included in our study. One hundred age-matched healthy people with sinus rhythm were accepted as control groups (mean age 61.35 ± 5.44). Routine biochemical parameters and serum bilirubin levels were performed. Results No statistically significant difference was found between two groups in terms of basic characteristics. Total, direct and indirect serum bilirubin levels were significantly lower among persons with AF compared to controls (0.82 ± 0.8 vs. 0.48 ± 0.5, 0.30 ± 0.2 vs. 0.19 ± 0.1 and 0.52 ± 0.5 vs. 0.29 ± 0.3 mg/dL; all P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion As a result, our study revealed a relationship between serum bilirubin and nonvalvular AF.

  13. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    PubMed

    Jasprova, Jana; Dal Ben, Matteo; Vianello, Eleonora; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanova, Marie; Vyroubalova, Karolina; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Sticha, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Vitek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950's, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI) generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin) were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC), and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI) on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression) were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it); and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf). Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells.

  14. Quantitative imaging of bilirubin by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Noninvasive detection of both bilirubin concentration and its distribution is important for disease diagnosis. Here we implemented photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin distribution. We first demonstrate that our PAM system can measure the absorption spectra of bilirubin and blood. We also image bilirubin distributions in tissuemimicking samples, both without and with blood mixed. Our results show that PAM has the potential to quantitatively image bilirubin in vivo for clinical applications.

  15. The clinical syndrome of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Vinod K; Johnson-Hamerman, Lois

    2015-02-01

    Clinicians have hypothesized a spectrum of minor neurologic manifestations, consistent with neuroanatomical reports and collectively termed as a "syndrome of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND)," which can occur in the absence of classical kernicterus. The current review builds on these initial reports with a focus on clinical signs and symptoms that are assessed by standardized tools and manifest from neonatal age to childhood. These clinical manifestations are characterized by the following domains: (i) neuromotor signs; (ii) muscle tone abnormalities; (iii) hyperexcitable neonatal reflexes; (iv) variety of neurobehavior manifestations; (v) speech and language abnormalities; and (vi) evolving array of central processing abnormalities, such as sensorineural audiology and visuomotor dysfunctions. Concerns remain that the most vulnerable infants are likely to acquire BIND, either because their exposure to bilirubin is not identified as severe enough to need treatment or is prolonged but slightly below current threshold levels for intervention. Knowing that a total serum/plasma bilirubin (TB) level is not the most precise indicator of neurotoxicity, the role of expanded biomarkers or a "bilirubin panel" has yet to be validated in prospective studies. Future studies that correlate early "toxic" bilirubin exposure to long-term academic potential of children are needed to explore new insights into bilirubin's effect on the structural and functional maturation of an infant's neural network topology.

  16. Photoacoustic microscopy of bilirubin in tissue phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-12-01

    Determining both bilirubin's concentration and its spatial distribution are important in disease diagnosis. Here, for the first time, we applied quantitative multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin concentration and distribution simultaneously. By measuring tissue-mimicking phantoms with different bilirubin concentrations, we showed that the root-mean-square error of prediction has reached 0.52 and 0.83 mg/dL for pure bilirubin and for blood-mixed bilirubin detection (with 100% oxygen saturation), respectively. We further demonstrated the capability of the PAM system to image bilirubin distribution both with and without blood. Finally, by underlaying bilirubin phantoms with mouse skins, we showed that bilirubin can be imaged with consistent accuracy down to >400 μm in depth. Our results show that PAM has potential for noninvasive bilirubin monitoring in vivo, as well as for further clinical applications.

  17. Glucuronic acid conjugates of bilirubin-IXα in normal bile compared with post-obstructive bile. Transformation of the 1-O-acylglucuronide into 2-, 3-, and 4-O-acylglucuronides

    PubMed Central

    Compernolle, Frans; Van Hees, Gustaaf P.; Blanckaert, Norbert; Heirwegh, Karel P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Structures have been determined for bilirubin-IXα conjugates in freshly collected bile of normal rats, dogs and man and in post-obstructive bile of man and rats. The originally secreted conjugate has been characterized as azopigment (I), i.e. a 1-O-acyl-β-d-glucopyranuronic acid glycoside. Conversion of the acetylated methyl ester of azopigment (I) into methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1-bromo-1-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranuronate (V) indicates the pyranose ring structure for the carbohydrate and a C-1 attachment for the bilirubin-IXα acyl group. Alternative procedures for deconjugation of azopigment (I) and its derivatives are also described. In post-obstructive bile, the 1-O-acylglucuronide is converted into 2-, 3- and 4-O-acylglucuronides via sequential intramolecular migrations of the bilirubin acyl group. The following approach was utilized. (1) The tetrapyrrole conjugates were cleaved to dipyrrolic aniline and ethyl anthranilate azopigments, and the azopigments were separated as the acids or methyl esters. (2) The isomeric methyl esters were characterized by mass spectral analysis of the acetates and silyl ethers. (3) The free glycosidic function was demonstrated by 1-oxime and 1-methoxime derivative formation. (4) The position of the dipyrrolic O-acyl group was determined for the methyl esters by protecting the free hydroxyl groups of the glucuronic acid moieties as the acetals formed with ethyl vinyl ether and by further conversion of the carbohydrates into partially methylated alditol acetates. These were analysed by using g.l.c.–mass spectrometry. The relevance of the present results with regard to previous reports on disaccharidic conjugates is discussed. Details of procedures for the formation of chemical derivatives for g.l.c. and mass spectrometry have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50081 (15 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in

  18. Simplified quantitative determination of total fecal bile acids.

    PubMed

    de Wael, J; Raaymakers, C E; Endeman, H J

    1977-09-01

    To determine total fecal bile acids, these are extracted with diethyl ether after boiling with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanediol. After evaporating the ether and dissolving the residue in methanol, the bile acids are directly determined with 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Values for 9 normals are given.

  19. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-05-28

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice.

  20. Total Synthesis of (±)- and (−)-Actinophyllic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Connor L.; Overman, Larry E.; Rohde, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of efficient sequences for the total syntheses of (±)-actinophyllic acid (rac-1) and (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) are described. The central step in these syntheses is the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction, which constructs the previously unknown hexacyclic ring system of actinophyllic acid in one step from much simpler tetracyclic precursors. The tetracyclic hexahydro-1,5-methano-1H-azocino[4,3-b]indole ketone rac-37 is assembled from o-nitrophenylacetic acid in four steps, with oxidative cyclization of a dienolate derivative of tricyclic precursor rac-35 being the central step. In the first-generation synthesis, this intermediate is transformed in two steps to homoallyl amine rac-43, whose formaldiminium derivative undergoes efficient aza-Cope/Mannich reaction to give pentacyclic ketone rac-44. In four additional steps, this intermediate is advanced to (±)-actinophyllic acid. The synthesis is streamlined by elaborating ketone rac-37 to β-hydroxyester intermediate rac-53, which is directly transformed to (±)-actinophyllic acid upon exposure to HCl and paraformaldehyde. This concise second-generation total synthesis of (±)-actinophyllic acid is realized in 22% overall yield from commercially available di-tert-butylmalonate and o-nitrophenylacetic acid by a sequence that proceeds by way of only six isolated intermediates. The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) is accomplished by this direct sequence from tricyclic keto malonate (S)-35. Catalytic enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketone 66 is the key step in the preparation of intermediate (S)-35 from the commercially available Boc-amino acid 65. Discussed also is the possibility that the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction might be involved in the biosynthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid. PMID:20218696

  1. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers

    PubMed Central

    Jasprova, Jana; Dal Ben, Matteo; Vianello, Eleonora; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanova, Marie; Vyroubalova, Karolina; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Sticha, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Vitek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950’s, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI) generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin) were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC), and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI) on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression) were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it); and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf). Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells. PMID:26829016

  2. Studies on the chemico-biological characteristics of bilirubin binding with collagen.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Usharani; Christopher, Jayakumar Gladstone; Jonnalagadda, Raghava Rao; Chandrasekaran, Bangaru; Balachandran, Unni Nair

    2013-12-01

    The clinical impact of bilirubin on collagen is investigated using various physical, chemical and biological methods. Thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning analysis of collagen-bilirubin complex matrices indicate that crosslinking does not alter their thermal behavior of collagen. The polydispersity of collagen-bilirubin complex increases in the reacting medium suggesting that there is an increase in the number of interacting points between them. Based on the zeta potential values, the rate of mobility of interacted complex decreases by inferring the extent of binding compared to the control collagen. Emission intensity begins to increase with increase in concentration of bilirubin which ascribes the conformational changes around the aromatic amino acids in collagen. Binding is indicated by an increase in resonance units and the responses are corrected by subtraction of those obtained for native collagen. Bilirubin showed a higher affinity for collagen at a concentration of about 25 nM/mg. In this study, the association rate has been calculated which depicts the increased affinity of bilirubin to collagen. Affinity for bilirubin to collagen has been found to be 8.89×10(-3) s(-1). The greater part of binding of bilirubin to collagen is found to be electrostatic in nature. The investigation leads to comprehend the affinity of collagen-bilirubin complex during jaundice diseased tissues.

  3. Quantitative analysis of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in thirty Hypericum taxa.

    PubMed

    Pilepić, Kroata Hazler; Males, Zeljan; Crkvencić, Maja

    2013-03-01

    The content of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in the aerial parts of thirty Hypericum taxa collected over two consecutive seasons was investigated by spectrophotometric methods. All taxa examined contained flavonoids and phenolic acids in different quantities, although the differences between species and year's harvest were not found to be significant. The quantity of total flavonoids ranged from 0.1 to 1.6%. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the samples of H. japonicum (1.6%) and H. perforatum (1.5%), while the samples of H. androsaemum and H. balearicum comprised the lowest flavonoid amount (0.13%). The content of total phenolic acids in the investigated samples was found to be between 1.1-10.4%. The samples of H. perforatum were found to contain the highest quantity of phenolic acids (10.4% and 10.2%), whereas the sample ofH. linarifolium showed the lowest amount of phenolic acids (1.1%).

  4. Serum Bilirubin and 6-min Walk Distance as Prognostic Predictors for Inoperable Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Juan-Ni; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Yang, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Kuang, Tu-Guang; Xie, Wan-Mu; Miao, Ran; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe clinical syndrome characterized by right cardiac failure and possibly subsequent liver dysfunction. However, whether serum markers of liver dysfunction can predict prognosis in inoperable CTEPH patients has not been determined. Our study aimed to evaluate the potential role of liver function markers (such as serum levels of transaminase, bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) combined with 6-min walk test in the prediction of prognosis in patients with inoperable CTEPH. Methods: From June 2005 to May 2013, 77 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH without confounding co-morbidities were recruited for this prospective cohort study. Baseline clinical characteristics and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) results were collected. Serum biomarkers of liver function, including levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, GGT, uric acid, and serum bilirubin, were also determined at enrollment. All-cause mortality was recorded during the follow-up period. Results: During the follow-up, 22 patients (29%) died. Cox regression analyses demonstrated that increased serum concentration of total bilirubin (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.755, P < 0.001), elevated N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (HR = 1.001, P = 0.001), decreased 6MWD (HR = 0.990, P < 0.001), increased central venous pressure (HR = 1.074, P = 0.040), and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (HR = 1.001, P = 0.018) were associated with an increased risk of mortality. Serum concentrations of total bilirubin (HR = 4.755, P = 0.007) and 6MWD (HR = 0.994, P = 0.017) were independent prognostic predictors for CTEPH patients. Patients with hyperbilirubinemia (≥23.7 μmol/L) had markedly worse survival than those with normobilirubinemia. Conclusion: Elevated serum bilirubin and decreased 6MWD are potential predictors for poor prognosis in inoperable CTEPH. PMID:26612283

  5. Bilirubin conjugates of human bile. Isolation of phenylazo derivatives of bile bilirubin

    PubMed Central

    Kuenzle, Clive C.

    1970-01-01

    A method is presented that allows the isolation of eight different phenylazo derivatives of bile bilirubin. In step I of the isolation procedure, three bilirubin fractions (bilirubin fractions 1, 2 and 3) from human hepatic bile are separated by reverse-phase partition chromatography on silicone-treated Celite with the use of a solvent system prepared from butan-1-ol and 5mm-phosphate buffer, pH6.0. Azo coupling is then performed with diazotized aniline. The three azo pigment mixtures are subjected to step II, in which the above chromatography system is used again. With each azo pigment mixture this step brings about the separation of a non-polar and a polar azo pigment fraction (azo 1A and azo 1B, azo 2A and azo 2B, and azo 3A and azo 3B from bilirubin fractions 1, 2 and 3 respectively). Approximately equal amounts of non-polar and polar pigments are obtained from bilirubin fractions 1 and 2, whereas bilirubin fraction 3 yields azo 3B almost exclusively. In step IIIA the non-polar azo pigment fractions are fractionated further by adsorption chromatography on anhydrous sodium sulphate with the use of chloroform followed by a gradient of ethyl acetate in chloroform. Three azo pigments are thus obtained from both azo 2A (azo 2A1, azo 2A2 and azo 2A3) and azo 3A (azo 3A1, azo 3A2 and azo 3A3). The 2A pigments occur in approximately the following proportions: azo 2A1, 90%; azo 2A2, 10%; azo 2A3, traces. The pigments are purified by crystallization, except for the A3 pigments, which are probably degradation products arising from the corresponding A2 pigments. In step IIIB the polar azo pigment fractions are subjected to reverse-phase partition chromatography on silicone-treated Celite with the use of a solvent system prepared from octan-1-ol–di-isopropyl ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–0.2m-acetic acid (1:2:2:3:4, by vol.). Azo pigment fractions 2B and 3B each yield six azo pigments (azo 2B1 to azo 2B6 and azo 3B1 to azo 3B6 respectively) together with small

  6. Inverse Association between Serum Bilirubin Levels and Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Raghuram; Thankappan, Lekha; Andavar, Raghuram; Devisundaram, Sundar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and serum bilirubin has been shown to have antioxidant properties. Aim To investigate the association between serum bilirubin concentration and DR in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods This was a hospital based, cross- sectional study where in 86 patients with Type 2 DM and 30 controls were recruited. The study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Southern India between January 2014 and December 2014. The presence and the severity of DR were determined by fundus examination and grading of colour fundus photographs using the international clinical disease severity scale for DR. Serum total, direct and indirect bilirubin levels were determined in all subjects and the association between bilirubin levels and severity of DR was studied. Results Among the 86 diabetics, 24 had no retinopathy and 62 had DR of varying grades. The mean total bilirubin level among diabetic subjects (0.52±0.17) and controls (0.51±0.19) were found to be similar. The mean total as well as direct bilirubin levels were found to be lower in patients with retinopathy as compared to no retinopathy group (p<0.001). The severity of DR was inversely proportional to the serum bilirubin levels (p=0.010). Serum total bilirubin was found to have a negative association with glycosylated haemoglobin and served as an independent determinant of DR even after adjusting for risk factors known to be associated with DR (p=0.001). Conclusion Low serum bilirubin levels are significantly associated with increased risk of DR independent of classic risk factors. Serum bilirubin can serve as a useful biomarker in identifying patients at risk for developing proliferative DR. PMID:28384901

  7. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Stec, David E.; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J.; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W.; Baum, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  8. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Stec, David E; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W; Baum, Justin; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin.

  9. Metabolism of heme and bilirubin in rat and human small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, F; Bissell, D M

    1982-01-01

    Formation of heme, bilirubin, and bilirubin conjugates has been examined in mucosal cells isolated from the rat upper small intestine. Intact, viable cells were prepared by enzymatic dissociation using a combined vascular and luminal perfusion and incubated with an isotopically labeled precursor, delta-amino-[2,3-3H]levulinic acid. Labeled heme and bile pigment were formed with kinetics similar to those exhibited by hepatocytes. Moreover, the newly formed bilirubin was converted rapidly to both mono- and diglucuronide conjugates. In addition, cell-free extracts of small intestinal mucosa from rats or humans exhibited a bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity that was qualitatively similar to that present in liver. The data suggest that the small intestinal mucosa normally contributes to bilirubin metabolism. PMID:6806320

  10. Albumin-bound bilirubin interacts with nitric oxide by a redox mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Cesare; Bonsignore, Alessia; Capone, Caterina; Di Stasio, Enrico; Pani, Giovambattista

    2006-01-01

    Bilirubin, the final product of heme catabolism, plays a crucial role in the cellular defense against oxidative and nitrosative stress. This study investigated the interaction of albumin-bound bilirubin, the circulating form of the bile pigment, with nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous modulator involved in many physiological functions but able to induce cytotoxicity and cell death if produced in excess. A short-lived endogenous S-nitrosothiol such as S-nitroso-cysteine was used as NO donor. In PBS without chelators, bilirubin was bound to human serum albumin with an apparent affinity of 1.6 +/- 0.2 microM (n = 4). Furthermore, albumin (2-20 microM) dose-dependently increased the half-life of BR (10 microM) exposed to S-nitroso-cysteine (100 microM) of 2.4 +/- 0.4 times (n = 4). Albumin-bound bilirubin was almost completely oxidized by S-nitroso-cysteine-derived NO, and biliverdin was the major product formed; this reaction seemed to be rather specific for albumin-bound bilirubin because when free bilirubin was reacted with S-nitroso-cysteine the formation of biliverdin was significantly lower. Uric acid and reduced glutathione, two well-known plasma antioxidants, at physiological concentrations protected albumin-bound bilirubin from NO-mediated oxidation. Taken together, these data suggest that albumin-bound bilirubin maintains its ability to interact with NO also in the bloodstream counteracting extracellular nitrosative reactions.

  11. Ammonia-induced energy disorders interfere with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiongye; Wang, Yanfang; Yu, Zujiang; Li, Duolu; Jia, Bin; Li, Jingjing; Guan, Kelei; Zhou, Yubing; Chen, Yanling; Kan, Quancheng

    2014-08-01

    Hyperammonemia and jaundice are the most common clinical symptoms of hepatic failure. Decreasing the level of ammonia in the blood is often accompanied by a reduction in bilirubin in patients with hepatic failure. Previous studies have shown that hyperammonemia can cause bilirubin metabolism disorders, however it is unclear exactly how hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the mechanism or mechanisms by which hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed in primary hepatocytes that had been exposed to ammonium chloride. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability were observed and analyzed, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were determined and changes in the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism were analyzed after ammonia exposure. Hyperammonemia inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, damaged the mitochondria and hindered the TCA cycle in hepatocytes. This led to a reduction in energy synthesis, eventually affecting the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism, which then caused further problems with bilirubin metabolism. These effects were significant, but could be reversed with the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This study demonstrates that ammonia can cause problems with bilirubin metabolism by interfering with energy synthesis.

  12. The effect of bilirubin photoisomers on unbound-bilirubin concentrations estimated by the peroxidase method.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, S; Yamakawa, T; Onishi, S; Isobe, K; Manabe, M; Sasaki, K

    1986-01-01

    Unbound bilirubin is oxidized to nearly colourless substances in the presence of H2O2 or ethyl hydroperoxide and horseradish peroxidase. To predict the risk of kernicterus (degenerated yellow pigmentation of nerve cells), this principle has been widely utilized for estimating the concentration of unbound bilirubin in hyperbilirubinaemic serum. However, the serum contains polar geometric photoisomers of bilirubin. Therefore, to clarify the effect of bilirubin photoisomer concentrations on unbound-bilirubin concentration, the concentration of bilirubin and its photoisomer and of unbound bilirubin in samples obtained from experiments in vivo and in vitro were simultaneously and individually estimated by h.p.l.c. and the peroxidase method. During photoirradiation, both in vivo and in vitro, the serum polar (ZE)-bilirubin IX alpha concentration increased remarkably, but unbound-bilirubin values were not affected at all. However, during experiments in vitro, unbound bilirubin concentrations increased only when concentrations of the rather polar (EZ)- and (EE)-cyclobilirubin IX alpha increased considerably in a human serum albumin-bilirubin solution irradiated with blue light. Thus it is concluded that unbound-bilirubin concentrations, and consequently the initial rate of the peroxidase reaction, is not accelerated by the increase in either (ZE)-bilirubin or (EZ)-cyclobilirubin concentration within the clinically observed range. PMID:3545181

  13. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  14. Bilirubin conjugates of human bile. Nuclear-magnetic-resonance, infrared and optical spectra of model compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kuenzle, Clive C.

    1970-01-01

    N.m.r., i.r. and optical spectra of model compounds were recorded. These were to help in elucidating the structures of the phenylazo derivatives of bilirubin conjugates isolated from human bile. Model compounds included commercial and human bile bilirubin, mesobilirubin, bilirubin dimethyl ester, dimethoxybilirubin dimethyl ester and the corresponding phenylazo derivatives. The phenylazo derivative of vinylneoxanthobilirubinic acid was also investigated. All compounds were of the type IXα, and no other isomer could be detected with the spectroscopic methods employed. The compounds crystallize as the lactams, except for dimethoxybilirubin dimethyl ester and its phenylazo derivative, which are held in the lactim ether configuration. With all other compounds no tautomeric forms other than the lactams could be detected, although small proportions of bilirubin must exist as the lactim. Bilirubin does not form a betaine, a structure that has been proposed by von Dobeneck & Brunner (1965) to explain the bathochromic shift of its optical spectrum as compared with the expected position of the absorption maximum at 420nm. However, this shift to 453nm can be explained on the basis of internal hydrogen bonds occurring between the carboxylic protons and the pyrrole rings of bilirubin, as proposed by Fog & Jellum (1963), and new evidence for such a bonding has been accumulated. The bilirubin sulphate described by Watson (1958), which is formed by treatment of bilirubin with concentrated sulphuric acid and acetic anhydride, was also investigated. The main product of this reaction was isolated as its phenylazo derivative, and was shown to be 3,18-di(ethylidene sulphate)-2,7,13,17-tetramethylbiladiene-ac-8,12-dipropionic acid. The reaction leading to this compound is an addition of sulphuric acid to the vinyl side chains of bilirubin according to Markownikoff's rule. PMID:5500301

  15. Bilirubin and Its Carbohydrate Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanckaert, Norbert J. C.

    In mammals, the open tetrapyrrole bilirubin (structure 2, Fig. 1) is the principal degradation product of iron-protoporphyrin-IX (heme). The latter molecule is a tetrapyrrolic macrocycle and plays a critical role in aerobic metabolism by reversibly binding oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin, and by serving as the active site in oxidation reactions catalyzed by hemoprotein enzymes. Important cyclic tetrapyrroles in nature related to heme are chlorophylls, which contain magnesium and are derived from protoporphyrin-IX, and vitamin B12, a corrinoid derived from uroporphyrinogen-III.

  16. Elevated bilirubin levels are associated with a better renal prognosis and ameliorate kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Seung Hee; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Background Bilirubin has been reported to protect against kidney injury. However, further studies highlighting the beneficial effects of bilirubin on renal fibrosis and chronic renal function decline are necessary. Methods We assessed a prospective cohort with a reference range of total bilirubin levels. The primary outcome was a 30% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline, and the secondary outcome was a doubling of the serum creatinine levels, halving of the eGFR and the initiation of dialysis. In addition, experiments with tubular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice were performed to investigate the protective effects of bilirubin on kidney fibrosis. Results As a result, 1,080 patients were included in the study cohort. The study group with relative hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 0.8–1.2 mg/dL) showed a better prognosis in terms of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19–0.59, P < 0.001) and the secondary outcome (adjusted HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.71, P = 0.01) than that of the control group. Moreover, the bilirubin-treated mice showed less fibrosis in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model (P < 0.05). In addition, bilirubin treatment decreased fibronectin expression in tubular epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Conclusions Mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels were associated with better renal prognosis, and bilirubin treatment induced a beneficial effect on renal fibrosis. Therefore, bilirubin could be a potential therapeutic target to delay fibrosis-related kidney disease progression. PMID:28225832

  17. Metabolism of bilirubin by human cytochrome P450 2A6

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Bakar, A'edah; Arthur, Dionne M.; Wikman, Anna S.; Rahnasto, Minna; Juvonen, Risto O.; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Raunio, Hannu; Ng, Jack C.; Lang, Matti A.

    2012-05-15

    The mouse cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A5 has recently been shown to function as hepatic “Bilirubin Oxidase” (Abu-Bakar, A., et al., 2011. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 257, 14–22). To date, no information is available on human CYP isoforms involvement in bilirubin metabolism. In this paper we provide novel evidence for human CYP2A6 metabolising the tetrapyrrole bilirubin. Incubation of bilirubin with recombinant yeast microsomes expressing the CYP2A6 showed that bilirubin inhibited CYP2A6-dependent coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity to almost 100% with an estimated K{sub i} of 2.23 μM. Metabolite screening by a high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry indicated that CYP2A6 oxidised bilirubin to biliverdin and to three other smaller products with m/z values of 301, 315 and 333. Molecular docking analyses indicated that bilirubin and its positively charged intermediate interacted with key amino acid residues at the enzyme's active site. They were stabilised at the site in a conformation favouring biliverdin formation. By contrast, the end product, biliverdin was less fitting to the active site with the critical central methylene bridge distanced from the CYP2A6 haem iron facilitating its release. Furthermore, bilirubin treatment of HepG2 cells increased the CYP2A6 protein and activity levels with no effect on the corresponding mRNA. Co-treatment with cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, resulted in increased half-life of the CYP2A6 compared to cells treated only with CHX. Collectively, the observations indicate that the CYP2A6 may function as human “Bilirubin Oxidase” where bilirubin is potentially a substrate and a regulator of the enzyme. -- Highlights: ► Human CYP2A6 interacts with bilirubin with a high affinity. ► Bilirubin docking to the CYP2A6 active site is more stable than biliverdin docking. ► Recombinant CYP2A6 microsomes metabolised bilirubin to biliverdin. ► Bilirubin increased the hepatic CYP2

  18. Evaluation of oxidant and antioxidant status in term neonates: a plausible protective role of bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Shekeeb Shahab, M; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Neeraj; Narang, Anil; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-10-01

    In vitro studies have shown unequivocally that bilirubin is an antioxidant. We hypothesized that bilirubin serves a physiological role of an antioxidant in vivo. To investigate the probable protective role of bilirubin in vivo, term babies with clinical jaundice were grouped into four categories-serum total bilirubin (STB) <160 mg/l, 160-200 mg/l, >200 mg/l, and kernicterus. Serum bilirubin, serum albumin, plasma glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), lipid peroxidation in blood cells, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in whole blood were investigated. We also measured superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in hemolysate and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in babies with STB <200 mg/l compared to controls. TAC had a positive and MDA had a negative correlation with STB till 200 mg/l. However, TAC had a negative and MDA had a positive correlation with bilirubin >200 mg/l and in babies with bilirubin encephalopathy. Elevated levels of MDA, SOD, and catalase and significantly decreased levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were observed in STB >200 mg/l group. Antioxidant enzymes were also significantly inhibited in bilirubin encephalopathy babies. Post phototherapy, MDA production and antioxidant levels were significantly increased whilst total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were significantly decreased compared to pre-phototherapy values. Exchange transfusion resulted in reduced oxidative stress in subjects with encephalopathy, whereas no significant difference was observed in other babies with STB >200 mg/l. Taken together, the present study propounds that bilirubin acts as a physiological antioxidant till 200 mg/l concentration in full-term normal neonates. It is conjectured that beyond 200 mg/l, it can no longer be considered physiologic. However, the cause of pathological jaundice needs to be identified and treated. The present data documents

  19. Functionalized SBA-15 materials for bilirubin adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tao; Zhao, Yanling; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jun; Deng, Feng

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials, a comparative study was carried out between pure siliceous SBA-15 and three functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous materials: CH 3-SBA-15 (MS), NH 2-SBA-15 (AS), and CH 3/NH 2-SBA-15 (AMS) that were synthesized by one-pot method. The obtained materials exhibited large surface areas (553-810 m 2/g) and pore size (6.6-7.1 nm) demonstrated by XRD and N 2-ad/desorption analysis. The SEM images showed that the materials had similar fiberlike morphology. The functionalization extent was calculated according to 29Si MAS NMR spectra and it was close to the designed value (10%). The synthesized mesoporous materials were used as bilirubin adsorbents and showed higher bilirubin adsorption capacities than the commercial active carbon. The adsorption capacities of amine functionalized samples AMS and AS were larger than those of pure siliceous SBA-15 and MS, indicating that electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials. Increasing the ionic strength of bilirubin solution by adding NaCl would decrease the bilirubin adsorption capacity of mesoporous material, which further demonstrated that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption. In addition, the hydrophobic interaction provided by methyl groups could promote the bilirubin adsorption.

  20. Relation of Pre-anthracycline Serum Bilirubin Levels to Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction After Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vera, Trinity; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Jordan, Jennifer H; Whitlock, Matthew C; Meléndez, Giselle C; Lamar, Zanetta S; Porosnicu, Mercedes; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Poole, Leslie B; Hundley, W Gregory

    2015-12-01

    Myocardial injury because of oxidative stress manifesting through reductions in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) may occur after the administration of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (A-bC). We hypothesized that bilirubin, an effective endogenous antioxidant, may attenuate the reduction in LVEF that sometimes occurs after receipt of A-bC. We identified 751 consecutively treated patients with cancer who underwent a pre-A-bC LVEF measurement, exhibited a serum total bilirubin level <2 mg/dl, and then received a post-A-bC LVEF assessment because of symptomatology associated with heart failure. Analysis of variance, Tukey's Studentized range test, and chi-square tests were used to evaluate an association between bilirubin and LVEF changes. The LVEF decreased by 10.7 ± 13.7%, 8.9 ± 11.8%, and 7.7 ± 11.5% in group 1 (bilirubin at baseline ≤0.5 mg/dl), group 2 (bilirubin 0.6 to 0.8 mg/dl), and group 3 (bilirubin 0.9 to 1.9 mg/dl), respectively. More group 1 patients experienced >15% decrease in LVEF compared with those in group 3 (p = 0.039). After adjusting for age, coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hematocrit, and the use of cardioactive medications, higher precancer treatment bilirubin levels and lesser total anthracycline doses were associated with LVEF preservation (p = 0.047 and 0.011, respectively). In patients treated with anthracyclines who subsequently develop symptoms associated with heart failure, pre-anthracycline treatment serum bilirubin levels inversely correlate with subsequent deterioration in post-cancer treatment LVEF. In conclusion, these results suggest that increased levels of circulating serum total bilirubin, an intrinsic antioxidant, may facilitate preservation of LVEF in patients receiving A-bC for cancer.

  1. The effect of bilirubin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yeşilkaya, A; Yeğin, A; Ozdem, S; Aksu, T A

    1998-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that bilirubin may act as a potent biological chain-breaking antioxidant. To observe the effects of free bilirubin on antioxidant reactions in cumene hydroperoxide-treated erythrocytes (15 g hemoglobin/dl), we added bilirubin at four different concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/dl). We measured the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and reduced glutathione levels, and some antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and chemiluminescent signals decreased during the incubation. Superoxide dismutase activities also decreased but not as much as in the control group. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and reduced glutathione levels increased, but catalase activities remained the same as the control group. Our results suggest that bilirubin--in the concentrations we have used--partially prevented the oxidant effects of cumene hydroperoxide.

  2. Computational chemical analysis of unconjugated bilirubin anions and insights into pKa values clarification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Hissi, Esteban G.; Estrada, Mario R.; Lavecchia, Martín J.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The pKa, the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation equilibrium constant, of the carboxylic acid groups of unconjugated bilirubin in water is a discussed issue because there are quite different experimental values reported. Using quantum mechanical calculations we have studied the conformational behavior of unconjugated bilirubin species (in gas phase and in solution modeled implicitly and explicitly) to provide evidence that may clarify pKa values because of its pathophysiological relevance. Our results show that rotation of carboxylate group, which is not restricted, settles it in a suitable place to establish stronger interactions that stabilizes the monoanion and the dianion to be properly solvated, demonstrating that the rationalization used to justify the high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin is inappropriate. Furthermore, low unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) pKa values were estimated from a linear regression analysis.

  3. Gas chromatographic analysis of infant formulas for total fatty acids, including trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Fritsche, Jan; Rader, Jeanne I

    2002-01-01

    Twelve powdered and 13 liquid infant formulas were analyzed by using an extension of AOAC Official Method 996.01 for fat analysis in cereal products. Samples were hydrolyzed with 8 N HCl and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by refluxing the mixed ether extracts with methanolic sodium hydroxide in the presence of 14% boron trifluoride in methanol. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. In powdered formulas, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (mean +/- SD; n = 12) was 41.05 +/- 3.94%, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was 36.97 +/- 3.38%, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was 20.07 +/- 3.08%, and total trans fatty acid content was 1.30 +/- 1.27%. In liquid formulas, SFA content (mean +/- SD; n = 13) was 42.29 +/- 2.98%, MUFA content was 36.05 +/- 2.47%, PUFA content was 20.65 +/- 2.40%, and total trans fatty acid content was 0.88 +/- 0.54%. Total fat content in powdered formulas ranged from 4.4 to 5.5 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 868 to 1166 mg/100 kcal. In liquid formulas, total fat content ranged from 4.1 to 5.1 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 820 to 1100 mg/100 kcal. There were no significant differences between powdered and liquid infant formulas in concentrations of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or trans fatty acids.

  4. THE RENAL ELIMINATION OF BILIRUBIN

    PubMed Central

    Haessler, Herbert; Rous, Peyton; Broun, G. O.

    1922-01-01

    The elimination of bile pigment during jaundice is, for practical purposes, unincreased by diuresis from water by mouth. Possibly, though, the flushing of the kidneys tends to lessen pigment accumulation within these organs and thus to diminish a serious potential source of trouble in long continued jaundice. Flood diuresis from intravenous injections of salt solution markedly increases the output of bile pigment. It is important to know the effect of variations in the urinary output on the elimination of bile salts, but methods for the purpose are not available at present. The passage of bile pigment into the kidney cells during jaundice is attested by the presence in the freshly voided urine of desquamated renal elements specifically stained, stippled, or granulated with bilirubin. Pigmentation of this sort is readily to be distinguished from the indiscriminate staining of cellular debris that occurs in icteric urines on standing. It has clinical significance, furnishing direct evidence on the degree of renal change. PMID:19868627

  5. Serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Chung, Goh Eun; Kang, Seung Joo; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Serum bilirubin exerts antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. In addition, elevated serum bilirubin levels are associated with a decreased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, few studies have evaluated whether serum bilirubin is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is closely associated with other metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was thus to elucidate the association between serum total bilirubin levels and NAFLD. Methods A cross-sectional study of 17,348 subjects undergoing a routine health check-up was conducted. Subjects positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus, or with other hepatitis history were excluded. NAFLD was diagnosed on the basis of typical ultrasonographic findings and an alcohol consumption of less than 20 g/day. Results The mean age of the subjects was 49 years and 9,076 (52.3%) were men. The prevalence of NAFLD decreased steadily as the serum bilirubin level increased in both men and women (P<0.001 for both). Multivariate regression analysis adjusted for other metabolic risk factors showed that serum bilirubin level was inversely associated with the prevalence of NAFLD [odds ratio (OR)=0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.80-0.97]. Furthermore, there was an inverse, dose-dependent association between NAFLD and serum total bilirubin levels (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.75-0.93 in the third quartile; OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.71-0.90 in the fourth quartile vs. lowest quartile, P for trend <0.001). Conclusions Serum bilirubin levels were found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of NAFLD independent of known metabolic risk factors. Serum bilirubin might be a protective marker for NAFLD. PMID:23323254

  6. The Diagnostic Usefulness of Serum Total Bile Acid Concentrations in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis of Varied Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Maleszka, Aleksandra; Dumnicka, Paulina; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Sporek, Mateusz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) are biliary tract diseases with cholestasis and alcohol consumption. In 10%–15% of patients, etiology determination is difficult. Identification of the etiology allows for the implementation of adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the serum concentrations of total bile acids (TBA) to diagnose AP etiology in the early phase of the disease. We included 66 patients with AP, admitted within the first 24 h from the onset of symptoms. TBA were measured in serum at 24, 48, and 72 h from the onset of AP, using an automated fifth generation assay. The bilirubin-to-TBA ratio (B/TBA) was calculated. TBA was highest on the first day of AP and decreased subsequently. In patients with biliary etiology, serum TBA was significantly higher compared to those with alcoholic and other etiologies. B/TBA was significantly higher in patients with alcoholic etiology. At admission, the cut-off values of 4.7 µmol/L for TBA and 4.22 for the B/TBA ratio allowed for a differentiation between biliary and other etiologies of AP with a diagnostic accuracy of 85 and 83%. Both TBA and B/TBA may help in the diagnosis of AP etiology in the early phase of AP. PMID:28067818

  7. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.

  8. Total Synthesis of Five Lipoteichoic acids of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Hogendorf, Wouter F J; Gisch, Nicolas; Schwudke, Dominik; Heine, Holger; Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2014-10-13

    The emergence of hypervirulent resistant strains have made Clostridium difficile a notorious nosocomial pathogen and has resulted in a renewed interest in preventive strategies, such as vaccines based on (synthetic) cell wall antigens. Recently, the structure of the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of this species has been elucidated. Additionally, this LTA was found to induce the formation of protective antibodies against C. difficile in rabbits and mice. The LTA from C. difficile is isolated as a microheterogenous mixture, differing in size and composition, impeding any structure-activity relationship studies. To ensure reliable biological results, pure and well-defined synthetic samples are required. In this work the total synthesis of LTAs from C. difficile with defined chain length is described and the initial biological results are presented.

  9. Enterohepatic circulation of nonconjugated bilirubin in rats fed with human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, E.M.; Whitington, P.F.; Whitington, S.H.; Rivard, W.A.; Given, G. )

    1991-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin may contribute to prolonged nonconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in human milk-fed infants, we studied a cross-section of 36 healthy infants and mothers. Milk from mothers and serum from infants were collected at 16.3 +/- 2.4 days. Milk was studied for its effect on the absorption of bilirubin labeled with carbon 14 in rats and compared with buffer and iron-fortified infant formula (Similac With Iron). The percentage of a 1 mg bilirubin dose absorbed by the rat was 25.29 +/- 4.0% when it was administered into the duodenum with buffer, 4.67 +/- 2.4% with Similac formula, and 7.7 +/- 2.9% with human milk. Linear regression analysis, using the infant's serum nonconjugated bilirubin level as the dependent variable and the percentage of (14C)bilirubin absorbed by the rat with the corresponding mother's milk as the independent variable, revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.40; p = 0.016). Inspection of the data suggested that absorptive permissiveness correlated closely with infant serum bilirubin values greater than 24 mumol/L (1.4 mg/dl) (r = 0.55; p = 0.007), whereas in those with bilirubin values less than or equal to 24 mumol/L, there was no apparent correlation. Milk was also analyzed for beta-glucuronidase, nonesterified fatty acids, and the ability to inhibit glucuronosyltransferase activity of rat liver microsomes in vitro, none of which correlated with the infant's serum bilirubin. These data support the theory that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin contributes to the jaundice associated with breast-feeding.

  10. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  11. Use of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MARRA, FRANCESCO; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BRUZZONE, MATTEO; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; DETTONI, FEDERICO; ROSSI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose different strategies have been developed to reduce blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The efficacy of both systemic and local tranexamic acid (TXA) administration is demonstrated in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of systemic, local and combined (systemic + local) administration of TXA in reducing blood loss after TKA. Methods we enrolled all patients submitted to a primary TKA in our department between November 2014 and August 2015. They were divided into three groups corresponding to the method of TXA administration used: intravenous (IV), intra-articular (IA), and a combination of the two. Demographic data, as well as preoperative hemoglobin and platelet levels, were collected. The primary outcome was the maximum hemoglobin loss, while the secondary outcomes were the amount of blood in the drain (cc/hour) and the rate of transfusions; postoperative pain was also assessed. Student’s t-test or a χ2 test was used to evaluate between-group differences, using p<0.05 as the cut-off for statistically significant differences. Results the sample comprised 34 patients: IV, 10 cases; IA, 15 cases, and combined (IV + IA), 9 cases. The average age of the patients was 71.1±6.4 years. No significant differences in the outcome measures were found between the groups, with the exception of a significantly lower maximum hemoglobin loss in the combined versus the IV group (p=0.02). There were no differences between the groups in the amount of blood in the drain or the rate of transfusions. Conclusions the data from this preliminary study, as well as data from the literature, confirm that TXA administration is safe and effective in reducing total blood loss in TKA, and no administration protocol seems to be superior to the others. Level of evidence Level II, prospective comparative study. PMID:28217656

  12. Does bilirubin protect against developing diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    Breimer, Lars H; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2016-01-01

    After 25 years of evaluating bilirubin as a possible protective agent in neonatal and cardiovascular disease, interest has moved on to a exploring a possible protective role in diabetes mellitus (DM). This review finds conflicting prospective data for a protective relationship though there are retrospective, case-controlled data, that can only show association, which is not causality. Only prospective studies can show causality. Also, it would appear that the underlying biochemical assumptions do not readily translate from the animal to the human setting. Given that many factors impact on circulating bilirubin levels, it is not surprising that a clear-cut answer is not available; the jury is still out. Any relationship between DM and bilirubin might relate to intermediates in bilirubin metabolism, including relationships involving the genes for the enzymes participating in those steps. Nevertheless, the pursuit of bilirubin in disease causation is opening new avenues for research and if it is established that serum bilirubin can predict risks, much will have been achieved. The answer may have to come from molecular genetic analyses.

  13. Association between bilirubin and risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease based on a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianbo; Zhong, Rong; Liu, Cheng; Tang, Yuhan; Gong, Jing; Chang, Jiang; Lou, Jiao; Ke, Juntao; Li, Jiaoyuan; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Ying; Gong, Yajie; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Peiyi; Yu, Xiao; Xiao, Lin; Du, Min; Yang, Ling; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie; Chen, Weihong; Wei, Sheng; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian; Wu, Tangchun; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the association between total, direct, and indirect bilirubin and nonalcoholic fatty live disease (NAFLD) risk given its high prevalence and serious clinical prognosis. Among 27,009 subjects who participated in a healthy screening program from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study in 2008, 8189 eligible subjects (aged 35–86 years; males, 43.95%) were ultimately enrolled. The incidence rates of NAFLD in 2013 were compared with respect to baseline bilirubin levels among subjects free of NAFLD, and the effect sizes were estimated by logistic regression analysis. During 5 years follow-up, we observed 1956 cases of newly developed NAFLD with the overall incidence of 23.88%. Direct bilirubin was presented to inversely associate with NAFLD risk. Compared with quartile 1 of direct bilirubin, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for NAFLD of quartile 2 to 4 were 1.104 (0.867–1.187), 0.843 (0.719–0.989), and 0.768 (0.652–0.905), respectively, P for trend 0.002). Similarly, inverse effects of direct bilirubin on NAFLD incidence were also observed when stratified by sex and BMI. However, no significant associations were found between total, and indirect bilirubin and NAFLD risk. Direct bilirubin reduced NAFLD risk independent of possible confounders among middle-aged and elderly Chinese population, probably based on the endogenous antioxidation of bilirubin. PMID:27484402

  14. Intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid in primary total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Liang, Yuan; Chen, Pengtao; Fang, Yongchao; He, Jinshan; Wang, Jingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: As the prevalence of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasing, it is usually associated with considerable blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been reported to reduce perioperative blood loss in hip joint arthroplasty. But the best route of TXA administration continues to be controversial. So, we conducted a meta-analysis that integrated all data from the 7 included trials to compare the effectiveness and safety of topical and intravenous TXA administration in primary THA. The endpoints assessed in this meta-analysis include the comparisons of total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, the incidence rate of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolisms (PE), and wound infection. Methods: Literature searches of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, the CNKI database, and Wan Fang Data were performed up to August 30, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our meta-analysis if they compared the efficiency and safety of intravenous versus topical administration of TXA in patients who underwent primary THA. The endpoints included the comparisons of total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, the incidence rate of DVT, PE, and wound infection. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and the PRISMA statement. The pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.3, Denmark. Results: Seven RCTs involving 964 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in the 2 groups in terms of total blood loss ([mean difference (MD) = −14.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): −89.21 to 59.74, P = 0.7], transfusion rates [RD = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.05 to 0.02, P = 0.39]; no significant differences were found regarding the incidence of adverse effects such as deep venous thrombosis [DVT] [RD = 0.00, 95% CI: −0

  15. Study on dissolution and disintegration of calcium bilirubinate stone.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Suzuki, N; Takahashi, W; Sato, T

    1978-06-01

    When a slice of calcium bilirubinate stone was incubated in a solution of tetrasodium salt of ethylendiamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA.4Na), a potent chelating agent, the solution exhibited a yellow brown tint, which was spectroscopically characteristic of bilirubin. Microscopic examination of the slice revealed dissolution of granules of calcium bilirubinate, leaving behind a reticular matrix of PAS-positive substance. The effect of EDTA.4Na was influenced by pH, being fully effective only at pH 10 or more, and by temperature and concentration as well. Simultaneous application of bile salt enhanced the activity of EDTA.4Na, hydrophilizing the gallstone surface to facilitate chelating reaction and also dissolving minor fatty components of the stone. Heparin at proper concentrations also promoted disintegration of the stone, changing surface potential of its constituent particles to the dispersion-prone charge. The effect of composite EDTA.4Na-bile salt-heparin was thus significantly greater than that of single EDTA.4Na. This mixture is promising for clinical application as a means of direct dissolution of residual gallstones.

  16. Supramolecular Complexes Formed in Systems Bile Salt-Bilirubin-Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, N. N.; Severinovskaya, O. V.; Golovkova, L. P.

    The formation of supramolecular complexes between bilirubin and primary micelles of bile salts has been studied. The association constants of bile salts and binding of bilirubin with these associates have been determined. The adsorption of bilirubin and bile salts from individual and mixed aqueous solutions onto hydrophobic silica surfaces has been investigated. The interaction of bilirubin with primary bile salt micelles and the strong retention in mixed micelles, which are supramolecular complexes, result in the adsorption of bilirubin in free state only.

  17. Transcutaneous bilirubin nomograms in African neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mabogunje, Cecilia A.; Imosemi, Donald O.; Emokpae, Abieyuwa A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) as a screening tool, based on relevant population-specific nomogram, or proxy for total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels in assessing the risk of subsequent hyperbilirubinemia is supported by several clinical guidelines on the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. However, while TcB has been found to significantly over-estimate TSB in neonates of African-American ancestry, with variations across TcB devices, no nomogram has been specifically reported for this racial group. This study therefore set out to develop TcB nomograms for healthy late pre-term and term black African neonates derived from two widely used bilirubinometers. Methods A retrospective analysis of 12,377 TcB measurements obtained from 6,373 neonates in the first postnatal week, over a period of 48 months using Bilichek and JM-103 bilirubinometers. TcB percentiles were computed from hour-specific TcB values and nomograms developed for each of the screening devices. Predictive ability of the 75th and 95th percentiles to detect significant hyperbilirubinemia was evaluated between 24–96 hours of age. The 95th percentile curve was compared with those from other populations. Results The velocity of TcB rise at 75th and 95th percentiles was generally higher with JM-103 than Bilichek. Both percentiles also peaked at higher TcB levels with JM-103. The 95th percentile for both instruments showed a downward trend as from approximately 114 hours. Both instruments had high negative predictive values across the selected time-epochs and lower discriminatory ability than reported in non-black populations. Conclusions The predictive utility of TcB as a potential screening tool varies across devices in black African neonates with or without risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia, and lower than levels reported in non-black populations. Equipment-specific nomograms should be considered for TcB monitoring in this racial population where TSB is not routinely

  18. Potential role of conjugated bilirubin and copper in the metabolism of lipid peroxides in bile.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Ames, B N

    1987-01-01

    Conjugated bilirubin and copper ions at their physiological concentrations in bile may play an important role in hydroperoxide and other detoxification. Conjugated bilirubin may also be an important chain-breaking antioxidant preventing lipid peroxidation. Bilirubin ditaurine (BR-DT), a water-soluble model compound of conjugated bilirubin, completely prevents the peroxyl radical-induced oxidation of phosphatidylcholine in either multilamellar liposomes or micelles. This antioxidant activity is associated with the bilirubin moiety of BR-DT, since taurine alone is inefficient in scavenging peroxyl radicals. The number of peroxyl radicals trapped per molecule of BR-DT is 1.9, compared to 4.7 trapped per molecule of biliverdin, the water-soluble physiological precursor of bilirubin. Peroxyl radical-induced oxidation of BR-DT results in a spectral shift in maximal absorbance toward shorter wavelengths; biliverdin is not formed as a major oxidation product. BR-DT, but neither taurine nor biliverdin, greatly accelerates the cupric ion-catalyzed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxide. In the presence of ferric ion, BR-DT shows no lipid hydroperoxide-degrading activity. Addition of cupric ion to BR-DT results in formation of a complex with spectral features similar to that of a biliverdin-cupric ion complex, indicating that BR-DT and cupric ion undergo redox reactions. PMID:3479781

  19. Quantitative assessment of the multiple processes responsible for bilirubin homeostasis in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, David G; Levitt, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Serum bilirubin measurements are commonly obtained for the evaluation of ill patients and to screen for liver disease in routine physical exams. An enormous research effort has identified the multiple mechanisms involved in the production and metabolism of conjugated (CB) and unconjugated bilirubin (UB). While the qualitative effects of these mechanisms are well understood, their expected quantitative influence on serum bilirubin homeostasis has received less attention. In this review, each of the steps involved in bilirubin production, metabolism, hepatic cell uptake, and excretion is quantitatively examined. We then attempt to predict the expected effect of normal and defective function on serum UB and CB levels in health and disease states including hemolysis, extra- and intrahepatic cholestasis, hepatocellular diseases (eg, cirrhosis, hepatitis), and various congenital defects in bilirubin conjugation and secretion (eg, Gilbert’s, Dubin–Johnson, Crigler–Najjar, Rotor syndromes). Novel aspects of this review include: 1) quantitative estimates of the free and total UB and CB in the plasma, hepatocyte, and bile; 2) detailed discussion of the important implications of the recently recognized role of the hepatic OATP transporters in the maintenance of CB homeostasis; 3) discussion of the differences between the standard diazo assay versus chromatographic measurement of CB and UB; 4) pharmacokinetic implications of the extremely high-affinity albumin binding of UB; 5) role of the enterohepatic circulation in physiologic jaundice of newborn and fasting hyperbilirubinemia; and 6) insights concerning the clinical interpretation of bilirubin measurements. PMID:25214800

  20. Essential amino acid supplementation in patients following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Hans C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Senesac, Hilary A.; Hocker, Austin D.; Smolkowski, Keith; Shah, Steven N.; Jewett, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. By the year 2030, 3.48 million older U.S. adults are projected to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Following this surgery, considerable muscle atrophy occurs, resulting in decreased strength and impaired functional mobility. Essential amino acids (EAAs) have been shown to attenuate muscle loss during periods of reduced activity and may be beneficial for TKA patients. Methods. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial with 28 older adults undergoing TKA. Patients were randomized to ingest either 20 g of EAAs (n = 16) or placebo (n = 12) twice daily between meals for 1 week before and 2 weeks after TKA. At baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after TKA, an MRI was performed to determine mid-thigh muscle and adipose tissue volume. Muscle strength and functional mobility were also measured at these times. Results. TKA patients receiving placebo exhibited greater quadriceps muscle atrophy, with a –14.3 ± 3.6% change from baseline to 2 weeks after surgery compared with –3.4 ± 3.1% for the EAA group (F = 5.16, P = 0.036) and a –18.4 ± 2.3% change from baseline to 6 weeks after surgery for placebo versus –6.2 ± 2.2% for the EAA group (F = 14.14, P = 0.001). EAAs also attenuated atrophy in the nonoperated quadriceps and in the hamstring and adductor muscles of both extremities. The EAA group performed better at 2 and 6 weeks after surgery on functional mobility tests (all P < 0.05). Change in quadriceps muscle atrophy was significantly associated with change in functional mobility (F = 5.78, P = 0.021). Conclusion. EAA treatment attenuated muscle atrophy and accelerated the return of functional mobility in older adults following TKA. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00760383. Funding. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Office of the Director (OD), and the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), NIH grant K01HD057332, and the Medical

  1. PPARα: A Master Regulator of Bilirubin Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kaeding, Jenny; El Husseini, Diala; Rudkowska, Iwona; Verreault, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    Hypolipidemic fibrates activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α to modulate lipid oxidation and metabolism. The present study aimed at evaluating how 3 PPARα agonists, namely, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and Wy14,643, affect bilirubin synthesis and metabolism. Human umbilical vein epithelial cells (HUVEC) and coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC) were cultured in the absence or presence of the 3 activators, and mRNA, protein, and/or activity levels of the bilirubin synthesizing heme oxygenase- (HO-) 1 and biliverdin reductase (BVR) enzymes were determined. Human hepatocytes (HH) and HepG2 cells sustained similar treatments, except that the expression of the bilirubin conjugating UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 enzyme and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 transporter was analyzed. In HUVECs, gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, and Wy14,643 upregulated HO-1 mRNA expression without affecting BVR. Wy14,643 and fenofibrate also caused HO-1 protein accumulation, while gemfibrozil and fenofibrate favored the secretion of bilirubin in cell media. Similar positive regulations were also observed with the 3 PPARα ligands in CASMCs where HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased. In HH and HepG2 cells, both UGT1A1 and MRP2 transcripts were also accumulating. These observations indicate that PPARα ligands activate bilirubin synthesis in vascular cells and metabolism in liver cells. The clinical implications of these regulatory events are discussed. PMID:25147562

  2. PPARα: A Master Regulator of Bilirubin Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Bigo, Cyril; Kaeding, Jenny; El Husseini, Diala; Rudkowska, Iwona; Verreault, Mélanie; Vohl, Marie Claude; Barbier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Hypolipidemic fibrates activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α to modulate lipid oxidation and metabolism. The present study aimed at evaluating how 3 PPARα agonists, namely, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and Wy14,643, affect bilirubin synthesis and metabolism. Human umbilical vein epithelial cells (HUVEC) and coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC) were cultured in the absence or presence of the 3 activators, and mRNA, protein, and/or activity levels of the bilirubin synthesizing heme oxygenase- (HO-) 1 and biliverdin reductase (BVR) enzymes were determined. Human hepatocytes (HH) and HepG2 cells sustained similar treatments, except that the expression of the bilirubin conjugating UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 enzyme and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 transporter was analyzed. In HUVECs, gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, and Wy14,643 upregulated HO-1 mRNA expression without affecting BVR. Wy14,643 and fenofibrate also caused HO-1 protein accumulation, while gemfibrozil and fenofibrate favored the secretion of bilirubin in cell media. Similar positive regulations were also observed with the 3 PPARα ligands in CASMCs where HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased. In HH and HepG2 cells, both UGT1A1 and MRP2 transcripts were also accumulating. These observations indicate that PPARα ligands activate bilirubin synthesis in vascular cells and metabolism in liver cells. The clinical implications of these regulatory events are discussed.

  3. Microchip capillary electrophoresis for frontal analysis of free bilirubin and study of its interaction with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhou; Fung, Ying Sing

    2008-05-01

    To meet the need for bedside monitoring of free bilirubin for neonates under critical conditions, a microfluidic chip was fabricated and tested for its coupling with CE/frontal analysis (FA) to determine free bilirubin and study of its binding interaction with HSA, which regulated its concentration in plasma. The poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) multichannel chip was fabricated by CO2 laser ablation and bonded with a fused-silica separation capillary for CE/FA separation with UV detection. The chip was designed to allow a complete assay of four electrophoretic runs using preconditioned channels to speed up the determination of free bilirubin and to deliver quick results for bedside monitoring. Under optimized conditions, the linear working range for free bilirubin was from 10 to 200 micromol with RSDs from 2.1 to 5.0% for n=3, and the LOD at 9 micromol for S/N=3. From a binding study between bilirubin and HSA under FA condition, the second binding constant for bilirubin-HSA was determined as 1.07x10(5) L/mol and the number of binding sites per HSA as 3.46. The results enabled the calculation of free bilirubin for jaundiced infants based on the clinically significant level of total bilirubin, producing a range of 118.3-119.4 micromol/L. The developed method is shown to meet the clinical requirement with additional margin of protection to detect the early rising level of free bilirubin prior to jaundice condition. The low-cost microchip CE/FA device is shown to produce quick results with high potential to deliver a suitable bed-side monitoring method for bilirubin management in neonates.

  4. Usefulness of serum bilirubin levels as a biomarker for long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Dong-Hyun; Lim, Leejin; Lee, Young-Min; Kang, Joon Tae; Chae, Seung Seok; Ki, Young-Jae; Song, Heesang; Koh, Young-Youp

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum total bilirubin on the development of adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) besides high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Serum total bilirubin, hs-cTnT, and NT-proBNP were analyzed in 372 patients who underwent PCI. The primary endpoint was cardiac death. There were 21 events of cardiac death during a mean of 25.8 months of follow-up. When the serum total bilirubin cut-off level (median value) was set to 0.58 mg/dL using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 95.2 % and the specificity was 51.0 % for differentiating between the group with cardiac death and the group without cardiac death. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the lower serum total bilirubin group (<0.58 mg/dL) had a significantly higher cardiac death rate than the higher serum total bilirubin group (≥0.58 mg/dL) (10.4 vs. 0.6 %, log-rank: P = 0.0001). In conclusion, low serum total bilirubin is a predictive marker for cardiac death after PCI.

  5. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  6. The effect of bilirubin on the excitability of mitral cells in the olfactory bulb of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Juan; Zhou, Hui-Qun; Ye, Hai-bo; Li, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Wei-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common clinical phenomenon observed in various liver diseases. Previous studies have shown a correlation between smell disorders and bilirubin levels in patients with hepatic diseases. Bilirubin is a well-known neurotoxin; however, its effect on neurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB), the first relay in the olfactory system, has not been examined. We investigated the effect of bilirubin (>3 μM) on mitral cells (MCs), the principal output neurons of the MOB. Bilirubin increased the frequency of spontaneous firing and the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). TTX completely blocked sEPSCs in almost all of the cells tested. Bilirubin activity was partially blocked by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepro pionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists. Furthermore, we found that bilirubin increased the frequency of intrinsic firing independent of synaptic transmission in MCs. Our findings suggest that bilirubin enhances glutamatergic transmission and strengthens intrinsic firing independent of synaptic transmission, all of which cause hyperexcitability in MCs. Our findings provide the basis for further investigation into the mechanisms underlying olfactory dysfunction that are often observed in patients with severe liver disease. PMID:27611599

  7. Bilirubin is an Endogenous Antioxidant in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ziberna, Lovro; Martelanc, Mitja; Franko, Mladen; Passamonti, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin is a standard serum biomarker of liver function. Inexplicably, it is inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the role of endothelial dysfunction in originating cardiovascular diseases, direct analysis of bilirubin in the vascular endothelium would shed light on these relationships. Hence, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with thermal lens spectrometric detection and diode array detection for the determination of endogenous cellular IXα-bilirubin. To confirm the isomer IXα-bilirubin, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization source, as well as tandem mass spectrometric detection. We measured bilirubin in both arterial and venous rat endothelium (0.9–1.5 pmol mg−1 protein). In the human endothelial Ea.hy926 cell line, we demonstrated that intracellular bilirubin (3–5 pmol mg−1 protein) could be modulated by either extracellular bilirubin uptake, or by up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1, a cellular enzyme related to endogenous bilirubin synthesis. Moreover, we determined intracellular antioxidant activity by bilirubin, with EC50 = 11.4 ± 0.2 nM, in the range of reported values of free serum bilirubin (8.5–13.1 nM). Biliverdin showed similar antioxidant properties as bilirubin. We infer from these observations that intra-endothelial bilirubin oscillates, and may thus be a dynamic factor of the endothelial function. PMID:27381978

  8. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  9. An amperometric bilirubin biosensor based on a conductive poly-terthiophene-Mn(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Aminur; Lee, Kyung-Sun; Park, Deog-Su; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2008-01-18

    An amperometric bilirubin biosensor was fabricated by complexing the Mn(II) ion with a conducting polymer and the final biosensor surface was coated with a thin polyethyleneimine (PEI) film containing an enzyme, ascorbate oxidase (AsOx). The complexation between poly-5,2'-5',2''-terthiophene-3-carboxylic acid (PolyTTCA) and Mn(II) through the formation of Mn-O bond was confirmed by XPS. The PolyTTCA-Mn(II) complex was also characterized using cyclic voltammetry. The PolyTTCA-Mn(II)/PEI-AsOx biosensor specifically detect bilirubin through the mediated electron transfer by the Mn(II) ion. To optimize the experimental condition, various experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, and applied potential were examined. A linear calibration plot for bilirubin was obtained between 0.1 microM and 50 microM with the detection limit of 40+/-3.8 nM. Interferences from other biological compounds, especially ascorbate and dopamine were efficiently minimized by coating the biosensor surface with PEI-AsOx. The bilirubin sensor exhibited good stability and fast response time (<5s). The applicability of this bilirubin sensor was tested in a human serum sample.

  10. Difference in amounts between titratable acid and total carboxylic acids produced by oral streptococci during sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Y; Hata, S; Takahashi, N; Yamada, T

    1989-01-01

    The acid produced by the resting cells of Streptococcus mutants NCTC 10449 and HS 6 and S. sanguis ATCC 10556 during sugar metabolism was estimated with a pH-stat and a carboxylic acid analyzer. Lactic, formic, acetic, pyruvic, and carbonic acids were detected in the reaction mixtures, but propionic, citric, succinic, iso-butyric, butyric, iso-valeric, and valeric acids were not detected. The amount of titratable acid estimated by alkaline titration with the pH-stat was larger than the amount of total carboxylic acids estimated with the carboxylic acid analyzer. The difference in quantity between the titratable and the total carboxylic acids increased significantly with an increase in the period of incubation with sugar. Moreover, the value of the alkaline titration of standard lactic, formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids was equal to the amount analyzed with the carboxylic acid analyzer. The results indicated that these two streptococci produced not only these carboxylic acids but also other acid(s), possibly non-carboxylic acid(s), during their sugar metabolism.

  11. Effects of total body irradiation on fatty acid and total lipid content of rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuemeka, Nwokocha; Philippe, Mounmbegna; Magdalene, Nwokocha; Onyezuligbo, Onyekachi

    2012-01-01

    We examined time-dependent changes in plasma lipids of rats given total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays at 3 Gy. for consecutive periods. Animals were exposed to x ray radiations consecutively for 20 days at 5 day interval thereafter five animals were picked at random and sacrificed (5, 10, 15 and 20 days after beginning the exposure). The triacylglycerols and total cholesterol serum levels were significant differences between control and experimental groups after the first exposure (5 days), values for the triacylglcerols were significantly higher with the second (day 10) and third (day 15) radiation exposures but not with the fourth radiation exposures (day 20) (p<0.05). However, the serum cholesterol values were not found to be significant with the second and third exposures but with the fourth exposure (day 20) (p<0.05). The serum HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different between control and experimental groups at any time analyzed. But the LDL cholesterol was found to decrease on days 5 and 20 of the experimental period. Our results indicate that the applied long term exposure to x rays ionization radiations exposure may induce slight but statistically significant alterations in some serum lipids profile of rats, within the physiological range. The mechanisms for the effects of these ionizing radiations on serum lipid profile are not well understand yet, we suggest that the changes could be due to some non-specific stress reactions. The consequences of our observation are not known yet, but could point to some possible clinical intervention.

  12. The Relationship between Serum Bilirubin and Elevated Fibrotic Indices among HBV Carriers: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Du, Min; Zhang, Shanshan; Xiao, Lin; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Peiyi; Tang, Yuhan; Wei, Sheng; Xing, Mingyou; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study probed the association between bilirubin and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and progression. A cross-sectional analysis of 28,500 middle aged and elderly Chinese participants was performed to analyze the differences of bilirubin in terms of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive or negative and the correlation between bilirubin and severity of hepatic fibrosis estimated by non-invasive indices. Bilirubin was significantly higher in the HBsAg (+) group than the HBsAg (−) group. Higher bilirubin levels were consistently associated with elevated liver fibrosis indices among HBsAg carriers. Compared with quartile 1 of total bilirubin (TBil), the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for elevated fibrosis indices of quartile 4 were 2.24 (95% CIs, 1.57–3.21) estimated by fibrosis 4 score (FIB-4) and 2.22 (95% CIs, 1.60–3.08) estimated by aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI). In addition, direct bilirubin (DBil) had a stronger association with elevated liver fibrosis indices than did indirect bilirubin (IBil). Furthermore, the relationship between DBil and elevated fibrosis indices was more robust among participants who were female, overweight or had central fat distribution. These findings suggested that bilirubin levels, especially DBil, were independently associated with an increased risk of increased fibrosis indices. PMID:27941693

  13. The association between indirect bilirubin levels and liver fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Guldal; Ozenirler, Seren

    2014-08-01

    We proposed to evaluate the association between serum indirect bilirubin levels and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1b. Biopsy proven CHC genotype 1b patients' demographics, clinical and histopathological characteristics were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was done to evaluate the clinical, laboratory and demographic features of the histologically proven liver fibrosis in CHC patients. A total of 112 biopsy proven CHC genotype 1b patients were enrolled into the study. Liver fibrosis scores were measured by using Ishak fibrosis scores and were divided into two groups; fibrosis scores ≤ 2 were categorized as mild fibrosis, 82 patients (73.2%), whereas fibrosis scores >2 were categorized as advanced fibrosis group, 30 patients (26.8%). Patients with advanced fibrosis had lower indirect bilirubin levels than the mild fibrosis group (0.28 ± 0.02 mg/dl vs. 0.44 ± 0.032 mg/dl, p<0.001, respectively). Indirect bilirubin level was negatively correlated with advanced fibrosis scores (r=-0.416 and p<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, low indirect bilirubin level was an independent predicting factor of advanced liver fibrosis (OR: 0.001, 95% CI: 0.0-0.005, p<0.001). There is an inverse relationship between indirect bilirubin levels and advanced liver fibrosis caused by CHC genotype 1b.

  14. Bilirubin production in healthy term infants as measured by carbon monoxide in breath.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D K; Vreman, H J; Oh, W; Fanaroff, A A; Wright, L L; Lemons, J A; Verter, J; Shankaran, S; Tyson, J E; Korones, S B

    1994-10-01

    To describe total bilirubin production in healthy term infants, we measured the end-tidal breath CO, corrected for ambient CO (ETCOc), with an automated sampler and electrochemical (EC) CO instrument. For infants of mothers with a negative Coombs' test, the ETCOc was 1.3 +/- 0.7 microL/L (n = 397) and the serum bilirubin on day 3 postpartum was 73 +/- 35 mg/L (n = 381). In contrast, the ETCOc for infants with ABO or Rh incompatibility, a positive direct Coombs' test, and bilirubin > 130 mg/L (n = 9) was significantly higher, 1.8 +/- 0.8 microL/L, than for those who had a positive Coombs' test result but whose bilirubin was < or = 130 mg/L (n = 12), 1.0 +/- 0.5 microL/L (P < 0.05). At 2 to 8 h postpartum seven term babies from mothers with insulin-dependent diabetes had ETCOc of 1.8 +/- 0.7 microL/L, significantly higher than that in the other term infants [1.3 +/- 0.7 microL/L (n = 390), P < 0.04]. Their bilirubin concentration at 72 +/- 12 h was also higher: 121 +/- 45 mg/L (n = 7) vs 73 +/- 34 mg/L (n = 374; P = 0.03). We conclude that ETCOc measurements may be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of jaundice in healthy term infants in a variety of conditions.

  15. Serum bilirubin fractionation using multilayer film method in hepatobiliary diseases in comparison with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Y; Inufusa, H; Yamashita, M; Ozaki, K; Kanbe, A; Nanno, T; Ohba, Y; Nakamura, H; Yamamoto, T

    1987-10-01

    The Ektachem multilayer film method (Ektachem) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed to fractionate and evaluate serum bilirubin species in 45 serum samples. The false-positive or false-high levels of bilirubin close-bonded with albumin (i.e. the delta bilirubin fraction (B delta] was obtained by Ektachem in sera of cases with normal bilirubin concentration and cases with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia when compared with the results of HPLC. In the sera of cases with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, Ektachem gave comparable levels of total bilirubin (TB), and unconjugated bilirubin (Bu) to those of HPLC, but underestimated conjugated bilirubin (Bc) and slightly overestimated B delta. To investigate the clinical significance of B delta in 113 cases of various hepatobiliary diseases with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, the ratios of B delta to TB (B delta/TB) and to directly-reacting bilirubin fractions (B delta/(Bc + B delta] and that of Bc to B delta (Bc/B delta) were calculated based on the results of Ektachem and compared with each other during the course of jaundice. The mean B delta/TB was below 40% in various hepatobiliary diseases but became as high as approximately 60% in the convalescence stage. The mean B delta/(Bc + B delta) was below 50% in acute hepatitis (the serum bilirubin-elevating stage) and obstructive jaundice, and it increased to above 80% in the recovery stage. In decompensated liver cirrhosis and intrahepatic cholestasis the mean B delta/(Bc + B delta) was about 60%, indicating continuous backflow of Bc from liver cells. The changes in B delta/(Bc + B delta) were much greater than in B delta/TB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Bilirubin in coronary artery disease: Cytotoxic or protective?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nancy; Singh, Tavankit; Chaudhary, Rahul; Garg, Sushil K; Sandhu, Gurprataap Singh; Mittal, Varun; Gupta, Rahul; Bodin, Roxana; Sule, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin has traditionally been considered a cytotoxic waste product. However, recent studies have shown bilirubin to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative functions. These properties potentially confer bilirubin a new role of protection especially in coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a low grade inflammatory process exacerbated by oxidative stress. In fact, recent literature reports an inverse relationship between serum concentration of bilirubin and the presence of CAD. In this article, we review the current literature exploring the association between levels of bilirubin and risk of CAD. We conclude that current evidence is inconclusive regarding the protective effect of bilirubin on CAD. A causal relationship between low serum bilirubin level and increased risk of CAD is not currently established. PMID:27867680

  17. Regression approach to non-invasive determination of bilirubin in neonatal blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    A statistical ensemble of structural and biophysical parameters of neonatal skin was modeled based on experimental data. Diffuse scattering coefficients of the skin in the visible and infrared regions were calculated by applying a Monte-Carlo method to each realization of the ensemble. The potential accuracy of recovering the bilirubin concentration in dermis (which correlates closely with that in blood) was estimated from spatially resolved spectrometric measurements of diffuse scattering. The possibility to determine noninvasively the bilirubin concentration was shown by measurements of diffuse scattering at λ = 460, 500, and 660 nm at three source-detector separations under conditions of total variability of the skin biophysical parameters.

  18. Sensitizing effect of Z,Z-bilirubin IXα and its photoproducts on enzymes in model solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavskii, V. Yu.; Mostovnikov, V. A.; Tret'yakova, A. I.; Mostovnikova, G. R.

    2008-05-01

    In model systems, we have studied side effects which may be induced by light during phototherapy of hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) in newborn infants, with the aim of reducing the Z,Z-bilirubin IXα (Z,Z-BR IXα) level. We have shown that the sensitizing effect of Z,Z-BR IXα, localized at strong binding sites of the human serum albumin (HSA) macromolecule, is primarily directed at the amino acid residues of the carrier protein and does not involve the molecules of the enzyme (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) present in the buffer solution. The detected photodynamic damage to LDH is due to sensitization by bilirubin photoisomers, characterized by lower HSA association constants and located (in contrast to native Z,Z-BR IXα) on the surface of the HSA protein globule. Based on study of the spectral characteristics of the photoproducts of Z,Z-BR IXα and comparison of their accumulation kinetics in solution and the enzyme photo-inactivation kinetics, we concluded that the determining role in sensitized damage to LDH is played by lumirubin. The photosensitization effect depends on the wavelength of the radiation used for photoconversion of bilirubin. When (at the beginning of exposure) we make sure that identical numbers of photons are absorbed by the pigment in the different spectral ranges, the side effect is minimal for radiation corresponding to the long-wavelength edge of the bilirubin absorption band. We have shown that for a bilirubin/HSA concentration ratio >2 (when some of the pigment molecules are sorbed on the surface of the protein globule), the bilirubin can act as a photosensitizing agent for the enzyme present in solution. We discuss methods for reducing unfavorable side effects of light on the body of newborn infants during phototherapy of hyperbilirubinemia.

  19. Role of human skin in the photodecomposition of bilirubin

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Chiranjiv L.; Murti, Coimbatore R. Krishna; Bajpai, Prakash C.

    1974-01-01

    1. Human skin epithelium and human skin were found to absorb both free bilirubin and serum-bound bilirubin from an aqueous buffered medium. The serum-bound bilirubin thus absorbed was readily released when human skin epithelium or human skin were transferred to media containing no bilirubin. 2. The Km values for serum-bound bilirubin were 1.8×10−3m and 2.2×10−3m respectively for human skin epithelium and human skin; corresponding Km values for free bilirubin were 3.0×10−4m and 5×10−4m. The Vmax. for bound and free bilirubin was of the same magnitude, the apparent Vmax. being 1.0 and 1.66μmol/g of tissue for human skin epithelium and human skin respectively. 3. When human skin that had acquired a yellow tinge by absorbing bilirubin was incubated in a buffered medium and exposed to a mercury-vapour light, the yellow colour disappeared and decomposition products of bilirubin accumulated in the medium. 4. Experiments with [3H]bilirubin indicated that the pigment absorbed by skin was photo-oxidized to products that were soluble in water and the quantity and number of such products increased with the time of exposure of human skin to the light-source. Under similar conditions [3H]bilirubin alone in buffered medium was also oxidized and gave products which by paper chromatography appeared to be different from those released by human skin that had absorbed bilirubin. 5. The results suggest that by virtue of its large surface area human skin can act as a matrix for the degradative action of light on bilirubin. PMID:4464841

  20. Analysis of wavelength-dependent photoisomerization quantum yields in bilirubins by fitting two exciton absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoni, M.; Agati, G.; Troup, G. J.; Pratesi, R.

    2003-09-01

    The absorption spectra of bilirubins were deconvoluted by two Gaussian curves of equal width representing the exciton bands of the non-degenerate molecular system. The two bands were used to study the wavelength dependence of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) configurational photoisomerization quantum yield of the bichromophoric bilirubin-IXalpha (BR-IX), the intrinsically asymmetric bile pigment associated with jaundice and the symmetrically substituted bilirubins (bilirubin-IIIalpha and mesobilirubin-XIIIalpha), when they are irradiated in aqueous solution bound to human serum albumin (HSA). The same study was performed for BR-IX in ammoniacal methanol solution (NH4OH/MeOH). The quantum yields of the configurational photoprocesses were fitted with a combination function of the two Gaussian bands normalized to the total absorption, using the proportionality coefficients and a scaling factor as parameters. The decrease of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) quantum yield with increasing wavelength, which occurs for wavelengths longer than the most probable Franck-Condon transition of the molecule, did not result in a unique function of the exciton absorptions. In particular we found two ranges corresponding to different exciton interactions with different proportionality coefficients and scaling factors. The wavelength-dependent photoisomerization of bilirubins was described as an abrupt change in quantum yield as soon as the resulting excitation was strongly localized in each chromophore. The change was correlated to a variation of the interaction between the two chromophores when the short-wavelength exciton absorption became vanishingly small. With the help of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of BR-IX in HSA, a small band was resolved in the bilirubin absorption spectrum, delivering part of the energy required for the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) photoisomerization of the molecule.

  1. Protein-encapsulated bilirubin: paving the way to a useful probe for singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Frederico M; Jensen, Jan K; Etzerodt, Michael; Ogilby, Peter R

    2015-04-01

    When dissolved in a bulk solvent, bilirubin efficiently removes singlet molecular oxygen, O2(a(1)Δg), through a combination of chemical reactions and by promoting the O2(a(1)Δg)→O2(X(3)Σg(-)) nonradiative transition to populate the ground state of oxygen. To elucidate how such processes can be exploited in the development of a biologically useful fluorescent probe for O2(a(1)Δg), pertinent photophysical and photochemical parameters of bilirubin encapsulated in a protein were determined. The motivation for studying a protein-encapsulated system reflects the ultimate desire to (a) use genetic engineering to localize the probe at a specific location in a living cell, and (b) provide a controlled environment around the chromophore/fluorophore. Surprisingly, explicit values of oxygen- and O2(a(1)Δg)-dependent parameters that characterize the behavior of a given chromophore/fluorophore encased in a protein are not generally available. To the end of quantifying the effects of such an encasing protein, a recently discovered bilirubin-binding protein isolated from a Japanese eel was used. The data show that this system indeed preferentially responds to O2(a(1)Δg) and not to the superoxide ion. However, this protein not only shields bilirubin such that the rate constants for interaction with O2(a(1)Δg) decrease relative to what is observed in a bulk solvent, but the fraction of the total O2(a(1)Δg)-bilirubin interaction that results in a chemical reaction between O2(a(1)Δg) and bilirubin also decreases appreciably. The rate constants thus obtained provide a useful starting point for the general design and development of reactive protein-encased fluorescent probes for O2(a(1)Δg).

  2. Preliminary Development of a Fiber Optic Sensor for Measuring Bilirubin

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Steven M; Sova, Raymond M

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary development of a fiber optic bilirubin sensor is described, where an unclad sensing portion is used to provide evanescent wave interaction of the transmitted light with the chemical environment. By using a wavelength corresponding to a bilirubin absorption peak, the Beer–Lambert Law can be used to relate the concentration of bilirubin surrounding the sensing portion to the amount of absorbed light. Initial testing in vitro suggests that the sensor response is consistent with the results of bulk absorption measurements as well as the Beer–Lambert Law. In addition, it is found that conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin have different peak absorption wavelengths, so that two optical frequencies may potentially be used to measure both types of bilirubin. Future development of this device could provide a means of real-time, point-of-care monitoring of intravenous bilirubin in critical care neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:25057239

  3. Association of fatty acids in serum phospholipids with hay fever, specific and total immunoglobulin E.

    PubMed

    Kompauer, Iris; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Bolte, Gabriele; Linseisen, Jakob; Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-04-01

    The dietary intake of certain fatty acids might contribute to the development of allergic diseases such as hay fever and asthma. We investigated the association between the concentrations of fifteen fatty acids in serum phospholipids, as a marker of dietary intake and metabolism, and hay fever, allergic sensitisation and total IgE in adults. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study on respiratory health, including the measurement of fatty acids in the serum phospholipids of 740 adults between 20 and 64 years of age, were analysed. Positive associations were found between hay fever and arachidonic acid, and allergic sensitisation and oleic acid. No other fatty acids showed any association with hay fever or allergic sensitisation. Elevated levels of total IgE were not related to fatty acids. Concentrations of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, trans fatty acids or saturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids were not associated with allergic diseases in adults in this study. The present result on the association between hay fever and arachidonic acid is consistent with current hypotheses but warrants further research.

  4. Enteral obeticholic acid promotes intestinal growth in total parenteral nutrition fed neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal atrophy is an adverse outcome associated with prolonged total parenteral nutrition (PN) partly due to disruption of normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Previously we showed that enteral treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a dual agonist for the nuclear receptor, farne...

  5. Effect of bilirubin concentration on the risk of diabetic complications: A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Wu, Xiaomei; Bi, Yifei; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes can affect many parts of the body and is associated with serious complications. Oxidative stress is a major contributor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and bilirubin has been shown to have antioxidant effects. The number of studies on the effect of bilirubin on the risk of diabetic complications has increased, but the results are inconsistent. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to determine the relationship between bilirubin concentration and the risk of diabetic complications, and to investigate if there was a dose-response relationship. We carried out an extensive search in multiple databases. A fixed or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimates. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to analyze the association between these estimates. A total of 132,240 subjects from 27 included studies were analyzed in our meta-analysis. A negative nonlinear association between bilirubin concentration and the risk of diabetic complications was identified (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.73–0.81), with a nonlinear association. We also found that there was a negative association between bilirubin concentration and the risk of diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy. The results of our meta-analysis indicate that bilirubin may play a protective role in the occurrence of diabetic complications. PMID:28134328

  6. Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss and Blood Transfusion Reduction after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Young-Jun; Seon, Jong-Keun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Jin, Cheng; Prakash, Jatin; Park, Yong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) accompanies the risk of bleeding and need for transfusion. There are several methods to reduce postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion. One such method is using tranexamic acid during TKA. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion after TKA. Materials and Methods A total of 100 TKA patients were included in the study. The tranexamic acid group consisted of 50 patients who received an intravenous injection of tranexamic acid. The control included 50 patients who received a placebo injection. The amounts of drainage, postoperative hemoglobin, and transfusion were compared between the groups. Results The mean amount of drainage was lower in the tranexamic acid group (580.6±355.0 mL) than the control group (886.0±375.5 mL). There was a reduction in the transfusion rate in the tranexamic acid group (48%) compared with the control group (64%). The hemoglobin level was higher in the tranexamic acid group than in the control group at 24 hours postoperatively. The mean units of transfusion were smaller in the tranexamic acid group (0.76 units) than in the control group (1.28 units). Conclusions Our data suggest that intravenous injection of tranexamic acid decreases the total blood loss and transfusion after TKA. PMID:27595071

  7. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  8. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with the minimum ratio of total soluble solids to anhydrous citric acid: Table II Total soluble solids (average pct) Maximum anhydrous citric acid (average pct) Minimum ratio of total soluble solids to... 1.027 9.25-1 9.6 1.043 9.20-1 9.7 1.060 9.15-1 9.8 1.077 9.10-1 9.9 1.094 9.05-1 10.0 1.111...

  10. Indole diterpene synthetic studies. Total synthesis of (+)-nodulisporic acid F and construction of the heptacyclic cores of (+)-nodulisporic acids A and B and (-)-nodulisporic acid D.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Davulcu, Akin H; Cho, Young Shin; Ohmoto, Kazuyuki; Kürti, László; Ishiyama, Haruaki

    2007-06-22

    A first-generation strategy for construction of (+)-nodulisporic acids A (1) and B (2) is described. The strategy entails union of the eastern and western hemisphere subtargets via the indole synthesis protocol developed in our laboratory. Subsequent elaboration of rings E and F, however, revealed the considerable acid instability of the C(24) hydroxyl, thereby preventing further advancement. Nonetheless, preparation of the heptacyclic core of (+)-nodulisporic acids A and B, the total synthesis of (+)-nodulisporic acid F, the simplest member of the nodulisporic acid family, and elaboration of the heptacyclic core of (-)-nodulisporic acid D were achieved.

  11. Serum bilirubin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from two independent cohorts in middle-aged and elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yaru; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Cheng, Weihong; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Yuan, Jianmin; Koh, Woon-Puay; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Tangchun; Pan, An; He, Meian

    2017-01-01

    Serum bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant and has been identified as cardiovascular risk in cohort studies, while the relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the elderly remains unclear. We investigated both cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum bilirubin levels and T2D risk in the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, and replicated the prospective findings in a nested case-control study (509 cases and 509 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS). In the cross-sectional analysis of DFTJ cohort (15,575 participants with 2,532 diabetes cases), serum bilirubin levels (total, direct and indirect) increased in new on-set diabetes and decreased with the diabetic duration. In the longitudinal analysis of DFTJ cohort (772 incident diabetes cases during 4.5 years of follow-up among 12,530 diabetes-free participants at baseline), positive association was found between direct bilirubin and T2D risk comparing extreme quartiles, similar results were observed in the nested case-control study within SCHS. Total and indirect bilirubin levels were not significantly associated with T2D in either cohort. In conclusion, our findings do not support the protective association between serum bilirubin levels and incident T2D in the middle-aged and elderly adults; instead, direct bilirubin levels were associated with increased risk of T2D. PMID:28164994

  12. Serum bilirubin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from two independent cohorts in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yaru; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Cheng, Weihong; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Yuan, Jianmin; Koh, Woon-Puay; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; Pan, An; He, Meian

    2017-02-06

    Serum bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant and has been identified as cardiovascular risk in cohort studies, while the relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the elderly remains unclear. We investigated both cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum bilirubin levels and T2D risk in the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, and replicated the prospective findings in a nested case-control study (509 cases and 509 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS). In the cross-sectional analysis of DFTJ cohort (15,575 participants with 2,532 diabetes cases), serum bilirubin levels (total, direct and indirect) increased in new on-set diabetes and decreased with the diabetic duration. In the longitudinal analysis of DFTJ cohort (772 incident diabetes cases during 4.5 years of follow-up among 12,530 diabetes-free participants at baseline), positive association was found between direct bilirubin and T2D risk comparing extreme quartiles, similar results were observed in the nested case-control study within SCHS. Total and indirect bilirubin levels were not significantly associated with T2D in either cohort. In conclusion, our findings do not support the protective association between serum bilirubin levels and incident T2D in the middle-aged and elderly adults; instead, direct bilirubin levels were associated with increased risk of T2D.

  13. Effects of fatty acid supplements on ruminal and total tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient digestion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 +/- 12 days in milk, mean +/- SD) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from supplemented saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). All rations contained identical forage and concentrate components including 37.2% forage and 13.5% cottonseed. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and linearly decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. The reduction in ruminal NDF digestibility was because of a linear decrease in digestion rate and a linear increase in passage rate of potentially digestible NDF with increasing saturated FS. Total tract digestibility of NDF was not different between treatments because of compensatory postruminal digestion. Ruminal fatty acid and C18 fatty acid digestibility tended to increase linearly with increasing unsaturated FS, and postruminal C18 fatty acid digestibility decreased with increasing saturated FS. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal organic matter digestibility and decreased intestinal long-chain fatty acid digestibility, although differences in fatty acid digestibility may be partially explained by fatty acid intake.

  14. Conjugated bilirubin in neonates with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M; Rubaltelli, F F; Hammerman, C; Vilei, M T; Leiter, C; Abramov, A; Muraca, M

    1996-05-01

    We used a system capable of measuring conjugated bilirubin and its monoconjugated and diconjugated fractions in serum to assess bilirubin conjugation in 29 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient, term, male newborn infants and 35 control subjects; all had serum bilirubin levels > or = 256 mumol/L (15 mg/dI). The median value for diconjugated bilirubin was lower in the G6PD-deficient neonates than in control subjects (0.06 (range 0.00 to 1.84) vs 0.21 (range 0.00 to 1.02) mumol/L, p = 0.006). Diglucuronide was undetectable in 11 (38.9%) of the G6PD-deficient infants versus 3 (8.6%) of the control subjects (p = 0.015). These findings imply a partial defect of bilirubin conjugation not previously demonstrated in G6PD-deficient newborn infants.

  15. Conjugated Bilirubin Triggers Anemia by Inducing Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Föller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca2+ influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Conclusion: Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2015;61:275–284) PMID:25065608

  16. The antioxidant effect of free bilirubin on cumene-hydroperoxide treated human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Yesilkaya, A; Altinayak, R; Korgun, D K

    2000-07-01

    To examine the antioxidant effect of bilirubin (BR) on leukocyte, we treated leukocytes obtained from healthy subjects with an oxidant and various concentrations of BR. High concentrations of BR decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activities, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but had no effect on glutathione (GSH) concentration. Our results showed that under physiological conditions, BR has an antioxidant effect only in high concentrations.

  17. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern.

  18. Serum amino acid concentrations in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition with an amino acid plus dextrose mixture.

    PubMed

    Philcox, J C; Hartley, T F; Worthley, L I; Thomas, D W

    1984-01-01

    The results of monitoring the serum amino acid concentrations during three infusion regimens using a 5:4 mixture of 70% glucose and the synthetic L-amino acid solution, Synthamin 17 (Travasol) are reported. Twelve stabilized patients received continuous total parenteral nutrition (TPN), eight of whom were subsequently placed on a second regimen of cyclical feeding. A separate group of five patients was infused with amino acids, both with and without simultaneous glucose. The serum amino acid concentrations indicated that the supply of valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine, and the synthesis of taurine from the infused methionine was suboptimal, particularly if the period of TPN was prolonged. The synthesis of tyrosine from phenylalanine appeared to be inversely proportional to the infusion rate of the TPN mixture, in particular the glucose component, resulting in depressed tyrosine and increased phenylalanine concentrations in serum during continuous iv nutrition. Cyclical infusions, on the other hand, permitted the tyrosine and phenylalanine concentrations to return to normal during the noninfusion stage of the cycle. Amino acid measurements enabled us to design an amino acids additive mixture which normalized the serum concentrations in three long-term home parenteral nutrition patients. As a result of these investigations serum amino acid measurements are used routinely to monitor the efficacy of TPN and accommodate any specific amino acid requirements of individual patients.

  19. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  20. Trans-Cutaneous Bilirubinometery versus Serum Bilirubin in Neonatal Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Oveisi, Sonia; Jaberi, Najmeh

    2015-12-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem in neonates and causes serious complications. Thus, serial measurements of bilirubin should be done. This assessment is done through two methods of laboratory measurement in serum sample and transcutaneous bilirubinometer. This descriptive study compared transcutaneous bilirubin assessment and laboratory serum bilirubin. Bilirubin level was assessed among 256 neonates admitted to the Qods Children's Hospital in Qazvin- Iran, because of neonatal indirect jaundice, through two methods of transcutaneous bilirubinometery from two sites of forehead and sternum and laboratory measurement of bilirubin in serum. The cases were non-hemolytic icteric term neonates weighing 2500 gram or more and had not received phototherapy or other treatments. Neonates with hemolytic forms of jaundice, sepsis and suspicious to metabolic disorders were excluded. Assessments by means of KJ-8000 transcutaneous bilirubinometer from two sites of forehead and sternum and through laboratory measurement of serum bilirubin were registered and analyzed. The results of the current study showed that there was a correlation of 0.82 between serum bilirubin and transcutaneous forehead bilirubin assessment and for the used device sensitivity of 0.844; specificity of 0.842, Youden Index of 0.709 and Shortest of 0.042 for a cut-off of 12.4 in bilirubin of participants. Furthermore, Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR) were 5.665 and 0.164, respectively and diagnostic Odds Ratio (LR+/LR-) was 34.56. Transcutaneous bilirubinometery can be considered as a reliable tool to assess bilirubin for the screening of neonatal jaundice in term neonates.

  1. Laser Transcutaneous Bilirubin Meter: A New Device For Bilirubin Monitoring In Neonatal Jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad

    1988-06-01

    Neonates with jaundice require monitoring of serum bilirubin which should be repeated at frequent intervals. However, taking blood samples from neonates is not always an easy job, plus being an invasive and traumatising procedure with the additional risk of blood loss. In this paper the authors present the theory and design of a new noninvasive device for transcutaneous bilirubinometry, using a differential absorption laser system. The new technique depends upon illuminating the skin of the neonate with radiation from a two wave-length oscillation laser. The choice of the wavelengths follows the principles of optical bilirubinometry. For obtaining more accurate measurements, different pairs of two wave-lengths are incorporated in the design. The presence of hemoglobin is corrected for by appropriate selection of the laser wavelengths. The new design was tested for accuracy and precision using an argon ion laser. Correlation study between serum bilirubin determination by laser transcutaneous bilirubinometry and by American optical bilirubinometer was highly significant.

  2. Total synthesis of racemic and (R) and (S)-4-methoxyalkanoic acids and their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswanath; Shinde, Digambar Balaji; Kanth, Boddu Shashi; Kamle, Avijeet; Kumar, C Ganesh

    2011-07-01

    The total synthesis of 4-methoxydecanoic acid and 4-methoxyundecanoic acid in racemic and stereoselective [(R) and (S)] forms has been accomplished. For stereoselective synthesis of the compounds (S) and (R)-BINOL complexes have been used to generate the required chiral centres. The antifungal activity of these compounds has been studied against different organisms and the results were found to be impressive. The activity of the compounds in racemic and in stereoselective forms was compared. (R)-4-Methoxydecanoic acid was found to be most potent (MIC: 0.019 mg/mL against Candida albicans MTCC 227, C. albicans MTCC 4748, Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) MTCC 281 and Issatchenkia orientalis MTCC 3020).

  3. Fluorimetric determination of total ascorbic acid by a stopped-flow mixing technique.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Fenoll, J; Fenol, J

    2001-08-01

    A simple, rapid and automatic fluorimetric method for the determination of total ascorbic acid is described. The method makes use of the stopped-flow mixing technique in order to achieve the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid by dissolved oxygen to dehydroascorbic acid, which then reacts with o-phenylenediamine to form a fluorescent quinoxaline. The initial rate and fluorescence signal of this system are directly proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-30 microg ml(-1) (kinetic method) and 0.25-34 microg ml(-1) (equilibrium method). The precision (% RSD) was close to 0.5%. The method has been used for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, fruit juices, soft drinks and blood serum.

  4. Comparison study between fasting total serum bile acid and post prandial bile acid in hepatic diseases: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Boonyapisit, S; Lekhakula, S; Amornkittichareon, B; Shumnumsirivath, D

    1994-01-01

    Fasting bile acid, two-hour post prandial bile acid and other liver function tests (Bili, AST, ALT, ALB, Glob, ALP) were measured in 22 normal and 28 liver diseased patients. In normal volunteers, the mean value of fasting total serum bile acid (FTBA) and postprandial serum bile acid (PTBA) were 3.08 mumole/L (S.D. 1.65) range 0.21-6.26 mumol/L, and 8.07 mumole/L (S.D. 2.99) range 4.06-15.65 mumole/L. Comparison between FTBA, PTBA and other liver function tests in various liver diseases from this study the PTBA was not statistically significant superior to FTBA. Therefore, it is not necessary to do the PTBA at this time until more data is available.

  5. Economic impact of tranexamic acid in healthy patients undergoing primary total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Blake P; Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Duncan, Christopher M; Smith, Hugh M; Trousdale, Robert T; Pagnano, Mark W; Sierra, Rafael J

    2013-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TA) has been shown to reduce perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion. While concern remains about the cost of antifibrinolytic medication, we hypothesized that routine use of tranexamic acid would result in lower direct hospital total cost by decreasing costs associated with blood transfusion, laboratory testing, and room & board. Patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class II or less undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty at a single institution during 2007-2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The estimated mean direct hospital total cost, operating room, blood/lab, room & board, and pharmacy costs were compared between patients who did and did not receive TA. The study population included 1018 patients, and 580 patients received TA. The mean direct total cost of hospitalization with and without TA was $15,099 and $15,978 (P<.0002) respectively, a difference of $879. The only increased cost associated with TA was the pharmacy cost which was $921 versus $781 (P<.0001). The routine use of tranexamic acid TA was associated with lower mean direct hospital total costs after primary total hip and knee arthroplasty as the increase in pharmacy costs was more than offset by cost savings in other categories.

  6. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.

  7. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  8. Total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester via Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marek; Bałczewski, Piotr; Owsianik, Krzysztof; Różycka-Sokołowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard

    2016-02-07

    In this paper, we have described the first total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester from non-natural sources, in four steps (20% overall yield). The key step involves the Diels-Alder reaction of isobenzofuran with methyl 3-(dimethoxyphosphoryl)acrylate which is controlled by "ortho" regio- and endo stereoselectivities due to the COOMe group.

  9. Total synthesis of (−)-dihydroprotolichesterenic acid via diastereoselective conjugate addition to chiral fumarates

    PubMed Central

    Hethcox, J. Caleb; Shanahan, Charles S.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    A diastereoselective conjugate addition of a variety of monoorganocuprates, Li[RCuI], to chiral fumarates to provide funtionalized succinates has been developed. The utility of this reaction is demonstrated in a concise total synthesis of (−)-dihydroprotolichesterenic acid that required only four steps and proceeded in an overall 31% yield. PMID:23539490

  10. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  15. [Metabolic pathway and metabolites of total diterpene acid isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Guo, Hong-Zhu; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Xu, Man; Guo, Hui; Sun, Shi-Feng; Guo, De-An

    2014-08-01

    The preliminary metabolic profile of total diterpene acid (TDA) isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro tests. Pseudolaric acid C2 (PC2) was identified as the predominant metabolite in plasma, urine, bile and feces after both oral and intravenous administrations to rats using HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI/MS(n), and demethoxydeacetoxypseudolaric acid B (DDPB), a metabolite proposed to be the glucoside of PC2 (PC2G), as well as pseudolaric acid C (PC), pseudolaric acid A (PA), pseudolaric acid A O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PAG), pseudolaric acid B O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PBG) and deacetylpseudolaric acid A (DPA) originated from TDA could also be detected. It was demonstrated by tests that the metabolism of TDA is independent of intestinal microflora, and neither of pepsin and trypsin is in charge of metabolism of TDA, TDA is also stable in both pH environments of gastric tract and intestinal tract. The metabolites of TDA in whole blood in vitro incubation were found to be PC2, DDPB and PC2G, which demonstrated that the metabolic reaction of TDA in vivo is mainly occurred in blood and contributed to be the hydrolysis of plasma esterase to ester bond, as well as the glucosylation reaction. These results clarified the metabolic pathway of TDA for the first time, which is of great significance to the in vivo active form and acting mechanism research of P. kaempferi.

  16. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  17. Influence of assessment site in measuring transcutaneous bilirubin

    PubMed Central

    da Conceição, Cristiane Maria; Dornaus, Maria Fernanda Pellegrino da Silva; Portella, Maria Aparecida; Deutsch, Alice D'Agostini; Rebello, Celso Moura

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the influence of the site of measurement of transcutaneous bilirubin (forehead or sternum) in reproducibility of results as compared to plasma bilirubin. Methods: A cohort study including 58 term newborns with no hemolytic disease. Transcutaneous measurements were performed on the forehead (halfway between the headline and the glabella, from the left toward the right side, making consecutive determinations, one-centimeter apart) and the sternum (five measurements, from the suprasternal notch to the xiphoid process with consecutive determinations, one-centimeter apart) using Bilicheck® (SpectRx Inc, Norcross, Georgia, USA). The correlation and agreement between both methods and plasma bilirubin were calculated. Results: There was a strong linear correlation between both determinations of serum bilirubin at the forehead and sternum (r=0.704; p<0.01 and r=0.653; p<0.01, respectively). There was correspondence of the mean values of transcutaneous bilirubin measured on the sternum (9.9±2.2mg/dL) compared to plasma levels (10.2±1.7mg/dL), but both differ from the values measured on the forehead (8.6±2.0mg/dL), p<0.05. Conclusion: In newborn term infants with no hemolytic disease, measuring of transcutaneous bilirubin on the sternum had higher accuracy as compared to serum bilirubin measurement on the forehead. PMID:24728239

  18. Direct sensing of total acidity by chronopotentiometric flash titrations at polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gemene, Kebede L; Bakker, Eric

    2008-05-15

    Polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes containing lipophilic ionophores are traditionally interrogated by zero current potentiometry, which, ideally, gives information on the sample activity of ionic species. It is shown here that a discrete cathodic current pulse across an H (+)-selective polymeric membrane doped with the ionophore ETH 5294 may be used for the chronopotentiometric detection of pH in well-buffered samples. However, a reduction in the buffer capacity leads to large deviations from the expected Nernstian response slope. This is explained by the local depletion of hydrogen ions at the sample-membrane interface as a result of the galvanostatically imposed ion flux in direction of the membrane. This depletion is found to be a function of the total acidity of the sample and can be directly monitored chronopotentiometrically in a flash titration experiment. The subsequent application of a baseline potential pulse reverses the extraction process of the current pulse, allowing one to interrogate the sample with minimal perturbation. In one protocol, total acidity is found to be proportional to the magnitude of applied current at the flash titration end point. More conveniently, the square root of the flash titration end point time observed at a fixed applied current is a linear function of the total acid concentration. This suggests that it is possible to perform rapid localized pH titrations at ion-selective electrodes without the need for volumetric titrimetry. The technique is explored here for acetic acid, MES and citric acid with promising results. Polymeric membrane electrodes based on poly(vinyl chloride) plasticized with o-nitrophenyl octyl ether in a 1:2 mass ratio may be used for the detection of acids of up to ca. 1 mM concentration, with flash titration times on the order of a few seconds. Possible limitations of the technique are discussed, including variations of the acid diffusion coefficients and influence of electrical migration.

  19. Liquor Bilirubin Levels in Normal Pregnancy: A Reassessment of Early Prediction of Haemolytic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Norrie, D. L.; Ruthven, C. R. J

    1970-01-01

    A comparison was made between chemically and spectrophotometrically determined concentrations of total bile pigment in the liquor amnii. For the period 16 to 26 weeks' gestation the upper limit of normal bile pigment to protein ratio was found to be 0·4. Levels above this would be required as an indication for intrauterine transfusion. In 110 cases of isoimmunization of pregnancy these criteria were applied in the diagnosis of severity of the condition. The ratio of the bile pigment to protein was used rather than a simple bile pigment measurement, and found to be valuable. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that fallacious high bilirubin readings may arise by using whatever method, particularly owing to bilirubin and other breakdown products of blood contaminating the liquor. PMID:4991485

  20. Total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in rats: comparison of different amino acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Belli, D C; Fournier, L A; Lepage, G; Yousef, I; Weber, A M; Tuchweber, B; Roy, C C

    1987-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity of amino acids perfused is a pathogenetic factor in total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated hepatotoxicity. However, the effect of the qualitative pattern of amino acid solutions has not been studied. Rats on parenteral nutrition for 5 days received 10.2 g of dextrose and 3.4 g of amino acids daily. Bile flow (microliter/min/g liver protein) after administration of Vamin was 16.2 +/- 0.8, which was similar to that in controls given chow and dextrose iv, but it was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than those on Travasol (12.3 +/- 0.8). The decrease in bile flow was not related to the large concentrations of alanine and glycine present in Travasol. However, the addition to Travasol of serine present only in Vamin increased bile flow significantly. Bile acid secretion rate, biliary lipid constituents, calcium, sodium, and glucose showed little change. In contrast, alpha-amino nitrogen was increased (p less than 0.05) in Vamin-perfused animals. Steatosis was noted in only a few animals in the Travasol group, and was not associated with an increase in the triglycerides content of the liver. Glycogen and protein content of the livers did not differ. The data show that the composition of amino acid solutions may be a determinant of TPN-induced cholestasis and suggest that the presence of methyl donor amino acids may have a protective effect.

  1. Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-01-01

    Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data.

  2. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.

  3. Effect of acute bile acid pool depletion on total and ionized calcium concentrations in human bile.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, D; Murphy, G M; Dowling, R H

    1995-04-01

    Although calcium salts are important components of gallstones, there are few data on the total and ionized calcium content of human bile. Therefore, in 14 fasting T-tube patients studied 7-11 days after cholecystectomy, we measured bile flow, bile acid [BA], total [CaTOT] and free ionized [Ca++] calcium concentrations, in 20-30 min bile collections during acute BA pool depletion induced by 6-8 h of continuous bile drainage. During washout of the BA pool there were parallel falls in bile flow, BA output and total calcium output (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.99; P < 0.02-0.001). In 12 of the 14 patients, [CaTOT] also fell (from 1.84 +/- 0.29 to 1.32 +/- 0.34 mmol L-1) in parallel with [BA] (from 34.0 +/- 14.0 to 8.2 +/- 8.0 mmol L-1; r = 0.75-0.98; P < 0.005). In contrast, biliary [Ca++] remained virtually unchanged. These data suggest that the BAs are linked to the bound, rather than to the free, ionized, fraction of biliary calcium, which is consistent with in vivo calcium binding by BAs. A model is proposed in which BA-induced biliary calcium secretion results from (i) bile acid-induced water flow via solvent drag; and (ii) calcium binding in the bile canaliculus by bile acids, which induces paracellular diffusion of Ca++, thereby maintaining [Ca++] independent of [BA].

  4. Determination of free bilirubin and its binding capacity by HSA using a microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis device with a multi-segment circular-ferrofluid-driven micromixing injection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Nie, Zhou; Fung, Ying Sing

    2010-09-01

    A PMMA microfluidic chip-CE device with a multi-segment circular-ferrofluid-driven micromixing injector has been developed for the determination of free bilirubin and its binding capacity by HSA at equilibrium. The design of the device and its fabrication by a low cost CO(2) laser are discussed for intended applications. Under optimized conditions, the total binding capacity of HSA for bilirubin was determined as 16.3±1.4 mg/l00 mL human serum (n=3) and residual binding capacity for bilirubin 9.8 mg/100 mL (n=3) in normal infants. To assess risk of hyperbilirubinemia, free bilirubin and residual binding capacity by HSA provide a better indicator than total bilirubin, as neonates with impaired bilirubin binding capacity could be detected. In addition, residual binding capacity provides an advanced indicator to predict the onset of hyperbilirubinemia before the appearance of free bilirubin. HSA down to 94 nL is used in each titration and a full assay of four titrations takes up 376 nL HSA, sufficient for newborns with HSA in microliter range. The device has shown capable to provide adequate margin of protection to detect an early rising level of bilirubin and impaired binding capacity prior to the onset of jaundice condition.

  5. Overexpression of a Gene Involved in Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Substantially Increases Phytic Acid and Total Phosphorus in Rice Seeds.

    PubMed

    Tagashira, Yusuke; Shimizu, Tomoe; Miyamoto, Masanobu; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-04-24

    The manipulation of seed phosphorus is important for seedling growth and environmental P sustainability in agriculture. The mechanism of regulating P content in seed, however, is poorly understood. To study regulation of total P, we focused on phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP₆) biosynthesis-related genes, as InsP₆ is a major storage form of P in seeds. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) low phytic acid mutant lpa1-1 has been identified as a homolog of archael 2-phosphoglycerate kinase. The homolog might act as an inositol monophosphate kinase, which catalyzes a key step in InsP₆ biosynthesis. Overexpression of the homolog in transgenic rice resulted in a significant increase in total P content in seed, due to increases in InsP₆ and inorganic phosphates. On the other hand, overexpression of genes that catalyze the first and last steps of InsP₆ biosynthesis could not increase total P levels. From the experiments using developing seeds, it is suggested that the activation of InsP₆ biosynthesis in both very early and very late periods of seed development increases the influx of P from vegetative organs into seeds. This is the first report from a study attempting to elevate the P levels of seed through a transgenic approach.

  6. Selective precipitation of ribonucleic acid from a mixture of total cellular nucleic acids extracted from cultured mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method is described for precipitating RNA selectively from total mammalian-cell nucleic acids extracted by the phenol–sodium dodecyl sulphate procedure at pH8.0. Under specified conditions bulk RNA is precipitated almost quantitatively whereas bulk DNA remains in solution. Minor components of RNA (detected by pulse-labelling and chromatography on methylated albumin–kieselguhr) and rapidly labelled components of DNA containing single-stranded regions are also precipitated. The usefulness of the method is discussed in the context of isolating separately both RNA and DNA from cultured cells that are difficult to obtain in quantity. PMID:5165620

  7. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Y; Ohtsuka, Y; Shimizu, T; Nittono, H; Urao, M; Miyano, T; Kawakami, S; Hayasawa, H

    1994-03-01

    To assess whether ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment has any beneficial effect on essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in patients who have had a Kasai operation for extrahepatic atresia (EBA), responses of serum fatty acids to UDCA administration (15 mg/kg/d) were investigated in eight jaundice-free patients and in eight patients with jaundice (serum total bilirubin > or = 1.0 mg/dL). All patients were also given taurine supplementation (100 mg/kg/d). Serum fatty acid composition was determined before and 6 months after UDCA treatment. Serum total bile acid concentration and serum total bilirubin value, as a part of conventional liver function tests, were measured before and during UDCA therapy. Before UDCA treatment, the concentrations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly lower (P > .05 for the former; P > .01 for the latter) in both the jaundice and jaundice-free groups than in the controls. After 6 months of treatment, the linoleic acid concentration significantly increased (P > .05), to the normal range, in the jaundice-free group, but not in the jaundice group. The arachidonic acid concentration did not increase significantly in either group. The serum total bile acid concentration was lower in six of the eight jaundice-free patients and in four of the eight jaundice patients. The serum total bilirubin value decreased in six of the eight jaundice-free patients and in four of the eight jaundice patients; however, the degree of improvement was not statistically significant in either group. No side effects developed, and there were no changes in blood chemistry values unrelated to liver disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Delta bilirubin: absorption spectra, molar absorptivity, and reactivity in the diazo reaction.

    PubMed

    Doumas, B T; Wu, T W; Jendrzejczak, B

    1987-06-01

    Delta bilirubin (B delta), isolated from serum, has an absorption maximum near 440 nm and a molar absorptivity of 72,000 L mol-1cm-1 in either Tris HCl (0.1 mol/L, pH 8.5) or phosphate (0.13 mol/L, pH 7.4) buffer. This absorptivity exceeds by approximately 50% and 59%, respectively, that of unconjugated bilirubin in the same buffers. This finding suggests that substantial errors can be incurred in direct spectrophotometry of bilirubins in serum. In the total diazo (TBIL) assay (Clin Chem 1985;31:1779-89), the color yield from B delta increases by 10% as the final diazo concentration is increased from 0.27 to 0.81 mmol/L. In the direct (DBIL) assay, if done in HCl (50 mmol/L), B delta yields approximately 15% more color as the diazo concentration is increased from 0.51 to 1.53 mmol/L, whereas in acetate buffer (0.4 mol/L, pH 4.7) the corresponding color yield is 25% greater. However, the absolute color yield for the reaction in HCl exceeds that in acetate buffer. In both the TBIL and the DBIL assay, B delta reacts slowly, nearly complete reaction requiring 10 min. Thus, B delta may be seriously underestimated in diazo (especially DBIL) methods in which short reaction times (20 s to 1 min) are used.

  9. A spectroscopic study of the wavelength-dependent photoisomerizations of bilirubins bound to human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoni, Marina; Agati, Giovanni; Pratesi, Riccardo; Persico, Maurizio

    2005-12-01

    The wavelength-dependent photoisomerizations of the asymmetric bilirubin BR-IXα and of the symmetric bilirubin-IIIα (BR-III) and mesobilirubin-XIIIα (MBR-XIII) bound to human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution were analysed with the help of an exciton coupling model. The modelling was based on the absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra (bisignate Cotton effect). Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) of the free BR-IX molecule suggested the presence of two main bands of exciton coupling character in the blue region of the spectrum, and other weaker bands of charge transfer character at longer wavelengths. These peculiarities were taken into account to fit the photoisomerization quantum yields in the blue-green region as functions of the wavelength, obtaining the bandshape of the exciton coupling bands from the experimental CD spectra. The other excitons were extracted from the decomposition of the band resulting from the difference between the absorption spectrum and the sum (normalized-to-absorption) of the two CD excitons. We expressed photoisomerization quantum yields in terms of the sum of the contributions to photon absorption deriving from all the exciton states normalized to total absorption. For all the reversible photoprocesses of bilirubins and for the irreversible one of BR-IXα in HSA (i.e. lumirubin formation), we give reliable mean values of the individual state excitation probabilities and photoisomerization efficiencies in the pigment protein complex.

  10. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  11. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    PubMed

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in patients with benign breast disease and all the markers were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls. All the markers had a low accuracy (AUCs < 0.75) in differentiating between breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  12. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklany, I.M.; Hoffnagle, G.F.; Brackbill, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    ''Best estimates'' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulfates are developed for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern U.S. These may, in turn, be used for modeling of acidic or sulfate deposition. The factors are based upon a critical evaluation of the generic measurement methods used to quantify total and acidic primary sulfate emissions, and an exhaustive review and critique of individual papers and studies available in the open literature which present measurement data on primary sulfate emissions. It develops a qualitative rating scheme which specifies the level of confidence that should be attached to the emission factor determinations. The paper concludes that much of the existing data on primary sulfates from stationary combustion sources are, probably, significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Therefore, existing estimates of primary sulfate emissions for these source categories are, probably, substanitally inflated. It also concludes that, for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias. 68 references.

  13. A new microwave acid digestion bomb method for the determination of total fluorine.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J

    1998-01-01

    A new microwave acid digestion method for total fluorine analysis was compared to the reliable reverse-extraction technique. The commercially available Parr bombs which are compatible with microwave heating were modified for this purpose. The Mann-Whitney statistical test did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) in the determinations of total fluorine in various samples between the two above-mentioned methods. The microwave method also gave high fluorine recoveries (> 97%) when fluoride was added to different samples. The great advantage of the microwave acid digestion bomb method is that the digestion under pressure is so aggressive that only a few minutes is needed for complete digestion (also of covalently bonded fluorine), which reduces the time for fluorine analysis dramatically, while no loss of fluorine or contamination from extraneous sources could take place during the ashing procedure. The digestion solution was made up of 300 microliter of concentrated nitric acid plus 537 microliter of water. After digestion 675 microliter of approximately 8.5 M sodium hydroxide plus 643 microliter of citrate/TISAB buffer was added resulting in an alkaline solution (pH approximately 12) which was finally adjusted to a pH of approximately 5.3 for fluoride determination.

  14. New insights in bilirubin metabolism and their clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Sticova, Eva; Jirsa, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Bilirubin, a major end product of heme breakdown, is an important constituent of bile, responsible for its characteristic colour. Over recent decades, our understanding of bilirubin metabolism has expanded along with the processes of elimination of other endogenous and exogenous anionic substrates, mediated by the action of multiple transport systems at the sinusoidal and canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Several inherited disorders characterised by impaired bilirubin conjugation (Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I and type II, Gilbert syndrome) or transport (Dubin-Johnson and Rotor syndrome) result in various degrees of hyperbilirubinemia of either the predominantly unconjugated or predominantly conjugated type. Moreover, disrupted regulation of hepatobiliary transport systems can explain jaundice in many acquired liver disorders. In this review, we discuss the recent data on liver bilirubin handling based on the discovery of the molecular basis of Rotor syndrome. The data show that a substantial fraction of bilirubin conjugates is primarily secreted by MRP3 at the sinusoidal membrane into the blood, from where they are subsequently reuptaken by sinusoidal membrane-bound organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. OATP1B proteins are also responsible for liver clearance of bilirubin conjugated in splanchnic organs, such as the intestine and kidney, and for a number of endogenous compounds, xenobiotics and drugs. Absence of one or both OATP1B proteins thus may have serious impact on toxicity of commonly used drugs cleared by this system such as statins, sartans, methotrexate or rifampicin. The liver-blood cycling of conjugated bilirubin is impaired in cholestatic and parenchymal liver diseases and this impairment most likely contributes to jaundice accompanying these disorders. PMID:24151358

  15. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P < 0.05). Plasma concentration of adipic acid was significantly higher by 101.6% one year after total gastrectomy procedure in the patients when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.01). Plasma concentration of silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid

  16. Bioprocess monitoring: minimizing sample matrix effects for total protein quantification with bicinchoninic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Wieland N; Waldschitz, Daniel; Herwig, Christoph; Neutsch, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Determining total protein content is a routine operation in many laboratories. Despite substantial work on assay optimization interferences, the widely used bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay remains widely recognized for its robustness. Especially in the field of bioprocess engineering the inaccuracy caused by interfering substances remains hardly predictable and not well understood. Since the introduction of the assay, sample pre-treatment by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation has been indicated as necessary and sufficient to minimize interferences. However, the sample matrix in cultivation media is not only highly complex but also dynamically changing over process time in terms of qualitative and quantitative composition. A significant misestimation of the total protein concentration of bioprocess samples is often observed when following standard work-up schemes such as TCA precipitation, indicating that this step alone is not an adequate means to avoid measurement bias. Here, we propose a modification of the BCA assay, which is less influenced by sample complexity. The dynamically changing sample matrix composition of bioprocessing samples impairs the conventional approach of compensating for interfering substances via a static offset. Hence, we evaluated the use of a correction factor based on an internal spike measurement for the respective samples. Using protein spikes, the accuracy of the BCA protein quantification could be improved fivefold, taking the BCA protein quantification to a level of accuracy comparable to other, more expensive methods. This will allow reducing expensive iterations in bioprocess development to due inaccurate total protein analytics.

  17. Total dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids have modest effects on urinary sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...

  18. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of carboxylic acids adsorbed onto mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, J. D.; Schroeter, L. M.; Itoh, M. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Apitz, S. E.

    1999-09-01

    A suite of naturally-occurring carboxylic acids (acetic, oxalic, citric, benzoic, salicylic and phthalic) and their corresponding sodium salts were adsorbed onto a set of common mineral substrates (quartz, albite, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) in batch slurry experiments. Solution pH's of approximately 3 and 6 were used to examine the effects of pH on sorption mechanisms. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to obtain vibrational frequencies of the organic ligands on the mineral surfaces and in solution. UV/visible spectroscopy on supernatant solutions was also employed to confirm that adsorption from solution had taken place for benzoic, salicylic and phthalic acids. Molecular orbital calculations were used to model possible surface complexes and interpret the experimental spectra. In general, the tectosilicates, quartz and albite feldspar, did not chemisorb (i.e., strong, inner-sphere adsorption) the carboxylate anions in sufficient amounts to produce infrared spectra of the organics after rinsing in distilled water. The clays (illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) each exhibited similar ATR FTIR spectra. However, the illite sample used in this study reacted to form strong surface and aqueous complexes with salicylic acid before being treated to remove free Fe-hydroxides. Chemisorption of carboxylic acids onto clays is shown to be limited without the presence of Fe-hydroxides within the clay matrix.

  19. Rapid intravenous administration of amino acids prevents biliary sludge induced by total parenteral nutrition in humans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z S; Yu, L; Lin, Y J; Jun, Z J; Min, W S; Jun, Y; Hua, Z B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether daily rapid intravenous administration of amino acids (IVAA) prevented the formation of biliary sludge in humans receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Thirty adult patients receiving TPN for more than 28 consecutive days were studied. They were randomized to receive either saline solution (placebo) intravenously (15 patients) or 6.9% branched chain amino acid (BCAA)-enriched amino acid (15 synthetic amino acids; Freamine HBC) solution given by administration rapid intravenous (15 patients). The groups were similar with respect to age, sex, diagnosis, liver function test results, amylase levels, TPN time, and time of study. All patients underwent weekly ultrasound studies. Volume and emptying studies of the gallbladder in response to the study drug were performed after 1 week. As a result, none of the patients receiving rapid IVAA had sludge, whereas 11 of the 15 patients receiving placebo had sludge (P < 0.01). Results of emptying studies showed significant contraction of the gallbladder in those in the rapid IVAA group, but not in the placebo group. Consequently, the data suggest that rapid IVAA given daily prevents TPN-induced stasis and sludge in the gallbladder. We conclude that rapid IVAA should be used as routine prophylaxis against biliary sludge and formation of gallstones in patients receiving long-term TPN.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Alcohol, Sugar, and Tartaric Acid in Alcoholic Beverages Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, A.; Bajaj, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode was used for quantifying ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid in alcoholic beverages. One hundred synthetic samples were prepared with different ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid concentrations. Experiments were carried out on Bio-Rad 175 C FTS using an ATR accessory. Spectra were recorded in the wavelength region 600–4000 cm −1 . Calibration was performed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Commercially available alcoholic beverages (gin, rum, vodka, etc.) were experimented and concentration of ethanol in these samples was predicted using the developed calibration model. Chemical analysis of these commercial samples was carried out in order to compare the results. The agreement between ATR results with those of chemical analysis revealed good reliability and repeatability of the technique used. PMID:17671618

  1. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklamy, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    This paper develops 'best estimates' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulphates for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern US, which may, in turn, be used for modelling acidic or sulphate deposition. The authors conclude that much of the existing data on primary sulphates from stationary combustion sources are probably significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Existing estimates of primary sulphate emissions for these source categories are probably substantially inflated. It also concludes that for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias.

  2. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid as markers for carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Vivas, I; Spagnuolo, L; Palacios, P

    1992-08-01

    Concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) were determined in serum samples from 88 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 26 normal subjects, and 44 patients with benign uterine or ovarian disease. TSA concentrations in patients with cervical cancer were found to correlate with advanced-stage disease. LSA concentrations were only increased in stage IV of the disease. Sensitivity of the test for stage IB was zero for TSA and 27% for LSA. The specificity of both markers was about 80% due to a low incidence of false-positive values in the pathologic control group. Measurements of TSA or LSA appear to be of no value for the early detection of cervical cancer or to complement the clinical staging of this tumor.

  3. [Studies on hydroxyapatite applicatied in coprecipitate of total salvianolic acids phospholipid complex].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Liu, Dan; Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare total salvianolic acids-phytosome-HA coprecipitate to improve drug dissolution and its micromeritic properties. Firstly, the coprecipitate was prepared by solvent method and in vitro dissolution of tripterine was performed with the salvianolic acid B and danshensu as criteria. At the same time, the micromeritic properties was characterizated, the structure of samples was characterized by TEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR. Results showed that when the ratio of drug to HA was 1:2, it had a better dissolution, the accumulative drug-release percent in vitro at 60 min was over 90%. At the same time, it has good liquidity and low moisture absorption. Its micromeritic properties have improved. It is proved that the drug still existed amorphously by microstructure analysis. The preparation process is simple and feasible, it has practical value.

  4. Total trans fatty acid analysis in spreadable cheese by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Patrícia Mendonça; Barra, Marcelo Macedo; Costa Ribeiro, Mauro Carlos; Aued-Pimentel, Sabria; Da Silva, Simone Alves; De Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2010-02-10

    An alternative method for determination of total trans fatty acids expressed as elaidic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under indirect UV detection at 224 nm within an analysis time of 7.5 min was developed. The optimized running electrolyte includes 15.0 mmol L(-1) KH(2)PO(4)/Na(2)HPO(4) buffer (pH approximately 7.0), 4.0 mmol L(-1) SDBS, 8.0 mmol L(-1) Brij35, 45%v/v ACN, 8% methanol, and 1.5% v/v n-octanol. Baseline separation of the critical pair C18-9cis/C18:1-9t with a resolution higher than 1.5 was achieved using C15:0 as the internal standard. The optimum capillary electrophoresis (CE) conditions for the background electrolyte were established with the aid of Raman spectroscopy and experiments of a 3(2) factorial design. After response factor (R(F)) calculations, the CE method was applied to total trans fatty acid (TTFA) analysis in a hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) sample, and compared with the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) official method by gas chromatography (GC). The methods were compared with an independent sample t test, and no significant difference was found between CE and GC methods within the 95% confidence interval for six genuine replicates of TTFA analysis (p-value > 0.05). The CE method was applied to TTFA analysis in a spreadable cheese sample. Satisfactory results were obtained, indicating that the optimized methodology can be used for trans fatty acid determination for these samples.

  5. Comparison between intravenous and intra-articular regimens of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Soni, Ashwani; Saini, Raghav; Gulati, Anmol; Paul, Rajesh; Bhatty, Shiraj; Rajoli, Sreekanth Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic drug used widely to prevent bleeding. Its use in reducing bleeding during total knee arthroplasty surgery is well proven but there is no final consensus regarding the regimen. The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and intra-articular regimen of tranexamic acid during the total knee arthroplasty surgery. A total of 40 patients were received three doses of intravenous tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty surgery. Intra-articular tranexamic acid was used in 40 patients during the surgery. We concluded that intra-articular tranexamic acid is equally effective as three dose intravenous regimen in reducing blood loss during total knee arthroplasty surgery.

  6. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

  7. Synthesis of hydrochloric acid solution for total mercury determination in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Patel-Sorrentino, Nathalie; Benaim, Jean-Yves; Cossa, Daniel; Lucas, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg(T)) determination requires the addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid solution (≥10 mol L(-1) HCl) in relatively high amounts to preserve the samples and to prepare reagent solutions. A method for the preparation of concentrated HCl with Hg(T) concentration of lower than 5 ng L(-1) is described in this article. It is based on the well-known chemical reaction: 2 NH(4)Cl + H(2)SO(4) → (NH(4))(2)SO(4) + 2 HCl. This method is validated thanks to the US Environmental Protection Agency method 1631 and standard reference materials BCR-579 (mercury in coastal seawater).

  8. Fluorescent protein-based detection of unconjugated bilirubin in newborn serum

    PubMed Central

    Iwatani, Sota; Nakamura, Hajime; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Nishida, Kosuke; Fukushima, Sachiyo; Koda, Tsubasa; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin are associated with the development of brain damage in newborns. In current clinical settings, there are no methods for directly determining serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin. UnaG, a fluorescent protein from Japanese eel muscle that specifically binds to unconjugated bilirubin was used in this study. Linear regression analysis was carried out to compare unconjugated bilirubin levels measured by UnaG and conventional bilirubin oxidase methods. Unconjugated bilirubin levels in the serum of newborns who were untreated or treated with phototherapy were compared. Effects of interfering factors in the serum (conjugated bilirubin, hemoglobin, and lipid) on unconjugated bilirubin concentration measured by the UnaG method were also evaluated. Unconjugated bilirubin levels measured by the UnaG method were highly correlated with those determined by the bilirubin oxidase assay. Unconjugated bilirubin levels determined by bilirubin oxidase and UnaG assays were similar in serum samples containing conjugated bilirubin. The performance of the UnaG assay was unaffected by phototherapy and the presence of serum hemoglobin and lipid emulsion. These results demonstrate the clinical applicability of the UnaG method for direct measurement of unconjugated bilirubin levels in newborn serum. PMID:27324682

  9. Functional polyethersulfone particles for the removal of bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Xiang, Tao; Xie, Yi; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Weifeng; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, polyethersulfone/poly (glycidyl methacrylate) particles are prepared via in situ cross-linked polymerization coupled with a phase inversion technique. The surfaces of these particles are then further modified by grafting amino groups using tetraethylenepentamine, dethylenetriamine, ethylenediamine, or 1,6-hexanediamine for the removal of bilirubin. The particles are characterized by Flourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Batch adsorption experiments are performed to verify the adsorption capability, and the effect of bilirubin initial concentration, bovine serum albumin concentration, and solution ionic strength on the adsorption is also investigated. In addition, both adsorption kinetic and isotherm models are applied to analyze the adsorption process of bilirubin, and a particle column is used to further study the bilirubin removal ability.To prove that the method was a universal portal to prepare functional particles, polysulfone, polystyrene, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) based functional particles were also prepared and used for the removal of bilirubin. This study and the results indicated that the particles had a great potential to be used in hemoperfusion treatment for hyperbilirubinemia.

  10. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  11. Blood-brain interfaces and bilirubin-induced neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghersi-Egea, J F; Gazzin, S; Strazielle, N

    2009-01-01

    The endothelium of the brain microvessels and the choroid plexus epithelium form highly specialized cellular barriers referred to as blood-brain interfaces through which molecular exchanges take place between the blood and the neuropil or the cerebrospinal fluid, respectively. Within the brain, the ependyma and the pia-glia limitans modulate exchanges between the neuropil and the cerebrospinal fluid. All these interfaces are key elements of neuroprotection and fulfill trophic functions; both properties are critical to harmonious brain development and maturation. By analogy to hepatic bilirubin detoxification pathways, we review the transport and metabolic mechanisms which in all these interfaces may participate in the regulation of bilirubin cerebral bioavailability in physiologic conditions, both in adult and in developing brain. We specifically address the role of ABC and OATP transporters, glutathione-S-transferases, and the potential involvement of glucuronoconjugation and oxidative metabolic pathways. Regulatory mechanisms are explored which are involved in the induction of these pathways and represent potential pharmacological targets to prevent bilirubin accumulation into the brain. We then review the possible alteration of the neuroprotective and trophic barrier functions in the course of bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunctions resulting from hyperbilirubinemia. Finally, we highlight the role of the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers in regulating the brain biodisposition of candidate drugs for the treatment or prevention of bilirubin-induced brain injury.

  12. A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial of topical tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andrew G; Muh, Stephanie J; Silverton, Craig D; Weir, Robb M; Laker, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TNA) reduces postoperative blood loss in general and obstetrical surgery but there is limited orthopaedic literature regarding its use in the topical setting. To study the effect of topical TNA after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), 101 patients were randomized to topical administration of 2.0g TNA in 75mL of normal saline (50 patients) or placebo (51 patients). Operative technique, drug administration, and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis were standardized. All patients underwent screening ultrasound of the operative extremity. Total blood loss was lower in the TNA group (940.2±327.1mL) than the placebo group (1293.1±532.7mL)(P<0.001), and four patients in the placebo group and none in the TNA group received postoperative transfusion (P=0.118). We recommend administration of topical TNA in primary TKA in healthy patients to decrease perioperative blood loss.

  13. Blood Sparing Efficacy of Oral Tranexamic Acid in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Qunn Jid; Ching, Wai Yee; Wong, Yiu Chung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in reducing blood loss in primary total knee replacement. Almost all studies used an intravenous form or a topical form. The aim of this study was to assess the blood sparing efficacy and the safety of oral TXA. Materials and Methods All patients with primary total knee replacement performed in our institute from January 2015 to October 2015 were eligible. Oral TXA group was given 1 g oral TXA 2 hours before induction of anesthesia and 6 hours and 12 hours postoperatively. The control group was not given TXA. Results There were 94 cases in the oral TXA group and 95 cases in the control group. There was no difference in the baseline characteristics. The oral TXA group had a significantly lower hemoglobin drop (1.7 g/dL vs. 2.5 g/dL), lower drain output (154 mL vs. 203 mL), lower hidden blood loss (244 mL vs. 423 mL) and lower total blood loss (398 mL vs. 626 mL). There was no difference in transfusion rate (1.1% vs. 3.2%) and thromboembolic complication. There was no infection or mortality in both groups. Conclusions Oral TXA is effective in reducing blood loss in primary total knee replacement. It is a safe alternative to the intravenous or topical form. PMID:28231650

  14. Increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk in chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently elevated serum total bile acid: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoliang; Shang, Xiaoyun; Wan, Xing; Xiang, Xiaomei; Mao, Qing; Deng, Guohong; Wu, Yuzhang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between long-term changes of serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients, we did a retrospective cohort study of 2262 chronic hepatitis B patients with regular antiviral treatment using data from the Hepatitis Biobank at Southwest Hospital Program from 2004 to 2014. Patients in the study were classified into 3 groups according to persistence of elevated serum total bile acid during follow-up: none-low, medium, and high persistence of elevated serum total bile acid. The association between persistence of elevated serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier analysis including information about patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics. There were 62 hepatocellular carcinoma cases during a total follow-up of 14756.5 person-years in the retrospective study. Compared to patients with none-low persistence of elevated total bile acid, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.37 (1.16–4.84), and 2.57 (1.28–5.16) for patients with medium, and high persistence of elevated total bile acid. Our findings identified persistence of elevated serum total bile acid as an independent risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:27905528

  15. Simultaneous determination of amino acid nitrogen and total acid in soy sauce using near infrared spectroscopy combined with characteristic variables selection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiewen; Ouyang, Qin; Chen, Quansheng; Lin, Hao

    2013-08-01

    Amino acid nitrogen and total acid are two most important quality indices to assess the quality of soy sauce in China. This work employed near infrared spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least square and genetic algorithm to detect amino acid nitrogen and total acid content in soy sauce. First, synergy interval partial least square was used to select efficient spectral regions from the full spectrum region; and then, genetic algorithm was used to selected variables from the efficient spectral regions, to build partial least square model. The optimal genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square models were obtained as follows: Rc  = 0.9988 and Rp = 0.9988 for amino acid nitrogen content model using 64 variables; Rc = 0.9917 and Rp = 0.9902 for total acid content model using 81 variables. Genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square models showed superiority over the partial least square and synergy interval partial least square models. The results indicated that amino acid nitrogen and total acid content in soy sauce could be rapidly determined by near infrared spectroscopy technique. Also, the results indicated that genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square can improve the performance in measurement of amino acid nitrogen and total acid content by near infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Enhanced removal of bilirubin on molecularly imprinted titania film.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng-peng; Yan, Jin-long; Zhang, Chun-jing; Luo, Shu-qiong

    2011-10-01

    Titania film imprinted by bilirubin molecule at the surface of quartz crystal was prepared using molecular imprinting and surface sol-gel process. The molecularly imprinted titania film was characterized by FTIR spectra, and the interaction between bilirubin and imprinted film was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. Compared with pure titania film, the molecularly imprinted titania film exhibits a much higher adsorption capacity for the target molecule, and the adsorption kinetic parameter estimated from the in situ frequency measurement is about 1.6×10(8) M(-1), which is ten times higher than that obtained on pure titania film. The photocatalytic measurements indicate that the bilirubin adsorbed on molecularly imprinted titania film can be completely removed under UV illumination. Moreover, our study indicates that the molecularly imprinted titania film possesses a better stability and reusability.

  17. Enantiomeric deoxycholic acid: total synthesis, characterization, and preliminary toxicity toward colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Katona, Bryson W; Rath, Nigam P; Anant, Shrikant; Stenson, William F; Covey, Douglas F

    2007-11-23

    Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is an endogenous secondary bile acid implicated in numerous pathological conditions including colon cancer formation and progression and cholestatic liver disease. DCA involvement in these disease processes results partly from its ability to modulate signaling cascades within the cell, presumably through both direct receptor activation and general detergent mediated membrane changes. To further explore DCA induced changes in cell signaling, we completed a total synthesis of enantiomeric deoxycholic acid (ent-DCA) from achiral 2-methyl-1,3-cyclopentanedione. Using a modified method of the synthesis of ent-testosterone that proceeds through the (R)-(-)-Hajos-Parrish ketone, we have completed the successful synthesis of ent-DCA in 25 steps with a yield of 0.3% with all stereochemical assignments of the product confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Our studies toward this synthesis also uncovered the methodology for the development of a novel A,B-cis steroidal skeleton system containing a C3-C9 single bond as well as conditions to selectively ketalize the typically less reactive 12-carbonyl in poly-keto A,B-cis androgens. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of ent-DCA, determined by a dye solubilization method, was identical to the cmc of natural DCA. Toxicity studies toward HT-29 and HCT-116 human colon cancer cell lines demonstrated that ent-DCA had similar effects on proliferation, yet showed a markedly decreased ability to induce apoptosis as compared to natural DCA.

  18. Bilirubin oxidation products, oxidative stress, and intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. F.; Loftspring, M.; Wurster, W. L.; Beiler, S.; Beiler, C; Wagner, K. R.; Pyne-Geithman, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Hematoma and perihematomal regions after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are biochemically active environments known to undergo potent oxidizing reactions. We report facile production of bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) via hemoglobin/Fenton reaction under conditions approximating putative in vivo conditions seen following ICH. Using a mixture of human hemoglobin, physiological buffers, unconjugated solubilized bilirubin, and molecular oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide, we generated BOXes, confirmed by spectral signature consistent with known BOXes mixtures produced by independent chemical synthesis, as well as HPLC-MS of BOX A and BOX B. Kinetics are straightforward and uncomplicated, having initial rates around 0.002 μM bilirubin per μM hemoglobin per second under normal experimental conditions. In hematomas from porcine ICH model, we observed significant production of BOXes, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase, indicating a potent oxidizing environment. BOX concentrations increased from 0.084 ± 0.01 in fresh blood to 22.24 ± 4.28 in hematoma at 72 h, and were 11.22 ± 1.90 in adjacent white matter (nmol/g). Similar chemical and analytical results are seen in ICH in vivo, indicating the hematoma is undergoing similar potent oxidations. This is the first report of BOXes production using a well-defined biological reaction and in vivo model of same. Following ICH, amounts of unconjugated bilirubin in hematoma can be substantial, as can levels of iron and hemoglobin. Oxidation of unconjugated bilirubin to yield bioactive molecules, such as BOXes, is an important discovery, expanding the role of bilirubin in pathological processes seen after ICH. PMID:19066073

  19. Bilirubin conjugates in bile of man and rat in the normal state and in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fevery, J.; Damme, B. Van; Michiels, R.; Groote, J. De; Heirwegh, K. P. M.

    1972-01-01

    Conjugates of bilirubin were studied in normal bile of man and rat, and in bile of liver patients. In general human bile was obtained by duodenal intubation. In addition T-tube bile was examined in patients operated on for mechanical obstruction. The bile pigment compositions of duodenal and T-tube bile were similar in two patients where comparison was possible. Obstruction of the bile duct in rats was used as an animal model for obstructive jaundice. Diazotized ethyl anthranilate was used for determination of total conjugated bile pigment and for thin-layer chromatography (t.l.c.) analysis of the derived azopigments. The available t.l.c. procedures are versatile and allow rapid and quantitative analysis. A variety of conjugated azopigments can be distinguished. With chloroform, negligible amounts of unconjugated bilirubin are extracted from bile of man. Therefore, the percentage of monoconjugated bile pigments present in the initial bile sample can be calculated from the percentage of azodipyrrole found after diazotization. Normal bile from man and rat yields similar azopigment patterns. The dominant component is azopigment-δ (azodipyrrole β-D-monoglucuronoside). Small amounts of azopigments with complex conjugating structures (γ-azopigments) are present in both cases. Human bile further yields small amounts of azopigments containing xylose or glucose (called azopigments-α2 and -α3, respectively). Monoconjugated bilirubin (estimated from the percentage of azodipyrrole) amounts of 22% of total bile pigments in human bile and to 39% in murine bile. In both, the bulk of bile pigment is bilirubin diglucuronoside. From bile of patients with acquired liver diseases a new azopigment group (β-azopigment) was derived. The γ-azopigment group was increased; the δ-azopigment group (containing azodipyrrole β-D-monoglucuronoside) was decreased. No differentiation was possible between intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis. The percentage of β-azopigment showed a positive

  20. Salivary total sialic acid levels increase in breast cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Leyla Koç; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Kaşikci, Emel; Demir, Gokhan; Yarat, Aysen

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women living in the Western world, even though it occurs worldwide. Cancer and cancer therapy induce multiple oral complications including dental and periodontal disease. Saliva is a complex and dynamic biologic fluid, which reflects both oral and systemic changes. While saliva is easily accessible body fluid, there has been little effort to study its value in cancer diagnosis. Sialic acids (SA), the end moieties of the carbohydrate chains, are biologically important and essential for functions of glycoconjugates that are reported to be altered in both blood and saliva of various cancer patients. Increased sialylation has been shown to be a characteristic feature in cancer tissue and blood in breast cancer patients. However, there is no data about salivary SA in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary total sialic acid (TSA) levels in breast cancer patients who were under chemotheraphy. The study included 15 breast cancer patients in different stages and 10 healthy individuals as age-matched controls. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected. Salivary total protein and SA levels were determined. Flow rate was calculated from salivary volume by the time of secretion. Salivary SA was significantly higher and total protein was lower in breast cancer patients compared to controls. It is concluded that sialylation may be increased in saliva of patients with breast cancer as the same way for cancer tissue and for blood . Increased salivary SA may therefore be useful as a non-invasive predictive marker for breast cancer patients and for the prevention and management of oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy to improve oral function and quality-of-life. The effects of different types of chemotherapies and different stages of the disease on salivary SA levels and salivary sialo-glycomic are worthy of being further investigated in breast cancer patients.

  1. Seasonal and spatial changes of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Bi, Xinhui; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations and compositions of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles from typical urban, suburban and forest park sites of Guangzhou were determined in this study. The free form of organic acids (solvent extractable) in aerosols in Guangzhou varied with site and season. The suburban samples contained the highest contents of alkanoic, alkenoic and dicarboxylic acids. These findings were consistent with a higher supply of hydrocarbons and NOx in the suburban area. However, concentrations of aromatic acids were similar in the urban, suburban and forest park sites. Generally, winter season samples of the acids from anthropogenic sources contained more organic acids than summer season samples due to stronger removal by wet deposition in the summer. For the acids from botanic sources, the summer season samples were higher. In addition to the free acids, bound acids (solvent non-extractable) mainly formed by esterification of free acids were also found in the samples. In general, bound acids were higher than free acids. Esterification is mainly controlled by the pKa of organic acids and the atmospheric pH value. This explains why aromatic and dicarboxylic acids occur mainly as bound forms and why the samples from urban sites contained high levels of bound acids as the pH of rain water can reach 4.53. Concentrations of alkanoic and alkenoic acids in the aerosols of Guangzhou were much higher than those in the other areas studied.

  2. Galactosaemia: an unusual cause of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Tanushree; Thukral, Anu; Agarwal, Ramesh; Sankar, Mari Jeeva

    2015-01-23

    Galactosaemia is a disorder of galactose metabolism in which raised levels of galactose and galactose-1-phosphate damage various organs. Although galactosaemia is a common metabolic liver disease in childhood, it is a rare cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia requiring intervention. We report an unusual case of neonatal galactosaemia that at presentation had features of acute bilirubin encephalopathy requiring exchange transfusion and at discharge had features of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy. This case report emphasises the need for timely suspicion and diagnosis of this disease for prevention of chronic morbidity.

  3. BILIRUBIN CONCENTRATIONS IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY AND DISEASED CAPTIVE WATERBUCK (KOBUS ELLIPSIPRYMNUS) AT THE SAN DIEGO ZOO SAFARI PARK.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Lamberski, Nadine; Christopher, Mary M

    2016-06-01

    Captive waterbuck ( Kobus ellipsiprymnus ) that appear clinically healthy have been noted to have high serum bilirubin concentrations compared with other ruminants; however, questions remain about the physiologic factors affecting bilirubin concentration and its potential association with underlying disease and icteric serum or mucous membranes. Serum bilirubin concentrations of healthy and diseased waterbuck housed at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park from 1989 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed to determine any link between icteric serum, total bilirubin concentration (tBili), and disease entities in this species. Total bilirubin and direct (dBili) bilirubin concentrations and the prevalence of icteric serum were compared by subspecies, age group, and health status; associations with complete blood count and biochemical results and clinical diagnosis were assessed. No significant differences were found in tBili or dBili between Ellipsen (n = 32) and Defassa (n = 29) subspecies or in juveniles (n = 22) versus adults (n = 39). Clinically healthy waterbuck (n = 40) had significantly higher tBili (mean ± 2SD, 7.9 ± 1.2 mg/dl; P < 0.001) and dBili (3.7 ± 1.0 mg/dl; P < 0.001) than did diseased waterbuck (n = 21; tBili: 4.9 ± 2.56 mg/dl; dBili: 2.2 ± 0.8 mg/dl). No waterbuck had icteric tissues on physical examination. Twelve (19.7%) waterbuck (six healthy, six diseased) had icteric serum. Few minor correlations were seen between tBili or dBili and clinical, laboratory, or necropsy evidence of disease, though an inverse correlation between dBili and blood glucose was noted. Of the 40 healthy animals, reference intervals were calculated for tBili (5.5-10.3 mg/dl), dBili (1.7-5.7 mg/dl), and indirect bilirubin (2.2-6.2 mg/dl). These results suggest healthy waterbuck have relatively high tBili and dBili compared with related species. Icteric serum may be seen in up to 15% of healthy animals in the absence of icteric tissues.

  4. The effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Kedi; Zhang, Xingen; Bi, Qing; Zhao, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) for the treatment of blood loss after a bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: Patients prepared for bilateral TKA and intervention including TXA versus placebo were comprehensively retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science from the time of the establishment of these databases to January 2016. The outcomes were all calculated by Stata 12.0 software. The continuous endpoints (total blood loss and blood loss in drainage) were calculated as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Binary variables (the need for transfusion, and the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis [DVT]) were calculated as relative risk (RR) with 95% CIs. Results: Pooled results revealed that treatment with TXA associated with less need for transfusion (P = 0.000) and the value of Hb drop postoperatively (P = 0.290) after bilateral TKA. The results also indicated that TXA can decrease the total blood loss and blood loss in drainage after bilateral TKA (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, TXA can decrease the blood units transfused per patient by 1.23 U (P = 0.001). There is no statistically significant difference in terms of the occurrence of DVT between the 2 groups (P = 0.461). Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, TXA can decrease the need for transfusion and the total blood loss without increasing the occurrence of DVT, and its administration is recommended routinely in bilateral TKA. PMID:27684841

  5. Relationship between nine haloacetic acids with total organic halogens in different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Pourmoghadas, Hossein; Kinman, Riley N

    2013-04-03

    The effects of pH and bromide ion concentration on the formation of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogens (TOX) in chlorinated drinking water have been evaluated. In an extensive study, the relationships of nine HAAs with TOX have been investigated. Honesty Significant Differences test (HSD) and ANOVA tests were used for the statistical analyses. The study determined the concentration range of nine HAAs as of a percentage of TOX at varying experimental conditions. Statistical analyses showed that the parameters pH and Br had significant effects on the formation of nine HAAs and TOX. This study also showed that brominated and mixed species of HAAs would be dominant in the presence of high bromide ion concentration which contributes a high percentage of the TOX. The results of this study could be used to set up a maximum contaminant level of TOX as a water quality standard for chlorination by-products.

  6. Can tranexamic acid change preoperative anemia management during total joint arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Duy L; Rinehart, Joseph B; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the postoperative transfusion and complication rates of anemic and nonanemic total joint arthroplasty patients given tranexamic acid (TXA). METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted of primary hip and knee arthroplasty cases performed from 11/2012 to 6/2014. Exclusion criteria included revision arthroplasty, bilateral arthroplasty, acute arthroplasty after fracture, and contraindication to TXA. Patients were screened prior to surgery, with anemia was defined as hemoglobin of less than 12 g/dL for females and of less than 13 g/dL for males. Patients were divided into four different groups, based on the type of arthroplasty (total hip or total knee) and hemoglobin status (anemic or nonanemic). Intraoperatively, all patients received 2 g of intravenous TXA during surgery. Postoperatively, allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) was directed by both clinical symptoms and relative hemoglobin change. Complications were recorded within the first two weeks after surgery and included thromboembolism, infection, and wound breakdown. The differences in transfusion and complication rates, as well as the relative hemoglobin change, were compared between anemic and nonanemic groups. RESULTS: A total of 232 patients undergoing primary joint arthroplasty were included in the study. For the total hip arthroplasty cohort, 21% (18/84) of patients presented with preoperative anemia. Two patients in the anemic group and two patients in the nonanemic group needed ABTs; this was not significantly different (P = 0.20). One patient in the anemic group presented with a deep venous thromboembolism while no patients in the nonanemic group had an acute complication; this was not significantly different (P = 0.21). For nonanemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 2.73 ± 1.17 g/dL. For anemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 2.28 ± 0.96 g/dL. Between the two groups, the hemoglobin difference of 0.45 g/dL was not significant (P = 0

  7. A high-performance direct transmethylation method for total fatty acids assessment in biological and foodstuff samples.

    PubMed

    Castro-Gómez, Pilar; Fontecha, Javier; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis M

    2014-10-01

    Isolation is the main bottleneck in the analysis of fatty acids in biological samples and foods. In the last few decades some methods described direct derivatization procedures bypassing these steps. They involve the utilization of methanolic HCL or BF3 as catalysts, but several evidences from previous works suggest these reagents are unstable, lead to the formation of artifacts and alter the distribution of specific compounds as hydroxy fatty acids or CLA. However, the main issue is that they are excellent esterification reagents but poor in transterification, being not suitable for the analysis of all lipid classes and leading to erroneous composition quantitations. The present research work is a comprehensive comparison of six general methylation protocols using base, acid or base/acid catalysts plus a proposed method in the analysis of total fatty acids in lipid standards mixtures, foodstuff and biological samples. The addition of aprotic solvents to the reaction mixture to avoid alterations was also tested. Results confirmed that procedures solely involving acid catalyst resulted in incomplete derivatizations and alteration of the fatty acid profile, partially corrected by addition of the aprotic solvent. The proposed method combining sodium methoxyde and sulfuric acid showed absence of alteration of the FAME profile and the best values for response factors (short chain fatty acids to PUFA), accuracy in the determination of total cholesterol and derivatization performance, thus showing a high reliability in the determination of the total fatty acid composition in biological samples and foods.

  8. Fermentation characteristics and lactic Acid bacteria succession of total mixed ration silages formulated with peach pomace.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaodong; Hao, Wei; Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  9. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaodong; Hao, Wei; Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages. PMID:25656205

  10. Solar Irradiation of Bilirubin: An Experiment in Photochemical Oxidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay A. E.; Salih, F. M.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment in photochemical oxidation, which deals with bilirubin, a well-known light-sensitive biological compound that is pedagogically ideal for photochemical experiments at tertiary institutes, is presented. The experiment would benefit students in chemistry who eventually branch out into the health sciences or biochemistry.

  11. Nanofibrous polymeric beads from aramid fibers for efficient bilirubin removal.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zihang; Yang, Ye; Luo, Jiyue; Nie, Chuanxiong; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2016-08-16

    Polymer based hemoperfusion has been developed as an effective therapy to remove the extra bilirubin from patients. However, the currently applied materials suffer from either low removal efficiency or poor blood compatibility. In this study, we report the development of a new class of nanofibrous absorbent that exhibited high bilirubin removal efficiency and good blood compatibility. The Kevlar nanofiber was prepared by dissolving micron-sized Kevlar fiber in proper solvent, and the beads were prepared by dropping Kevlar nanofiber solutions into ethanol. Owing to the nanofiborous structure of the Kevlar nanofiber, the beads displayed porous structures and large specific areas, which would facilitate the adsorption of toxins. In the adsorption test, it was noticed that the beads possessed an adsorption capacity higher than 40 mg g(-1) towards bilirubin. In plasma mimetic solutions, the beads still showed high bilirubin removal efficiency. Furthermore, after incorporating with carbon nanotubes, the beads were found to have increased adsorption capacity for human degradation waste. Moreover, the beads showed excellent blood compatibility in terms of a low hemolysis ratio, prolonged clotting times, suppressed coagulant activation, limited platelet activation, and inhibited blood related inflammatory activation. Additionally, the beads showed good compatibility with endothelial cells. In general, the Kevlar nanofiber beads, which integrated with high adsorption capacity, good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity, may have great potential for hemoperfusion and some other applications in biomedical fields.

  12. Enzymatic Removal of Bilirubin from Blood: A Potential Treatment for Neonatal Jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, Arthur; Sung, Cynthia; Klibanov, Alexander M.; Langer, Robert

    1985-11-01

    Current treatments for severe jaundice can result in major complications. Neonatal jaundice is caused by excessive accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. A small blood filter containing immobilized bilirubin oxidase was developed to reduce serum bilirubin concentrations. When human or rat blood was passed through the enzyme filter, more than 90 percent of the bilirubin was degraded in a single pass. This procedure may have important applications in the clinical treatment of neonatal jaundice.

  13. Association between Hyaluronic Acid Injections and Time-to-Total Knee Replacement Surgery.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy; Fredericson, Michael; Bhattacharyya, Samir K; Bisson, Brad; Abbott, Thomas; Yadalam, Sashidhar; Kim, Myoung

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the association between hyaluronic acid (HA) injections and time-to-total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients 18 to 64 years of age who had TKR surgery between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011 were identified from the MarketScan Commercial claims database. All patients had 6 years or more of continuous enrollment prior to TKR surgery. There were two cohorts (1) patients with HA injections prior to TKR surgery and (2) patients who did not have HA injections prior to TKR surgery. Time-to-TKR was defined as the total days from the date of diagnosis of knee OA on the patient's first visit to an orthopedic surgeon to the date of TKR surgery. Results included 22,555 patients who had TKR surgery: 14,132 in the non-HA and 8,423 in the HA cohort. In this retrospective analysis of patients undergoing TKR, the median Time-to-TKR surgery was 326 days for the non-HA and 908 days for the HA cohort, a difference of 582 days. Those receiving HA injections had a median 1.6-year longer Time-to-TKR surgery versus those who did not receive HA injections. These results have both clinical and economic implications.

  14. Total protein quantitation using the bicinchoninic acid assay and gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Jason G; Munson, Matthew S; Ross, David

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the ability of gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) to assay total protein concentration using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reaction. We chose this format because GEMBE-C(4) D behaves as a concentration dependent detection system, unlike optical methods that also rely on pathlength (due to Beer's law). This system tolerates proteins well compared with other capillary electrophoretic methods, allowing the capillary to be reused without coatings or additional hydroxide wash steps. The typical reaction protocol was modified by reducing the pH slightly from 11.25 to 9.4, which enabled elimination of tartrate from the reagents. We estimated that copper (I) could be detected at approximately 3.0 μmol/L, which agrees with similar GEMBE and CZE systems utilizing C(4) D. Under conditions similar to the BCA "micro method" assay, we determined the LOD for three common proteins (insulin, BSA, and bovine gamma globulin) and found that they agree well with the existing spectroscopic detection methods. Further, we investigated how long reaction times impact the LOD and found that the conversion was proportional to log(time). This indicated that little sensitivity is gained by extending the reaction past 1 h. Hence, GEMBE provides an alternative platform for total protein assays while maintaining the excellent sensitivity of the optical-based methods.

  15. EFFECT OF TRANEXAMIC ACID ON BLEEDING CONTROL IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    SADIGURSKY, DAVID; ANDION, DANIEL; BOUREAU, PÉRICLES; FERREIRA, MARIA CORDULINA; CARNEIRO, ROGÉRIO JAMIL FERNANDES; COLAVOLPE, PAULO OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To analyze the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Method: The population sample was composed of patients with a diagnosis of primary knee osteoarthritis. The patients undergoing TKA were divided in two groups. Group A: comprised patients who used IV TA and B group, formed by patients who did not use TA in the intra or post-operative period. For descriptive analysis, quantitative variables were represented by mean and standard deviations when their distribution was normal and interquartile ranges and medians for non-normal variables. Results: The mean age of patients was 68 years old, most of them were female and with involvement of the left knee. Postoperatively patients who had used IV TA showed less bleeding rate and less hemoglobin rate reduction. Conclusion: The use of IV TA in TKA reduces blood loss in peri- and postoperative periods. Regarding total blood loss reduction, hemoglobin rate and need for blood transfusions, IV TA should be used routinely during TKA since it has been shown to be safe with no increase in side effects as thromboembolic events. Level of Evidence III. Retrospective Comparative Study. PMID:27217813

  16. Interaction of bilirubin with Ag and Au ions: green synthesis of bilirubin-stabilized nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shashi P.; Roy, Mainak; Mukherjee, Poulomi; Tyagi, A. K.; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2012-07-01

    We report a simple green chemistry to synthesize and stabilize monodispersed silver and gold nanoparticles sols by reducing aqueous solution of the respective metal salts in the presence of bilirubin (BR). No additional capping agent was used in the process of stabilization of the nanoparticles. As a completely new finding, we have observed that BR known to be toxic at higher concentration in one hand and conversely an antioxidant at physiological concentration reduces these metal ions to form the respective metal nanoparticles. Moreover, BR and its oxidized products also serve as capping agents to the nanoparticles. The particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. BR and its oxidized products capped nanoparticles are stable for months. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the silver sol show the plasmon peak of symmetric spherical particles which was further reflected in the TEM images. The sizes of the silver particles were about 5 nm. These silver particles showed reasonably high antibacterial activity in Gram negative wild type E. coli. In the case of interaction of BR with gold ions, we could obtain cubic gold nanoparticles of average sizes 20-25 nm. Possible modes of anchorage of BR and/its oxidized products to silver nanoparticles were demonstrated by surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERS) that in turn demonstrated the feasibility of using these nanoparticles as SERS substrates.

  17. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer.

  18. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    PubMed

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  19. Light enhanced the accumulation of total fatty acids (TFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium sp. SUN.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongzhe; Zhang, Zhao; Mao, Xuemei; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, light illumination was found to be efficient in elevating the total fatty acid content in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN. Under light illumination, the highest total fatty acid and DHA contents were achieved at 96h as 24.9% of dry weight and 82.8mgg(-1) dry weight, respectively, which were equivalent to 1.46-fold and 1.68-fold of those under the dark conditions. The elevation of total fatty acid content was mainly contributed by an increase of neutral lipids at the expense of starches. Moreover, light was found to alter the cell metabolism and led to a higher specific growth rate, higher glucose consumption rate and lower non-motile cell percentage. This is the first report that light can promote the total fatty acids accumulation in Crypthecodinium without growth inhibition.

  20. The biliverdin-bilirubin antioxidant cycle of cellular protection: Missing a wheel?

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Antony F

    2010-09-01

    Bilirubin reportedly protects cultured cells from the toxicity of a 10,000-fold molar excess of H(2)O(2). A bilirubin-biliverdin cycling mechanism has been proposed to explain this remarkable effect whereby bilirubin reacts with oxyradicals specifically generating biliverdin, which is then reduced back to bilirubin by NADPH/biliverdin reductase. Chemical evidence for this mechanism was formation of biliverdin during incubation of bilirubin-albumin with 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) in vitro and the assumption that biliverdin was formed by the reaction of peroxyl radicals with bilirubin. This paper describes spectroscopic studies on the reaction of bilirubin with AAPH in the presence and absence of human serum albumin. Reactions were run in air and also under oxygen-depleted and oxygen-saturated solutions, the former to inhibit peroxyl radical formation, the latter to augment it. The results confirm that degradation of bilirubin, rather than dehydrogenation to biliverdin, predominates in the reaction of bilirubin with peroxyl radicals generated by AAPH thermolysis. They also suggest that biliverdin produced in the presence of albumin is not formed by the reaction of bilirubin with alkyl peroxyl radicals, as previously assumed. The observations undermine the plausibility of the bilirubin-biliverdin recycling mechanism proposed to explain the reported hyperprotective effect of bilirubin on mammalian cells exposed to excess H(2)O(2).

  1. Distant Determination of Bilirubin Distribution in Skin by Multi-Spectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saknite, I.; Jakovels, D.; Spigulis, J.

    2011-01-01

    For mapping the bilirubin distribution in bruised skin the multi-spectral imaging technique was employed, which made it possible to observe temporal changes of the bilirubin content in skin photo-types II and III. The obtained results confirm the clinical potential of this technique for skin bilirubin diagnostics.

  2. A Novel and Rapid Colorimetric Method for Measuring Total Phosphorus and Phytic Acid in Foods and Animal Feeds.

    PubMed

    2016-04-08

    Phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, is the primary source of inositol and storage phosphorus in plant seeds and has considerable nutritional importance. In this form, phosphorus is unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals, and the strong chelating characteristic of phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of multivalent minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Currently, there is no simple quantitative method for phytic acid; existing methods are complex, and the most commonly accepted method, AOAC Official Method (SM) 986.11, has limitations. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, high-throughput method for the measurement of total phosphorus and phytic acid in foods and animal feeds. The method described here involves acid extraction of phytic acid, followed by dephosphorylation with phytase and alkaline phosphatase. The phosphate released from phytic acid is measured using a modified colorimetric molybdenum blue assay and calculated as total phosphorus or phytic acid content of the original sample. The method was validated to a maximum linearity of 3.0 g phytic acid/100 g sample. Accuracy ranged from 98 to 105% using pure phytic acid and from 97 to 115% for spiked samples. Repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 2.32%, and intermediate precision was 2.27%.

  3. [Evaluation on contribution rate of each component total salvianolic acids and characterization of apparent oil/water partition coefficient].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-mei; Chen, Xiao-yun; Xia, Hai-jian; Liu, Dan; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai

    2015-02-01

    The difference between three representative components of total salvianolic acids in pharmacodynamic activity were compared by three different pharmacological experiments: HUVECs oxidative damage experiment, 4 items of blood coagulation in vitro experiment in rabbits and experimental myocardial ischemia in rats. And the effects of contribution rate of each component were calculated by multi index comprehensive evaluation method based on CRITIC weights. The contribution rates of salvianolic acid B, rosmarinic acid and Danshensu were 28.85%, 30.11%, 41.04%. Apparent oil/water partition coefficient of each representative components of total salvianolic acids in n-octyl alcohol-buffer was tested and the total salvianolic acid components were characterized based on a combination of the approach of self-defined weighting coefficient with effects of contribution rate. Apparent oil/water partition coefficient of total salvianolic acids was 0.32, 1.06, 0.89, 0.98, 0.90, 0.13, 0.02, 0.20, 0.56 when in octanol-water/pH 1.2 dilute hydrochloric acid solution/ pH 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 5.8, 6.8, 7.4, 7.8 phosphate buffer solution. It provides a certain reference for the characterization of components.

  4. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Dugbaza, Jacinta; Cunningham, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population's folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand's (FSANZ) custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND) was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid. PMID:22957218

  5. CYP3A5*3 and bilirubin predict midazolam population pharmacokinetics in Asian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Hee, Kim-Hor; Soon, Gaik Hong; Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Soong, Richie; Goh, Boon-Cher; Lee, Lawrence Soon-U

    2014-02-01

    We aim to evaluate the influence of covariates, including cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) genetic polymorphisms, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (MDZ) in Asian cancer patients, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from 24 adult cancer patients who received an intravenous bolus dose of 1 mg MDZ as a CYP3A phenotyping probe, 1-day before starting FOLFIRI chemotherapy. Concentrations of MDZ and its major metabolites, 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1OHM) and 1'-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide (HMG) were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The population pharmacokinetic study was conducted using NONMEM. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and genetic polymorphisms were screened as covariates. A two-compartment model for MDZ and two sequential compartments representing 1OHM and HMG best described the data. The CYP3A5*3 and total bilirubin level significantly influenced MDZ clearance. The population typical MDZ clearance for CYP3A5*3 expressers was 22% lower than non-expressers. Baseline bodyweight was a statistically significant covariate for clearance and distribution volume of 1OHM. Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with HMG clearance. Our data indicate that CYP3A5*3, total bilirubin, bodyweight, and creatinine clearance are important predictors of MDZ and metabolite pharmacokinetics. Further studies in more patients are needed to explore the links between the identified covariates and the disposition of MDZ and its metabolites.

  6. Mitochondrial targeting of bilirubin regulatory enzymes: An adaptive response to oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Muhsain, Siti Nur Fadzilah; Lang, Matti A.; Abu-Bakar, A'edah

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular level of bilirubin (BR), an endogenous antioxidant that is cytotoxic at high concentrations, is tightly controlled within the optimal therapeutic range. We have recently described a concerted intracellular BR regulation by two microsomal enzymes: heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), essential for BR production and cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5), a BR oxidase. Herein, we describe targeting of these enzymes to hepatic mitochondria during oxidative stress. The kinetics of microsomal and mitochondrial BR oxidation were compared. Treatment of DBA/2J mice with 200 mg pyrazole/kg/day for 3 days increased hepatic intracellular protein carbonyl content and induced nucleo-translocation of Nrf2. HMOX1 and CYP2A5 proteins and activities were elevated in microsomes and mitoplasts but not the UGT1A1, a catalyst of BR glucuronidation. A CYP2A5 antibody inhibited 75% of microsomal BR oxidation. The inhibition was absent in control mitoplasts but elevated to 50% after treatment. An adrenodoxin reductase antibody did not inhibit microsomal BR oxidation but inhibited 50% of mitochondrial BR oxidation. Ascorbic acid inhibited 5% and 22% of the reaction in control and treated microsomes, respectively. In control mitoplasts the inhibition was 100%, which was reduced to 50% after treatment. Bilirubin affinity to mitochondrial and microsomal CYP2A5 enzyme is equally high. Lastly, the treatment neither released cytochrome c into cytoplasm nor dissipated membrane potential, indicating the absence of mitochondrial membrane damage. Collectively, the observations suggest that BR regulatory enzymes are recruited to mitochondria during oxidative stress and BR oxidation by mitochondrial CYP2A5 is supported by mitochondrial mono-oxygenase system. The induced recruitment potentially confers membrane protection. - Highlights: • Pyrazole induces oxidative stress in the mouse liver. • Pyrazole-induced oxidative stress induces mitochondrial targeting of key bilirubin regulatory enzymes, HMOX1

  7. Transient elevation of serum bilirubin (a heme oxygenase-1 metabolite) level in hemorrhagic stroke: bilirubin is a marker of oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Dohi, K; Mochizuki, Y; Satoh, K; Jimbo, H; Hayashi, M; Toyoda, I; Ikeda, Y; Abe, T; Aruga, T

    2003-01-01

    Bilirubin (Bil) is the end product of heme catabolism. The production of Bil reflects heme oxygenase-1 expression in response to oxidative stress in various diseases. To assess the role of Bil as a marker of oxidative stress in cases of brain damage, we measured serum Bil concentrations in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Serum levels of total Bil were measured in 20 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with symptomatic vasospasms and in 23 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage; concentrations were measured every day for 14 consecutive days. Serum Bil levels were significantly elevated in the early phases in both groups. Moreover, transient elevation was observed on the day prior to the observation of clinical manifestations of symptomatic vasospasm after SAH. Bil, known to be a powerful antioxidant, was induced after hemorrhagic stroke, reflecting the intensity of oxidative stress. Plasma Bil concentrations might serve as a useful marker of oxidative stress in hemorrhagic stroke patients.

  8. Mechanisms of enhanced total organic carbon elimination from oxalic acid solutions by electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijiao; Yuan, Shi; Zhan, Juhong; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) is a novel electrocatalytic ozonation process that combines ozonation and electrolysis process to enhance pollutant degradation during water and wastewater treatment. This enhancement has been mainly attributed to several mechanisms that increase O3 transformation to ·OH in the E-peroxone system, e.g., electro-generation of H2O2 from O2 at a carbon-based cathode and its subsequent peroxone reaction with O3 to ·OH, electro-reduction of O3 to ·OH at the cathode, and O3 decomposition to ·OH at high local pH near the cathode. To get more insight how these mechanisms contribute respectively to the enhancement, this study investigated total organic carbon (TOC) elimination from oxalic acid (OA) solutions by the E-peroxone process. Results show that the E-peroxone process significantly increased TOC elimination rate by 10.2-12.5 times compared with the linear addition of the individual rates of corresponding ozonation and electrolysis process. Kinetic analyses reveal that the electrochemically-driven peroxone reaction is the most important mechanism for the enhanced TOC elimination rate, while the other mechanisms contribute minor to the enhancement by a factor of 1.6-2.5. The results indicate that proper selection of electrodes that can effectively produce H2O2 at the cathode is critical to maximize TOC elimination in the E-peroxone process.

  9. Elevated First-Trimester Total Bile Acid is Associated with the Risk of Subsequent Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Wolin; Meng, Xiyan; Zhao, Weijing; Pan, Jiemin; Tang, Junling; Huang, Yajuan; Tao, Minfang; Liu, Fang; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to assess whether total bile acid (TBA) level in first trimester pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Biochemical parameters including serum TBA of 742 pregnant women were collected within 12 weeks of gestation and compared. At 24–28th weeks of gestation, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The perinatal data of 330 women were collected. The results demonstrated women with GDM (n = 268) had higher first-trimester serum levels of TBA compared with healthy subjects (n = 474) (2.3 ± 1.4 μmol/L vs. 1.9 ± 1.0 μmol/L, P < 0.001). TBA was independently associated with GDM [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–1.61, P < 0.001]. Compared to the first category of TBA, women in the highest category had a marked increase in risk for GDM (AOR, 7.72; 95% CI, 3.22–18.50, P < 0.001). In conclusion, higher first-trimester TBA levels, even within normal range, may help indicate increased risk of GDM. PMID:27667090

  10. Total Syntheses of (−)-Pyrimidoblamic Acid and P-3A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Total syntheses of (−)-pyrimidoblamic acid and P-3A are disclosed. Central to the convergent approach is a powerful inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reaction between substituted electron-deficient 1,2,3-triazines and a highly functionalized and chiral primary amidine, which forms the pyrimidine cores and introduces all necessary stereochemistry in a single step. Intrinsic in the convergent approach is the potential it provides for the late stage divergent synthesis of modified analogs bearing deep-seated changes in either the pyrimidine cores or the highly functionalized C2 side chain common to both natural products. The examination of the key cycloaddition reaction revealed that the inherent 1,2,3-triazine mode of cycloaddition (C4/N1 vs C5/N2) as well as the amidine regioselectivity were unaffected by introduction of two electron-withdrawing groups (−CO2R) at C4 and C6 of the 1,2,3-triazine even if C5 is unsubstituted (Me or H), highlighting the synthetic potential of the powerful pyrimidine synthesis. PMID:24410439

  11. Comparative Analysis of Urinary Total Proteins by Bicinchoninic Acid and Pyrogallol Red Molybdate Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bhongir, Aparna Varma; Karra, Madhulatha; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2015-01-01

    Background The concentration of total proteins in urine is a good index of renal function, but its determination is found to be unreliable. The pyrogallol red molybdate (PRM) method for urine total proteins is being widely used in most of the hospitals because of its high sensitivity, better precision and its practicability. Bicinchoninic acid method (BCA) is also used for protein estimation and there have been no studies comparing this method with the PRM method in human urine samples. BCA method overestimates the urinary protein concentration in the presence of interfering substances. After removing the interfering substances present in the human urine samples the results of BCA method were compared with the PRM method. Aim The purpose of the study is to identify whether the results of urine total proteins by BCA method are comparable to PRM method and can be used as an alternative to the PRM method. Setting and Design This is a cross-sectional study done on fresh urine specimens from the hospital laboratory, covering a wide range of protein concentrations. Material and Methods Fresh urine specimens covering a wide range of protein concentrations (urine dipstick: nil, trace, 1+, 2+ and ≥ 3+) of 36 patients were analysed by both the methods. Statistical Analysis Imprecision was determined by repeated analysis study and Inaccuracy was assessed by comparing the results of the patient’s urine samples by both the methods using correlation plots, Bland and Altman, and Passing and Bablok regression analyses. Results The coefficient of variation and mean (SD) for the BCA method were 4.6% and 799.1 (882.5) mg/L and for the PRM method were 5.1% and 802.1 (911.9) mg/L. The Pearson correlation coefficient, r was 0.93 (p < 0.0001). Method agreement studies showed no significant constant and proportional bias between both the methods. Conclusion In urine which is subjected to removal of interfering substances, the BCA results are comparable to PRM method. PMID:26435938

  12. Determination of bilirubin by thermal lens spectrometry and studies of its transport into hepatic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margon, A.; Terdoslavich, M.; Cocolo, A.; Decorti, G.; Passamonti, S.; Franko, M.

    2005-06-01

    The liver is responsible for clearance of bilirubin, the end product of heme catabolism, from the bloodstream. The main aim of our investigation was to determine the role of the carrier protein bilitranslocase in bilirubin uptake into the liver. Our experiments consisted of exposing cell cultures to bilirubin solutions under different conditions and measuring the uptake of bilirubin into the cells. However, since bilirubin is only slightly soluble in aqueous solution (< 70 nM at pH 7.4), we had to use bilirubin concentrations that are far below the limit of detection of the commonly used techniques (e.g. LOD for HPLC with UV-Vis detection \\cong 10 μM). TLS showed up to be a suitable technique for investigation of bilirubin uptake with an LOD of 2 nM. Under basal conditions, bilirubin uptake did not occur. However, increase of cytosolic NADH due to catabolism of specific substrates (e.g. lactate or ethanol) seemed to trigger bilirubin uptake. Furthermore, bilirubin uptake was completely inhibited by addition of specific anti-bilitranslocase antibodies. We can thus infer that, under these conditions, bilitranslocase is the main bilirubin transporter.

  13. Bilirubin exerts pro-angiogenic property through Akt-eNOS-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yasumasa; Hamano, Hirofumi; Satoh, Akiho; Horinouchi, Yuya; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Aihara, Ken-Ichi; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Low serum bilirubin levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases including peripheral artery disease. Bilirubin is known to exert its property such as antioxidant effect or the enhancement of flow-mediated vasodilation, however, bilirubin action on angiogenesis remains unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanism of bilirubin on angiogenic effect, we first employed C57BL/6J mice with unilateral hindlimb ischemia surgery and divided the mice into two groups (vehicle-treated group and bilirubin-treated group). The analysis of laser speckle blood flow demonstrated the enhancement of blood flow recovery in response to ischemia of mice with bilirubin treatment. The density of capillaries was significantly higher in ischemic-adductor muscles of bilirubin-treated mice. The phosphorylated levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt were increased in ischemic skeletal muscles of mice with bilirubin treatment compared with vehicle treatment. In in vitro experiments by using human aortic endothelial cells, bilirubin augmented eNOS and Akt phosphorylation, cell proliferation, cell migration and tube formation. These bilirubin actions on endothelial cell activation were inhibited by LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, bilirubin promotes angiogenesis through endothelial cells activation via Akt-eNOS-dependent manner.

  14. Major phenolic acids and total antioxidant activity in mamaki leaves, Pipturus albidus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three phenolic acids, (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin, were identified and quantified in mamaki leaves (Pipturus albidus) using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique. Concentrations of (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin varied from 1.1 mg to 5.0 mg per gram of mamaki...

  15. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  16. Photo-isomerization and oxidation of bilirubin in mammals is dependent on albumin binding.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Iryna; Jašprová, Jana; Vítek, Libor; Urbanová, Marie

    2015-12-01

    The bilirubin (BR) photo-conversion in the human body is a protein-dependent process; an effective photo-isomerization of the potentially neurotoxic Z,Z-BR as well as its oxidation to biliverdin in the antioxidant redox cycle is possible only when BR is bound on serum albumin. We present a novel analytical concept in the study of linear tetrapyrroles metabolic processes based on an in-depth mapping of binding sites in the structure of human serum albumin (HSA). A combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and molecular modeling methods was used for recognition of the binding site for BR, its derivatives (mesobilirubin and bilirubin ditaurate), and the products of the photo-isomerization and oxidation (lumirubin, biliverdin, and xanthobilirubic acid) on HSA. The CD spectra and fluorescent quenching of the Trp-HSA were used to calculate the binding constants. The results of the CD displacement experiments performed with hemin were interpreted together with the findings of molecular docking performed on the pigment-HSA complexes. We estimated that Z,Z-BR and its metabolic products bind on two independent binding sites. Our findings support the existence of a reversible antioxidant redox cycle for BR and explain an additional pathway of the photo-isomerization process (increase of HSA binding capacity; the excess free [unbound] BR can be converted and also bound to HSA).

  17. Photodamage of the cells in culture sensitized with bilirubin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlenkova, O. A.; Plavskaya, L. G.; Mikulich, A. V.; Leusenko, I. A.; Tretyakova, A. I.; Plavskii, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that exposure to radiation of LED sources of light with an emission band maximum at about 465 and 520 nm having substantially identical damaging effects on animal cells in culture, that are in a logarithmic growth phase and preincubated with pigment. Photobiological effect is caused by photodynamic processes involving singlet oxygen generated by triplet excited sensitizer. Mono-exponential type dependence of cell survival on the energy dose indicates that it is bilirubin that acts as a sensitizer but not its photoproducts. The inclusion of bilirubin in the cells, where it is primarily localized in the mitochondria cells, it is accompanied by multiple amplification photochemical stability compared to pigment molecules bound with albumin

  18. In Vitro Determination of Skin Bilirubin Using Chromatic Modulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bilirubi- nometry: Its role in the assessment of neonatal jaundice ,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 30, pp. 1-9, 1997. [4] H. Varley, Practical...serum bilirubin (SB) and a chromatic parameter, namely Hue angle (H). The chromatic TcB results are highly predictive of SB levels in neonatal babies...The proposed chromatic system can be used to make decisions about transfusions or phototherapy in neonates , hence acting as a screening device to

  19. Clamping drainage is unnecessary after minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty in patients with tranexamic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuangang; Yang, Timin; Zeng, Yi; Li, Canfeng; Shen, Bin; Pei, Fuxing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Drainage and tranexamic acid (TXA) have been widely used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to clamp the drain after minimally invasive TKA (MIS-TKA) when TXA is used. We therefore conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of clamping versus not clamping drainage following MIS-TKA in patients in whom TXA was used. Methods: From January 2015 to December 2015, 121 patients undergoing unilateral primary MIS-TKA were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups. In the clamping group (N = 60), drainage was clamped for the 1st 4 postoperative hours. In the nonclamping group (N = 61), drainage was not clamped. All patients underwent a minimidvastus approach and received 10 mg/kg TXA intravenously before tourniquet deflation. We recorded the total blood loss, drainage volume, and transfusion requirements in the postoperative period. We also measured the hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5. Other factors, including range of motion (ROM), visual analog scale (VAS), and occurrence of wound-related complications, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE) were recorded at the time of discharge and 1 and 6 months postoperatively. No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups with regard to age, gender, weight, BMI, preoperative Hb and Hct levels, preoperative ROM, VAS, duration of surgery, anesthesia method, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification. Results: The clamping group experienced better drainage volume results than the nonclamping group (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in TBL and transfusion requirements (P = 0.105 and 0.276, respectively); Hb and Hct levels on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5 were similar between the 2 groups. No significant differences were found for ROM, VAS, DVT, PE, wound-related complications, and hospital

  20. Blood conservation with tranexamic acid in total hip arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind study in 40 primary operations.

    PubMed

    Benoni, G; Fredin, H; Knebel, R; Nilsson, P

    2001-10-01

    We performed a randomized, double-blind study on the effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and blood transfusions in 40 primary total hip arthroplasties. Tranexamic acid, 10 mg/kg body weight, or placebo, was given intravenously just before the operation. Blood loss during the operation and postoperatively into the drains was recorded, as also were blood hemoglobin concentrations. Ultrasound examination 1 week postoperatively was done to estimate the blood loss due to remaining hematomas. Total (operation + drain) blood loss was 0.76 (95 CI 0.63-0.89) L in the tranexamic acid group as compared to 1.0 (CI 0.81-1.2) L in the placebo group (p = 0.03). The number of blood transfusions during the day of operation was 2 vs. 10 (p = 0.07) and the total number during the hospital stay was 5 vs. 13 (p = 0.2). 1 patient in each group had a pulmonary embolism.

  1. Did exclusive breast-feeding and early discharge lead to excessive bilirubin levels in newborns in Antigua and Barbuda?

    PubMed

    Martin, T C; Shea, M; Alexander, D; Bradbury, L; Lovell-Roberts, L; Francis, V

    2002-06-01

    Hyperbilirubinaemia is a common neonatal problem worldwide and is the leading cause of admission to the Special Care Nursery in Antigua and Barbuda. In 1990, the Innocenti Declaration in support of breast-feeding led to the adoption of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in many countries of the Caribbean, including Antigua and Barbuda. Comparing 1989 to the years 1992 to 1994, the Special Care Nursery at Holberton Hospital experienced a 40% increase in newborns admitted with hyperbilirubinaemia (peak total bilirubin > 12 mg/dl or 205 mumol/l). A retrospective review of Special Care Nursery and Maternity Ward records was undertaken to determine the incidence and aetiology of hyperbilirubinaemia from 1992 to 1994. There were 3721 infants born in Antigua and Barbuda in those years, 98% of Afro-Caribbean or mixed ancestry. The overall incidence of peak total bilirubin over 12 mg/dl (205 mumol/l) was 12.5% (466/3721), not inconsistent with the reported incidence of 8 to 20% in other countries. However, the incidence of higher levels of hyperbilirubinaemia in Antigua and Barbuda exceeded those reported for other countries. In Antigua and Barbuda, total bilirubin of 15 mg/dl (255 mumol/l) or higher was found in 263 of 3721 infants (7.1%) compared to 5.9% in India and 2% of breast-fed infants in the United States of America (USA). Total bilirubin of 20 mg/dl (340 mumol/l) or higher was seen in 91 of 3721 infants (2.5%) exceeding reported prevalence in the USA for both African-American and Caucasian infants (1%) and equal to the reported prevalence in Asian infants (2%). The possible aetiologies of hyperbilirubinaemia in neonates with total bilirubin 18 mg/dl (306 mumol/l) or higher in our patients were investigated. Medical records of 134 of 156 (86%) infants having this level of hyperbilirubinaemia were available for review. The possible reason for hyperbilirubinaemia was ABO incompatibility in 4/134 (3%), Rh incompatibility in 1/134 (1%), prematurity in 12/134 (9

  2. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific, filial determinant of seed total phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Raboy, Victor; Cichy, Karen; Peterson, Kevin; Reichman, Sarah; Sompong, Utumporn; Srinives, Peerasak; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or "phytic acid") typically accounts for 75 (± 10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). In some cases, genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In nonmutant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caryopses, ~80% of Ins P6 and total P accumulate in the aleurone layer, the outer layer of the endosperm, with the remainder in the germ. In barley low phytic acid 1-1 (Hvlpa1-1) seed, both endosperm Ins P6 and total P are reduced (~45% and ~25%, respectively), but germs are phenotypically wild type. This translates into a net reduction in whole-seed total P of ~15%. Nutrient culture studies demonstrate that the reduction in endosperm total P is not due to a reduction in the uptake of P into the maternal plant. Genetic tests (analyses of testcross and F2 seed) reveal that the Hvlpa1-1 genotype of the filial seed conditions the seed total P reduction; sibling seed in the same head of barley that differ in their Hvlpa1-1 genotype (heterozygous vs. homozygous recessive) differ in their total P (normal vs. reduced, respectively). Therefore, Hvlpa1 functions as a seed-specific or filial determinant of barley endosperm total P.

  3. Effects of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine abundance.

    PubMed

    Milo, L A; Reardon, K A; Tappenden, K A

    2002-09-01

    We examined the effect of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on proinflammatory cytokine levels in piglets. Piglets (N = 22) received either standard total parenteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids. After seven days of continuous nutrient infusion, proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6) abundance in plasma, jejunal, and ileal samples and small intestinal myeloperoxidase was determined using western blotting. No differences were seen in TNF-alpha small intestinal abundance. IL-1beta was higher in the small intestine of the short-chain fatty acid group (P < 0.05). IL-6 was higher in intestinal samples of the short-chain fatty acid group (P = 0.05), with the ileum having a greater abundance of IL-6 than the jejunum (P < 0.005). No differences in proinflammatory cytokine abundance in the plasma or tissue myeloperoxidase were seen. These results indicate short-chain fatty acids beneficially increase small intestinal abundance of IL-1beta and IL-6 during total parenteral nutrition administration, while not affecting systemic production of these cytokines or intestinal inflammation.

  4. New data on the total lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid composition of raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Bragagnolo, Neura; Rodriguez-Amaya, Délia B

    2003-09-01

    Simultaneous analyses of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids were carried out on raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi trimmed of external fat. Cholesterol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the fatty acids by gas chromatography. Mean total lipid (g/100 g) ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 for raw beef and 3.5 to 4.0 for grilled beef steaks. Cholesterol levels (mg/100 g) ranged from 40 to 43 for raw beef and 67 to 70 for grilled beef steaks. The main intramuscular fatty acids of the raw and grilled meat were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9, 18:1n7 and 18:2n6. Grilled lean beef steaks had significantly higher contents of the principal fatty acids and most of the minor fatty acids. The higher values for the three components in the grilled meat were due to loss of moisture during grilling. There was no significant difference between the apparent and true retentions values, both indicating no significant loss or degradation of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids during grilling.

  5. Conditions optimising on the yield of biomass, total lipid, and valuable fatty acids in two strains of Skeletonema menzelii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiamin; Han, Qingxi; Gao, Xiuzhi; Gao, Guang

    2016-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the health of aquaculture organisms and human beings. A total of 9 species of diatoms were screened and two strains of Skeletonema menzelii were selected for further study due to their high growth rates, PUFA and EPA contents. The culture conditions for the yield of biomass, total lipid, EPA and PUFA were optimised. The quickest growth rates (0.28-0.41d(-1)) were achieved with moderate supplement of nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and silicon. The accumulation of total lipid (17.85-22.70% of dry weight) benefitted from deprivation of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, but a moderate iron supplement. Highest PUFA (38.26-50.48% of total fatty acids) or EPA (14.26-18.39% of total fatty acids) contents were observed under high nitrogen and phosphorus supplement, moderate available iron but deprivation of silicon. These findings make tangible contributions to culture S. menzelii for commercial production of PUFA or EPA.

  6. Changes in total nitrogen and amino acid composition of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida with growth, location and plant parts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, April Yongdong; Robertson, John; Hamid, Nazimah; Ma, Qianli; Lu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Undaria pinnatifida is known as unwanted organism in New Zealand. However, Wakame is a traditional food made of U. pinnatifida, which is now cultured extensively in East Asia. Therefore, it is important to examine this introduced alga as a potential source of dietary protein for human consumption in New Zealand. This study determined total nitrogen content and amino acid profile of New Zealand U. pinnatifida harvested from the Marlborough Sounds on a monthly basis from June to November 2011. Total average nitrogen content and crude protein content was 21.02 mg/g dry weight and 13.1% of dry weight, respectively. The three most abundant amino acids that contributed to flavour (glutamic acid, aspartic acid and alanine) were present and the most abundant essential amino acids were arginine, leucine, lysine and valine. The results showed that the amino acid content in blades from the exposed farm was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the others. Sporophyll maturation of U. pinnatifida in New Zealand influenced protein content and amino acid composition. Sporophyll, considered as a waste product by many, was found to be a potentially good source of protein.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids predict recurrent venous thromboembolism or total mortality in elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Reiner, M F; Stivala, S; Limacher, A; Bonetti, N R; Méan, M; Egloff, M; Rodondi, N; Aujesky, D; von Schacky, C; Lüscher, T F; Camici, G G; Beer, J H

    2017-01-01

    Essentials The role of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) in recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. Association of n-3 FAs with recurrent VTE or total mortality was investigated in 826 patients. Whole blood n-3 FAs were inversely correlated with recurrent VTE or total mortality. Major and non-major bleeding was not increased in patients with higher levels of n-3 FAs.

  8. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  9. [Nutrition, acid-base metabolism, cation-anion difference and total base balance in humans].

    PubMed

    Mioni, R; Sala, P; Mioni, G

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake and acid-base metabolism has been investigated in the past by means of the inorganic cation-anion difference (C(+)(nm)-A(-)(nm)) method based on dietary ash-acidity titration after the oxidative combustion of food samples. Besides the inorganic components of TA (A(-)(nm)-C(+)(nm)), which are under renal control, there are also metabolizable components (A(-)(nm)-C(+)(nm)) of TA, which are under the control of the intermediate metabolism. The whole body base balance, NBb(W), is obtained only by the application of C(+)(nm)-A(-)(nm) to food, feces and urine, while the metabolizable component (A(-)(nm)-C(+)(nm)) is disregarded. A novel method has been subsequently suggested to calculate the net balance of fixed acid, made up by the difference between the input of net endogenous acid production: NEAP = SO(4)(2-)+A(-)(m)-(C(+)(nm)-A(-)(nm)), and the output of net acid excretion: NAE = TA + NH(4)(+) - HCO(3)(-). This approach has been criticized because 1) it includes metabolizable acids, whose production cannot be measured independently; 2) the specific control of metabolizable acid and base has been incorrectly attributed to the kidney; 3) the inclusion of A-m in the balance input generates an acid overload; 4) the object of measurement in making up a balance has to be the same, a condition not fulfilled as NEAP is different from NAE. Lastly, by rearranging the net balance of the acid equation, the balance of nonmetabolizable acid equation is obtained. Therefore, any discrepancy between these two equations is due to the inaccuracy in the urine measurement of metabolizable cations and/or anions.

  10. Total salvianolic acid improves ischemia-reperfusion-induced microcirculatory disturbance in rat mesentery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Xia; Liu, Yu-Ying; Hu, Bai-He; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Chang, Xin; Sun, Kai; Fan, Jing-Yu; Liao, Fu-Long; Wang, Chuan-She; Zheng, Jun; Han, Jing-Yan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of total salvianolic acid (TSA) on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced rat mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunctions. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 5 groups (n = 6 each): Sham group and I/R group (infused with saline), TSA group, TSA + I/R group and I/R + TSA group (infused with TSA, 5 mg/kg per hour). Mesenteric I/R were conducted by a ligation of the mesenteric artery and vein (10 min) and subsequent release of the occlusion. TSA was continuously infused either starting from 10 min before the ischemia or 10 min after reperfusion. Changes in mesenteric microcirculatory variables, including diameter of venule, velocity of red blood cells in venule, leukocyte adhesion, free radicals released from venule, albumin leakage and mast cell degranulation, were observed through an inverted intravital microscope. Meanwhile, the expression of adhesion molecules CD11b/CD18 on neutrophils was evaluated by flow cytometry. Ultrastructural evidence of mesenteric venules damage was assessed after microcirculation observation. RESULTS: I/R led to multiple responses in mesenteric post-capillary venules, including a significant increase in the adhesion of leukocytes, production of oxygen radicals in the venular wall, albumin efflux and enhanced mast cell degranulation in vivo. All the I/R-induced manifestations were significantly reduced by pre- or post-treatment with TSA, with the exception that the I/R-induced increase in mast cell degranulation was inhibited only by pre-treatment with TSA. Moreover, pre- or post-treatment with TSA significantly attenuated the expression of CD11b/CD18 on neutrophils, reducing the increase in the number of caveolae in the endothelial cells of mesentery post-capillary venules induced by I/R. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that TSA protects from and ameliorates the microcirculation disturbance induced by I/R, which was associated with TSA inhibiting the production of oxygen-free radicals in

  11. Comparisons between true digestibility of total nitrogen and limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G; Peace, R W

    1986-07-01

    Values (%) for true digestibility (TD) of protein and individual amino acids in some vegetable proteins were determined by the rat balance (fecal) method. Diets containing 8% crude protein (N X 6.25) from soaked and autoclaved samples of Trapper and Century field peas, lentil, pinto bean, seafarer bean, black bean or fababean and autoclaved samples of soybean, peanut, sunflower, rolled oat, rice + soybean and corn + pea were tested in two rat balance studies. In the case of blends, each protein source provided 50% of total protein. The beans, peas and lentil proteins were limiting in sulphur amino acids, tryptophan and threonine, whereas sunflower and rolled oat were most limiting in lysine. In beans, peas and lentil, the TD values of methionine (51-82), cystine (46-85), tryptophan (47-90) and threonine (62-84) were considerably lower than the TD values of total nitrogen (72-90). Similarly, in sunflower and rolled oat, the TD values of lysine (81-83) were lower than the TD values of total nitrogen (90-91). These data suggested that crude protein digestibility may not be a good predictor of bioavailability of limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins. Amino acid scores of the vegetable proteins were 62-96%. The corrections for true digestibility of protein and individual amino acids lowered the scores by 6-15 and 11-47 percentage units, respectively.

  12. Comparison of the Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Inflammatory Factors and Total Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Agah, Shahram; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Dehnad, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, and an important cause of gastrointestinal disorders, may be involved in the pathogenesis of some extra-gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as an increase in blood levels of certain inflammatory markers. Anti-bacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids have been studied in several research studies. The purpose of the present study was the comparison of the effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication, serum levels of some inflammatory markers and total antioxidant capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 97 Helicobacter pylori positive patients (64 patients in the two intervention groups and 33 in the control group), received 2 grams daily of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Docosahexaenoic Acid or Medium Chain Triglyceride oil as placebo, along with conventional tetra-drug Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen, for 12 weeks. Helicobacter pylori eradication test and measurement of concentration of interleukine-6, interleukine-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and total antioxidant capacity were performed after the intervention. There was no significant difference in eradication rate of the infection, levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity among the three groups, while the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were statistically different. Eicosapentaenoic Acid or Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation had no significant differential impact on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, and serum levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity. However, it had a desirable effect on the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Helicobacter pylori positive patients.

  13. Comparison of the Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Inflammatory Factors and Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Agah, Shahram; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Dehnad, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, and an important cause of gastrointestinal disorders, may be involved in the pathogenesis of some extra-gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as an increase in blood levels of certain inflammatory markers. Anti-bacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids have been studied in several research studies. The purpose of the present study was the comparison of the effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication, serum levels of some inflammatory markers and total antioxidant capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 97 Helicobacter pylori positive patients (64 patients in the two intervention groups and 33 in the control group), received 2 grams daily of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Docosahexaenoic Acid or Medium Chain Triglyceride oil as placebo, along with conventional tetra-drug Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen, for 12 weeks. Helicobacter pylori eradication test and measurement of concentration of interleukine-6, interleukine-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and total antioxidant capacity were performed after the intervention. There was no significant difference in eradication rate of the infection, levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity among the three groups, while the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were statistically different. Eicosapentaenoic Acid or Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation had no significant differential impact on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, and serum levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity. However, it had a desirable effect on the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Helicobacter pylori positive patients. PMID:25561921

  14. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; da Graça Gama Melão, Maria; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10(-7) and 2.0×10(-8)molL(-1) Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9×10(-6), 1.1×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)molL(-1)N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  15. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  16. Total and individual carotenoids and phenolic acids content in fresh, refrigerated and processed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Bunea, Andrea; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Socaciu, Carmen; Bobis, Otilia; Neacsu, Madalina; Verhé, Roland; Camp, John Van

    2008-05-15

    The carotenoid and phenolic acid contents in fresh, stored and processed (blanched, frozen and boiled) spinach were comparatively determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses. The major carotenoids identified after HPLC analysis in saponified samples were lutein (37-53μg/kg), β-carotene (18-31μg/kg), violaxanthin (9-23μg/kg) and neoxanthin (10-22μg/kg). These carotenoids were all affected by storage and/or heating. The content of carotenoids was best preserved after storage for one day at 4°C. The total phenolic content in the fresh spinach was 2088mg GAE/kg FW. After LC-MS analysis three phenolic acids were identified and quantified. These being ortho-coumaric acid (28-60mg/kg FW), ferulic acid (10-35mg/kg) and para-coumaric acid (1-30mg/kg) depending on the sample type. After storage of spinach at different temperatures (4°C or -18°C) the amount of total phenolic compounds decreased by around 20%, while the amount of individual phenolic acids increased by four times on average.

  17. Indirect and direct effects of salinity on the quantity and quality of total amino acids in Ulva ohnoi (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Angell, Alex R; Mata, Leonardo; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

    2015-06-01

    Salinity can affect the quantity and quality of total amino acids (TAAs) in seaweeds indirectly by altering growth rates and thereby diluting or concentrating the amino acid content of the biomass, or directly by altering the synthesis of specific amino acids and osmolytes. This study attempted to partition the indirect and direct effects of salinity on the quantity and quality of TAAs in the green seaweed Ulva ohnoi by culturing it under a range of salinities without nutrient limitation. Both the quantity and quality of TAAs varied across the salinity treatments. Quantity was most strongly related to the growth rate of the seaweed and was highest in the slowest growing seaweed. In contrast, the quality of TAAs (individual amino acids as a proportion of total content) was most strongly related to salinity for all amino acids, although this varied substantially among individual amino acids. Increases in salinity were positively correlated with the proportion of proline (46% increase), tyrosine (36% increase), and histidine (26% increase), whereas there was a negative correlation with alanine (29% decrease). The proportion of methionine, with strong links to the synthesis of the osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate, did not correlate linearly with salinity and instead was moderately higher at the optimal salinities for growth. These results show that salinity simultaneously affects the quantity and quality of TAAs in seaweed through both indirect and direct mechanisms, with growth rates playing the overarching role in determining the quantity of TAAs.

  18. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for high total sugar recovery in pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Huang, Meizi; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Oxalic acid was evaluated as an alternative reagent to mineral inorganic acid in pretreatment of corncob to achieve high xylose yield in addition to highly digestible solid residue. A quadratic polynomial model of xylose formation was developed for optimization of pretreatment process by the response surface methodology based on the impact factors of pretreatment temperature, reaction time, acid concentration, and solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest xylose yield was 94.3 % that was obtained under the pretreatment condition of 140 °C for 40 min with 0.5 wt% oxalic acid at a solid loading of 7.5 %. Under these conditions, the xylose yield results of verification experiments were very close to the model prediction, which indicated that the model was applicable. The solid residue generated under this condition also demonstrated a satisfactory enzymatic digestibility and fermentability.

  19. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1178 Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible...

  20. Total phenolics, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins and antioxidant properties of yellow and black soybeans as affected by thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-08-27

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the phenolic components and antioxidant activities of whole yellow (with yellow seed coat and yellow cotyledon) and black (with black seed coat and green cotyledon) soybeans were investigated. As compared to the raw soybeans, all processing methods caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) in black soybeans. Pressure steaming caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in TPC, CTC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC in yellow soybeans. The steaming resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC values in both yellow and black soybeans as compared to the boiling treatments. To further investigate the effect of processing on phenolic compounds and elucidate the contribution of these compounds to changes of antioxidant activities, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The pressure steaming treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in gallic acid and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, whereas all treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in two predominant phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid), and total phenolic acids for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in aglucones and beta-glucosides of isoflavones, but caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in malonylglucosides of isoflavones for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases of cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside in black soybeans. Significant correlations existed between selected phenolic compositions, isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, and antioxidant properties of cooked soybeans.

  1. Total syntheses of (-)-alpha-kainic acid and (+)-alpha-allokainic acid via stereoselective C-H insertion and efficient 3,4-stereocontrol.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Chun; Yoon, Cheol Hwan; Turos, Edward; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2007-12-21

    Reported herein is a novel approach to the total syntheses of (-)-alpha-kainic acid and (+)-alpha-allokainic acid, where the stereochemistries on C(2), C(3), and C(4) of the pyrrolidine core were introduced efficiently and selectively. A regio- and stereoselective C-H insertion reaction was utilized to prepare the gamma-lactam as an intermediate. A Michael-type cyclization of phenylsulfone with a conjugated acetylenic ketone was developed to prepare the tricyclic ketone as a key intermediate for (-)-alpha-kainic acid. Subsequently, a stereoselective dephenylsulfonylation was carried out successfully to secure the cis relationship at C(3) and C(4) centers. An unprecedented acetylation on the phenylsulfone, followed by a stereoselective dephenylsulfonylation, secured the trans relationship at C(3) and C(4) centers in (+)-alpha-allokainic acid.

  2. 21 CFR 862.1115 - Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1115 Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative)...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1115 - Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1115 Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative)...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1115 - Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1115 Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative)...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1115 - Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1115 Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative)...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1115 - Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1115 Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative)...

  7. Unconjugated bilirubin mediates heme oxygenase-1-induced vascular benefits in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Li; Tian, Xiao Yu; Liu, Limei; Wong, Wing Tak; Zhang, Yang; Han, Quan-Bin; Ho, Hing-Man; Wang, Nanping; Wong, Siu Ling; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Yu, Jun; Ng, Chi-Fai; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts vasoprotective effects. Such benefit in diabetic vasculopathy, however, remains unclear. We hypothesize that bilirubin mediates HO-1-induced vascular benefits in diabetes. Diabetic db/db mice were treated with hemin (HO-1 inducer) for 2 weeks, and aortas were isolated for functional and molecular assays. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured in cultured endothelial cells. Hemin treatment augmented endothelium-dependent relaxations (EDRs) and elevated Akt and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in db/db mouse aortas, which were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor SnMP or HO-1 silencing virus. Hemin treatment increased serum bilirubin, and ex vivo bilirubin treatment improved relaxations in diabetic mouse aortas, which was reversed by the Akt inhibitor. Biliverdin reductase silencing virus attenuated the effect of hemin. Chronic bilirubin treatment improved EDRs in db/db mouse aortas. Hemin and bilirubin reversed high glucose-induced reductions in Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. The effect of hemin but not bilirubin was inhibited by biliverdin reductase silencing virus. Furthermore, bilirubin augmented EDRs in renal arteries from diabetic patients. In summary, HO-1-induced restoration of endothelial function in diabetic mice is most likely mediated by bilirubin, which preserves NO bioavailability through the Akt/eNOS/NO cascade, suggesting bilirubin as a potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention of diabetic vasculopathy.

  8. Stereocontrolled Total Syntheses of Isodomoic Acids G and H via a Unified Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Liu, Jack H.-C.; Muhuhi, Joseck M.

    2010-01-01

    Marine neuroexcitatory compounds isodomoic acids G and H were efficiently synthesized from a common intermediate using a silicon-based cross-coupling reaction. Dividing each target compound into the core fragment and the side-chain fragment enabled the synthesis to be convergent. The trans-2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidine core fragment was accessed through a diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed carbonylative silylcarbocyclization reaction of a vinylglycine-derived 1,6-enyne. A stereochemically divergent desilylative iodination reaction was developed, converting of the cyclization product to both E- and Z-alkenyl iodides, which would eventually lead to isodomoic acid G and isodomoic acid H, respectively. The late stage alkenyl-alkenyl silicon-based cross-coupling reaction uniting the core alkenyl iodides and the side-chain alkenylsilanol was achieved under mild conditions. Finally, two mild deprotections afforded the target molecules. PMID:21121685

  9. Free and total amino acid composition in blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Luigi; Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale

    2002-04-01

    A simple, accurate and reproducible analytical method is described for the extraction and the simultaneous determination of 18 amino acids in different for geographical origin Spirulina alga samples using phenylisothiocianate as derivatizating agent in natural feed. The best experimental hydrolysis conditions have been studied varying the temperature, the time and the hydrolyzing reagent. The separation and the quantitative analysis of the by-products have been carried out by HPLC analysis and UV detection. An amino acid pattern is compared with that proposed by the Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) for an ideal protein and with those of some traditional feed.

  10. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G

    2016-09-01

    Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  11. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content.

  12. [Determination of total aminothiols and neuroactive amino acids in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Pozdeev, V K; Pozdeev, N V

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and sensitive reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of total homocysteine, total cysteine, total glutathione (GSH+GSSG), and neuroactive amino acids (Asp, Glu, Tau, GABA) using precolumn derivatization with ortho-phtaldialdehyde and fluorimetric detection at 360 and 470 nm for emission and excitation, respectively. Derivatization was performed with ortho-phthaldialdehyde in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol after alkylation of the free sulfhydryl groups with iodoacetic acid. For determination of total aminothiols, the disulfide bonds were reduced and protein-bound thiols were released by addition of dithiothreitol to the plasma sample. The advantage of this method is the simultaneous determination of both homocysteine/cysteine/glutathione and neuroactive amino acids in the sample. The plasma levels of studied compounds were determined in 14 healthy volunteers (20-45 years old) and 55 patients with chronic hepatitis C (20-49 years old) and the resulting numbers were in a good agreement the studies published earlier. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 5-100 microM in plasma (r2 = 0.985-0.996). The intraday and interday coefficients of variation were 3-6% and 4-7%, respectively. The recovery of the standards added to the plasma samples ranged from 94 to 102%. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.2-0.5 ng per 10 microl injection volume (signal-to-noise ratio of 3).

  13. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess impact of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between VFA and VFA pool size (VFAmol), possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg), suggest issues...

  14. [The effect of lime cooking of corn on phytic acid, calcium, total and ionizable iron content].

    PubMed

    Urizar Hernández, A L; Bressani, R

    1997-09-01

    The present study was carried out with the objective to learn about the effect of the nixtamalization process of corn on the content of phytic acid and availability of iron in the lime-cooked corn. For the study, lots of corn with 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.20% of lime on the basis of corn weight, in water in the ratio of 3 to 1, and cooking times at each level of lime of 55, 65 and 75 minutes, were processed. Half of the treatments were not soaked after cooking, while the other half were soaked in the cooking solution for a 12-hour period. Statistical analysis of the data and correlations calculated showed that the phytic acid content decreased significantly during the nixtamalization process, affected by the cooking time and the level of lime used, reaching levels of reduction of around 35%. Both the ionizable iron and calcium level increased up to 52-77% and 400-478% respectively. The amount of calcium present in the cooked corn as the result of the lime cooking process, is significantly higher in comparison with the phytic acid content, which may be easily saturated and thus, unavailable to bind iron. An inverse relationship was found between phytic acid and bioavailable iron and its absorption percentage. On the other hand, soaking time did not significantly affected the phytic acid and available iron, although it contributed to a slightly higher Ca accumulation. The amount of ionizable iron was higher at higher levels of lime, which suggested that the nixtamalization process would favor the biological utilization of iron in lime-cooked corn and provide calcium to the diet.

  15. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (<200 mg) and higher throughput (20 samples/h) measurement. Naphthenic acid structures were assigned based on nominal masses of a set of predefined acid structures. Stearic acid is used as an internal standard to calibrate ESI-MS response factors for quantification purposes. With the use of structure-property correlations, boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  16. Bilirubin as an antioxidant: kinetic studies of the reaction of bilirubin with peroxyl radicals in solution, micelles, and lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Gillian L; Barclay, L Ross C

    2004-05-13

    Bilirubin (BR) showed very weak antioxidant activity in a nonpolar medium of styrene or cumene in chlorobenzene. In contrast, BR exhibited strong antioxidant activity in polar media such as aqueous lipid bilayers or SDS micelles/methyl linoleate (pH 7.4), where the rate with peroxyl radicals, k(inh) = 5.0 x 10(4) M(-)(1) s(-)(1), was comparable to that with vitamin E analogues, Trolox, or PMHC. An electron-transfer mechanism accounts for the effect of the medium on the antioxidant properties of BR.

  17. Characterization of copper atoms in bilirubin oxidase by spectroscopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Y; Kondo, Y; Kaji, H; Takeda, A; Samejima, T

    1989-10-01

    Bilirubin oxidase [EC 1.3.3.5], purified from the culture medium of Myrothecium verrucaria, was found to contain two blue copper atoms per protein molecule with a molecular weight of ca. 52 kDa. The two copper atoms were estimated to be in the all cupric state by the cuproine colorimetric method and also atomic absorption analysis. We could remove the reduce cuprous ions from the holo enzyme by adding ascorbate, followed by a KCN solution, yielding an apo-enzyme with no activity. The apo-enzyme can be reconstituted with Cu or other divalent cations such as Co, Fe, and Cd, with accompanying recovery of the enzyme activity. The activity recovery depended upon the species of cation employed; Cu being most effective, an almost 100% recovery, and Cd the least, only a 25% recovery. We could obtain information on the copper ions and their coordination structure by spectroscopic analyses of the apo- and reconstituted enzymes, obtaining such as absorption, CD, MCD, and XPS spectra. The bilirubin oxidase catalyzed-reaction was a second order reaction with respect to copper bound with protein. The donor set was of the CuSS*N2 (S = Cys, S* = Met, N = His) type, i.e., the same as in the case of blue copper proteins. On studying the Co-substituted enzyme, it was revealed that the copper site of the enzyme had a 4-coordinated structure.

  18. Bilirubin inhibits iNOS expression and NO production in response to endotoxin in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizheng W; Smith, Darcey L H; Zucker, Stephen D

    2004-08-01

    The inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO), HO-1, has been shown to play an important role in attenuating tissue injury. Because HO-1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in bilirubin synthesis, we examined the hypothesis that bilirubin is a key mediator of HO-1 cytoprotection, employing a rat model of endotoxemia. Bilirubin treatment resulted in improved survival and attenuated liver injury in response to lipopolysaccharide infusion. Serum levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor alpha, key mediators of endotoxemia, and hepatic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were significantly lower in bilirubin-treated rodents versus control animals. Both intraperitoneal and local administration of bilirubin also was found to ameliorate hindpaw inflammation induced by the injection of lambda-carrageenan. Consistent with in vivo results, bilirubin significantly inhibited iNOS expression and suppressed NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. In contrast, bilirubin treatment induced a threefold increase in LPS-mediated prostaglandin synthesis in the absence of significant changes in cyclooxygenase expression or activity, suggesting that bilirubin enhances substrate availability for eicosanoid synthesis. Bilirubin had no effect on LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappaB or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, consistent with a nuclear factor kappaB-independent mechanism of action. Taken together, these data support a cytoprotective role for bilirubin that is mediated, at least in part, through the inhibition of iNOS expression and, potentially, through stimulation of local prostaglandin E2 production. In conclusion, our findings suggest a role for bilirubin in mollifying tissue injury in response to inflammatory stimuli and support the possibility that the phenomenon of "jaundice of sepsis" represents an adaptive physiological response to endotoxemia. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the

  19. Enteral obeticholic acid prevents hepatic cholestasis in total parenteral nutrition-fed neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a vital support for neonatal infants with congenital or acquired gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and requiring small bowel resection. An adverse outcome associated with prolonged TPN use is parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC). We previously showed t...

  20. Clinical system model for monitoring the physiological status of jaundice by extracting bilirubin components from skin diffuse reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alla S.; Clark, Joseph; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition which occurs in newborns as a result of an imbalance between the production and elimination of bilirubin. The excess bilirubin in the blood stream diffuses into the surrounding tissue leading to a yellowing of the skin. As the bilirubin levels rise in the blood stream, there is a continuous exchange between the extra vascular bilirubin and bilirubin in the blood stream. Exposure to phototherapy alters the concentration of bilirubin in the vascular and extra vascular regions by causing bilirubin in the skin layers to be broken down. Thus, the relative concentration of extra vascular bilirubin is reduced leading to a diffusion of bilirubin out of the vascular region. Diffuse reflectance spectra from human skin contains physiological and structural information of the skin and nearby tissue. A diffuse reflectance spectrum must be captured before and after blanching in order to isolate the intravascular and extra vascular bilirubin. A new mathematical model is proposed with extra vascular bilirubin concentration taken into consideration along with other optical parameters in defining the diffuse reflectance spectrum from human skin. A nonlinear optimization algorithm has been adopted to extract the optical properties (including bilirubin concentration) from the skin reflectance spectrum. The new system model and nonlinear algorithm have been combined to enable extraction of Bilirubin concentrations within an average error of 10%.

  1. Purification, characterization and decolorization of bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria 3.2190

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myrothecium verrucaria 3.2190 is a nonligninolytic fungus that produces bilirubin oxidase. Both Myrothecium verrucaria and the extracellular bilirubin oxidase were tested for their ability to decolorize indigo carmine. The biosorption and biodegradation of the dye were detected during the process of...

  2. Relationship of Bilirubin Levels in Infancy to Later Intellectual Development. Interim Report No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rosalyn A.; And Others

    The relationship of bilirubin (a red bile pigment that is sometimes found in the urine and occurs in the blood and tissues in jaundice) in infancy to later intellectual development was investigated in 241 infants with moderately elevated and high bilirubin levels. Ss were administered motor, psycholinguistic, and intelligence tests at age 8…

  3. [The influence of bilirubin on the mechanogram of isolated, spontaneously beating frog heart].

    PubMed

    Mittelstädt, U; Biester, J; Sandhage, K

    1976-06-08

    It was shown that bilirubin in its unconjugated form does not only harm the central nervous system. Clinical observations indicate that the toxic effect under certain conditions affects also the heart. In a simple experimental model the influence of free bilirubin on the activity of the heart was investigated. In 69 adult frogs the heart was isolated and exposed sequentially to solutions of different bilirubin concentrations while the heart actions were registered. There was no significant change in the activity of the heart under the influence of bilirubin although concentrations were reached which according to the results of other authors harm cell cultures or evoke in the newborn disturbances in various organs. As a possible explanation, the nonsusceptibility of the heart muscle to bilirubin, the short duration of exposure, and the different behavior of newborn and adult organs is discussed.

  4. Excessive bilirubin elevation in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis and intrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Wree, A; Canbay, A; Müller-Beissenhirtz, H; Dechêne, A; Gerken, G; Dührsen, U; Lammert, F; Nückel, H

    2011-08-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is a common hemolytic anemia with an estimated incidence of 1 / 2500 births. It is caused by a molecular defect in one or more of the proteins of the red blood cell cytoskeleton. Mutations in the ABCB11 gene, encoding the bile salt export pump, can entail progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and benign recurred intrahepatic cholestasis. A 18 year old Turkish patient with hereditary spherocytosis was admitted to hospital with pruritus and severe jaundice. Ultrasound examination presented stones in gallbladder and bile duct. After endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with extraction of small bile duct stones abdominal pain resolved and liver enzymes normalized within a few days, but bilirubin and bile acids remained highly elevated. Liver biopsy revealed a severe canalicular cholestasis. Genetic analysis showed the compound heterozygous variants ABCB11 A 444V and 3084A > G. Treatment with ursodesoxycholic acid and intermittent therapy with prednisone reduced pruritus and jaundice with concomitant improvement of blood test. Here we report the first case of a patient with combined hereditary spherocytosis and compound heterozygous ABCB11 gene variants predisposing to intrahepatic cholestasis. Therefore, patients with hemolytic disorders should be investigated for bile acid transporter diseases in case of hyperbilirubinemia and severe cholestasis.

  5. First total synthesis of (5Z,9Z)-(±)-2-methoxy-5,9-octadecadienoic acid, a marine derived methoxylated analog of taxoleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, Néstor M.; O’Neill, Rosann; Silva, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The first total synthesis for the sponge derived (5Z,9Z)-(±)-2-methoxy-5,9-octadecadienoic acid, an analog of taxoleic acid, was accomplished in seven steps and in a 10% overall yield. It was again corroborated that the best strategy to prepare these cis,cis dimethylene interrupted double bonds is the double-alkyne bromide coupling reaction of 1,5-hexadiyne, which provides the advantage of achieving a 100% cis stereochemical purity for both double bonds after hydrogenation under Lindlar conditions. The α-methoxy functionality was best prepared via the Mukaiyama reaction of (4Z,8Z)-heptadecadienal with trimethylsilyl cyanide and triethylamine followed by acid hydrolysis. Selective methylation of the hydroxyl group of (5Z,9Z)-(±)-2-hydroxy-5,9-octadecadienoic acid was achieved with sodium hydride/methyl iodide when tetrahydrofuran was used as solvent. Complete spectral data is presented, for the first time, for this unusual marine α-methoxylated fatty acid. PMID:18761005

  6. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either

  7. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Abbey, M; Noakes, M; Belling, G B; Nestel, P J

    1994-05-01

    Sixteen normolipidemic male volunteers aged 41 +/- 9 y (mean +/- SD) consumed a diet providing 36% of energy as fat (92 g fat/d) for 9 wk. A daily supplement of nuts (providing half of the total fat intake) was provided against a common background diet. In the first 3-wk period the background diet was supplemented with raw peanuts (50 g/d), coconut cubes (40 g/d), and a coconut confectionary bar (50 g/d), designed to provide 47 g fat with a ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P:M:S) to match the Australian diet (reference diet). During the following 3 wk the background diet was supplemented with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich raw almonds (84 g/d), equivalent to 46 g fat, and during the final 3-wk period the background diet was supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich walnuts (68 g/d), equivalent to 46 g fat. Compared with the reference diet there were significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol, 7% and 10%, respectively, after supplementation with almonds, and 5% and 9%, respectively, after supplementation with walnuts.

  8. Serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are early surrogate markers for ischemic cholangiopathy and graft failure in liver transplantation from donation after circulatory death.

    PubMed

    Halldorson, J B; Rayhill, S; Bakthavatsalam, R; Montenovo, M; Dick, A; Perkins, J; Reyes, J

    2015-03-01

    Liver transplantation with the use of donation after circulatory death (DCD) is associated with ischemic cholangiopathy (IC) often leading to graft loss. We hypothesized that serial postoperative analysis of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin might identify patients who would later on develop ischemic cholangiopathy and/or graft loss, allowing early recognition and potentially retransplantation. The University of Washington DCD experience totals 89 DCD liver transplantations performed from 2003 to 2011 with Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year patient and graft survival rates of 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively; 84/89 patients transplanted with DCD livers lived ≥ 60 days after transplantation and were analyzed. Serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels at 1 week, 2 week, 1 month, and 2 months after transplantation were analyzed. Two-month serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase proved to have the strongest associations with development of IC and graft failure. Two-month alkaline phosphatase of <100 U/L had a negative predictive value of 97% for development of IC. Two-month alkaline phosphatase demonstrated an inflection starting at >300 U/L strongly associated with development of IC (P < .0001). Serum bilirubin at 2 months was most strongly associated with graft failure within the 1st year with a strong inflection point at 2.5 mg/dL (P = .0001). All jaundiced recipients at 60 days after transplantation (bilirubin >2.5 mg/dL) developed graft failure within the 1st year (P < .0001). Use of these early surrogate markers could facilitate prioritization and early retransplantation for DCD liver recipients with allografts destined for failure.

  9. Isotopomer distributions in amino acids from a highly expressed protein as a proxy for those from total protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, Afshan; Shaikh, Afshan S.; Tang, Yinjie; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2008-06-27

    {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis provides valuable information about bacterial physiology. Though many biological processes rely on the synergistic functions of microbial communities, study of individual organisms in a mixed culture using existing flux analysis methods is difficult. Isotopomer-based flux analysis typically relies on hydrolyzed amino acids from a homogeneous biomass. Thus metabolic flux analysis of a given organism in a mixed culture requires its separation from the mixed culture. Swift and efficient cell separation is difficult and a major hurdle for isotopomer-based flux analysis of mixed cultures. Here we demonstrate the use of a single highly-expressed protein to analyze the isotopomer distribution of amino acids from one organism. Using the model organism E. coli expressing a plasmid-borne, his-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we show that induction of GFP does not affect E. coli growth kinetics or the isotopomer distribution in nine key metabolites. Further, the isotopomer labeling patterns of amino acids derived from purified GFP and total cell protein are indistinguishable, indicating that amino acids from a purified protein can be used to infer metabolic fluxes of targeted organisms in a mixed culture. This study provides the foundation to extend isotopomer-based flux analysis to study metabolism of individual strains in microbial communities.

  10. Effect of heparin dose and infusion rate on lipid clearance and bilirubin binding in premature infants receiving intravenous fat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Spear, M L; Stahl, G E; Hamosh, M; McNelis, W G; Richardson, L L; Spence, V; Polin, R A; Pereira, G R; Hamosh, P

    1988-01-01

    The effect of heparin dose and infusion rate on plasma lipids, lipases, and unbound bilirubin was investigated in 22 premature infants with physiologic jaundice. Infants were randomly assigned to receive low or high intravenous doses (24 vs 137.3 U/day) of heparin. Each patient then received 2 g/kg/day of 10% Intralipid on 2 successive days: one day during a 15-hour period and the other day over 24 hours, with the order assigned randomly. The results demonstrate a significantly greater change in serum-free fatty acids in infants receiving the high heparin dose during the 15-hour lipid infusion period. Lipoprotein lipase activity rose more with the high heparin dose and equally at either infusion rate. We conclude that lipid infusions of 2 g/kg/day with low heparin dosage infused over 24 hours resulted in less elevation in serum-free fatty acids. There were no adverse effects on unbound bilirubin at either infusion rate or heparin dosage.

  11. Total lipids and fatty acids composition of the coastal and the deep-sea common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) populations: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Youssef, Saoussen; Selmi, Salah; Ezzeddine-Najai, Sofia; Sadok, Saloua

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate biochemical differences between Octopus vulgaris caught off costal zone and from the deep-sea of the Golf of Gabès (South coast of Tunisia). In both fishing grounds, octopus total lipids constituted almost 1.5% of wet tissue showing no significant difference (p < 0.05). The percentage distribution of fatty acids was not significantly different, neither between males and females, nor between both areas. Polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted about 50 % of the total fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic (DHA; C22:6 omega 3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA; C20:5 omega 3) and the arachidonic acids (C20:4) were the most important of this group with percentages of 25, 14 and 10% respectively. The saturated fraction constituted almost 30% of the total fatty acids. The most dominant saturated fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0), with 18% and 7% respectively. The monounsaturated content was found to contribute only 10% of the total fatty acids. Most of the monounsaturated fat was present as oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) with 2.5% and 1.5% respectively. The presence of arachidonic acid in substantial proportions with an omega 3 to omega 6 ratios of 3.9 to 1 is of special interest because of the role of cephalopods in the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  12. First total synthesis and antileishmanial activity of (Z)-16-methyl-11-heptadecenoic acid, a new marine fatty acid from the sponge Dragmaxia undata

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, Néstor M.; Montano, Nashbly; Cintrón, Gabriel A.; Márquez, Carmary; Rubio, Celia Fernández; Prada, Christopher Fernández; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The first total synthesis for the (Z)-16-methyl-11-heptadecenoic acid, a novel fatty acid from the sponge Dragmaxia undata, was accomplished in seven steps and in a 44% overall yield. The use of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene was key in the synthesis. Based on a previous developed strategy in our laboratory the best synthetic route towards the title compound was first acetylide coupling of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene to the long-chain protected 10-bromo-1-decanol followed by a second acetylide coupling to the short-chain 1-bromo-4-methylpentane, which resulted in higher yields. Complete spectral data is also presented for the first time for this recently discovered fatty acid and the cis double bond stereochemistry of the natural acid was established. The title compound displayed antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania donovani (IC50 = 165.5 ± 23.4 µM) and inhibited the leishmania DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an IC50 = 62.3 ± 0.7 µM. PMID:21129369

  13. Diurnal variations of total carbon, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls in aerosols in the northern vicinity of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, N.; Kawamura, K.; Okuzawa, K.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2013-06-01

    Aerosol samples (TSP, n=58) were collected on day- and night-time basis at Mangshan in the north of Beijing, China in autumn 2007 to better understand the status of air quality and the influence of urban pollutants in the northern vicinity of Beijing. The samples were analyzed for aerosol mass, total carbon (TC), low molecular weight α, ω-dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ketoacids (ωC2-ωC9, pyruvic acid), α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal), as well as aromatic (phthalic, iso- and tere-phthalic) diacids. Aerosol mass and TC concentrations are higher in daytime than in nighttime. TC/aerosol mass ratios in this study are lower than those reported in megacities in East Asia, but higher than those reported in marine aerosols. Molecular distributions of diacids demonstrated that oxalic (C2) acid was the most abundant species, comprising 38-77% of total diacids, followed by succinic (C4) and malonic (C3) acids. For most compounds, the concentrations were higher in daytime than nighttime, indicating that diacids are produced in daytime by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors emitted from anthropogenic sources in Beijing during the transport to Mangshan area by the northward wind. However, we found that C2 concentrations are higher in nighttime than in daytime. A positive correlation of C2 to glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was obtained at night when relative humidity increased up to 100%, suggesting that aqueous phase production of C2 occurs in nighttime via the oxidation of ωC2. Depletion of C2 by photolysis of Fe-oxalato complexes might be another reason for the lower concentrations of C2 in daytime samples. High phthalic acid/C4 ratios in the aerosol samples suggest that automobile combustion and coal burning products are important sources, which are subjected to photochemical oxidation during the atmospheric transport of urban aerosols from Beijing. In contrast, higher concentrations of methylglyoxal in nighttime than daytime may suggest that isoprene emitted

  14. Statins alter the hepatobiliary transport of unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Mónika; Veres, Zsuzsa; Bátai-Konczos, Attila; Kékesi, Orsolya; Kis, Emese; Szabó, Kitti; Jemnitz, Katalin

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have reported that statins occasionally cause impairment of liver functions characterized by elevated serum bilirubin levels, which might be due to altered function of the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp2/3). We aimed to study the modulation of the hepatobiliary transport of bilirubin by four statin derivatives, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. All statins except pravastatin significantly inhibited the uptake of bilirubin. The biliary efflux of bilirubin conjugates was increased by pravastatin and rosuvastatin concentration dependently. Rosuvastatin stimulated not only the Mrp2 mediated biliary, but the Mrp3 mediated sinusoidal elimination, resulting in decreased intracellular bilirubin accumulation. The significantly induced Mrp2/3 protein levels (ranging from 1.5 to 1.8-fold) accounted for the elevated efflux. Cell polarization, the formation of biliary network was also significantly increased by fluvastatin, pravastatin and rosuvastatin (151%, 216% and 275% of the control, respectively). The simultaneous inhibition of the uptake and the stimulation of the sinusoidal and canalicular elimination may explain, at least in part, the clinical observation of elevated serum bilirubin levels. In conclusion, our results suggest that in spite of the elevated serum bilirubin levels, the altered Mrp2 and Mrp3 functions by statins is probably not associated with hepatotoxic effects.

  15. High preoperative bilirubin values protect against reperfusion injury after live donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Kaths, Johann M; Marquez, Max; Selzner, Nazia; Cattral, Mark S; Greig, Paul D; Lilly, Les; McGilvray, Ian D; Levy, Gary A; Ghanekar, Anand; Renner, Eberhard L; Grant, David R; Selzner, Markus

    2015-11-01

    Heme Oxygenase-1 and its product biliverdin/bilirubin have been demonstrated to protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). We investigated whether increased preoperative bilirubin values of transplant recipients decrease IRI. Preoperative bilirubin levels of live donor liver recipients were correlated to postoperative liver transaminase as a marker of IRI. Additionally, two recipient groups with pretransplant bilirubin levels >24 μmol/l (n = 348) and ≤24 μmol/l (n = 118) were compared. Post-transplant liver function, complications, length of hospital stay, and patient and graft survival were assessed. Preoperative bilirubin levels were negatively correlated to the postoperative increase in transaminases suggesting a protective effect against IRI. The maximal rise of ALT after transplantation in high versus low bilirubin patients was 288 (-210-2457) U/l vs. 375 (-11-2102) U/l, P = 0.006. Bilirubin remained a significant determining factor in a multivariate linear regression analysis. The MELD score and its individual components as a marker of severity of chronic liver disease were significantly higher in the high versus low bilirubin group (P < 0.001). Despite this, overall complication rate (21.0% vs. 21.2%, P = 0.88), hospital stay [13 (4-260) vs. 14 (6-313) days, P = 0.93), and 1-year graft survival (90.8% vs. 89.0%, P = 0.62) were similar in both groups. High bilirubin levels of liver recipients before live donor transplantation is associated with decreased postoperative IRI.

  16. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  17. Impact of Altitudes and Habitats on Valerenic Acid, Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannins, and Antioxidant Activity of Valeriana jatamansi.

    PubMed

    Jugran, Arun K; Bahukhandi, Amit; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Nandi, Shyamal K

    2016-07-01

    The changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity were assessed in 25 populations of Valeriana jatamansi sampled from 1200 to 2775 m asl and four habitat types of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. Significant (p < 0.05) variations in total phenolics, flavonoids, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity in aerial and root portions and across the populations were observed. Antioxidant activity measured by three in vitro antioxidant assays, i.e., 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picryylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across the populations. However, no clear pattern was found in phytochemicals across the altitudinal range. Among habitat types, (pine, oak, mixed forest, and grassy land), variation in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity were observed. Equal class ranking, neighbor-joining cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified Talwari, Jaberkhet, Manjkhali, and Khirshu populations as promising sources with higher phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The results recommended that the identified populations with higher value of phytochemicals and antioxidants can be utilized for mass multiplication and breeding program to meet the domestic as well as commercial demand.

  18. [Study on predicting total acid content and soluble sugar of tomato juice by near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Zhang, Bing-Xiu

    2014-02-01

    In order to explore a simple, rapid and efficient tomato quality detection method, in the present experiment near infrared spectroscopy and optical fiber sensing technology were applied to quickly measure the nutrition ingredient content in tomato juice samples. The main instrument used in this experiment was near infrared optical fiber spectrometer in a wavelength range from 900 to 2 500 nm, which measured the absorbance of the tomato juice samples; A collection of one hundred and sixty-four tomato juice samples were selected as the standard samples, the spectra and the corresponding chemical value were measured. Partial least squares (PLS) was adopted to establish the mathematical model of the total acid and soluble sugar content in tomato juice samples, and the regression equation was statistically analysed. The total acid in tomato juice prediction correlation coefficient was 0.967, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.133, standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.103; the soluble sugar prediction correlation coefficient is 0.976, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.463, and the standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0. 460. The above data achieved better forecasting results, which showed that the method of quantitative analysis of tomato fruit multicomponent content was feasible. The method is rapid, simple and can do multicomponent analysis on the same sample simultaneously. It is a promising sensor and gradually becoming a international research focus in sensor field.

  19. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of total carbon, dicarboxylic acids and glyoxylic acid in the tropical Indian aerosols: Implications for sources and photochemical processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Swaminathan, T.; Tachibana, Eri

    2011-09-01

    The tropical Indian aerosols (PM10) collected on day- and nighttime bases in winter and summer, 2007 from Chennai (13.04°N; 80.17°E) were studied for stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of total carbon (TC), individual dicarboxylic acids (C2-C9) and glyoxylic acid (ωC2). δ13C values of TC ranged from -23.9‰ to -25.9‰ (-25.0 ± 0.6‰; n = 49). Oxalic (C2) (-17.1 ± 2.5‰), malonic (C3) (-20.8 ± 1.8‰), succinic (C4) (-22.5 ± 1.5‰) and adipic (C6) (-20.6 ± 4.1‰) acids and ωC2 acid (-22.4 ± 5.5‰) were found to be more enriched with 13C compared to TC. In contrast, suberic (C8) (-29.4 ± 1.8‰), phthalic (Ph) (-30.1 ± 3.5‰) and azelaic (C9) (-28.4 ± 5.8‰) acids showed smaller δ13C values than TC. Based on comparisons of δ13C values of TC in Chennai aerosols to those (-24.7 ± 2.2‰) found in unburned cow-dung samples collected from Chennai and isotopic signatures of the particles emitted from point sources, we found that biofuel/biomass burning are the major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in South and Southeast Asia. The decrease in δ13C values of C9 diacid by about 5‰ from winter to summer suggests that tropical plant emissions also significantly contribute to organic aerosol in this region. Significant increase in δ13C values from C4 to C2 diacids in Chennai aerosols could be attributed for their photochemical processing in the tropical atmosphere during long-range transport from source regions.

  20. A traceable reference for direct comparative assessment of total naphthenic acid concentrations in commercial and acid extractable organic mixtures derived from oil sands process water.

    PubMed

    Brunswick, Pamela; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Kim, Marcus; van Aggelen, Graham; Shang, Dayue

    2017-02-23

    The advantage of using naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures for the determination of total NA lies in their chemical characteristics and identification of retention times distinct from isobaric interferences. However, the differing homolog profiles and unknown chemical structures of NA mixtures do not allow them to be considered a traceable reference material. The current study provides a new tool for the comparative assessment of different NA mixtures by direct reference to a single, well-defined and traceable compound, decanoic-d19 acid. The method employed an established liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QToF) procedure that was applicable both to the classic O2 NA species dominating commercial mixtures and additionally to the O4 species known to be present in acid extractable organics (AEOs) derived from oil sands process water (OSPW). Four different commercial NA mixtures and one OSPW-derived AEOs mixture were comparatively assessed. Results showed significant difference among Merichem Technical, Aldrich, Acros, and Kodak commercial NA mixtures with respect to "equivalent to decanoic-d19 acid" concentration ratios to nominal. Furthermore, different lot numbers of single commercial NA mixtures were found to be inconsistent with respect to their homolog content by percent response. Differences in the observed homolog content varied significantly, particularly at the lower (n = 9-14) and higher (n = 20-23) carbon number ranges. Results highlighted the problem between using NA mixtures from different sources and different lot numbers but offered a solution to the problem from a concentration perspective. It is anticipated that this tool may be utilized in review of historical data in addition to future studies, such as the study of OSPW derived acid extractable organics (AEOs) and fractions employed during toxicological studies.

  1. Rapid determination of total polyphenolic content in tea samples based on caffeic acid voltammetric behaviour on a disposable graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    David, Iulia Gabriela; Bizgan, Ana-Maria Cristina; Popa, Dana Elena; Buleandra, Mihaela; Moldovan, Zenovia; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Tekiner, Tuğçe Ayça; Basaga, Huveyda; Ciucu, Anton A

    2015-04-15

    The present paper describes the voltammetric behaviour and the quantitative determination of caffeic acid (CA) on a disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The anodic peak current of CA recorded by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) varies linearly with CA concentration in the range 1×10(-7)-3×10(-3) M. The detection and quantification limits were 8.83×10(-8) M and 2.94×10(-7) M caffeic acid, respectively. The mean recoveries of CA from Turkish green, white and black teas were 98.30%, 99.57% and 91.46%. For these three tea types the corresponding total polyphenolic contents (TPCs) evaluated by DPV on PGE were 35.81, 34.59 and 31.21 mg caffeic acid equivalent/g tea, respectively. These TPC values were in good accordance with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The developed DPV on PGE method constitutes a simple and inexpensive tool for the rapid assessment of TPC of tea samples.

  2. LC-MS display of the total modified amino acids in cataract lens proteins and in lens proteins glycated by ascorbic acid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rongzhu; Feng, Qi; Ortwerth, Beryl J

    2006-05-01

    We previously reported chromatographic evidence supporting the similarity of yellow chromophores isolated from aged human lens proteins, early brunescent cataract lens proteins and calf lens proteins ascorbylated in vitro [Cheng, R. et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1537, 14-26, 2001]. In this paper, new evidence supporting the chemical identity of the modified amino acids in these protein populations were collected by using a newly developed two-dimensional LC-MS mapping technique supported by tandem mass analysis of the major species. The pooled water-insoluble proteins from aged normal human lenses, early stage brunescent cataract lenses and calf lens proteins reacted with or without 20 mM ascorbic acid in air for 4 weeks were digested with a battery of proteolytic enzymes under argon to release the modified amino acids. Aliquots equivalent to 2.0 g of digested protein were subjected to size-exclusion chromatography on a Bio-Gel P-2 column and four major A330nm-absorbing peaks were collected. Peaks 1, 2 and 3, which contained most of the modified amino acids were concentrated and subjected to RP-HPLC/ESI-MS, and the mass elution maps were determined. The samples were again analyzed and those peaks with a 10(4) - 10(6) response factor were subjected to MS/MS analysis to identify the daughter ions of each modification. Mass spectrometric maps of peaks 1, 2 and 3 from cataract lenses showed 58, 40 and 55 mass values, respectively, ranging from 150 to 600 Da. Similar analyses of the peaks from digests of the ascorbylated calf lens proteins gave 81, 70 and 67 mass values, respectively, of which 100 were identical to the peaks in the cataract lens proteins. A total of 40 of the major species from each digest were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and 36 were shown to be identical. Calf lens proteins incubated without ascorbic acid showed several similar mass values, but the response factors were 100 to 1000-fold less for every modification. Based upon these data, we conclude

  3. [Determination of free and total S-phenylmercapturic acid in the biologic monitoring of exposure to benzene].

    PubMed

    Paci, E; Pigini, D; Cialdella, A; Faranda, P; Tranfo, G

    2006-01-01

    One of the biomarkers suggested by the ACGIH to assess the professional exposure to benzene is the S-phenylmercapturic acid in the end-shift urine. The existence in the urine of N-acetyl-S(1,2-dihydro-2hydroxypHenyl)-L-Cysteine, a precursor of SPMA that can be turned into it by acid hydrolysis, is a possible cause of miscorrelation between environmental and biological monitoring. The amount of measured SPMA depends on the degree of hydrolysis and therefore it is a function both of the urine PH and of the storage conditions of the sample. 40 urine samples have been collected from workers exposed to benzene, both smokers and not smokers, and for each sample the percentage of SPMA measurable at pH 2 and without pH correction (free SPMA) has been calculated with respect to the SPMA measured after quantitative hydrolysis, with the objectives to determine if a correct assessment of the exposure requires the determination of total SPMA and which concentration value could correspond to the BEI of 25 microg/g of creatinine established by the ACGIH. An aliquot of the urine samples has been treated with 9M H2SO4, a second one is brought to pH 2 and a third one is analyzed as it is. All samples are analyzed by HPLC/MS/MS in negative ions/MRM mode, and quantitative analysis is performed using the internal standard method. The percentage found in samples treated at pH 2 is on average 45% of the total SPMA for smokers and 60% for non smokers, while the free SPMA varies from 1% to 66% due to the urine pH variability and to the lower concentrations detected. The determination of total SPMA allows the standardization of the preanalyticalfactors and the dosage with analytical methods less sensitive than HPLC/MS/MS.

  4. Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty without Tourniquet: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bidolegui, Fernando; Arce, Guillermo; Lugones, Alfonso; Pereira, Sebastián; Vindver, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : Blood loss during and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can lead to substantial morbidity and the need for blood transfusions. There are several methods to minimize blood loss and to decrease transfusion rates in patients undergoing TKA. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent with known efficacy for achieving these goals. Currently, many surgeons are performing TKA without the use of tourniquet. Consequently, the aim of the study is to evaluate whether tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after TKA without the adjunctive use of above-the-knee tourniquet. Methods : We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial (1:1 fashion) on the use of tranexamic acid versus placebo in 50 patients undergoing TKA (without tourniquet). The treatment group received two (preoperative and postoperative) 15 mg/kg doses. The primary endpoint was blood transfusion rate. We collected data about demographic and procedural characteristics, hemoglobin and hematocrit values, drain blood loss at 24 hours as well as adverse events. Results : There were no transfusions in the treatment group, whereas 32% of the control group required transfusion (p<0.01). The treatment group had higher hematocrit and hemoglobin levels at 24, 48 and 72 hours after surgery (all p<0.01) and lower drain loss at 24hours (363.4±141 vs 626±260ml, p=<0,001). There were no in-hospital or six-month thromboembolic complications. Discussion : A double-dose of tranexamic acid was safe and effective, reducing blood loss and preventing the need of blood transfusion in patients undergoing TKA without above-the-need tourniquet. PMID:25132872

  5. Supplemented gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid influence bone status in young male rats: effects on free urinary collagen crosslinks, total urinary hydroxyproline, and bone calcium content.

    PubMed

    Claassen, N; Potgieter, H C; Seppa, M; Vermaak, W J; Coetzer, H; Van Papendorp, D H; Kruger, M C

    1995-04-01

    The effect of different ratios of the prostaglandin precursors gamma-linolenic (GLA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids on bone status in growing rats measured as a function of free urinary pyridinium crosslinks and hydroxyproline levels was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were weaned onto an essential fatty acid deficient diet and from their fifth week, different groups of rats received a balanced, semisynthetic diet, supplemented with different ratios of GLA:EPA supplied as a mixture of evening primrose oil (EPO) and fish oil (FO). Controls were supplemented with linoleic (LA; sunflower oil) and alpha-linolenic (ALA; linseed oil) acids (3:1) or a commercially available rat chow. Animals were terminated at 84 days and femur length, ash weight, calcium content, free urinary pyridinium crosslinks (Pyd and Dpyd), total hydroxyproline (Hyp), and creatinine levels measured. Free urinary Pyd and Dpyd are good indicators of bone status and they correlated well with Hyp. Pyd and Dpyd excretion were significantly decreased in the higher GLA:EPA dietary groups and correlated well (r = 0.7) with Hyp levels. Concomitantly, bone calcium content increased significantly in the same dietary groups. These results suggest that diet supplementation with relatively high GLA:EPA ratios are more effective in inhibiting bone resorption than LA:ALA.

  6. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition does not influence levels of free, bioavailable, and total 25-hydroxy vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Ingela; Brudin, Lars; Von, Siv-Ping; Wanby, Pär

    2017-02-01

    In vitro, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) may decrease the binding affinity of vitamin D metabolites for vitamin D-binding protein, which in turn may influence their bioavailability. FAs incorporated as phospholipids in erythrocyte (ery-) cell membranes reflect dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to investigate ery-FA composition in relation to markers for vitamin D. In healthy females (age 22.6 ± 2.0 years) total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS (n = 78), free 25(OH)D with ELISA (n = 64 of 78), and bioavailable 25(OH)D was calculated. Analysis of ery-FA composition was by gas chromatography (n = 56 of 78). A strong correlation between total 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D was seen (r = .66, p < .001), and between total-25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D (r = .68, p < .001). No correlations between 25(OH)D fractions and specific fatty acids were found, and in particular, no associations with mono- and poly-unsaturated FA compositions. All 25(OH)D fractions were correlated with leptin (total 25(OH)D (r = -.33, p < .003); bioavailable 25(OH)D (r = -.47, p < .001); free 25(OH)D (r = -.44, p < .001). Associations were found between PTH and total 25(OH)D (r = -.35, p = .002) and weaker between bioavailable 25(OH)D (r = -.35, p = .040) and free 25(OH)D (r = -.28, p = .079). All fractions of 25(OH)D appear to correlate in a similar way to PTH, BMI and body fat (leptin). No association was found between ery-FA composition and free/bioavailable 25(OH)D. It is unlikely that FAs are a strong uncoupling factor of DBP-bound 25(OH)D.

  7. Alteration in bilirubin excretion in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zavala, A; Del Razo, L M; Aguilar, C; García-Vargas, G G; Borja, V H; Cebrián, M E

    1998-10-15

    We have studied hepatic function in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We studied 51 individuals living in three villages exposed to As in water. Nazareno (0.014 mgAs/l), Santa Ana (0.1 mgAs/l) and Benito Juárez (0.3 mgAs/l). We determined the serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (SAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as indicators of hepatocellular injury and that of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as indicators of cholestasic injury. Serum bilirubin was used as an indicator of organic conjugated anion transport. Total proteins, albumin and globulin fraction in serum were used as indicators of biosynthetic liver capacity. The main findings of this study were the predominantly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and increased serum ALP activity which were related to the concentration of total arsenic (TAs) in urine, suggesting the presence of cholestasis in As-exposed individuals. No significant changes were observed in the other parameters studied.

  8. Strong Relationships in Acid-Base Chemistry – Modeling Protons Based on Predictable Concentrations of Strong Ions, Total Weak Acid Concentrations, and pCO2

    PubMed Central

    Kellum, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding acid-base regulation is often reduced to pigeonholing clinical states into categories of disorders based on arterial blood sampling. An earlier ambition to quantitatively explain disorders by measuring production and elimination of acid has not become standard clinical practice. Seeking back to classical physical chemistry we propose that in any compartment, the requirement of electroneutrality leads to a strong relationship between charged moieties. This relationship is derived in the form of a general equation stating charge balance, making it possible to calculate [H+] and pH based on all other charged moieties. Therefore, to validate this construct we investigated a large number of blood samples from intensive care patients, where both data and pathology is plentiful, by comparing the measured pH to the modeled pH. We were able to predict both the mean pattern and the individual fluctuation in pH based on all other measured charges with a correlation of approximately 90% in individual patient series. However, there was a shift in pH so that fitted pH in general is overestimated (95% confidence interval -0.072–0.210) and we examine some explanations for this shift. Having confirmed the relationship between charged species we then examine some of the classical and recent literature concerning the importance of charge balance. We conclude that focusing on the charges which are predictable such as strong ions and total concentrations of weak acids leads to new insights with important implications for medicine and physiology. Importantly this construct should pave the way for quantitative acid-base models looking into the underlying mechanisms of disorders rather than just classifying them. PMID:27631369

  9. Physical measurements of Cu{sup 2+}-complexes of bilirubin

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, J.R.; Wu, J.G.; Li, W.H.; Xu, Y.Z.; Xu, D.F.; Shen, G.R.; Soloway, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Copper is known to form complexes with bilirubin (H{sub 2}BR). Such complexes have received increased attention due to their clinical significance as free-radical scavengers. The purpose of this study was to examine a series of Cu{sup 2+}BR complexes to ascertain the nature of the binding between Cu{sup 2+} and BR. Several physical measurements of the salts were made, such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-R), and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The complexes were prepared by dissolving protonated BR in NaOH, and adding different ratios of aqueous CuCl{sub 2}. At ratios of Cu{sup 2+}:H{sub 2}BR of 1:1 and 2:1, soluble complexes were formed. In solution EPR spectra demonstrated 9 hyperfine peaks, which from the splitting, is indicative of Cu{sup 2+} coordinated to 4 nitrogen atoms coming from 2 molecules of BR.

  10. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A; Hester, S L; Rees, C A; Kennis, R A; Zoran, D L; Bauer, J E

    2009-08-01

    It is generally believed that diets containing increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) result in improved canine skin and hair coat (SHC). However, the extent to which dietary fat amount and type play a role remains to be systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of both increased dietary fat amount and type on SHC assessments of dogs. Improvements of SHC conditions were investigated after feeding three diets containing increased total dietary fat (i.e. 13% total fat) for 12 weeks in relation to a lower fat acclimation diet (i.e. 9% total fat). The higher fat diets varied in polyunsaturated and saturated fat types and amounts but total fat was kept constant. Skin and hair coat assessments were performed at selected intervals by a trained group of veterinarians and graduate students. In addition, hair lipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography after extraction of plucked hair samples. Significant improvements were found in hair coat glossiness and softness in all dogs fed the higher fat diets in relation to the acclimation diet. Improvements as a result of fat type were also seen but only at 12 weeks. A parallel finding was a marked increase in hair cholesteryl ester content determined at the end of the study at which time SHC scores were significantly improved. Skin and hair coat condition improvements may thus be related to increased cholesteryl ester deposited on the hair shaft surface when high fat diets are fed. Whereas this finding is preliminary, hair lipid analysis may be a useful, non-invasive technique with which to help assess dietary effects on canine SHC.

  11. Does tranexamic acid reduce blood transfusion cost for primary total hip arthroplasty? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ryan N; Moskal, Joseph T; Capps, Susan G

    2015-02-01

    Peri-operative tranexamic acid (TXA) significantly reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and thus hospital costs are reduced. Before employing TXA in primary THA at our institution, facility costs were $286.90/THA for blood transfusion and required 0.45 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 19.87%). After incorporating TXA, the cost for intravenous application was $123.38/THA for blood transfusion and TXA medication and 0.07 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 4.39%) and the cost for topical application was $132.41/THA for blood transfusion and TXA and 0.14 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 12.86%). TXA has the potential to reduce the facility cost per THA and the man-hours/THA from blood transfusions.

  12. Serum bilirubin levels, UGT1A1 polymorphisms and risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lingenhel, Arno; Kollerits, Barbara; Schwaiger, Johannes P; Hunt, Steven C; Gress, Richard; Hopkins, Paul N; Schoenborn, Veit; Heid, Iris M; Kronenberg, Florian

    2008-12-01

    Low levels of the antioxidative serum bilirubin are associated with vascular aging and an increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). UGT1A1 is the major gene influencing bilirubin concentrations. Therefore, we investigated an association of bilirubin levels and two polymorphisms in the promoter of UGT1A1 (-53(TA-repeat) polymorphism and T-3279G) in 477 patients with premature, familial CAD and 619 age- and sex-matched controls. Bilirubin concentrations were significantly lower in cases than in controls (0.62+/-0.36 vs. 0.76+/-0.41 mg/dl for men, p=1.2 x 10(-10); and 0.42+/-0.29 vs. 0.55+/-0.23 mg/dl, p=1.9 x 10(-9) for women). Both polymorphisms showed a strong association with bilirubin levels with higher levels for homozygote carriers of the minor allele. These associations were most pronounced in male controls and patients (p=5.9 x 10(-26) and p=3.4 x 10(-16), respectively, for the -53(TA-repeat) polymorphism). Logistic regression analysis revealed low bilirubin levels but not the UGT1A1 polymorphisms to be significantly associated with CAD: OR (95% CI) 0.90 (0.86-0.94), p=2.6 x 10(-6) for men and 0.77 (0.68-0.87), p=3.2 x 10(-5) for women, respectively for each 0.1mg/dl increase of bilirubin. These results indicate that it is rather decreased bilirubin levels in general than the changes in the genetic variation of this gene that increase the risk for CAD.

  13. Monitoring changes in acid value, total polar material, and antioxidant capacity of oils used for frying chicken.

    PubMed

    Song, JuHee; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Young-Jun; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation products and tocol homologues were monitored in oils during chicken frying to determine the discarding point of highly used frying oils. Oils were heated without chicken for 170h while chicken frying was performed 130 cycles at 180°C. As heating time and frying cycles increased, all oxidation parameters including acid value, total polar materials (TPM), conjugated dienoic acid (CDA), and p-anisidine values (p-AV) increased significantly (p<0.05). γ-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol had the lowest stability in oils during heating or frying processes compared to other tocol homologues. TPM values over 24% were obtained after about 109h for heated oil and 100 cycles for oils used to fry chicken. A decrease of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in isooctane and methanol was highly correlated with the formation of TPM in oils during the frying process. Both DPPH loss and TPM values could be applied to determine the discarding points of highly used frying oils.

  14. Instrumentation and Automated Photometric Titration Procedure for Total Acidity Determination in Red Wine Employing a Multicommuted Flow System

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ausberta Jesus Cabezas; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2006-01-01

    An automated procedure for photometric titration of red wine and associated instrumentation is described. The procedure was based on the flow-batch approach implemented employing multicommutation. The photometric detection was carried out using a homemade LED-based photometer. The mixing device, LED, and photodetector were attached to the titration chamber in order to form a compact and small-sized unit. The flow system comprised an automatic injector and three-way solenoid valves, which were controlled by a microcomputer through an electronic interface card. The software, written in Quick BASIC 4.5, was designed with abilities to accomplish all steps of the titration procedure including data acquisition and real-time processing to decide about the course of titration in the following step and so forth, until the titration endpoint was reached. The usefulness of the proposed titration system was demonstrated by analyzing red wine samples. When results were compared with those obtained using the AOAC reference method, no significant difference was observed at the 95% confidence level. A relative standard deviation of ca  2% (n=9 ) was obtained when processing a typical red wine sample containing 7.3 gl -1 total acidity expressed as tartaric acid. PMID:17671625

  15. The study on clinical value of the detection about serum and Unconjugated Bilirubin in diagnosis of neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangzhou; Wang, Jiefei; Huang, Nannan; Yu, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the clinical value of the detection about serum and unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in neonatal jaundice was studied to found an effective and rapid method for diagnose of neonatal jaundice. ALB (Serum Albumin), total serum bilirubin (TSB) and UCB were detected by ELISA method among the 100 cases with neonatal jaundice selected for the study. The values of ALB, UCB and TSB in moderate jaundice patients were (42.83±3.87) g/L, (287.35±44.38) μm/L, (304.16±43.40) μm/L, respectively; as for the severe jaundice patients, the values were (38.41±4.82) g/L, (354.38±48.75) μm/L, (375.20±47.51) μm/L. The results showed significant differences with the p< 0.05 between moderate and severe jaundice patients. The level of ALB, UCB, TSB in hemolytic jaundice, obstructive jaundice and jaundice caused by other infections also had significant differences, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The detection of ALB and UCB provides a useful method for the diagnosis and assessment of neonatal jaundice.

  16. Decolorization and biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by bilirubin oxidase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youxun; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2009-12-01

    The dye-decolorizing potential of bilirubin oxidase (BOX) was demonstrated for an anthraquinone dye, remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR). The dye was decolorized 40% within 4 h by the BOX alone, whereas it was more efficient in the presence of 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), showing 91.5% decolorization within 25 min. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization were examined. The results showed that the decolorization efficiency decreased with increasing RBBR concentration, and a marked inhibition effect was exhibited when the dye concentrations were above 100 mg l(-1). The optimum temperature for enzymatic decolorization was 40 degrees C. BOX showed efficient decolorization of the dye with a wide pH range of 5-8.5. The maximum decolorization activity occurred at pH 8 with ABTS and at pH 5 without ABTS. Analysis of RBBR ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) spectra after BOX treatment indicated that the decolorization of RBBR was due to biodegradation. Our results suggested that ABTS can serve as an electron mediator to facilitate the oxidation of RBBR, and the BOX-ABTS mediator-involved dye decolorization mechanism was similar to that of laccase. Operation over a wide range of pH and efficient decolorization suggested that the BOX can be used to decolorize synthetic dyes from effluents, especially for anthraquinonic dyes.

  17. Comparison of total lipids and fatty acids from liver, heart and abdominal muscle of scalloped (Sphyrna lewini) and smooth (Sphyrna zygaena) hammerhead sharks.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Bruce Clement; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Namdarizandi, Vahid; Vizarra, Scott; Cliff, Geremy

    2014-01-01

    Liver, heart and abdominal muscle samples from scalloped (Sphyrna lewini) and smooth (Sphyrna zygaena) hammerhead sharks were analysed to characterise their lipid and fatty acid profiles. Samples were compared both between and within species, but there were no significant differences in total lipids for either comparison, although much greater total amounts were found in the liver samples. Within the individual fatty acids, the only significant differences were greater amounts of 22:6n-3, total n-3 polyunsaturates and total polyunsaturates in smooth, when compared to scalloped, hammerhead liver. This may reflect the more wide spread distribution of this species into cooler waters. Within both species the liver levels of the same fatty acid fractions decreased from spring to summer, which may correlate with changes in fatty acid profile to adapt to any differences in amount or species of prey consumed, or other considerations, eg. buoyancy, however there was no data to clarify this.

  18. Successive determination of urinary bilirubin and creatinine employing simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponhong, Kraingkrai; Teshima, Norio; Grudpan, Kate; Vichapong, Jitlada; Motomizu, Shoji; Sakai, Tadao

    2015-02-01

    A novel four-channel simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis (SIEMA) system has been assembled for successive determination of bilirubin and creatinine in urinary samples. The chemical variables and physical parameters in the flow system were optimized for the enhancement of successive analytical performances. The interferences from urine matrices on the determination of bilirubin and creatinine were eliminated to dilute urine samples. The calibration graphs with the optimum conditions were achieved to be in 0.024-5.0 mg L(-1) for bilirubin and 2-100 mg L(-1) for creatinine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) at 3 mg L(-1) of bilirubin and at 50 mg L(-1) of creatinine for 11 runs were 1.5 and 1.0%, respectively. The limits of detections (3σ of blank) for bilirubin and creatinine were 7 µg L(-1) and 0.6 mg L(-1), respectively. The sample throughput for stepwise detection was 22 h(-1). The proposed method was applied to the successive determination of bilirubin and creatinine in urine samples.

  19. Surface-modified anodic aluminum oxide membrane with hydroxyethyl celluloses as a matrix for bilirubin removal.

    PubMed

    Xue, Maoqiang; Ling, Yisheng; Wu, Guisen; Liu, Xin; Ge, Dongtao; Shi, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Microporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were modified by 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to produce terminal epoxy groups. These were used to covalently link hydroxyethyl celluloses (HEC) to amplify reactive groups of AAO membrane. The hydroxyl groups of HEC-AAO composite membrane were further modified with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether to link arginine as an affinity ligand. The contents of HEC and arginine of arginine-immobilized HEC-AAO membrane were 52.1 and 19.7mg/g membrane, respectively. As biomedical adsorbents, the arginine-immobilized HEC-AAO membranes were tested for bilirubin removal. The non-specific bilirubin adsorption on the unmodified HEC-AAO composite membranes was 0.8mg/g membrane. Higher bilirubin adsorption values, up to 52.6mg/g membrane, were obtained with the arginine-immobilized HEC-AAO membranes. Elution of bilirubin showed desorption ratio was up to 85% using 0.3M NaSCN solution as the desorption agent. Comparisons equilibrium and dynamic capacities showed that dynamic capacities were lower than the equilibrium capacities. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of bilirubin and the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, albumin concentration and ionic strength on adsorption were also investigated.

  20. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  1. Bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria: X-ray determination of the complete crystal structure and a rational surface modification for enhanced electrocatalytic O2 reduction.

    PubMed

    Cracknell, James A; McNamara, Thomas P; Lowe, Edward D; Blanford, Christopher F

    2011-07-07

    The blue multi-copper oxidase bilirubin oxidase (BOx) from the ascomycete plant pathogen Myrothecium verrucaria (Mv) efficiently catalyses the oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin, with the concomitant reduction of O(2) to water, a reaction of considerable interest for low-temperature bio-fuel cell applications. We have solved the complete X-ray determined structure of Mv BOx at 2.4 Å resolution, using molecular replacement with the Spore Coat Protein A (CotA) enzyme from Bacillus subtilis (PDB code 1GSK) as a template. The structure reveals an unusual environment around the blue type 1 copper (T1 Cu) that includes two non-coordinating hydrophilic amino acids, asparagine and threonine. The presence of a long, narrow and hydrophilic pocket near the T1 Cu suggests that structure of the substrate-binding site is dynamically determined in vivo. We show that the interaction between the binding pocket of Mv BOx and its highly conjugated natural organic substrate, bilirubin, can be used to stabilise the enzyme on a pyrolytic graphite electrode, more than doubling its electrocatalytic activity relative to the current obtained by simple adsorption of the protein to the carbon surface.

  2. A digital image-based method for determining of total acidity in red wines using acid-base titration without indicator.

    PubMed

    Tôrres, Adamastor Rodrigues; Lyra, Wellington da Silva; de Andrade, Stéfani Iury Evangelista; Andrade, Renato Allan Navarro; da Silva, Edvan Cirino; Araújo, Mário César Ugulino; Gaião, Edvaldo da Nóbrega

    2011-05-15

    This work proposes the use of digital image-based method for determination of total acidity in red wines by means of acid-base titration without using an external indicator or any pre-treatment of the sample. Digital images present the colour of the emergent radiation which is complementary to the radiation absorbed by anthocyanines present in wines. Anthocyanines change colour depending on the pH of the medium, and from the variation of colour in the images obtained during titration, the end point can be localized with accuracy and precision. RGB-based values were employed to build titration curves, and end points were localized by second derivative curves. The official method recommends potentiometric titration with a NaOH standard solution, and sample dilution until the pH reaches 8.2-8.4. In order to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, titrations of ten red wines were carried out. Results were compared with the reference method, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the results by applying the paired t-test at the 95% confidence level. The proposed method yielded more precise results than the official method. This is due to the trivariate nature of the measurements (RGB), associated with digital images.

  3. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of “Sweetheart” Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis)

    PubMed Central

    Golding, John B.; Blades, Barbara L.; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J.; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J.; Archer, John R.; Davies, Justin B.; Banos, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Sims, cultivar “Sweetheart”) were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to “Sweetheart” purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit. PMID:28231212

  4. Higher direct bilirubin levels during mid-pregnancy are associated with lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoqun; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Wu, Jiangyue; Wang, Weiye; Li, Xiating; Ding, Huisi; Guo, Yanfang; Gao, Qin; Hu, Xingwen; Xiong, Guoping; Yang, Xuefeng; Hao, Liping; Xiao, Mei; Yang, Nianhong

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin concentrations have been recently reported to be negatively associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between bilirubin concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus. In a prospective cohort study, 2969 pregnant women were recruited prior to 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. The value of bilirubin was tested and oral glucose tolerance test was conducted to screen gestational diabetes mellitus. The relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and gestational weeks was studied by two-piecewise linear regression. A subsample of 1135 participants with serum bilirubin test during 16-18 weeks gestation was conducted to research the association between serum bilirubin levels and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus by logistic regression. Gestational diabetes mellitus developed in 8.5 % of the participants (223 of 2969). Two-piecewise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the levels of bilirubin decreased with gestational week up to the turning point 23 and after that point, levels of bilirubin were increased slightly. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the relative risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus was lower in the highest tertile of direct bilirubin than that in the lowest tertile (RR 0.60; 95 % CI, 0.35-0.89). The results suggested that women with higher serum direct bilirubin levels during the second trimester of pregnancy have lower risk for development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  5. Role of hyaluronic acid and phospholipid in the lubrication of a cobalt-chromium head for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Bong; Duong, Cong-Truyen; Chang, Ho-Geun; Sharma, Ashish R; Thompson, Mark S; Park, Sungchan; Kwak, Byung-Chan; Kim, Tae-Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Park, Seonghun

    2014-09-01

    The tribological performance of total hip arthroplasty has an important influence on its success rate. This study examined the concentration-dependent role of hyaluronic acid (HA) and phospholipid (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) in the boundary lubricating ability of retrieved cobalt-chromium femoral heads. The microscale frictional coefficients (μ) were measured by atomic force microscopy using a rectangular silicon cantilever integrated with sharp silicon tips. In the case of HA lubricant, the frictional coefficients decreased significantly at concentrations of 2.0 (0.16 ± 0.03) and 3.5 mg/ml (0.11 ± 0.01) while increased at 5.0 mg/ml (0.15 ± 0.01), compared to that with phosphate buffer saline (0.25 ± 0.03). The concentration-dependent lubrication behavior of DPPC was most effective when DPPC was in the physiological concentration range, showing μ = 0.16 ± 0.01 in polypropylene glycol, and 0.05 ± 0.01, 0.02 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 at a DPPC concentration of 0.05, 0.2, and 3.0 mg/ml, respectively. Results obtained show significant differences between the DPPC concentration groups. Conclusively, the microscale frictional response of the retrieved CoCr femoral head has a significant dependence on the concentrations of HA and DPPC. Moreover, observed optimal concentration of HA and DPPC for effective lubrication is similar to that observed in normal human synovial fluid. Therefore, a retrieval of the synovia may be considered during total hip replacement surgeries in an effort for reduction of friction between head and liner of total hip replacement implants.

  6. Total antioxidant and ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits and vegetables: implications for dietary planning and food preservation.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence links high intake of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidant micronutrients to health promotion. It would be useful to know the overall, or 'total' antioxidant capacity of foods, to establish the contribution of AA to this, and to assess how this information may translate into dietary intakes to meet the new US daily reference intake for AA. In this study, the total antioxidant capacity, as the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) value, and AA content of thirty-four types of fruits and vegetables were measured using a modified version of the FRAP assay, known as FRASC. This measures AA (reduced form only) simultaneously with the FRAP value. Results covered a wide range: 880-15940 micromol/kg fresh wet weight and <20-540 mg/kg fresh wet weight respectively, for FRAP and AA, which comprised < 1-73 % and < 1-59 % total antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables respectively. We estimate that 100 mg AA is contained in one orange, a few strawberries, one kiwi fruit, 1-2 slices of pineapple, several florets of raw cauliflower or a handful of uncooked spinach leaves. Apples, bananas, pears and plums, the most commonly consumed fruits in the UK, contain very little AA. Results indicate also that the antioxidant capacity of vegetables decreases rapidly and significantly after fragmentation. Results of this, and future studies, using FRASC as a biomonitoring tool will be useful in food production, preparation, preservation, and aid dietary choices to increase antioxidant and AA intake. Furthermore, FRASC will facilitate bioavailability studies of antioxidants from different foods of known antioxidant capacity and AA content.

  7. An hour-specific nomogram for transcutaneous bilirubin values in term and late preterm Hispanic neonates.

    PubMed

    Engle, William D; Lai, Susanna; Ahmad, Naveed; Manning, M Denise; Jackson, Gregory L

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine percentile values for hour-specific transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurements in Hispanic neonates during the first 72 hours of age. Neonates with gestational age >or= 35 weeks and body weight >or= 2100 g were included. All neonates were screened with JM-103 TcB measurements at a minimum of every 24 hours by nursing personnel, and only TcB values obtained in Hispanic neonates with postnatal ages of 10 to 74 hours were analyzed. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile curves were determined. These data were compared with a previously published TcB nomogram predominantly composed of white, non-Hispanic neonates. A total of 3284 TcB values were measured in 2005 neonates. A nomogram was constructed for this exclusively Hispanic population, identifying the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile curves. The 95th percentile values at 24, 48, and 72 hours were 7.6, 11.0, and 12.4 mg/dL, respectively. The comparison between our results and those of the previously published study indicated that small but consistent differences between the two study populations were apparent, with the Hispanic neonates having significantly higher TcB values at the majority of time points analyzed. These observations were made despite a higher proportion of neonates >or= 40 weeks' gestation ( p < 0.001) and a lower proportion exclusively breast-fed ( p < 0.001) in the Hispanic population versus those in the previous study. Although higher bilirubin levels for certain populations are well documented, such differences in Hispanic neonates have not been confirmed. A TcB nomogram for Hispanic neonates is presented as a tool that will aid the clinician in the management of jaundice for this population. Compared with the previous study, this report indicates that although differences were relatively small, significantly higher TcB values were observed in the Hispanic population.

  8. Veno-occlusive disease of the liver in the absence of elevation in bilirubin in pediatric patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kasiani C; Dandoy, Christopher; El-Bietar, Javier; Davies, Stella M; Jodele, Sonata

    2015-02-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver is a well-described and significant complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with limited successful therapeutic options in severe cases. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment is crucial to restrict the extent of disease. However, a subset of patients may not meet all current diagnostic criteria at presentation, and waiting for these to be met may delay therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 794 HSCT patients treated at our institution between 2003 and 2013, identifying 17 (2.1%) who developed VOD. Of these, 5 (29%) were noted to have an absence of elevated bilirubin at the time of VOD diagnosis and reversal of portal venous flow on ultrasound. Median total and conjugated bilirubin at VOD diagnosis were 1.0 and 0.2 mg/dL, respectively. All 5 patients were subsequently diagnosed with multiorgan failure associated with VOD, including 1 with encephalopathy. Four were treated with intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone (500 mg/m(2) per dose every 12 hours for 6 doses). One patient received defibrotide therapy in addition to steroids and another supportive care alone. VOD resolved in 4 of 5 patients, with median time to resolution of VOD, defined as recovery of all organ function and normalization of bilirubin and portal venous flow, of 8 days. Two patients died later from progressive primary disease and chronic graft-versus-host disease, respectively. We conclude that a high index of suspicion for VOD should be maintained in patients despite lack of bilirubin elevation in the presence of other diagnostic criteria such as hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, ascites, or weight gain. Early ultrasound evaluation in these patients may lead to more timely diagnosis and therapeutic interventions.

  9. Development of a System Model for Non-Invasive Quantification of Bilirubin in Jaundice Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alla, Suresh K.

    Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition which occurs in newborns as a result of an imbalance between the production and elimination of bilirubin. Excess bilirubin in the blood stream diffuses into the surrounding tissue leading to a yellowing of the skin. An optical system integrated with a signal processing system is used as a platform to noninvasively quantify bilirubin concentration through the measurement of diffuse skin reflectance. Initial studies have lead to the generation of a clinical analytical model for neonatal jaundice which generates spectral reflectance data for jaundiced skin with varying levels of bilirubin concentration in the tissue. The spectral database built using the clinical analytical model is then used as a test database to validate the signal processing system in real time. This evaluation forms the basis for understanding the translation of this research to human trials. The clinical analytical model and signal processing system have been successful validated on three spectral databases. First spectral database is constructed using a porcine model as a surrogate for neonatal skin tissue. Samples of pig skin were soaked in bilirubin solutions of varying concentrations to simulate jaundice skin conditions. The resulting skins samples were analyzed with our skin reflectance systems producing bilirubin concentration values that show a high correlation (R2 = 0.94) to concentration of the bilirubin solution that each porcine tissue sample is soaked in. The second spectral database is the spectral measurements collected on human volunteers to quantify the different chromophores and other physical properties of the tissue such a Hematocrit, Hemoglobin etc. The third spectral database is the spectral data collected at different time periods from the moment a bruise is induced.

  10. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhong; Chen, Linlin; Wu, Hongyuan; Lu, Yiming; Hu, Zhenlin; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Liming; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH), which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA) of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA) of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50) SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p<0.05) reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes) of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  11. Tranexamic acid and the reduction of blood loss in total knee and hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic drug used as a blood-sparing technique in many surgical specialties. The principal objective of our meta-analysis was to review randomized, controlled trials (RCT) comparing total blood loss and the number of patients receiving allogeneic blood transfusions with and without the use of TXA for knee (TKA) and hip (THA) arthroplasty. Methods Studies were included if patients underwent primary unilateral TKA or THA; the study involved the comparison of a TXA treatment group to a control group who received either a placebo or no treatment at all; outcome measures included total blood loss TBL, number of patients receiving allogeneic blood transfusions, and/or incidence of thromboembolic complications; the study was a published or unpublished RCT from 1995 – July 2012. Results Data were tested for publication bias and statistical heterogeneity. Combined weighted mean differences in blood loss favoured TXA over control for TKA and THA patients respectively [ −1.149 (p < 0.001; 95% CI −1.298, -1.000), -0.504 (p < 0.001; 95% CI, -0.672, -0.336)]. Combined odds ratios favoured fewer patients requiring allogeneic transfusions for TKA and THA with the use of TXA respectively [0.145 (p < 0.001; 95% CI, 0.094, 0.223), 0.327 (p < 0.001; 95% CI, 0.208, 0.515)]. Combined odds ratios indicated no increased incidence of DVT with TXA use in TKA and THA respectively [1.030 (p = 0.946; 95% CI, 0.439, 2.420), 1.070 (p = 0.895; 95% CI, 0.393, 2.911)]. Conclusions TXA should be considered for routine use in primary knee and hip arthroplasty to decrease blood loss. PMID:23651507

  12. Effect of thermally oxidized oil and fasting status on the short-term digestibility of ketolinoleic acids and total oxidized fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Olivero-David, Raul; Paduano, Antonello; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola; Bastida, Sara; González-Muñoz, María José; Benedí, Juana; Sacchi, Raffaele; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco José

    2011-05-11

    Western diets contain substantial amounts of lipid oxidation products. The effects of fasting status and oil oxidation on short-term digestibility of oxidized fatty acids (ox-FA) and ketolinoleic acids (keto-LA) of sunflower oils were evaluated. Twelve rats were fasted overnight for 3 days, whereas another 12 rats had free access to diet. From day 4, and for 4 days, two groups of rats, nonfasted (NFT) and fasted (FT), received 1 g/100 g body weight of sunflower oil reused from 40 deep-frying processes, and two control groups of rats, nonfasted (NFC) and fasted (FC), received the same amount of fresh oil. Ox-FA and keto-LA were determined 5 h after the last administration in the various gastrointestinal compartments together with the intraintestinal MDA. Oil digestibility was highest in NFC and lowest in FT rats. NFT and FT rats had higher (at least P < 0.05) intraintestinal MDA, ox-FA, and keto-LA than NFC and FC; MDA and keto-LA concentrations correlated with each other (P < 0.05). Ox-FA and keto-LA levels found in the gastric lumen suggest that digestion contributes to the formation of these compounds. Total ox-FA and keto-LA were efficiently absorbed during the first 5 h after test oil administration, but poorly absorbed in the case of fresh oils. Oil alteration influenced the digestibility of these compounds more than fasting, although the digestibility of oxidized oil was significantly affected by fasting.

  13. Salivary Lipid Peroxidation and Total Sialic Acid Levels in Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users as Maraş Powder

    PubMed Central

    Kurtul, Naciye; Gökpınar, Engin

    2012-01-01

    Maraş powder (MP), a different type of smokeless tobacco (ST) and prepared from a tobacco of species Nicotiana rustica Linn, is widely used in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of MP on salivary total sialic acid (TSA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and to compare these parameters in smokers and MP users (MPUs). The salivary TSA and MDA concentrations were significantly higher in the smokers and MPU than those of control subjects and also in MPU than that of smokers. We have also observed that as the number of cigarettes consumed and MP amount increases, TSA and MDA levels increase too. In smokers, MDA values were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of smoking. In MPU, both MDA and TSA levels were significantly correlated with the duration of MP use and the amount of daily consumed MP. We have concluded increased salivary TSA and MDA levels associated in MPU and smokers. Results can help to evaluate harmful effects of these habits. It is important to point out that bigger change in the measured parameters has been observed for MP use. This observation may be an important indication of harmful effects of ST use as MP. PMID:22577253

  14. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7–14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk. PMID:27741299

  15. Is combined topical with intravenous tranexamic acid superior than topical, intravenous tranexamic acid alone and control groups for blood loss controlling after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunmei; Qi, Yingmei; Jie, Li; Li, Hong-biao; Zhao, Xi-cheng; Qin, Lei; Jiang, Xin-qiang; Zhang, Zhen-hua; Ma, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined topical with intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) versus topical, intravenous TXA alone or control for reducing blood loss after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: In May 2016, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese Wanfang database. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria. Only patients prepared for primary TKA that administration combined topical with intravenous TXA with topical TXA, intravenous (IV) TXA, or control group for reducing blood loss were included. Eligible criteria were published RCTs about combined topical with intravenous TXA with topical alone or intravenous alone. The primary endpoint was the total blood loss and need for transfusion. The complications of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were also compiled to assess the safety of combined topical TXA with intravenous TXA. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were estimated for dichotomous outcomes, and mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs for continuous outcomes. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to appraise a risk of bias. Stata 12.0 software was used for meta-analysis. Results: Fifteen studies involving 1495 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled meta-analysis indicated that combined topical TXA with intravenous TXA can reduce the total blood loss compared with placebo with a mean of 458.66 mL and the difference is statistically significant (MD = −458.66, 95% CI: −655.40 to 261.91, P < 0.001). Compared with intravenous TXA, combined administrated TXA can decrease the total blood loss, and the difference is statistically significant (MD = −554.03, 95% CI: −1066.21 to −41.85, P = 0

  16. Bilirubin modulated cytokines, growth factors and angiogenesis to improve cutaneous wound healing process in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ram, Mahendra; Singh, Vishakha; Kumawat, Sanjay; Kant, Vinay; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin has shown cutaneous wound healing potential in some preliminary studies. Here we hypothesize that bilirubin facilitates wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating important healing factors/candidates and antioxidant parameters in a time-dependent manner. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin. In all diabetic rats wounds were created under pentobarbitone anesthesia. All the rats were divided into two groups, of which one (control) was treated with ointment base and other with bilirubin ointment (0.3%). Wound closer measurement and tissue collection were done on days 3, 7, 14 and 19 post-wounding. The relative expressions of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α), transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1()), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA and proteins and the mRNA of interlukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and matrix metalloprteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined in the wound tissues. CD-31 staining and collagen content were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and picrosirius red staining, respectively. Histopathological changes were assessed by H&E staining. The per cent wound closer was significantly higher from day 7 onwards in bilirubin-treated rats. HIF-1α, VEGF, SDF-1α, TGF-β1, IL-10 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher on days 3, 7 and 14 in bilirubin-treated rats. The mRNA expression and protein level of TNF-α and the mRNA of IL-1β and MMP-9 were progressively and markedly reduced in bilirubin-treated rats. The collagen deposition and formation of blood vessels were greater in bilirubin-treated rats. Bilirubin markedly facilitated cutaneous wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating growth factors, cytokines, neovasculogenesis and collagen contents to the wound site. Topical application of bilirubin ointment might be of great use in cutaneous wound healing in diabetic patients.

  17. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal.

  18. Bilirubin degradation in methanol induced by continuous UV-B irradiation: a UHPLC--ESI-MS study.

    PubMed

    Stanojević, J S; Zvezdanović, J B; Marković, D Z

    2015-04-01

    Degradation of bilirubin in aerobic methanol solution by continuous UV-B irradiation has been investigated in this work. The purpose of this study was to shed more light on bilirubin interaction with the UV-B component of natural sunlight, since bilirubin is a very efficient UV-B absorber located in the skin epidermis. The degradation products have been detected and studied by a combined method of Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS). Bilirubin, a toxic pigment which itself is a product of (hemoglobin) degradation in organisms, undergoes its own degradation under aerobic conditions of UV-B continuous irradiation (e.g. photooxidation) that can be partly self-sensitized. Two dipyrrolic structures have been identified as a result of the bilirubin degradation, not including the bilirubin derivative biliverdin whose increase in the irradiated system is synchronous with a time dynamics of bilirubin degradation. It appears that one of dipyrrolic products originates directly from bilirubin and biliverdin molecules, while the other one is probably connected to bilirubin self-sensitized degradation. The precursor role of biliverdin in the degradation process--related to the detected dipyrroles--has not been confirmed.

  19. Continuous de novo biosynthesis of haem and its rapid turnover to bilirubin are necessary for cytoprotection against cell damage.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Taka-aki; Mu, Anfeng; Tai, Tran Tien; Kitajima, Sakihito; Taketani, Shigeru

    2015-05-20

    It is well known that haem serves as the prosthetic group of various haemoproteins that function in oxygen transport, respiratory chain, and drug metabolism. However, much less is known about the functions of the catabolites of haem in mammalian cells. Haem is enzymatically degraded to iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin, which is then converted to bilirubin. Owing to difficulties in measuring bilirubin, however, the generation and transport of this end product remain unclear despite its clinical importance. Here, we used UnaG, the recently identified bilirubin-binding fluorescent protein, to analyse bilirubin production in a variety of human cell lines. We detected a significant amount of bilirubin with many non-blood cell types, which was sensitive to inhibitors of haem metabolism. These results suggest that there is a basal level of haem synthesis and its conversion into bilirubin. Remarkably, substantial changes were observed in the bilirubin generation when cells were exposed to stress insults. Since the stress-induced cell damage was exacerbated by the pharmacological blockade of haem metabolism but was ameliorated by the addition of biliverdin and bilirubin, it is likely that the de novo synthesis of haem and subsequent conversion to bilirubin play indispensable cytoprotective roles against cell damage.

  20. Potential Cardiovascular Risk Protection of Bilirubin in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    do Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Kohlova, Michaela; Ribeiro, Sandra; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Teixeira, Laetitia; Nascimento, Henrique; Reis, Flávio; Miranda, Vasco; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Belo, Luís; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in hemodialysis (HD) patients. An enlarged set of studies were evaluated in 191 HD patients, including hematological study, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory markers, and dialysis adequacy. The TA duplication screening in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 A1 (UGT1A1) promoter region was also performed. The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies in HD patients were 49.2%, 42.4%, and 8.4% for 6/6, 6/7, and 7/7 genotypes, respectively. Although no difference was found in UGT1A1 genotype distribution between the three tertiles of bilirubin, significant differences were found with increasing bilirubin levels, namely, a decrease in platelet, leukocyte, and lymphocyte counts, transferrin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), ox-LDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, apolipoprotein (Apo) A, Apo B, and interleukin-6 serum levels and a significant increased concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte count, iron, transferrin saturation, Apo A/Apo B ratio, adiponectin, and paraoxonase 1 serum levels. After adjustment for age these results remained significant. Our data suggest that higher bilirubin levels are associated with beneficial effects in HD patients, by improving lipid profile and reducing the inflammatory grade, which might contribute to increase in iron availability. These results suggest a potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in HD patients. PMID:25276769

  1. Evaluation of region selective bilirubin-induced brain damage as a basis for a pharmacological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dal Ben, Matteo; Bottin, Cristina; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Tiribelli, Claudio; Gazzin, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The neurologic manifestations of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit high variations in the severity and appearance of motor, auditory and cognitive symptoms, which is suggestive of a still unexplained selective topography of bilirubin-induced damage. By applying the organotypic brain culture (OBC: preserving in vitro the cellular complexity, connection and architecture of the in vivo brain) technique to study hyperbilirubinemia, we mapped the regional target of bilirubin-induced damage, demonstrated a multifactorial toxic action of bilirubin, and used this information to evaluate the efficacy of drugs applicable to newborns to protect the brain. OBCs from 8-day-old rat pups showed a 2–13 fold higher sensitivity to bilirubin damage than 2-day-old preparations. The hippocampus, inferior colliculus and cerebral cortex were the only brain regions affected, presenting a mixed inflammatory-oxidative mechanism. Glutamate excitotoxicity was appreciable in only the hippocampus and inferior colliculus. Single drug treatment (indomethacin, curcumin, MgCl2) significantly improved cell viability in all regions, while the combined (cocktail) administration of the three drugs almost completely prevented damage in the most affected area (hippocampus). Our data may supports an innovative (complementary to phototherapy) approach for directly protecting the newborn brain from bilirubin neurotoxicity. PMID:28102362

  2. Analysis of free and total myo-inositol in foods, feeds, and infant formula by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, including a novel total extraction using microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, David; Pritchard, Ted; Foy, Pamela; King, Kathryn; Mitchell, Barbara; Austad, John; Winters, Doug; Sullivan, Darryl

    2012-01-01

    A method for the analysis of free and total myo-inositol in foods, feeds, and infant formulas has been developed and validated using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The option of a free myo-inositol determination or a complete total myo-inositol determination from main bound sources can be achieved. These sources include phytates, lower'phosphorylated forms, and phosphatidylinositol. This approach gives the option for subtraction of myo-inositol from nonbioavailable sources when it is quantified using other methods if a total bioavailable myo-inositol result is desired for nutritional labeling of a product. The free analysis was validated in a milk-based infant formula, giving RSD(R) of 2.29% and RSD, of 2.06%. A mean recovery of 97.9% was achieved from various spike levels of myo-inositol. Certified National Institute of Standards and Technology reference material verified the method's compatibility and specificity. Two different total analyses were validated in a soy-based infant formula and compared. One technique involved using a conventional acid hydrolysis with autoclave incubation for 6 h, while the other used a novel technique of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis with enzymatic treatment that can minimize extraction to 1 day. The autoclave analysis had RSD(R) of 2.08% and RSDr of 1.55%, along with a mean spike recovery of 102.1% at various myo-inositol spike levels. The microwave/enzyme total analysis had RSD(R) of 4.34% and RSD, of 4.70%, along with a mean spike recovery of 104.2% at various spike levels of myo-inositol. Main sources of myo-inositol including phytic acid and phosphatidylinositol were tested with both total analyses. Mean recoveries of phytic acid and phosphatidylinositol through the autoclave total analysis were 90.4 and 98.3%, respectively. Mean spike recoveries for these same sources in soy- based infant formula through the microwave/enzyme total analysis were 97.2 and 96

  3. Higher plasma bilirubin predicts veno-occlusive disease in early childhood undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with cyclosporine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwi Suk; Moon, Aree; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Shin, Hee Young; Choi, Young Hee; Kim, Hyang Sook; Kim, Sang Geon

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the association between plasma bilirubin levels and veno-occlusive disease (VOD) in non-adult patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) during cyclosporine therapy. METHODS: A total of 123 patients taking cyclosporine were evaluated using an electronic medical system at the Seoul National University Children’s Hospital from the years 2004 through 2011. Patients were grouped by age and analyzed for incidence and type of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including VOD. RESULTS: The HSCT patients were divided into three age groups: G#1 ≥ 18; 9 ≤ G#2 ≤ 17; and G#3 ≤ 8 years of age). The majority of transplant donor types were cord blood transplantations. Most prevalent ADRs represented acute graft-vs-host disease (aGVHD) and VOD. Although the incidences of aGVHD did not vary among the groups, the higher frequency ratios of VOD in G#3 suggested that an age of 8 or younger is a risk factor for developing VOD in HSCT patients. After cyclosporine therapy, the trough plasma concentrations of cyclosporine were lower in G#3 than in G#1, indicative of its increased clearance. Moreover, in G#3 only, a maximal total bilirubin level (BILmax) of ≥ 1.4 mg/dL correlated with VOD incidence after cyclosporine therapy. CONCLUSION: HSCT patients 8 years of age or younger are more at risk for developing VOD, diagnosed as hyperbilirubinemia, tender hepatomegaly, and ascites/weight gain after cyclosporine therapy, which may be represented by a criterion of plasma BILmax being ≥ 1.4 mg/dL, suggestive of more sensitive VOD indication in this age group. PMID:27358786

  4. Precision of dehydroascorbic acid quantitation with the use of the subtraction method--validation of HPLC-DAD method for determination of total vitamin C in food.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Artur; Jamroz, Jerzy

    2015-04-15

    In food analysis, a method for determination of vitamin C should enable measuring of total content of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) because both chemical forms exhibit biological activity. The aim of the work was to confirm applicability of HPLC-DAD method for analysis of total content of vitamin C (TC) and ascorbic acid in various types of food by determination of validation parameters such as: selectivity, precision, accuracy, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. The results showed that the method applied for determination of TC and AA was selective, linear and precise. Precision of DHAA determination by the subtraction method was also evaluated. It was revealed that the results of DHAA determination obtained by the subtraction method were not precise which resulted directly from the assumption of this method and the principles of uncertainty propagation. The proposed chromatographic method should be recommended for routine determinations of total vitamin C in various food.

  5. Conical intersection in a bilirubin model A possible pathway for phototherapy of neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietz, Burkhard; Blomgren, Fredrik

    2006-03-01

    Phototherapy of neonatal jaundice involves Z- E-isomerisation around an exocyclic double bond in bilirubin. Our results of a CASSCF study on dipyrrinone, a bilirubin model, show a conical intersection between the ground and first excited singlet states associated with the Z- E-isomerisation. The conical intersection, located ca. 50 kJ/mol below the Franck-Condon-point, together with the S 1 minimum, ca. 50 kJ/mol below the conical intersection, are able to explain the available time-resolved spectroscopic data (the very short lifetime of the initially excited state and transient 'dark state' intermediate) as well as bilirubin's very low fluorescence quantum yield and the medium-efficient photoisomerisation reaction.

  6. Total Oxidative status of Mouse Vitrified Pre-Antral Follicles with Pre-Treatment of Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hatami, Sahar; Zavareh, Saeed; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Ghorbanian, Mohammad Taghi; Karimi, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cryopreservation of pre-antral follicles is a hopeful technique to preserve female fertility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in the presence of alpha lipoic acid (ALA). Methods: Isolated pre-antral follicles (140–150 µm in diameter) were divided into vitrified–warmed and fresh groups. Each group was subjected to in vitro maturation with or without ALA for 12 days, followed by adding human chronic gonadotropin to induce ovulation. In vitro fertilization was performed to evaluate their developmental competence. In parallel, the amount of ROS and TAC were assessed after 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of culture by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin assay and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, respectively. Results: The respective rates of survival, antrum formation, and metaphase II oocytes were significantly higher in ALA-supplemented groups compared to the groups not treated with ALA. TAC and ROS levels were significantly decreased and increased, respectively during the culture period up to 96 h in the absence of ALA in both vitrified and non-vitrified samples. However, with pretreatment of ALA, TAC levels were increased significantly and remained constant up to 96 h in vitrified-warmed pre-antral follicles, while ROS levels completely returned to the level of starting point after 96 h of culture in the presence of ALA. Conclusion: Pretreatment of ALA positively influences development of pre-antral follicles in vitrified and non-vitrified samples through increasing follicular TAC level and decreasing ROS levels. PMID:24842145

  7. Changes in the Total Lipid, Neutral Lipid, Phospholipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipid Fractions during Pastırma Processing, a Dry-Cured Meat Product

    PubMed Central

    Aksu, Muhammet Irfan; Dogan, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Pastırma is a dry-cured meat product, produced from whole beef or water buffalo muscles. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of production stages (raw meat, after curing, after 2nd drying and pastırma) on the total lipid, neutral lipid, phospholipid and fatty acid composition of phospholipid fraction of pastırma produced from beef M. Longissimus dorsi muscles. The pH and colour (L*, a* and b*) analyses were also performed in raw meat and pastırma. It was found that pastırma production stages had significant effects (p<0.01) on the total amounts of lipid, neutral lipid and phospholipid, and the highest amounts of lipid, neutral lipid and phospholipid were detected in pastırma. In pastırma, neutral lipid ratio was determined as 79.33±2.06% and phospholipid ratio as 20.67±2.06%. Phospholipids was proportionately lower in pastırma than raw meat. Pastırma production stages affected pentadecanoic acid (15:1) (p<0.01), linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (p<0.05), γ-linoleic acid (18:3n-6) (p<0.05), erucic acid (22:1n-9) (p<0.05), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6) (p<0.05), total unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUSFA) (p<0.05) and total saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) (p<0.05) ratios of phospholipid fraction and also the moisture content (p<0.01). Pastırma process also affected pH and colour (L*, a* and b*) values (p<0.01), and these values were higher in pastırma than raw meat. PMID:28316467

  8. Spectral fluorescence and polarization characteristics of Z,Z-bilirubin IXα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavskii, V. Yu.; Mostovnikov, V. A.; Mostovnikova, G. R.; Tret'yakova, A. I.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the spectral fluorescence and polarization characteristics of Z,Z-bilirubin IXα, at room temperature in chloroform and in aqueous buffer medium, within an equilibrium complex with human serum albumin (HSA), and also under low temperature conditions (T = -100°C) in isobutyl alcohol. We have observed a bathochromic shift of the fluorescence spectra, which is most pronounced for the bilirubin-albumin complex. The following are considered as possible reasons for the observed dependence of the position of the fluorescence (fluorescence excitation) spectra on the excitation (detection) wavelength: structural and spectral differences between the chromophores making up the bilirubin molecule; conformational heterogeneity of the pigment in solution; a contribution to the fluorescence from molecules which have not completed the vibrational relaxation process; inhomogeneous orientational broadening of the levels; heterogeneity of the microenvironment of the chromophores in the protein matrix. We show that polarized fluorescence of bilirubin occurs at room temperature, due to the anomalously short fluorescence lifetime τ (picosecond or subpicosecond ranges). Despite such a short τ, the absorption and emission polarization spectra suggest the presence of intramolecular nonradiative singlet-singlet energy transfer when bilirubin is excited to high vibrational sublevels of the S1 state (degree of polarization p = 0.11-0.12). When fluorescence is excited on the long-wavelength slope of the absorption band, no transfer occurs: the degree of polarization (p = 0.46-0.47) is close to the limiting value (p = 0.50). We discuss the question of the role played by exciton interactions between chromophores in the bilirubin molecule when it is excited.

  9. Evaluation of finishing performance, carcass characteristics, acid-resistant E. coli and total coliforms from steers fed combinations of wet corn gluten feed and steam-flaked corn.

    PubMed

    Sindt, J J; Drouillard, J S; Thippareddi, H; Phebus, R K; Lambert, D L; Montgomery, S P; Farran, T B; LaBrune, H J; Higgins, J J; Ethington, R T

    2002-12-01

    Crossbred beef steers (n = 615) were used in a 152-d experiment to compare steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets containing 0, 30, or 60% wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). On d 114 to 118, ruminal and fecal samples were collected from 180 steers and analyzed for pH, VFA, and total and acid-resistant Escherichia coli and coliforms. Acid resistance of E. coli and coliform populations was determined by exposure of the samples for 1 h in pH 2, 4, and 7 citric acid/sodium phosphate buffers. Increasing levels of WCGF linearly decreased total ruminal VFA (P = 0.01) and total fecal VFA (P = 0.06), but linearly increased ruminal and fecal acetate:propionate (P < 0.01) ratio and ruminal and fecal pH (P < 0.05). Feeding increasing WCGF levels resulted in a quadratic response (P < 0.05) with respect to numbers of ruminal E. coli and total coliform populations resistant to pH 4 exposure. Steers fed 30% WCGF had higher (0.7 log units) ruminal E. coli and total coliforms after exposure at pH 4 compared to steers fed 0 or 60% WCGF. Populations of E. coli and total coliforms at pH 2 and 7 were similar for all dietary treatments. Dietary WCGF linearly increased DMI (P = 0.07) and liver abscesses (P = 0.03) and linearly decreased dietary NEg (P = 0.02). Average daily gain and feed efficiencies were greatest when steers were offered 30% WCGF (quadratic, P < 0.05). Dietary manipulations that reduce acid concentrations may not correspond to changes in acid resistance of E. coli and total coliform populations detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of cattle. Moderate levels of WCGF complement SFC finishing diets.

  10. Bilirubin scavenges chloramines and inhibits myeloperoxidase-induced protein/lipid oxidation in physiologically relevant hyperbilirubinemic serum.

    PubMed

    Boon, A C; Hawkins, C L; Coombes, J S; Wagner, K H; Bulmer, A C

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), induces protein and lipid oxidation, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Individuals with mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations (i.e., Gilbert syndrome; GS) are protected from atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and related mortality. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous/endogenous unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), at physiological concentrations, can protect proteins/lipids from oxidation induced by reagent and enzymatically generated HOCl. Serum/plasma samples supplemented with exogenous UCB (≤250µM) were assessed for their susceptibility to HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) oxidation, by measuring chloramine, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Serum/plasma samples from hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats and humans with GS were also exposed to MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) to: (1) validate in vitro data and (2) determine the relevance of endogenously elevated UCB in preventing protein and lipid oxidation. Exogenous UCB dose-dependently (P<0.05) inhibited HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-)-induced chloramine formation. Albumin-bound UCB efficiently and specifically (3.9-125µM; P<0.05) scavenged taurine, glycine, and N-α-acetyllysine chloramines. These results were translated into Gunn rat and GS serum/plasma, which showed significantly (P<0.01) reduced chloramine formation after MPO-induced oxidation. Protein carbonyl and MDA formation was also reduced after MPO oxidation in plasma supplemented with UCB (P<0.05; 25 and 50µM, respectively). Significant inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation was demonstrated within the physiological range of UCB, providing a hypothetical link to protection from atherosclerosis in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. These data demonstrate a novel and physiologically relevant mechanism whereby UCB could inhibit protein and lipid modification by quenching chloramines induced by MPO-induced HOCl.

  11. Age-dependent pattern of cerebellar susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, Giulia; Baj, Gabriele; Vodret, Simone; Viviani, Giulia; Bittolo, Tamara; Muro, Andrés F

    2014-09-01

    Neonatal jaundice is caused by high levels of unconjugated bilirubin. It is usually a temporary condition caused by delayed induction of UGT1A1, which conjugates bilirubin in the liver. To reduce bilirubin levels, affected babies are exposed to phototherapy (PT), which converts toxic bilirubin into water-soluble photoisomers that are readily excreted out. However, in some cases uncontrolled hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity. To study the mechanisms of bilirubin-induced neurological damage (BIND) in vivo, we generated a mouse model lacking the Ugt1a1 protein and, consequently, mutant mice developed jaundice as early as 36 hours after birth. The mutation was transferred into two genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6 and FVB/NJ). We exposed mutant mice to PT for different periods and analyzed the resulting phenotypes from the molecular, histological and behavioral points of view. Severity of BIND was associated with genetic background, with 50% survival of C57BL/6‑Ugt1(-/-) mutant mice at postnatal day 5 (P5), and of FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice at P11. Life-long exposure to PT prevented cerebellar architecture alterations and rescued neuronal damage in FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) but not in C57BL/6-Ugt1(-/-) mice. Survival of FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice was directly related to the extent of PT treatment. PT treatment of FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice from P0 to P8 did not prevent bilirubin-induced reduction in dendritic arborization and spine density of Purkinje cells. Moreover, PT treatment from P8 to P20 did not rescue BIND accumulated up to P8. However, PT treatment administered in the time-window P0-P15 was sufficient to obtain full rescue of cerebellar damage and motor impairment in FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice. The possibility to modulate the severity of the phenotype by PT makes FVB/NJ-Ugt1(-/-) mice an excellent and versatile model to study bilirubin neurotoxicity, the role of modifier genes, alternative therapies and cerebellar development during high bilirubin conditions.

  12. A Hypothesis for Using Pathway Genetic Load Analysis for Understanding Complex Outcomes in Bilirubin Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Sean M.; Bittel, Douglas C.; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Watchko, Jon F.; Wennberg, Richard P.; Shapiro, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic-based susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) is still poorly understood. Neonatal jaundice affects 60–80% of newborns, and considerable effort goes into preventing this relatively benign condition from escalating into the development of kernicterus making the incidence of this potentially devastating condition very rare in more developed countries. The current understanding of the genetic background of kernicterus is largely comprised of mutations related to alterations of bilirubin production, elimination, or both. Less is known about mutations that may predispose or protect against CNS bilirubin neurotoxicity. The lack of a monogenetic source for this risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity suggests that disease progression is dependent upon an overall decrease in the functionality of one or more essential genetically controlled metabolic pathways. In other words, a “load” is placed on key pathways in the form of multiple genetic variants that combine to create a vulnerable phenotype. The idea of epistatic interactions creating a pathway genetic load (PGL) that affects the response to a specific insult has been previously reported as a PGL score. We hypothesize that the PGL score can be used to investigate whether increased susceptibility to bilirubin-induced CNS damage in neonates is due to a mutational load being placed on key genetic pathways important to the central nervous system's response to bilirubin neurotoxicity. We propose a modification of the PGL score method that replaces the use of a canonical pathway with custom gene lists organized into three tiers with descending levels of evidence combined with the utilization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) causality prediction methods. The PGL score has the potential to explain the genetic background of complex bilirubin induced neurological disorders (BIND) such as kernicterus and could be the key to understanding ranges of outcome severity

  13. A Hypothesis for Using Pathway Genetic Load Analysis for Understanding Complex Outcomes in Bilirubin Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Sean M; Bittel, Douglas C; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Watchko, Jon F; Wennberg, Richard P; Shapiro, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic-based susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) is still poorly understood. Neonatal jaundice affects 60-80% of newborns, and considerable effort goes into preventing this relatively benign condition from escalating into the development of kernicterus making the incidence of this potentially devastating condition very rare in more developed countries. The current understanding of the genetic background of kernicterus is largely comprised of mutations related to alterations of bilirubin production, elimination, or both. Less is known about mutations that may predispose or protect against CNS bilirubin neurotoxicity. The lack of a monogenetic source for this risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity suggests that disease progression is dependent upon an overall decrease in the functionality of one or more essential genetically controlled metabolic pathways. In other words, a "load" is placed on key pathways in the form of multiple genetic variants that combine to create a vulnerable phenotype. The idea of epistatic interactions creating a pathway genetic load (PGL) that affects the response to a specific insult has been previously reported as a PGL score. We hypothesize that the PGL score can be used to investigate whether increased susceptibility to bilirubin-induced CNS damage in neonates is due to a mutational load being placed on key genetic pathways important to the central nervous system's response to bilirubin neurotoxicity. We propose a modification of the PGL score method that replaces the use of a canonical pathway with custom gene lists organized into three tiers with descending levels of evidence combined with the utilization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) causality prediction methods. The PGL score has the potential to explain the genetic background of complex bilirubin induced neurological disorders (BIND) such as kernicterus and could be the key to understanding ranges of outcome severity in

  14. Stress-induced changes in optical properties, pigment and fatty acid content of Nannochloropsis sp.: implications for non-destructive assay of total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Recht, Lee; Boussiba, Sammy

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a practical approach for fast and non-destructive assay of total fatty acid (TFA) and pigments in the biomass of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp. changes in TFA, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents were monitored in parallel with the cell suspension absorbance. The experiments were conducted with the cultures grown under normal (complete nutrient f/2 medium at 75 μmol PAR photons/(m(2) s)) or stressful (nitrogen-lacking media at 350 μmol PAR photons/(m(2) s)) conditions. The reliable measurement of the cell suspension absorbance using a spectrophotometer without integrating sphere was achieved by deposition of cells on glass-fiber filters in the chlorophyll content range of 3-13 mg/L. Under stressful conditions, a 30-50% decline in biomass and chlorophyll, retention of carotenoids and a build-up of TFA (15-45 % of dry weight) were recorded. Spectral regions sensitive to widely ranging changes in carotenoid-to-chlorophyll ratio and correlated changes of TFA content were revealed. Employing the tight inter-correlation of stress-induced changes in lipid metabolism and rearrangement of the pigment apparatus, the spectral indices were constructed for non-destructive assessment of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll ratio (range 0.3-0.6; root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.03; r (2) = 0.93) as well as TFA content of Nannochloropsis sp. biomass (range 5.0-45%; RMSE = 3.23 %; r (2) = 0.89) in the broad band 400-550 nm normalized to that in chlorophyll absorption band (centered at 678 nm). The findings are discussed in the context of real-time monitoring of the TFA accumulation by Nannochloropsis cultures under stressful conditions.

  15. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Zhang, Youcai; Wu, Kai Connie; Fan, Fang; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by liver histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential. - Highlights: • Oleanolic acid at higher doses and long-term use may produce liver injury. • Oleanolic acid increased serum ALT, ALP, bilirubin and bile acid concentrations. • OA produced feathery degeneration, inflammation and cell death in the liver. • OA altered bile acid homeostasis, affecting bile acid synthesis and transport.

  16. Determination of thermally induced trans-fatty acids in soybean oil by attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, An; Ha, Yiming; Wang, Feng; Li, Weiming; Li, Qingpeng

    2012-10-24

    The intake of edible oil containing trans-fatty acids has deleterious effects mainly on the cardiovascular system. Thermal processes such as refining and frying cause the formation of trans-fatty acids in edible oil. This study was conducted to investigate the possible formation of trans-fatty acids because of the heat treatment of soybean oil. The types of trans-fatty acids in heated soybean oil are determined by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The effects of the heating temperature on the trans-fatty acids in soybean oil were evaluated using gas chromatography flame ionization detection analysis. Results show that heat treatment at 240 °C causes the formation of trans-fatty acids in soybean oil and the amount of trans-fatty acids increases with heating time. The only peak observed at 966 cm(-1) of the samples indicates the formation of nonconjugated trans isomers in the heated soybean oil. The major types of trans-fatty acids formed were trans-polyunsaturated fatty acids. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in the amounts of two trans-linoleic acids (C18:2-9c,12t and C18:2-9t,12c) and four trans-linolenic acids (C18:3-9c,12c,15t, C18:3-9t,12c,15c, and C18:3-9t,12t,15c/C18:3-9t,12c,15t) in soybean oil heated to temperatures exceeding 200 °C were compared with those of the control sample. The heating temperature and duration should be considered to reduce the formation of trans-fatty acids during thermal treatment.

  17. The Negative Relationship between Bilirubin Level and Diabetic Retinopathy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaomei; Ning, Kang; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Findings on the relationship between total bilirubin level (TBL) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are inconsistent. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between TBL and the risk of DR. Methods Relevant studies were selected from six databases up to 31 May 2016 using a search strategy. The relevant data were extracted from the included studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the mean value with standard errors or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. We compared TBL in patients with DR with that in patients with diabetes but without retinopathy (NDR), and analyzed the dose-response relationship between TBL and the risk of DR. Results Twenty-four studies were selected in this meta-analysis. Twenty studies were included to calculate the pooled SMD, and the results showed that TBL in the DR group was lower than that in the NDR group (SMD: –0.52, 95% CI: –0.67, –0.38). Nine studies were included to calculate the pooled ORs, and the results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between TBL and the risk of DR (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.25). Six studies were included to investigate the dose-response relationship between TBL and the risk of DR, and we found a nonlinear relationship between TBL and the risk of DR. The results of our meta-analysis were found to be reliable using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions The results of our meta-analysis indicate that higher TBL may be protective against DR in subjects with diabetes, and TBL could be used as a biomarker to predict the risk of DR. PMID:27571522

  18. Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) Fruits: Comparision of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoids profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) fruit and to compare various techniques for the analysis of total phenolic acids. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, querceti...

  19. Levels of b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total phenols in the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, total phenol, and ascorbic acid levels of the fruit pulp. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minim...

  20. Circular dichroism study of the interaction between mutagens and bilirubin bound to different binding sites of serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Sergey; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanová, Marie

    Although recent investigations have shown that bilirubin not only has a negative role in the organism but also exhibits significant antimutagenic properties, the mechanisms of interactions between bilirubin and mutagens are not clear. In this study, interaction between bilirubin bound to different binding sites of mammalian serum albumins with structural analogues of the mutagens 2-aminofluorene, 2,7-diaminofluorene and mutagen 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone were investigated by circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopy. Homological human and bovine serum albumins were used as chiral matrices, which preferentially bind different conformers of bilirubin in the primary binding sites and make it observable by circular dichroism. These molecular systems approximated a real system for the study of mutagens in blood serum. Differences between the interaction of bilirubin bound to primary and to secondary binding sites of serum albumins with mutagens were shown. For bilirubin bound to secondary binding sites with low affinity, partial displacement and the formation of self-associates were observed in all studied mutagens. The associates of bilirubin bound to primary binding sites of serum albumins are formed with 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone. It was proposed that 2,7-diaminofluorene does not interact with bilirubin bound to primary sites of human and bovine serum albumins due to the spatial hindrance of the albumins binding domains. The spatial arrangement of the bilirubin bound to serum albumin along with the studied mutagens was modelled using ligand docking, which revealed a possibility of an arrangement of the both bilirubin and 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone in the primary binding site of human serum albumin.

  1. Circular dichroism study of the interaction between mutagens and bilirubin bound to different binding sites of serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Sergey; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanová, Marie

    2014-05-21

    Although recent investigations have shown that bilirubin not only has a negative role in the organism but also exhibits significant antimutagenic properties, the mechanisms of interactions between bilirubin and mutagens are not clear. In this study, interaction between bilirubin bound to different binding sites of mammalian serum albumins with structural analogues of the mutagens 2-aminofluorene, 2,7-diaminofluorene and mutagen 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone were investigated by circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopy. Homological human and bovine serum albumins were used as chiral matrices, which preferentially bind different conformers of bilirubin in the primary binding sites and make it observable by circular dichroism. These molecular systems approximated a real system for the study of mutagens in blood serum. Differences between the interaction of bilirubin bound to primary and to secondary binding sites of serum albumins with mutagens were shown. For bilirubin bound to secondary binding sites with low affinity, partial displacement and the formation of self-associates were observed in all studied mutagens. The associates of bilirubin bound to primary binding sites of serum albumins are formed with 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone. It was proposed that 2,7-diaminofluorene does not interact with bilirubin bound to primary sites of human and bovine serum albumins due to the spatial hindrance of the albumins binding domains. The spatial arrangement of the bilirubin bound to serum albumin along with the studied mutagens was modelled using ligand docking, which revealed a possibility of an arrangement of the both bilirubin and 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone in the primary binding site of human serum albumin.

  2. EKTACHEM bilirubin fraction Bc as a predictor of liver transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Cox, C J; Valdiserri, R O; Zerbe, T R; Genter, J L

    1987-10-01

    Bilirubin fractions Bc and DELTA, not routinely available prior to the EKTACHEM Chemistry Analyzer and its slide methodology, were studied in an outpatient population of liver transplant recipients. A preliminary evaluation by the authors has shown that direct bilirubin (DBILI) levels in the normal range consist almost exclusively of DELTA (protein-bound conjugated bilirubin), while at elevated DBILI levels, an increasing amount of Bc (non-protein-bound conjugated bilirubin) is measured as well. The present study evaluated the clinical significance of Bc in the serum of 80 liver transplant recipients as a means of identifying episodes of rejection. Each patient was classified into rejection or nonrejection categories based on clinical status, liver biopsy results, and/or response to therapy. Eighteen patients were classified as experiencing an episode of rejection during the period of this study. Fourteen of these (77.8%) had Bc levels that ranged from 0.1 to 6.8 mg/dl. Sixty two patients were classified in the nonrejection category. Fourteen (22.6%) of these patients had Bc levels that ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 mg/dl. In our outpatient liver transplant recipients with Bc greater than or equal to 0.1 mg/dl, the relative risk of rejection (% of rejection patients with Bc/% of nonrejection patients with Bc) was 3.44. This value indicates that Bc determination may be a helpful adjunct in the assessment of rejection.

  3. Immune response to lentiviral bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase gene transfer in fetal and neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Seppen, J; van Til, N P; van der Rijt, R; Hiralall, J K; Kunne, C; Elferink, R P J Oude

    2006-04-01

    Gene therapy for inherited disorders might cause an immune response to the therapeutic protein. A solution would be to introduce the gene in the fetal or neonatal period, which should lead to tolerization. Lentiviral vectors mediate long-term gene expression, and are well suited for gene therapy early in development. A model for fetal or neonatal gene therapy is the inherited disorder of bilirubin metabolism, Crigler-Najjar disease (CN). The absence of bilirubin UDP-glucoronyltransferase (UGT1A1) activity in CN patients causes high serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin and brain damage in infancy. CN is attractive for the development of gene therapy because the mutant Gunn rat closely mimics the human disease. Injection of UGT1A1 lentiviral vectors corrected the hyperbilirubinemia for more than a year in rats injected as fetuses and for up to 18 weeks in rats injected the day of birth. UGT1A1 gene transfer was confirmed by the presence of bilirubin glucuronides in bile. All animals injected with UGT1A1 lentiviral vectors developed antibodies to UGT1A1. Animals injected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) lentiviral vectors did not develop antibodies to GFP. Our results indicate that fetal and neonatal gene therapy with immunogenic proteins such as UGT1A1 does not necessarily lead to tolerization.

  4. Deracemization of bilirubin as the marker of the chirality of micellar aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Altieri, Barbara; Ceccacci, Francesca; Di Profio, Pietro; Germani, Raimondo; Giansanti, Luisa; Savelli, Gianfranco; Mancini, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The deracemization of bilirubin in micellar aggregates of structurally correlated chiral surfactants was studied by circular dichroism experiments and exploited as the marker of the expression of chirality of the aggregates. The obtained results suggest that the hydrophobic interactions control the transfer of chirality from the monomers to the aggregates, and that different regions of the same aggregate might feature opposite enantiorecognition capabilities.

  5. Toxic epidermal necrolysis with severe hyperbilirubinemia: complete re-epithelialization after bilirubin reduction therapies.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Noriaki; Yoneyama, Kei; Togawa, Yaei; Suehiro, Keisuke; Shinkai, Hiroshi; Yokota, Masaya; Matsuda, Kenichi; Oda, Shigeto; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Matsue, Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a life-threatening skin disorder, and its mortality rate is estimated to be approximately 20-30%. It is characterized that more than 30% of the skin surface is eroded, however, skin lesions are usually re-epithelialized within 2-3 weeks. Previously, we reported a fatal case of toxic epidermal necrolysis with hyperbilirubinemia, and more than 60% of body surface areas had been eroded for 9 weeks. For the reason of delayed re-epithelialization, we hypothesized that hyperbilirubinemia was the culprit because bilirubin damaged cultured keratinocytes in vitro. In this case, we had an opportunity to treat another case of toxic epidermal necrolysis with severe hyperbilirubinemia. In order to reduce serum bilirubin levels, we performed bilirubin adsorption therapies, and skin lesions were successfully re-epithelialized within 4 weeks. Though further studies are required, we considered that bilirubin adsorption therapies are worth trying for toxic epidermal necrolysis with hyperbilirubinemia, especially for the cases suffering from delayed re-epithelialization.

  6. Kinetics of oxidation of bilirubin and its protein complex by hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. V.; Antina, E. V.

    2010-12-01

    A comparative study of oxidation reactions of bilirubin and its complex with albumin was carried out in aqueous solutions under the action of hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen at different pH values. Free radical oxidation of the pigment in both free and bound forms at pH 7.4 was shown not to lead to the formation of biliverdin, but to be associated with the decomposition of the tetrapyrrole chromophore into monopyrrolic products. The effective and true rate constants of the reactions under study were determined. It was assumed that one possible mechanism of the oxidation reaction is associated with the interaction of peroxyl radicals and protons of the NH groups of bilirubin molecules at the limiting stage with the formation of a highly reactive radical intermediate. The binding of bilirubin with albumin was found to result in a considerable reduction in the rate of the oxidation reaction associated with the kinetic manifestation of the protein protection effect. It was found that the autoxidation of bilirubin by molecular oxygen with the formation of biliverdin at the intermediate stage can be observed with an increase in the pH of solutions.

  7. Total sialic acid profile in regressing and remodelling organs during the metamorphosis of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771).

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Engin; Bas, Serap Sancar; Inceli, Meliha Sengezer

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional relationship of sialic acid in regressing and remodelling organs such as the tail, small intestine and liver during the metamorphosis of Pelophylax ridibundus. For this purpose, four groups were composed according to developmental periods by considering Gosner's criteria (1964). Our findings showed that the sialic acid content of the larval tail has an opposite profile to cell death process. Although the sialic acid content of the small intestine and liver did not change evidently during metamorphosis, it increased after the completion of metamorphosis. Frog tail extensively exhibited cell death process and decreased proliferative activity and underwent complete degeneration during metamorphic climax. In spite of increased apoptotic index, a decreased sialic acid level in the tail tissues during climax can be the indication of a death cell removal process. However, the intestine and the liver included both cell death and proliferative process and remodelling in their adult forms. Thus, their sialic acid profiles during metamorphosis were different from the tail's profile. These data show that sialic acid may be an indicator of the presence of some cellular events during metamorphosis and that it can have different roles in the developmental process depending on the organ's fate throughout metamorphosis.

  8. Use of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Prediction of Amino Acids in Chinese Rice Wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-08-01

    The high content of amino acids of Chinese rice wine (CRW), especially essential amino acids makes it a food increasingly demanded by consumers. Rapid detection technique of amino acid content, which is an important quality and function index of CRW, is highly desirable for consumers, producers as well as administrative authorities. In this study, the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) as a novel and rapid analytical technique to determine 17 free amino acids in CRW were investigated. Genetic algorithms (GA) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to select the most efficient spectral variables to improve the prediction precision of the classic partial least squares (PLS) model constructed on the full-spectrum. The results demonstrated that compared with the PLS model using all wavelengths of FT-IR spectra, the prediction precision of model based on the spectral variables selected by GA and SiPLS was significantly improved, especially for arginine and proline. After systemic comparison and discussion, it was found that GA-SiPLS model achieved the best performance, with the correlation coefficient in calibration (R(2) (cal)) higher than 0.80 and the residual predictive deviation higher than 2.00 for all of the free amino acids analyzed in this study. The overall results confirmed that FT-IR combined with efficient variable selection algorithms is a method that may be useful to replace the traditional methods for routine analysis of free amino acids in CRW.

  9. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.

  10. Comparison of nucleic acid targets prepared from total RNA or poly(A) RNA for DNA oligonucleotide microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kjell; Oyan, Anne Margrete; Rostad, Kari; Olsen, Sue; Bø, Trond Hellem; Salvesen, Helga B; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Bruserud, Oystein; Halvorsen, Ole Johan; Akslen, Lars Andreas; Steen, Vidar M; Jonassen, Inge; Kalland, Karl-Henning

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work was to compare DNA microarray results using either total RNA or affinity-purified poly(A) RNA from the same biological sample for target preparation. The high-density oligonucleotide microarrays of both Agilent Technologies (based on two-color detection) and Applied Biosystems (based on single-color detection) were evaluated. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify messenger RNA (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) at different stages of target preparations. Poly(A) RNA versus total RNA target hybridizations exhibited slightly lower correlation coefficients than did self versus self hybridizations (i.e., poly(A) RNA targets vs. poly(A) RNA targets or total RNA targets vs. total RNA targets). Only a small fraction of all transcripts appeared to be significantly over- or underrepresented when total RNA targets or poly(A) RNA targets from the same biological sample were compared. Therefore, the conclusion is that poly(A) affinity purification from total RNA can be omitted during target preparation for routine mRNA expression analysis using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Among consistently overrepresented transcripts in total RNA targets were histone mRNAs known to lack poly(A) tails. Therefore, structurally exceptional RNA species can be identified by comparing targets derived from either poly(A) RNA or total RNA using microarray hybridization.

  11. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific filial determinant of seed total phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cultivated cereal and legume seed crops, inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or “phytic acid”) typically accounts for 75% (±10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). Genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation in some cases can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In non-mutant barley (Horde...

  12. Breast milk jaundice: in vitro inhibition of rat liver bilirubin-uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase activity and Z protein-bromosulfophthalein binding by human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Foliot, A; Ploussard, J P; Housset, E; Christoforov

    1976-06-01

    Twenty-four samples of breast milk from nine mothers of infants suffering from breast milk jaundice were studied. Eight samples of milk from mothers of nonjaundiced infants, along with five formula milks enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids, served as controls. Milks from mothers with jaundiced infants had no inhibitory effect when assayed immediately after thawing. However, after these milk samples were stores at 4 degrees, they strongly inhibited bilirubin conjugation (80.3% inhibition of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activity) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP) binding to cytoplasmic Z protein (dye binding inhibited 82.1%). There was no effect on BSP binding to Y protein (see Table 1). Heating the milk to 56 degrees modified the results in the following manner; when the milk was heated immediately after thawing, no inhibitory effect was seen, even after storage for 96 hr. On the other hand, when the milk was first stored at 96 hr and then heated, it had the same inhibitory effects as the milks which were stored without heating. The present study shows that pathologic breast milk will inhibit BSP-Z protein binding only when stored under conditions that also cause the appearance of the capacity to inhibit bilirubin conjugation in vitro, as well as causing the liberation of nonesterified fatty acids. Thus, the appearance of this inhibitory capacity in vitro seems linked to the lipolytic activity particular to pathologic milks.

  13. Serum bile acids and their conjugates in breast-fed infants with prolonged jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Y; Yamada, M; Nakagawa, M; Konno, T; Tada, K

    1985-05-01

    Serum bile acids and their conjugates were analysed in 20 breast-fed infants with prolonged jaundice. The mean total bile acid levels in serum were increased in the breast-fed infants with jaundice, as compared with those in either breast- or bottle-fed infants without jaundice. However, there were no significant differences between the groups. All the breast-fed infants examined, regardless of association with jaundice, had a bile acid pattern dominated by taurine conjugates (the ratio of glycine- to taurine-conjugated bile acid, G/T ratio, less than 1.00). In contrast, the bottle-fed infants without jaundice had a pattern dominated by glycine conjugates (G/T ratio, more than 1.00). Among the breast-fed infants with jaundice, the mean G/T ratio in those who had serum bilirubin levels over 10 mg/100 ml was significantly lower than that in those who had serum bilirubin levels of less than 10 mg/100 ml. The altered bile acid metabolism might be associated with the pathology of breast milk jaundice.

  14. Effect of the Kinetin-Naphthaleneacetic Acid Interaction Upon Total RNA and Protein in Senescing Detached Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Vonabrams, G. J.; Pratt, Harlan K.

    1968-01-01

    The interaction between kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid in the regulation of senescence of excised tissue of mature broccoli leaves has been used to examine the extent of synchrony between changes in chlorophyll, RNA, and protein. Kinetin increased the net uptake of 14C-labeled orotic acid and leucine. Naphthaleneacetic acid decreased the effect of kinetin on net uptake after long treatment, but in short-time treatments the auxin increased the effect of kinetin on net uptake. Results of long (24 hr) treatments indicated a general synchrony between the loss of RNA, protein, and chlorophyll. Naphthaleneacetic acid reduced the stabilizing effect of kinetin upon chlorophyll content and upon the content and synthesis of RNA. In short-time experiments, however, RNA content and synthesis were transiently increased by kinetin, and further increased by kinetin plus naphthaleneacetic acid, while chlorophyll content decreased in the presence of kinetin and decreased further in the presence of kinetin plus naphthaleneacetic acid. Actinomycin-D accelerated the loss of chlorophyll, RNA and protein and strongly depressed the rate of RNA synthesis. In the presence of actinomycin-D the stabilizing effect of kinetin upon RNA was substantially reduced. In contrast, the chlorophyll and protein contents remained higher than in the control. Actinomycin-D did not nullify the basal incorporation of orotic acid into RNA, nor did it negate the effect of kinetin upon incorporation. The failure of synchrony between changes in chlorophyll and RNA does not substantiate the proposal that kinetin regulates senescence by a direct effect upon DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Images PMID:5700020

  15. The Role of Bilirubin in Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vítek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Bilirubin belongs to a phylogenetically old superfamily of tetrapyrrolic compounds, which have multiple biological functions. Although for decades bilirubin was believed to be only a waste product of the heme catabolic pathway at best, and a potentially toxic compound at worst; recent data has convincingly demonstrated that mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels are strongly associated with a lower prevalence of oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Indeed, serum bilirubin has been consistently shown to be negatively correlated to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as well as to CVD-related diseases and risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. In addition, the clinical data are strongly supported by evidence arising from both in vitro and in vivo experimental studies. This data not only shows the protective effects of bilirubin per se; but additionally, of other products of the heme catabolic pathway such as biliverdin and carbon monoxide, as well as its key enzymes (heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase); thus, further underlining the biological impacts of this pathway. In this review, detailed information on the experimental and clinical evidence between the heme catabolic pathway and CVD, and those related diseases such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity is provided. All of these pathological conditions represent an important threat to human civilization, being the major killers in developed countries, with a steadily increasing prevalence. Thus, it is extremely important to search for novel markers of these diseases, as well as for novel therapeutic modalities to reverse this unfavorable situation. The heme catabolic pathway seems to fulfill the criteria for both diagnostic purposes as well as for potential therapeutical interventions. PMID:22493581

  16. Selective nonenzymatic bilirubin detection in blood samples using a Nafion/Mn-Cu sensor.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hui-Bog; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2014-11-15

    The specific detection of biological organics without the use of an enzyme is challenging, and it is crucial for analytical and clinical chemistry. We report specific nonenzymatic bilirubin detection through the catalytic oxidation of bilirubin molecule on the Nafion/Mn-Cu surface. The catalytic ability, true surface area, morphology, crystallinity, composition, and oxidation state of the sensor surface were assessed using voltammetry, coulometry, XPS, XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), SEM, EDXS, and TOF-SIMS experiments. The results showed that the surface was composed of microporous Mn-Cu bimetallic crystal in flake shape with a large BET surface area (3.635 m(2)g(-1)), where the surface area and crystallinity mainly affected the sensor performance. Product analysis of the catalytic reaction on the sensor probe revealed a specific two-electron oxidation of dipyrromethane moiety to dipyrromethene in the bilirubin molecule. Experimental variables affecting the analysis of bilirubin were optimized in terms of probe composition, temperature, pH, and potential. At the optimized condition, the dynamic range was between 1.2 μM and 0.42 mM, which yielded the equation of ΔI (μA)=(1.03 ± 0.72)+(457.0 ± 4.03) [C] (mM) with 0.999 of correlation coefficient, and the detection limit was 25.0 ± 1.8 nM (n=5, k=3). The stability test, interference effects, and analysis of real clinical samples, human whole blood and certified serum samples were demonstrated to confirm the reliability of the proposed bilirubin sensor.

  17. Increased bilirubin levels in neonates after induction of labour by intravenous prostaglandin E2 or oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Calder, A A; Ounsted, M K; Moar, V A; Turnbull, A C

    1974-12-07

    4 groups of 30 primigravidas and their infants were studied prospectively. No patient with rhesus incompatibility was included in the study. The 4 groups went into labor in the following ways: 1) induced by intravenous oxytocin; 2) induced by intravenous prostagladin (PG)E2; 3) induced by extraamniotic PGE2; and 4) spontaneous labor. Mean infant bilirubin levels on day 5 were significantly higher (p.005 and p.025 respectively) for the 1st 2 groups than for the spontaneous group. Levels for the group whose labor was induced with extraamniotic PGE2 infusion were not significantly different from those in the 1st 2 groups or the spontaneous group. The mean serum-bilirubin level was significantly lower (p.025) after caesarean section than after assisted vaginal delivery. Serum-bilirubin levels were not affected by previous maternal use of oral contraceptives, maternal smoking, or methods of infant feeding. Serum bilirubin levels below 10 mg/100 ml. are considered within the normal phsyiological limits during the neonatal period. Measured by this criteria, 14, 10, 9, and 6 babies in groups 1-4 respectively had abnormally high levels. The difference between groups 1 and 4 was significant at the p.05 level. Mean Apgar scores were significantly lower for the babies whose mothers had induced delivery with extraamniotic PGE2 infusion. These results suggest that the observed hyperbilirubinemia may be due to interruption of pregnancy rather than to any direct drug effect. There is no evidence to suggest that such high bilirubin levels are harmful to the child in the long run.

  18. Nitrogen-regulated changes in total amino acid profile of maize genotypes having contrasting response to nitrogen deficit.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Ahmad, Altaf; Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Pandey, Renu; Ahmad, Sayeed; Aref, Ibrahim M; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2017-03-31

    Sustainable development of cellular organisms depends on a precise coordination between the carbon and nitrogen metabolisms within the living system. Inorganic N is assimilated into amino acids which serve as an important N source for various regulatory metabolic pathways in plants. This study investigates the role of amino acids in C/N balance by examining changes in amino acid profile in the leaves and roots of low-N-tolerant (PHEM-2) and low-N-sensitive (HM-4) maize genotypes grown hydroponically under N-sufficient (4.5 mM), N-deficient (0.05 mM) and N-restoration conditions. N application effectively altered the level of cysteine, methionine, asparagine, arginine, phenylalanine, glycine, glutamine, aspartate and glutamate in both genotypes. Under low N (0.05 mM), the asparagine and glutamine contents increased, while those of glutamate, phenylalanine and aspartate decreased in both genotypes. However, serine content increased in PHEM-2 but decreased in HM-4. Resupply of N to low-N-grown plants of both genotypes restored the amino acids level to that in the control; the restoration was quicker and more consistent in PHEM-2 than in HM-4. Based on alteration of amino acid level, a strategy can be developed to improve the ability of maize to adapt to low-N environments by way of an improved N utilization.

  19. Fruit antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total phenol, quercetin, and carotene of Irwin mango fruits stored at low temperature after high electric field pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo

    2004-03-10

    Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes.

  20. Determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) in phosphate fertilizers by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted extraction based on a control acid media.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Helen Cristine; Coelho, Nivia Maria Melo

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure was developed for determination of inorganic arsenic (As) in phosphate fertilizer by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables that affect the hydride generation step were optimized, including the reducer, acid, sample flow rate, and concentrations of the acid and reducer. The determination of As(lll) was performed through the simple control of solution pH with a 0.5 M citric acid-sodium citrate buffer solution at pH 4.5, and total As was determined after a pre-reduction reaction with 1.0% (w/v) thiourea. Ultrasound-assisted acid extraction was performed, and the parameters sonication time and acid and Triton X-114 concentrations were optimized using a 23 factorial design and central composite design. LODs for As(lll) and total As were 0.029 and 0.022 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied in the determination of inorganic As in phosphate fertilizer samples.

  1. Evaluation of oxidative stress via total antioxidant status, sialic acid, malondialdehyde and RT-PCR findings in sheep affected with bluetongue

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, I.; Aksit, H.; Sait, A.; Kaya, F.; Aksit, D.; Gokmen, M.; Baca, A. Unsal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious infectious disease of ruminants. The disease agent bluetongue virus (BTV) is classified in the Reoviridae family Orbivirus. Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to determine serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative stres (TAS), total sialic acid (TSA), ceruloplasmin, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), cholesterol, creatinine, albumin, and total protein levels in sheep with and without bluetongue (BT). Materials and Methods The study included 13 Sakiz crossbreed sheep, aged 1–4 years and usually in the last stage of pregnancy, as the BT group and a control group consisting of 10 healthy sheep. All sheep were clinically examined before collecting blood samples. Serum ALT, AST, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, GGT, total protein, creatinine and TAS levels were measured using commercially available kits as per manufacturer's recommendations using a Biochemistry Auto Analyzer (Sinnowa D280, China). Serum lipid peroxidation was estimated through a previously described method in which MDA reacts with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a coloured complex at a maximum absorbance of 535 nm. The TSA value was measured at 549 nm using the method described by Warren (1959): sialic acid was oxidised to formyl-pyruvic acid, which reacts with TBA to form a pink product. The ceruloplasmin concentration was measured according to Sunderman and Nomoto (1970): ceruloplasmin and p-phenylenediamine formed a coloured oxidation product that was proportional to the concentration of serum ceruloplasmin. Real time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR were performed as described by Shaw and others (2007). Results Biochemistry analysis of serum showed that in the BT group, TSA, MDA, triglyceride and ALT and AST were higher and that ceruloplasmin and TAS were lower than in the control group. Serum albumin, cholesterol, creatinine, total protein and GGT did

  2. Effect of flaxseed oil and microalgae DHA on the production performance, fatty acids and total lipids of egg yolk and plasma in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Ojekudo, O; House, J D

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the egg is dependent on both the transfer efficiency of preformed dietary omega-3 fatty acids to the eggs as well as endogenous PUFA metabolism and deposition. Employing an experimental design consisting of 70 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens (n=10/treatment) in a 6-week feeding trial, we examined the impact of graded levels of either flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) or algal DHA (preformed docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), each supplying 0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3s. The control diet was practically low in omega-3s. Study parameters included monitoring the changes of fatty acid contents in yolk, measures of hen performance, eggshell quality, total lipids and fatty acid contents of plasma. Data were analysed as a complete randomized design using Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. No significant differences were observed between treatments with respect to hen performance, eggshell quality and cholesterol content in plasma and egg yolk. Individual and total omega-3 PUFA in the yolk and plasma increased (P<0.0001) linearly as a function of total omega-3 PUFA intake. At the highest inclusion levels, DHA-fed hens incorporated 3-fold more DHA in eggs compared with ALA-fed hens (179±5.55 vs. 66.7±2.25mg/yolk, respectively). In both treatment groups, maximal enrichment of total n-3 PUFA was observed by week-2, declined by week-4 and leveled thereafter. In addition, accumulation of DHA in egg yolk showed linear (P<0.0001) and quadratic (P<0.05) effects for flaxseed oil (R(2)=0.89) and algal DHA (R(2)=0.95). The current data, based on defined level of total omega-3s in the background diet, provides evidence to suggest that exogenous as well as endogenous synthesis of DHA may be subject to a similar basis of regulation, and serve to highlight potential regulatory aspects explaining the limitations in the deposition of endogenously produced omega-3 LCPUFA.

  3. Three-dimensionally porous graphene: A high-performance adsorbent for removal of albumin-bonded bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun Fang; Gao, Qiang; Xia, Kai Sheng; Huang, Zhi Yuan; Han, Bo; Zhou, Cheng Gang

    2017-01-01

    The development of bilirubin adsorbents with high adsorption efficiencies towards albumin-bonded bilirubin is still a considerable challenge. In this work, a three-dimensionally porous graphene (3D-pGR) has been fabricated through a simple carbon dioxide (CO2) activation of thermally exfoliated graphite oxide (EGO). Intriguingly, the resultant 3D-pGR material showed hierarchically micro-meso-macroporous structure, high specific surface area of up to 843m(2)g(-1), and large pore volume as high as 2.71cm(3)g(-1). Besides, the large planar π-configuration structure of 3D-pGR made it possible to compete effectively with albumin for bilirubin binding. Taking advantages of these fantastic characteristics, the 3D-pGR was demonstrated to be extraordinarily efficient for bilirubin removal from a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-rich solution. Under optimized conditions, the maximum adsorption capacity of 3D-pGR for BSA-bonded bilirubin was up to 126.1mgg(-1), which is not only significantly higher than the adsorption capacities of currently available adsorbents towards albumin-bonded bilirubin, but also superior to those of many reported adsorbents towards free bilirubin. In addition, the hemolysis assay of 3D-pGR indicated that this material had negligible hemolysis effect. Findings from this study may open up important new possibilities for removal of protein-bonded toxins.

  4. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  5. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  6. Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

  7. Accurate and reliable quantification of total microalgal fuel potential as fatty acid methyl esters by in situ transesterification.

    PubMed

    Laurens, Lieve M L; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Templeton, David W; Wolfrum, Edward J

    2012-04-01

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

  8. Application of phenol red as a marker ligand for bilirubin binding site at subdomain IIA on human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sochacka, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The drug-bilirubin interaction for all drugs administered especially to infants with hyperbilirubinemia should be evaluated for their ability to displace bilirubin and vice versa. In order to examine whether phenol red (PhRed) can be used as a marker for bilirubin binding site located in subdomain IIA the interaction between PhRed and human serum albumin (HSA) in buffer solution or in normal and pathological sera solutions with different HSA:bilirubin molar ratio was investigated using absorption/absorption difference spectroscopy and molecular docking method. Six sulfonamides representing the binding site in the subdomain IIA and known to influence the binding of bilirubin were used for the PhRed displacement studies. The absorption spectra for PhRed completely bound to HSA showed significant differences in the spectral characteristic relative to the spectral profile of free PhRed. The intensity of the peak originating from the bivalent anionic form of dye was strongly reduced and the maximum peak position was red-shifted by 12 nm. The binding constant (K) of the bivalent anionic form of PhRed, calculated from absorbance data, was 1.61 · 10(4) L mol(-1). The variations of the absorption and absorption difference spectra of PhRed in the presence of HSA-bilirubin complex were indicative of the inhibition of PhRed binding process by bilirubin. Binding of PhRed carried out in the presence of sulfonamides showed that drugs and PhRed have a common site which also involves bilirubin. In agreement with the results of the spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking it was concluded that PhRed may be applied as a marker in the study of the binding of drugs to high-affinity bilirubin binding site.

  9. Looking to the horizon: the role of bilirubin in the development and prevention of age-related chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wallner, Marlies; Mölzer, Christine; Gazzin, Silvia; Bulmer, Andrew Cameron; Tiribelli, Claudio; Vitek, Libor

    2015-07-01

    Bilirubin, the principal tetrapyrrole, bile pigment and catabolite of haem, is an emerging biomarker of disease resistance, which may be related to several recently documented biological functions. Initially believed to be toxic in infants, the perception of bilirubin has undergone a transformation: it is now considered to be a molecule that may promote health in adults. Data from the last decade demonstrate that mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels are strongly associated with reduced prevalence of chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), as well as CVD-related mortality and risk factors. Recent data also link bilirubin to other chronic diseases, including cancer and Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to all-cause mortality. Therefore, there is evidence to suggest that bilirubin is a biomarker for reduced chronic disease prevalence and a predictor of all-cause mortality, which is of important clinical significance. In the present review, detailed information on the association between bilirubin and all-cause mortality, as well as the pathological conditions of CVD, cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, is provided. The mechanistic background concerning how bilirubin and its metabolism may influence disease prevention and its clinical relevance is also discussed. Given that the search for novel biomarkers of these diseases, as well as for novel therapeutic modalities, is a key research objective for the near future, bilirubin represents a promising candidate, meeting the criteria of a biomarker, and should be considered more carefully in clinical practice as a molecule that might provide insights into disease resistance. Clearly, however, greater molecular insight is warranted to support and strengthen the conclusion that bilirubin can prevent disease, with future research directions also proposed.

  10. Bilirubin prevents acute DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and suppressing upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Stephen D; Vogel, Megan E; Kindel, Tammy L; Smith, Darcey L H; Idelman, Gila; Avissar, Uri; Kakarlapudi, Ganesh; Masnovi, Michelle E

    2015-11-15

    Bilirubin is thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration and by suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). As VCAM-1 and iNOS are important mediators of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, while simultaneously receiving intraperitoneal injections of bilirubin (30 mg/kg) or potassium phosphate vehicle. Disease activity was monitored, peripheral blood counts and serum nitrate levels were determined, and intestinal specimens were analyzed for histological injury, leukocyte infiltration, and iNOS expression. The effect of bilirubin on IL-5 production by HSB-2 cells and on Jurkat cell transendothelial migration also was determined. DSS-treated mice that simultaneously received bilirubin lost less body weight, had lower serum nitrate levels, and exhibited reduced disease severity than vehicle-treated animals. Concordantly, histopathological analyses revealed that bilirubin-treated mice manifested significantly less colonic injury, including reduced infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and diminished iNOS expression. Bilirubin administration also was associated with decreased eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia. Bilirubin prevented Jurkat migration but did not alter IL-5 production. In conclusion, bilirubin prevents DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium and by suppressing iNOS expression.

  11. Bilirubin activates transcription of HIF-1α in human proximal tubular cells cultured in the physiologic oxygen content.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Gyun; Ahn, Shin-Young; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is influenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Effect of bilirubin on HIF-1 expression in proximal tubular cells was investigated under physiological oxygen concentration, which is relative hypoxic condition mimicking oxygen content in the medulla of renal tissue. The human kidney (HK2) cells were cultured in 5% oxygen with or without bilirubin. HIF-1α protein expression was increased by bilirubin treatment at 0.01-0.2 mg/dL concentration. The messenger RNA expression of HIF-1α was increased by 1.69±0.05 folds in the cells cultured with 0.1 mg/dL bilirubin, compared to the control cells. The inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR, PI3K/AKT, and ERK 1/2 pathways did not attenuate increased HIF-1α expression by bilirubin. HIF-1α expression decreased by 10 µM exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); scavenger of ROS with or without bilirubin in the HK2 cells increased HIF-1α concentration more than that in the cells without bilirubin. Exogenous H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of P70S6 kinase, which was completely reversed by bilirubin treatment. Knockdown of NOX4 gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased HIF-1α mRNA expression. In coonclusion, bilirubin enhances HIF-1α transcription as well as the up-regulation of HIF-1α protein translation through the attenuation of ROS and subunits of NADPH oxidase.

  12. Gene therapy with bilirubin-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in the Gunn rat model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Murphree, S S; Willer, S S; Bolli, R; French, B A

    1998-03-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1 (CN type 1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by nonhemolytic jaundice resulting from mutations to the gene encoding bilirubin-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT). The Gunn rat is an accurate animal model of this disease because the bilirubin-UDPGT gene in this strain carries a premature stop codon. The primary objective of this study was to complement this deficiency in vivo using liver-directed gene therapy. The efficiency of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-mediated gene transfer to the neonatal rat liver was first assessed by intravenous (i.v.) injection of an Ad5 vector carrying a nuclear-localized LacZ gene. An Ad5 vector expressing the cDNA encoding human bilirubin-UDPGT (Ad5/CMV/hUG-Br1) was then generated and injected i.v. into neonatal Gunn rats. Plasma samples were collected and bilirubin levels were determined at regular intervals. Although the mean level of bilirubin in homozygous Gunn rats 1-2 days after birth was already 14.5-fold higher than that of heterozygous siblings, treatment with Ad5/CMV/hUG-Br1 reduced plasma bilirubin to normal levels within 1 week. Plasma bilirubin in the treated homozygous rats remained normal for 4 weeks before gradually climbing to intermediate levels that were approximately half that of untreated homozygotes by 12 weeks. Administration of Ad5-mediated gene therapy to neonatal Gunn rats effectively complemented the deficiency in bilirubin-UDPGT, resulting in substantial reductions in plasma bilirubin over a 3-month period. The efficacy of Ad5-mediated gene therapy in neonates suggests that this approach might be effective against other hepatic disorders, including autosomal recessive deficiencies in lipid metabolism and vascular homeostasis.

  13. Membrane bile acid receptor TGR5 predicts good prognosis in ampullary adenocarcinoma patients with hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min-Chan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Wen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids are potential carcinogens in gastrointestinal cancer, and interact with nuclear and membrane receptors to initiate downstream signaling. The effect of TGR5 [also known as G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1)] on cancer progression is dependent on the tissue where it is activated. In this report, the function of TGR5 expression in cancer was studied using a bioinformatic approach. TGR5 expression in ampullary adenocarcinoma and normal duodenum was compared by western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). High GPBAR1 gene expression was found to be an indicator of worse prognosis in gastric and breast cancer patients, and an indication of better prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. The level of GPBAR1 gene expression was higher in bile-acid exposed cancer than in other types of cancer, and was increased in well-differentiated ampullary adenocarcinoma. Negative, weak or mild expression of TGR5 was correlated with younger age, higher plasma level of total/direct bilirubin, higher plasma concentration of CA-125, advanced tumor stage and advanced AJCC TNM stage. The disease-specific survival rate was highest in ampullary adenocarcinoma patients with high TGR5 expression and high total bilirubin level. In summary, TGR5 functions as a tumor-suppressor in patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma and preoperative hyperbilirubinemia. Further study of the suppressive mechanism may provide a new therapeutic option for patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma. PMID:27510297

  14. Role of bran in normals. Serum levels of cholesterols, triglyceride, calcium and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid, and intestinal transit time.

    PubMed

    Winreich, J; Pedersen, O; Dinesen, K

    1977-01-01

    After the intake of approximately 24 g wheat bran daily for 5 weeks, 25 trainee nurses showed no changes in the serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium or total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. On the other hand, the study revealed a reduced intestinal transit time with good correlation to an increased frequency of bowel movements. Average body weight fell significantly, by 0.4 kg. The daily caloric intake remained constant throughout the study period, whereas the calcium intake was significantly increased. Among the serum parameters and the dietary constituents, good correlation was found only between serum cholesterol and the dietary cholesterol content. In addition, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between the serum levels of cholesterol and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. The significance of this observation is as yet unknown.

  15. Characterization of total deoxyribonucleic acid of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (ATCC 19698) and of M. avium complex (ATCC 25291) using restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Labidi, A

    1988-01-01

    Total DNA was extracted from M. paratuberculosis (ATCC 19698) and from M. avium complex (ATCC 25291) cultivated on RVB-10 enriched liquid media. Restriction endonuclease analysis was conducted of Total DNA using 34 enzymes and DNA digestion profiles were compared. Fifteen enzymes revealed important differences between the two species. Two pairs of enzymes (EcoRII, BstNI) and (MboI, Sau3AI) provide evidence for the presence of dcmI and dam methylation in DNA of M. avium complex and M. paratuberculosis. The differences in DNA fragments of these two species could be of potential value in differentiating these clinically significant mycobacteria.

  16. Hempseed Products Fed to Hens Effectively Increased n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Total Lipids, Triacylglycerol and Phospholipid of Egg Yolk.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Suh, M; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2016-05-01

    Hempseed products represent potential alternative feed ingredients for poultry. However, their usage is not currently approved due to a lack of data to support their safety and efficacy. In this regard, the current study was conducted to assess the impact of dietary concentration of hempseed (HS) products and duration of their feeding to hens on the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of egg yolk lipids. In the current study, 48 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens were individually housed in metabolism cages, in a completely randomized design, and provided one of six diets (wheat-barley-soybean-based) containing either HS (10, 20 and 30 %), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 and 9.0 %) or no hempseed product (control) over 12 weeks. Increasing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake via increasing dietary hempseed product inclusion, significantly (p < 0.0001) increased the n-3 PUFA contents of yolk total lipid. The values of ALA increased by 12-fold (152 ± 3.56 and 156 ± 2.42 mg/yolk) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by twofold to threefold (41.3 ± 1.57 and 43.6 ± 1.61 mg/yolk) over the control, for the highest levels of HS and HO inclusion, respectively. Increasing levels of hemp products in laying hen diets proved effective in manipulating the fatty acid profile of the total lipid, triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) fractions of yolks, enhancing the n-3 fatty acids and reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio. The latter benefit was achieved within 4 weeks of feeding hens either HS- or HO-containing diets.

  17. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of effects of dietary fish oil on total fatty acid composition in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peiru; Sun, Min; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora; Fisher, Gary J.; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (<24 mm2 for mice and <12 mm2 for humans) skin specimens that can be readily obtained from live mice and humans. We determined mouse skin FA composition after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of consuming a control diet or a diet supplemented with fish oil. Fish oil markedly enhanced EPA and DHA in mouse skin within 2 weeks, and this increase plateaued after 4 weeks. The FA composition in mouse skin was different from that of serum, indicating that skin has homeostatic control of FA metabolism. Mice fed the control diet designed to simulate Western human diet displayed similar skin FA composition as that of humans. The present study presents a validated method for FA quantification that is needed to investigate the mechanisms of actions of dietary treatments in both mouse and human skin. PMID:28195161

  18. Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation and plasma total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant Indian women with low B12 and high folate status.

    PubMed

    Katre, Prachi; Bhat, Dattatray; Lubree, Himangi; Otiv, Suhas; Joshi, Suyog; Joglekar, Charudatta; Rush, Elaine; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2010-01-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia predict poor pregnancy outcome, foetal adiposity and insulin resistance. In India amongst practicing clinicians and policy makers there is little appreciation of widespread vitamin B12 deficiency. We investigated 163 (86 rural, 77 urban) pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural health centre and a referral hospital in the city of Pune, at 17, 28, and 34 weeks gestation for vitamin supplements, and circulating concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, and total homocysteine. At enrolment 80% rural and 65% urban women had low vitamin B12 but only two rural women had low folate concentrations. During pregnancy 85% rural and 95% of urban women received folic acid; 12% rural and 84% urban women also received vitamin B12. In women receiving no supplementation (n=17) plasma vitamin B12 and folate did not change from 17 to 34 weeks gestation, but homocysteine increased (p<0.05). Homocysteine concentrations at 34 weeks gestation in women receiving only folic acid (n=71, mean 8.4 (95% CI 7.8, 9.1) micromol/L) were comparable to the unsupplemented group (9.7 (7.3, 12.7), p=0.15), but women who received a total dose of >1000 microg of vitamin B12 up to 34 weeks (n=42, all with folic acid) had lower concentrations (6.7 (6.0, 7.4), p<0.001). Increasing dose of vitamin B12 (rs=-0.31, p=0.006) but not folic acid (rs=-0.19, p=0.11) was associated with lower plasma total homocysteine concentration. In vitamin B12 insufficient, folate replete pregnant women, vitamin B12 supplementation is associated with a reduction of plasma total homocysteine concentration in late pregnancy.

  19. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich soy oil by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-11-25

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.

  20. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  1. Wavelength-dependence of the relative rate constants for the main geometric and structural photoisomerization of bilirubin IX alpha bound to human serum albumin. Demonstration of green light at 510 nm as the most effective wavelength in photochemical changes from (ZZ)-bilirubin IX alpha to (EZ)-cyclobilirubin IX alpha via (EZ)-bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, S; Itoh, S; Isobe, K

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics for the quantitatively important reaction: (Formula: see text) that is, the photochemical interconversion between bilirubin and its geometric and structural photoisomers bound to human serum albumin in aqueous solution when various wavelengths of monochromatic light were used, were assayed by h.p.l.c. In order to clarify the wavelength-dependence of the relative rate constants in the individual steps, a light-source with a half-bandwidth of 10 nm was used at increments of 20 nm, in the range from 410 nm to 550 nm. We describe for the first time studies on the wavelength-dependence of rate constants in geometric and structural photoisomerization reactions in vitro of (ZZ)-bilirubin or (EZ)-bilirubin bound to human serum albumin, especially the relative rate constants of cyclization of (EZ)-bilirubin into (EZ)-cyclobilirubin. Because studies in vitro have demonstrated that the wavelengths from 350 to 450 nm are mutagenic, the results obtained indicated that the safest and ideal light-source for phototherapy is green light of 510 nm, which keeps (ZE)-bilirubin concentrations as low as possible, as shown by a maximal value of k2 at 510 nm and a relatively low value of k1 at 510 nm. This light-source still ensures the substantial absorption of (ZZ)-bilirubin, which is the precursor of (EZ)-bilirubin, the intermediate in (EZ)-cyclobilirubin formation and, furthermore, as shown by the maximal value of k5 and a considerable value of k4 at 510 nm, promotes the cyclization of (EZ)-bilirubin derived from (ZZ)-bilirubin even though k3 at 510 nm also shows a peak value. PMID:3790073

  2. Changes in content and fatty acid profiles of total lipids of two halophytes: Sesuvium portulacastrum and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Nouairi, Issam; Ghnaya, Tahar; Ben Youssef, Nabil; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Habib Ghorbel, Mohamed

    2006-11-01

    Changes in lipid content and fatty acid composition were determined in leaves of two halophytes: Sesuvium portulacastrum and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum exposed to cadmium (Cd). Experiments were carried out using young small-sized plants grown hydroponically (S. portulacastrum) or aseptically germinated seeds (M. crystallinum). Cd treatment was applied at different concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200microM) for 30 days. At high cadmium doses (200microM), contents of total lipids (TL) and lipid fractions including galactolipids (GL), phospholipids (PL) and neutral lipids (NL) decreased more in M. crystallinum leaves than in S. portulacastrum leaves. Moreover, there were no significant changes in the total fatty acid composition of S. portulacastrum leaves during metal treatment. In contrast, M. crystallinum leaves showed a decrease in the percentage of the tri-unsaturated fatty acid (C18:3), and a corresponding increase in the percentage of di-unsaturated fatty acid (C18:2). These different responses suggested that S. portulacastrum seems to be more feasible for phytoremediation.

  3. Modulation of Fourier transform infrared spectra and total sialic acid levels by selenium during 1,2 dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghadi, Fereshteh Ezzati; Malhotra, Anshoo; Ghara, Abdollah Ramzani; Dhawan, D K

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the modulatory potential of selenium supplementation, if any, on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra in brush border membranes (BBM) of colons and on serum total sialic acid as well as lipid bound sialic acid during 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. The FTIR spectra of BBM from the colons of DMH-treated rats revealed a significant increase in the lipid contents but showed a significant decline in the protein contents. Further, decrease in the collagen as well as creatine contents was also noticed in the colons of DMH-treated rats. Supplementation with selenium appreciably restored protein as well as collagen contents and resulted in decreased lipids levels in the colons of DMH-treated rats. Interestingly, a significant increase in the levels of total sialic acid in serum of DMH-treated rats was observed which, however, got moderated significantly upon selenium supplementation. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in the levels of lipid bound sialic acid in all the treated groups as compared to controls. In conclusion, the present study suggested that supplementation of selenium act as a chemopreventive agent and delays considerably the process of colon carcinogenesis.

  4. Kinetic and Modeling Investigation to Provide Design Guidelines for the NREL Dilute-Acid Process Aimed at Total Hydrolysis/Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass: July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. Y.; Iyer, P.; Xiang, Q.; Hayes, J.

    2004-08-01

    Following up on previous work, subcontractor investigated three aspects of using NREL ''pretreatment'' technology for total hydrolysis (cellulose as well as hemicellulose) of biomass. Whereas historic hydrolysis of biomass used either dilute acid or concentrated acid technology for hydrolysis of both hemicellulose and cellulose, NREL has been pursuing very dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. NREL's countercurrent shrinking-bed reactor design for hemicellulose hydrolysis (pretreatment) has, however, shown promise for total hydrolysis. For the first task, subcontractor developed a mathematical model of the countercurrent shrinking bed reactor operation and, using yellow poplar sawdust as a feedstock, analyzed the effect of: initial solid feeding rate, temperature, acid concentration, acid flow rate, Peclet number (a measure of backmixing in liquid flow), and bed shrinking. For the second task, subcontractor used laboratory trials, with yellow poplar sawdust and 0.07 wt% sulfuric acid at various temperatures, to verify the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose (desired) and decomposition of glucose (undesired) and determine appropriate parameters for use in kinetic models. Unlike cellulose and hemicellulose, lignins, the third major component of biomass, are not carbohydrates that can be broken down into component sugars. They are, however, aromatic complex amorphous phenolic polymers that can likely be converted into low-molecular weight compounds suitable for production of fuels and chemicals. Oxidative degradation is one pathway for such conversion and hydrogen peroxide would be an attractive reagent for this, as it would leave no residuals. For the third task, subcontractor reacted lignin with hydrogen peroxide under various conditions and analyzed the resulting product mix.

  5. A survey of total hydrocyanic acid content in ready-to-eat cassava-based chips obtained in the Australian market in 2008.

    PubMed

    Miles, David; Jansson, Edward; Mai, My Chi; Azer, Mounir; Day, Peter; Shadbolt, Craig; Stitt, Victoria; Kiermeier, Andreas; Szabo, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a widely consumed food in the tropics that naturally contains cyanogenic glycosides (cyanogens, mainly composed of linamarin, acetone cyanohydrin, and hydrocyanic acid). If cassava is not adequately processed to reduce the level of cyanogens prior to consumption, these compounds can lead to the formation of hydrocyanic acid in the gut. Exposure to hydrocyanic acid can cause symptoms ranging from vomiting and abdominal pain to coma and death. In 2008, a survey of ready-to-eat (RTE) cassava-based snack foods was undertaken to determine levels of cyanogens measured as total hydrocyanic acid. This survey was undertaken in response to the New South Wales Food Authority being alerted to the detection of elevated levels of cyanogens in an RTE cassava-based snack food. This survey took 374 samples of RTE cassava chips available in the Australian marketplace. Significant variation in the levels of total hydrocyanic acid were observed in the 317 samples testing positive for cyanogens, with levels ranging from 13 to 165 mg of HCN equivalents per kg (mean value, 64.2 mg of HCN eq/kg for positive samples). The results from this survey serve as a timely warning for manufacturers of RTE cassava chips and other cassava-based snack foods to ensure there is tight control over the levels of cyanogens in the cassava ingredient. Evidence from this survey contributed to an amendment to the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, which now prescribes a maximum level for hydrocyanic acid in RTE cassava chips of 10 mg of HCN eq/kg, which aligns with the Codex Alimentarius Commission international standard for edible cassava flour.

  6. Novel approaches using alkaline or acid/guanidine treatment to eliminate therapeutic antibody interference in the measurement of total target ligand.

    PubMed

    Salimi-Moosavi, Hossein; Lee, Jean; Desilva, Binodh; Doellgast, George

    2010-04-06

    Measurement of the total target ligand can help to provide pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) informations. However, the presence of monocloncal antibody therapeutics (ThAs) interferes with ELISA determinations of the total target proteins. The interferences can cause over- or under-estimation of the target protein analysis. The nature of interferences was dependent upon the ThA, target protein, antibody reagents and assay conditions of the ELISA. We have developed novel alkaline and acid/guanidine treatment approaches to dissociate the protein binding and preferentially denature the ThA. The neutralized target proteins can be determined by ELISA. These methods provide reproducible measurements of total target protein without ThA interference. Serum samples, standards and QCs containing target protein and ThA were treated with alkaline buffer (pH>13) containing casein or acid/guanidine buffer (pH<1). Total target proteins for two different ThA systems were successfully measured and interferences were completely eliminated by the treatments. These methods were successfully applied to analysis in pre-clinical serum samples.

  7. Modification of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration with single-pass albumin dialysate allows for removal of serum bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Lakhmir S; Georgescu, Florin; Abell, Bruce; Seneff, Michael G; Kimmel, Paul L

    2005-03-01

    A 53-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with ischemic colitis and underwent a subtotal colectomy. She developed acute renal failure, severe hyperbilirubinemia, and intense pruritus resistant to medical treatment. Extracorporeal albumin dialysis using a Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS; Gambro Co, Lund, Sweden) has been used to treat liver failure and reduce total serum bilirubin (SB) levels. A trial of extracorporeal albumin dialysis with continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT) was instituted to achieve net removal of SB. A 25% albumin solution was mixed with conventional dialysate to yield a dialysate concentration of 1.85% or 5.0% albumin. The patient underwent 2 continuous RRT sessions using extracorporeal albumin dialysis (1.85% and 5.0% albumin dialysate). Pretreatment and posttreatment SB levels were determined, and total bilirubin concentration (TB) also was measured in each of the collection bags during conventional and albumin dialysis. Pretreatment and posttreatment SB levels were 50.4 mg/dL (862 micromol/L) and 39.0 mg/dL (667 micromol/L) with 1.85% albumin dialysate and 47.1 mg/dL (805 micromol/L) and 39.7 mg/dL (679 micromol/L) with 5.0% albumin dialysate, respectively. The collected dialysate TB level was 0.3 mg/dL (5 micromol/L) during nonalbumin RRT and increased to 1.37 +/- 0.06 mg/dL (23 +/- 1 micromol/L) with 1.85% albumin dialysis. The collected dialysate fluid TB level was 0.3 mg/dL (5 micromol/L) during the nonalbumin RRT and increased to 1.38 +/- 0.15 mg/dL (24 +/- 3 micromol/L) during 5.0% albumin RRT. Single-pass albumin dialysis with continuous RRT cleared SB better than standard continuous RRT. Single-pass albumin dialysis with continuous RRT is feasible and may be a viable alternative in centers that do not have access to MARS therapy. This modality merits additional evaluation for its efficacy in clearing albumin-bound serum toxins.

  8. Decreased neonatal jaundice readmission rate after implementing hyperbilirubinemia guidelines and universal screening for bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Alkalay, Arie L; Bresee, Catherine J; Simmons, Charles F

    2010-09-01

    Readmission rate for neonatal jaundice approximate 10 per 1000 live births. After applying hyperbilirubinemia guidelines and universal screening for bilirubin in term and near-term newborns, the readmission rate declined significantly from 24 to 3.7 per 1000 live births. Decreased readmission rate for neonatal jaundice may reduce kernicterus rate and health care costs. Further studies are necessary to explore these potential benefits.

  9. Association of Low Serum Concentration of Bilirubin with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    concentrations were decreased in individuals baseline tracing obtained before the subjects reached with CAD, whereas some of the liver-function enzyme age...Angiographic Data lis, IN). After July 1987, dextran sulfate, Mr 50 000 Summary statistics for the two groups are given in (Ciba Corning, Oberlin, OH), was...low serum bilirubin con- activity or increases in iron stores (9). centrations have been associated with good health, and It remains to be seen

  10. Antioxidant potential of bilirubin-accelerated wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ram, Mahendra; Singh, Vishakha; Kumar, Dhirendra; Kumawat, Sanjay; Gopalakrishnan, Anu; Lingaraju, Madhu C; Gupta, Priyanka; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative injury is markedly responsible for wound complications in diabetes mellitus. The biological actions of bilirubin may be relevant to prevent oxidant-mediated cell death, as bilirubin application at a low concentration scavenges reactive oxygen species. Hence, we hypothesized that topical bilirubin application might improve wound healing in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats, which were divided into two groups, i.e., diabetic control and diabetic treated. Non-diabetic healthy rats were also taken as healthy control group. Wound area was measured on days 3, 7, 14, and 19 post-wounding. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were estimated in the granulation tissue. There was a significant increase in percent wound closure in healthy control and diabetic treated rats on days 7, 14, and 19, as compared to diabetic control rats on days 7, 14, and 19. There was significant decrease in MDA levels on days 7, 14, and 19 in diabetic treated rats, as compared to diabetic control rats. Levels of GSH were significantly increased on days 3, 7, 14, and 19 in diabetic treated rats, as compared to diabetic control rats. GPx, SOD, and CAT activities were significantly higher on days 3, 7, and 14 in diabetic treated rats, as compared to diabetic control rats. The findings indicate that bilirubin is effective in reducing the oxidant status in wounds of diabetic rats which might have accelerated wound healing in these rats.

  11. Influence of bilirubin and other antioxidants on nitrergic relaxation in the pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Colpaert, E E; Lefebvre, R A

    2000-03-01

    1. The influence of several antioxidants (bilirubin, urate, ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the manganese SOD mimic EUK-8) on nitrergic relaxations induced by either exogenous nitric oxide (NO; 10(-5) M) or electrical field stimulation (4 Hz; 10 s and 3 min) was studied in the pig gastric fundus. 2. Ascorbate (5x10(-4) M), alpha-tocopherol (4x10(-4) M), SOD (300 - 1000 u ml(-1)) and EUK-8 (3x10(-4) M) did not influence the relaxations to exogenous NO. In the presence of GSH (5x10(-4) M), the short-lasting relaxation to NO became biphasic, potentiated and prolonged. Urate (4x10(-4) M) and bilirubin (2x10(-4) M) also potentiated the relaxant effect of NO. None of the antioxidants influenced the electrically evoked relaxations. 3. 6-Anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY83583; 10(-5) M) had no influence on nitrergic nerve stimulation but nearly abolished the relaxant response to exogenous NO. Urate and GSH completely prevented this inhibitory effect, while it was partially reversed by SOD and bilirubin. Ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and EUK-8 were without effect. 4. Hydroquinone (10(-4) M) did not affect the electrically induced nitrergic relaxations, but markedly reduced NO-induced relaxations. The inhibition of exogenous NO by hydroquinone was completely prevented by urate and GSH. SOD and ascorbate afforded partial protection, while bilirubin, EUK-8 and alpha-tocopherol were ineffective. 5. Hydroxocobalamin (10(-4) M) inhibited relaxations to NO by 50%, but not the electrically induced responses. Full protection versus this inhibitory effect was obtained with urate, GSH and alpha-tocopherol. 6. These results strengthen the hypothesis that several endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic, might play a role in the nitrergic neurotransmission process.

  12. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of Long Chain Free Fatty Acid concentration in oily wastewater using the double wavenumber extrapolation technique.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zisu; Malyala, Divya; Dean, Lisa; Ducoste, Joel

    2017-04-01

    Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DWET) was developed to simultaneously measure LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in oily wastewater suspensions. This method is based on the analysis of the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectrum, in which the absorbance of carboxyl bond (1710cm(-1)) and triglyceride bond (1745cm(-1)) were selected as the characteristic wavenumbers for total LCFFAs and FOG, respectively. A series of experiments using pure organic samples (Oleic acid/Palmitic acid in Canola oil) were performed that showed a linear relationship between the absorption at these two wavenumbers and the total LCFFA. In addition, the DWET method was validated using GC analyses, which displayed a high degree of agreement between the two methods for simulated oily wastewater suspensions (1-35% Oleic acid in Canola oil/Peanut oil). The average determination error of the DWET approach was ~5% when the LCFFA fraction was above 10wt%, indicating that the DWET could be applied as an experimental method for the determination of both LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in oily wastewater suspensions. Potential applications of this DWET approach includes: (1) monitoring the LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in grease interceptor (GI) effluents for regulatory compliance; (2) evaluating alternative LCFFAs/FOG removal technologies; and (3) quantifying potential FOG deposit high accumulation zones in the sewer collection system.

  13. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion requirement in total knee replacement in the Indian population: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Parshotam Lal; Katyal, Sunil; Yamin, Mohammad; Singh, Amandip

    2011-01-01

    Context: Total knee replacement (TKR) is often carried out using a tourniquet to minimize intraoperative blood loss. However, its application enhances local fibrinolysis, resulting in excessive blood loss during the post-operative period. Fibrinolytic profile varies in different regions and races. Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce post-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion in TKR. However, there is paucity of literature from the Indian population and the efficacy of the agent has not been tested in Indian patients undergoing TKR. Aims: Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in TKR surgery in the Indian population. Setting and Design: In this double-blinded study, 40 patients undergoing unilateral TKR were randomly divided into two groups. Methods: All patients were conducted under spinal anaesthesia using injection bupivacaine 0.5% heavy 12-15 mg. The treatment group received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid, intravenous (IV), half an hour before deflation of the tourniquet, with a second dose of 2 mg/kg administered 3 hours after the first dose. The exact protocol was followed for the placebo group, except that normal saline was used instead of tranexamic acid. Blood loss, blood transfusion details and change in haemoglobin levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student's paired ‘t’ test was used in statistical analysis. Results: The mean post-operative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 272.5±122.5 ml (mean±SD), and 685±118.2 ml in the placebo group (P<0.001). The total blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (427.6 ml vs. 911.6 ml; P<0.001). The absolute number of blood transfusions and the number of patients who required transfusions were lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group. None of the patients had any side or adverse effect. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly decreases post-operative blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing

  14. Interference of Bilirubin in the Determination of Magnesium with Methyl Thymol Blue

    PubMed Central

    Maksinovic, Rada; Ketin, Sonja; Biocanin, Rade

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Jaundice is a disease named for the yellow color of the skin. This color is the result of elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood serum. In Roma from Krusevac region in the last few years have seen the emergence of jaundice. Material and methods: In 80 of them (40 suffering and 40 from control group) were performed tests of numerous parameters in the laboratories of the Health Center in Krusevac. Magnesium was determined by spectrophotometry with methyl thymol blue, titanium yellow and blue xylidene. Bilirubin was determined by Jandrešek Grofov’s method. Results: The results were within the expectations, in addition to magnesium which was determined with methyl thymol blue. In all patients suffering from jaundice concentration of magnesium (0.67 ±0.14 mmol/l) statistically was significantly lower than tested of the control group (0.91± 0.059 mmol/). There is no theoretical data to reduce the concentration of magnesium in serum as a result of jaundice. That’s why we determined magnesium both in the control group and in sufferings with two methods as the titanium yellow, and xylidene blew. With these two methods we obtained results that were examined were within normal limits. Conclusion: This has led us to conclude that the determination of bilirubin interferes with magnesium methyl thymol blue. PMID:26244045

  15. Point-of-care device for quantification of bilirubin in skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Alla, Suresh K; Huddle, Adam; Butler, Joshua D; Bowman, Peggy S; Clark, Joseph F; Beyette, Fred R

    2011-03-01

    Steady state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a nondestructive method for obtaining biochemical and physiological information from skin tissue. In medical conditions such as neonatal jaundice excess bilirubin in the blood stream diffuses into the surrounding tissue leading to a yellowing of the skin. Diffuse reflectance measurement of the skin tissue can provide real time assessment of the progression of a disease or a medical condition. Here we present a noninvasive point-of-care system that utilizes diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantifying bilirubin from skin reflectance spectra. The device consists of an optical system integrated with a signal processing algorithm. The device is then used as a platform to study two different spectral databases. The first spectral database is a jaundice animal model in which the jaundice reflectance spectra are synthesized from normal skin. The second spectral database is the spectral measurements collected on human volunteers to quantify the different chromophores and other physical properties of the tissue such as Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, etc. The initial trials from each of these spectral databases have laid the foundation to verify the performance of this bilirubin quantification device.

  16. Bilirubin oxidase from Magnaporthe oryzae: an attractive new enzyme for biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Fabien; Gounel, Sébastien; Kjaergaard, Christian H.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2013-01-01

    A novel bilirubin oxidase (BOD), from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, has been identified and isolated. The 64-kDa protein containing four coppers was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity in one step. Protein yield is more than 100 mg for 2 L culture, twice that of Myrothecium verrucaria. The kcat/Km ratio for conjugated bilirubin (1,513 mM −1 s−1) is higher than that obtained for the BOD from M. verrucaria expressed in native fungus (980 mM−1 s−1), with the lowest Km measured for any BOD highly desirable for detection of bilirubin in medical samples. In addition, this protein exhibits a half-life for deactivation >300 min at 37 °C, high stability at pH 7, and high tolerance towards urea, making it an ideal candidate for the elaboration of biofuel cells, powering implantable medical devices. Finally, this new BOD is efficient in decolorizing textile dyes such as Remazol brilliant Blue R, making it useful for environmentally friendly industrial applications. PMID:22350257

  17. Asymmetric Total Syntheses of Two 3-Acyl-5,6- dihydro-2H-pyrones: (R)-Podoblastin-S and (R)- Lachnelluloic Acid with Verification of the Absolute Configuration of (-)-Lachnelluloic Acid.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Nakata, Kohei; Nakatsuji, Hidefumi; Tanabe, Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Expedient asymmetric total syntheses of both (R)-podoblastin-S and (R)-lachnelluloic acid, representative of natural 3-acyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-ones, were performed. Compared with the reported total synthesis of (R)-podoblastin-S (14 steps, overall 5% yield), the present study was achieved in only five steps in an overall 40% yield and with 98% ee (HPLC analysis). In a similar strategy, the first asymmetric total synthesis of the relevant (R)-lachnelluloic acid was achieved in an overall 40% yield with 98% ee (HPLC analysis). The crucial step utilized readily accessible and reliable Soriente and Scettri's Ti(OiPr)₄/(S)-BINOL‒catalyzed asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol addition of 1,3-bis(trimethylsiloxy)diene, derived from ethyl acetoacetate with n-butanal for (R)- podoblastin-S and n-pentanal for (R)-lachnelluloic acid. With the comparison of the specific rotation values between the natural product and the synthetic specimen, the hitherto unknown absolute configuration at the C(6) position of (-)-lachnelluloic acid was unambiguously elucidated as 6R.

  18. Comparison of gravimetric, creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid methods for determination of total fat content in human milk.

    PubMed

    Du, Jian; Gay, Melvin C L; Lai, Ching Tat; Trengove, Robert D; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-02-15

    The gravimetric method is considered the gold standard for measuring the fat content of human milk. However, it is labor intensive and requires large volumes of human milk. Other methods, such as creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid assay (EFA), have also been used widely in fat analysis. However, these methods have not been compared concurrently with the gravimetric method. Comparison of the three methods was conducted with human milk of varying fat content. Correlations between these methods were high (r(2)=0.99). Statistical differences (P<0.001) were observed in the overall fat measurements and within each group (low, medium and high fat milk) using the three methods. Overall, stronger correlation with lower mean (4.73g/L) and percentage differences (5.16%) was observed with the creamatocrit than the EFA method when compared to the gravimetric method. Furthermore, the ease of operation and real-time analysis make the creamatocrit method preferable.

  19. Evaluation of new oxidation methods for the measurement of bilirubin on the aeroset clinical chemistry analyzer and comparison with methods on the Hitachi 717.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Ernhard; Albrecht-Groos, Ragnhild; Seyfarth, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated analytical and performance quality of the new oxidation methods for direct and total bilirubin on the Abbott Aeroset clinical chemistry analyzer. Within-day imprecisions for Abbott Aeroset assays ranged from 0.7 to 2.9% and between-day imprecisions from 2.1 to 7.3%. Inaccuracies as compared with the control "target values" for the Jendrassik-Gróf method showed deviations of -18.2 to +4.2%. Limits of detection were determined and showed very low values of < or = 0.25 micromol/l and dilution linearities were confirmed up to > 300 micromol/l. A method comparison for 100 patient samples with established Jendrassik-Gróf and DPD methods on the Roche Hitachi 717 showed good linearities between the investigated methods (r > or = 0.995). Due to slopes that ranged from 0.829 to 0.950, reference ranges for the oxidation methods differ slightly from those of established Roche Jendrassik-Gróf methods, but results can be adapted by the introduction of converting factors. In conclusion, the oxidation bilirubin assays revealed convincing analytical and performance qualities for medical needs that were similar or even better than for established methods. Application of the oxidation methods on the Aeroset clinical chemistry analyzer also improves laboratory efficiency by increasing throughput, speed of obtaining results and lowered sample and reagent volumes compared to established methods.

  20. Effect of Blue Light on the Electronic and Structural Properties of Bilirubin Isomers: Insights into the Photoisomerization and Photooxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lucas C; Savedra, Ranylson M L; Silva, Mariana M; Ferreira, Giovana R; Bianchi, Rodrigo F; Siqueira, Melissa F

    2015-08-27

    The central process of neonatal phototherapy by employing blue light has been attributed to the configurational conversion of (4Z,15Z)-bilirubin to (4Z,15E). Indeed, photoisomerization is the early photochemical event during this procedure. However, in this paper, we show that the bilirubin solutions under continuous blue light exposure undergo a photooxidation process. To ascertain the role of this photodegradation in the phototherapy, we evaluated UV–visible absorption spectra obtained from bilirubin solutions in CHCl3, milli-Q water, and physiological saline, as well as FTIR spectroscopy for bilirubin in CHCl3. These analyses also showed that the first 2 h of phototherapy are the most relevant period. In addition, quantum molecular modeling using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and ZINDO/S-CIS was performed to evaluate the electronic and structural properties of four bilirubin isomers, showing that the (4Z,15E)-bilirubin isomer is the most polar configuration. Therefore, it can be more soluble in aqueous environments than the other configurations. This clarifies why this is the faster isomer excreted during the phototherapy.

  1. Short communication: Intake, milk production, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2016-03-01

    To establish the effects of access time to high-quality temperate fresh forage (FF) on intake and performance of cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 9 Holstein cows were assigned to three 3 × 3 Latin squares with 20-d periods with sampling in the last 10 d. The following treatments were evaluated: 0 (T0), 4 (T4), and 8 (T8) h of daily access to FF. Forage (Lolium multiflorum) was cut daily and offered ad libitum beginning at 0800 h in individual stalls, and a TMR was offered ad libitum during the period when cows had no access to FF. Fresh forage dry matter intake (DMI) increased and TMR DMI decreased with the access time to FF, whereas total DMI was 3.0 kg higher for T4 than for T8; no differences were detected with T0. Compared with T0, 8h/d of access to FF decreased milk, protein, and casein yields, and tended to decrease fat and lactose yields, but treatment had no effect on milk composition or feed efficiency. The milk fatty acid profile in T8 had a higher content of rumenic, vaccenic, and linolenic acids compared with T0. We concluded that cows with 4h of access to high-quality FF had similar DMI and milk yields as cows fed only the TMR, but more than 4h of access reduced DMI and performance without changes in feed efficiency, although milk fat had enhanced levels of beneficial fatty acids.

  2. Effect of zeolite (clinoptilolite) as feed additive in Tunisian broilers on the total flora, meat texture and the production of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing consumer demand for healthier food products has led to the development of governmental policies regarding health claims in many developed countries. In this context, contamination of poultry by food-borne pathogens is considered one of the major problems facing the progress of the poultry industry in Tunisia. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to chicken feed at concentrations 0,5% or 1% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce total flora in chickens and its effects on performance of the production. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form)that was either a basal diet or a' zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 0,5% or 1%). It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p < 0,05) reduced total flora levels, as compared to the control, on the chicken body. In addition, it was found that zeolite treatment had a positive effect on performance production and organoleptic parameters that were measured and mainly on the increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid. Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control total flora at the broiler farm and to increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid on the chicken body. PMID:22394592

  3. Effects of transdermal scopolamine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, on total 24 hour gastric acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, C T; Feldman, M

    1986-01-01

    Transdermal scopolamine is an antimuscarinic preparation approved for use in the United States for prevention of motion sickness. A recent study using this drug (0.5 mg/patch) suggested that enough scopolamine was absorbed through the skin to reduce basal gastric acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer. We have compared the effect of transdermal scopolamine and oral cimetidine (400 mg twice daily) in seven men with chronic duodenal ulcer, both alone and in combination, on acid secretion throughout an entire 24 hour period in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double blinded cross over study. The effect of these drugs on basal, interprandial, and nocturnal gastric juice volume and hydrogen ion concentration also was measured. Transdermal scopolamine had no significant effect on mean 24 hour acid secretion (placebo, 409.4 mmol/day; scopolamine, 364.0 mmol/day) nor did it have a significant effect on gastric juice volume or hydrogen ion concentration. The combination of transdermal scopolamine plus cimetidine was not more effective than cimetidine alone in reducing total 24 hour acid secretion (mean, 231.8 versus 235.3 mmol/day) nor in reducing gastric juice volume or hydrogen ion concentration. PMID:3804025

  4. Effects of injection of acetic acid and propionic acid for total phosphorus removal at high temperature in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    PubMed

    Ki, C Y; Kwon, K H; Kim, S W; Min, K S; Lee, T U; Park, D J

    2014-01-01

    In summer, wastewater treatment plant total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency is low in South Korea. The reason is because of high temperatures or significant fluctuation of inflow characteristics caused by frequent rainfall. Hence, this study tried to raise TP removal efficiency by injecting fixed external carbon sources in real sewage. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) compete to occupy microorganisms at high temperature. Propionate is known to restrain GAOs. Thus, acetate and propionate were chosen as the external carbon source in this study to find out the suitable volume and ratio of carbon source which ensured the dominance of PAOs. An external carbon source was supplied in the anaerobic reactor of the biological phosphorus removal process at high temperature (above 25 °C). TP removal efficiency was improved by injecting an external carbon source compared to that without an external carbon source. Also, it remained relatively stable when injecting an external carbon source, despite the variation in temperature. TP removal efficiency was the highest when injecting acetate and propionate in the proportion of 2:1 (total concentration as chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 12 mg/L in influent).

  5. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production.

  6. Strategies of fluorescence staining for trace total ribonucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis with argon ion laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-An; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Po-Ling

    2015-08-01

    In this work, five fluorescent dyes (SYTO-9, SYBR Green I, SYBR Green II, SYBR Safe, and SYBR Gold) were used as both on-column and precolumn stains for total RNA analysis by CE-LIF with Ar ion laser excitation. In the on-column RNA stain, the SYTO-9 provided the highest fluorescence intensity and the lowest detectable concentration, as low as 10 pg/μL, while the SYBR Green II and SYBR Gold were adsorbed on the poly(ethylene oxide) thus affected the separation efficiency. As a precolumn stain, SYBR Gold was the most sensitive among the five dyes due to the strong affinity between the dye and RNA molecules. As a result, a single-cell quantity of RNA (10-30 pg per cell) could be detected by CE-LIF with precolumn staining by SYBR Gold. Because of the great savings of fluorescent dye using precolumn stain (one button dye may use for one million stain), this method is the best strategy for RNA staining in terms of cost-effectiveness and sensitivity.

  7. Rapid determination of free fatty acid content in waste deodorizer distillates using single bounce-attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Naz, Saba; Sherazi, Sayed Tufail Hussain; Talpur, Farah N; Mahesar, Sarfaraz A; Kara, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    A simple, rapid, economical, and environmentally friendly analytical method was developed for the quantitative assessment of free fatty acids (FFAs) present in deodorizer distillates and crude oils by single bounce-attenuated total reflectance-FTIR spectroscopy. Partial least squares was applied for the calibration model based on the peak region of the carbonyl group (C=O) from 1726 to 1664 cm(-1) associated with the FFAs. The proposed method totally avoided the use of organic solvents or costly standards and could be applied easily in the oil processing industry. The accuracy of the method was checked by comparison to a conventional standard American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) titrimetric procedure, which provided good correlation (R = 0.99980), with an SD of +/- 0.05%. Therefore, the proposed method could be used as an alternate to the AOCS titrimetric method for the quantitative determination of FFAs especially in deodorizer distillates.

  8. The pH dependence of the cathodic peak potential of the active sites in bilirubin oxidase.

    PubMed

    Filip, Jaroslav; Tkac, Jan

    2014-04-01

    This is the first study showing pH dependence of three distinct redox sites within bilirubin oxidase (BOD) adsorbed on a nanocomposite modified electrode. The 1st redox centre with the highest redox potential Ec(1st)=404 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (614 mV vs. NHE at pH7.0) exhibited pH dependence with a slope -dEc(1st)/dpH=66(±3) mV under a non-turnover process. The 2nd redox centre with a potential Ec(2nd)=228 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (438 mV vs. NHE at pH7.0) was not dependent on pH in the absence and presence of O2. Finally, the 3rd redox site with a redox potential Ec(3rd)=92 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (302 mV vs. NHE at pH7.0) exhibited pH dependence for a cathodic process with -dEc(3rd)/dpH=70(±6) mV and for anodic process with -dEa(3rd)/dpH=73(±2) mV, respectively. Moreover, two break points for dependence of Ec(1st) or Ec(3rd) on pH were observed for the 1st (T1) site and the 3rd site assigned to involvement of two acidic amino acids (Asp105 and Glu463). A diagram of a potential difference between cathodic peaks of BOD as a dependence on pH is shown. The results obtained can be of interest for construction of biofuel cells based on BOD such as for generation of a low level of electricity from body fluids.

  9. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen and feces of dairy cows fed total mixed ration silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the gut.

    PubMed

    Han, H; Ogata, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Nagao, S; Nishino, N

    2014-09-01

    The survival of silage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the gut of dairy cows was evaluated by examining the LAB communities of silage and gut contents. Samples were collected at 2 different research institutes (Mie and Okayama) that offered total mixed ration (TMR) silage throughout the year. Silage and feces were sampled in August, October, and November at the Mie institute, whereas silage, rumen fluid, and feces were sampled in June and August at the Okayama institute. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using Lactobacillus-specific primers was performed to detect LAB species in the samples. The selected bands were purified for species identification and the band patterns were used for principal component analysis. Lactic acid was the predominant fermentation product in all the TMR silages analyzed, and the lactic acid level tended to be constant regardless of the sampling time and region. A total of 14 LAB species were detected in the TMR silage samples, of which 5 (Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus suebicus, and Lactobacillus plantarum) were detected in the dairy cow feces. Most of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands for the feces samples were also detected in the rumen fluid, suggesting that any elimination of silage LAB occurred in the rumen and not in the postruminal gut segments. The principal component analysis indicated that the LAB communities in the silage, rumen fluid, and feces were separately grouped; hence, the survival of silage LAB in the cow rumen and lower gut was deemed difficult. It was concluded that, although the gut LAB community is robust and not easily affected by the silage conditions, several LAB species can inhabit both silage and feces, which suggests the potential of using silage as a vehicle for conveying probiotics.

  10. Total zinc absorption in young women, but not fractional zinc absorption, differs between vegetarian and meat-based diets with equal phytic acid content.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette Bach; Hels, Ole; Morberg, Catrine M; Marving, Jens; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge

    2006-05-01

    Zn bioavailability is often lower in vegetarian diets mainly due to low Zn and high phytic acid contents. The objective of the present study was to determine the fractional and total absorption of Zn from a vegetarian diet in comparison with meat diets with equal concentrations of phytic acid. A randomized cross-over design, comprising three whole-day diet periods of 5 d each, with a vegetarian diet or diets containing Polish-produced meat or Danish-produced meat, was conducted. Twelve healthy female subjects completed the study. All diets had a high content of phytic acid (1250 micromol/d) and in the meat diets the main meals contained 60 g pork meat. All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope 65Zn and absorption of Zn was measured in a whole-body counter. The mean Zn content of the whole-day diet was: Polish meat diet 9.9 (SE 0.14) mg, Danish meat diet 9.4 (SE 0.19) mg and vegetarian diet 7.5 (SE 0.18) mg. No difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn (Polish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.2) %, Danish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.9) % and vegetarian diet: 23 (SE 2.6) %). A significantly lower amount of total Zn was absorbed from the vegetarian diet (mean Zn absorption of Polish meat diet: 2.7 (SE 0.12) mg/d (P<0.001), Danish meat diet: 2.6 (SE 0.17) mg/d (P=0.006) and vegetarian diet: 1.8 (SE 0.20) mg/d). In conclusion, the vegetarian diet compared with the meat-based diets resulted in lower amounts of absorbed Zn due to a higher content of Zn in the meat diets, but no difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn.

  11. Apparent digestibility of wheat bran and extruded flax in horses determined from the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker.

    PubMed

    De Marco, M; Miraglia, N; Peiretti, P G; Bergero, D

    2012-02-01

    Several studies have reported data on comparisons between two methods: the total collection of feces and the internal markers method. The aim of this study was to assess the apparent digestibility of two concentrates and to compare the apparent digestion coefficients using the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as the internal marker method. In 2009, six adult geldings aged between 3 and 11 years, with an average weight per trial of 543, 540 and 542 kg, respectively, were used to determine the apparent digestibility by means of three in vivo digestibility trials on hay, hay plus wheat bran (60 : 40) and hay plus extruded flax (80 : 20). Feces were collected over a 6-day period with a previous 14-day adaptation period. The three digestibility trials were carried out to determine the digestion coefficients of the three diets and, indirectly, of the two concentrates. The digestion coefficients of the diets were determined for the dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy, whereas the apparent digestion coefficients of the same parameters were calculated for wheat bran and extruded flax, by calculating the difference from the previous results. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test for paired samples. The digestion coefficients obtained were similar when the total collection of feces and the AIA method were used. Higher data variability, confirmed by a greater standard deviation, was observed using the AIA method to estimate the apparent digestion coefficients. It can be concluded that the use of AIA as an internal marker in digestibility trials on average leads to values similar to those obtained with the total collection of feces and can therefore be considered a less-expensive method to determine apparent digestion coefficients. Nevertheless, the total collection of feces should still be considered the best choice to determine the digestibility of some specific feedstuffs.

  12. Bilirubin - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastroenterology. In: Rennie JM, ed. Rennie and Robsertson's Textbook of Neonatology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 29. Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, ...

  13. Genome-wide association of serum bilirubin levels in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Wook; Kim, Hee-Jin; Ju, Hyoungseok; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jeon, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Han-Chul; Kim, Ka-Kyung; Kim, Jong-Won; Lee, Siwoo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Yong Sung

    2010-09-15

    A large-scale, genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic variations influencing serum bilirubin levels using 8841 Korean individuals. Significant associations were observed at UGT1A1 (rs11891311, P = 4.78 x 10(-148)) and SLCO1B3 (rs2417940, P = 1.03 x 10(-17)), which are two previously identified loci. The two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were replicated (rs11891311, P = 3.18 x 10(-15)) or marginally significant (rs2417940, P = 8.56 x 10(-4)) in an independent cohort of 1096 individuals. In a conditional analysis adjusted for the top UGT1A1 variant (rs11891311), another variant in UGT1A1 (rs4148323, P = 1.22 x 10(-121)) remained significant; this suggests that in UGT1A1 at least two independent genetic variations influence the bilirubin levels in the Korean population. The protein coding variant rs4148323, which is monomorphic in European-derived populations, may be specifically associated with serum bilirubin levels in Asians (P = 2.56 x 10(-70)). The SLCO1B3 variant (rs2417940, P = 1.67 x 10(-18)) remained significant in a conditional analysis for the top UGT1A1 variant. Interestingly, there were significant differences in the associated variations of SLCO1B3 between Koreans and European-derived populations. While the variant rs2417940 at intron 7 of SLCO1B3 was more significantly associated in Koreans, variants rs17680137 (P = 0.584) and rs2117032 (P = 2.76 x 10(-5)), two of the top-ranked SNPs in European-derived populations, did not reach the genome-wide significance level. Also, variants in SLCO1B1 did not reach genome-wide significance in Koreans. Our result supports the idea that there are considerable ethnic differences in genetic association of bilirubin levels between Koreans and European-derived populations.

  14. Identification of heme oxygenase-1 stimulators by a convenient ELISA-based bilirubin quantification assay.

    PubMed

    Rücker, Hannelore; Amslinger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has proven to be a useful tool for fighting inflammation. In order to identify new HO-1 inducers, an efficient screening method was developed which can provide new lead structures for drug research. We designed a simple ELISA-based HO-1 enzyme activity assay, which allows for the screening of 12 compounds in parallel in the setting of a 96-well plate. The well-established murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 is used and only about 26µg of protein from whole cell lysates is needed for the analysis of HO-1 activity. The quantification of HO-1 activity is based on an indirect ELISA using the specific anti-bilirubin antibody 24G7 to quantify directly bilirubin in the whole cell lysate, applying a horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibody together with ortho-phenylenediamine and H2O2 for detection. The bilirubin is produced on the action of HO enzymes by converting their substrate heme to biliverdin and additional recombinant biliverdin reductase together with NADPH at pH 7.4 in buffer. This sensitive assay allows for the detection of 0.57-82pmol bilirubin per sample in whole cell lysates. Twenty-three small molecules, mainly natural products with an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl unit such as polyphenols, including flavonoids and chalcones, terpenes, an isothiocyanate, and the drug oltipraz were tested at typically 6 or 24h incubation with RAW264.7 cells. The activity of known HO-1 inducers was confirmed, while the chalcones cardamonin, flavokawain A, calythropsin, 2',3,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (THMC), and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone (DHDMC) were identified as new potent HO-1 inducers. The highest inductive power after 6h incubation was found at 10µM for DHDMC (6.1-fold), carnosol (3.9-fold), butein (3.1-fold), THMC (2.9-fold), and zerumbone (2.5-fold). Moreover, the time dependence of HO-1 protein production for DHDMC was compared to its enzyme activity, which was further evaluated in the presence of

  15. Effects of sample aging on total cholesterol values determined by the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid and Liebermann-Burchard procedures.

    PubMed

    Wood, P D; Bachorik, P S; Albers, J J; Stewart, C C; Winn, C; Lippel, K

    1980-04-01

    To investigate the comparability of three commonly used methods for determination of total cholesterol in plasma in several studies, we used fresh plasma samples as well as plasmas and reference sera that had been stored frozen at -15 degrees C for as long as several years. Duplicate determinations by the manual method of Abell et al. (J. Biol. Chem. 195: 357, 1952) were compared with estimates from one to five continuous-flow analyzers by the ferric chloride-sulfuric acid procedure and also with estimates from five to 13 continuous-flow analyzers by the Liebermann-Burchard procedure with calibrator, as part of the laboratory standardization activities of the Lipid Research Clinics. The agreement among all three procedures was generally within acceptable limits (within 5% of the manual method) when plasmas or sera were fresh or had been frozen for less than one month. Results by the manual method of Abell et al. agreed well with those by the automated Liebermann-Burchard method for samples that had been stored at -15 degrees C for as long as two years. However, the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid procedure often showed unacceptably high values (as compared with those from the manual method) for samples that had been stored frozen for a year or more. With the ferric chloride-sulfuric acid method, measured cholesterol concentration increased about 2.5% per year of storage for at least two years. We conclude that reference sera of plasmas that have been kept in long-term frozen storage (-15 degrees C) are not suitable for ongoing standardization of the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid assay for cholesterol.

  16. Survey of the total fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition and content of 30 duckweed species and cloning of a Δ6-desaturase responsible for the production of γ-linolenic and stearidonic acids in Lemna gibba

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Duckweeds, i.e., members of the Lemnoideae family, are amongst the smallest aquatic flowering plants. Their high growth rate, aquatic habit and suitability for bio-remediation make them strong candidates for biomass production. Duckweeds have been studied for their potential as feedstocks for bioethanol production; however, less is known about their ability to accumulate reduced carbon as fatty acids (FA) and oil. Results Total FA profiles of thirty duckweed species were analysed to assess the natural diversity within the Lemnoideae. Total FA content varied between 4.6% and 14.2% of dry weight whereas triacylglycerol (TAG) levels varied between 0.02% and 0.15% of dry weight. Three FA, 16:0 (palmitic), 18:2Δ9,12 (Linoleic acid, or LN) and 18:3Δ9,12,15 (α-linolenic acid, or ALA) comprise more than 80% of total duckweed FA. Seven Lemna and two Wolffiela species also accumulate polyunsaturated FA containing Δ6-double bonds, i.e., GLA and SDA. Relative to total FA, TAG is enriched in saturated FA and deficient in polyunsaturated FA, and only five Lemna species accumulate Δ6-FA in their TAG. A putative Δ6-desaturase designated LgDes, with homology to a family of front-end Δ6-FA and Δ8-spingolipid desaturases, was identified in the assembled DNA sequence of Lemna gibba. Expression of a synthetic LgDes gene in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the accumulation of GLA and SDA, confirming it specifies a Δ6-desaturase. Conclusions Total accumulation of FA varies three-fold across the 30 species of Lemnoideae surveyed. Nine species contain GLA and SDA which are synthesized by a Δ6 front-end desaturase, but FA composition is otherwise similar. TAG accumulates up to 0.15% of total dry weight, comparable to levels found in the leaves of terrestrial plants. Polyunsaturated FA is underrepresented in TAG, and the Δ6-FA GLA and SDA are found in the TAG of only five of the nine Lemna species that produce them. When present, GLA is enriched and SDA diminished

  17. The levels of bilirubin may be related to an inflammatory condition in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Greabu, M; Olinescu, R; Kummerow, F A; Crocnan, D O

    2001-01-01

    In agreement with previous reports, we found that the bilirubin level is significantly lower in the blood of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) than in age and sex matched controls. However, we found that the level of bilirubin in the blood seemed to be an age-dependent phenomenon and closely related to the activation of leukocytes. In 1,000 cardiac catheterised patients from Urbana, USA suffering from CHD, the level of blood bilirubin was found to be lower than in age and sex-matched controls. The same results were obtained on 300 patients with acute ischemia from three hospitals from Bucharest, Romania. The activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes increased in the catheterised patients, as well in Romanian patients. An activation of leukocytes triggered by a chronic inflammatory process may increase the lysis of erythrocytes. The erythrocytes of patients with 100% stenosis exhibited a higher rate of in vitro lysis in the presence of activated leukocytes and homocysteine. The increased hemolysis may trigger the activation and removal of the resulting bilirubin from blood. Such a mechanism may depend on the liver clearing function. This function was decreased in catheterized patients over 60 years of age, but had accelerated in younger patients. An individual variation in liver function may explain the widespread bilirubin levels in the blood of patients suffering from CHD.

  18. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Kawinwonggowit, Viroj

    2017-01-01

    Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA) application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL) reduction in total knee replacement (TKR). Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT) after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014). Patient's characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL), estimated total blood loss (ETBL), and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg). Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level and body mass index (BMI) were the significant predictors of postoperative BT (p < 0.0001 and 0.003, resp.). Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (p < 0.0001). Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance (p < 0.05 all). Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg (p = 0.0001 and 0.002, resp.). Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL. PMID:28331851

  19. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  20. Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2011-06-22

    Fruit pulp and seeds from the jujube plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties. The bioactive components have been shown to vary both with cultivar and with growing conditions. Most studies report the components of varieties from China. We measured free amino acid, individual phenolic, and total phenolic content, and antioxidative activities in three jujube fruit pulp extracts from Boeun-deachu, Mechu, and Sanzoin cultivars and two seed extracts (Mechu and Sanzoin) from plants grown in Korea. In g/100 g dry weight, total free amino acid content measured by ion-exchange chromatography ranged from 5.2 to 9.8 in the pulp and from 4.0 to 5.3 in the seed. Total phenolic content measured by Folin-Ciocalteu ranged from 1.1 to 2.4 in the pulp and from 3.6 to 4.6 in the seed. Flavonoids were measured by HPLC and ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 in the pulp and from 3.2 to 4.0 in the seed. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC elution position and UV/vis and mass spectra. Fruits contained the following flavonoids: procyanidin B2, epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q-3-R), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-G), kaempferol-glucosyl-rhamnoside (K-G-R), and two unidentified compounds. Seeds contained the following flavonoids: saponarin, spinosin, vitexin, swertish, 6'''-hydroxybenzoylspinosin (6'''-HBS), 6'''-feruloylspinosin (6'''-FS), and one unidentified substance. Dimensions and weights of the fresh fruit samples affected phenolic content. The distribution of the individual flavonoids among the different samples varied widely. Data determined by the FRAP antioxidative assay were well correlated with total phenolic content. In a departure from other studies, data from the DPPH free radical assay were not correlated with FRAP or with any of the measured compositional parameters. Because individual jujube flavonoids are reported to exhibit different health-promoting effects, knowledge of the composition and concentration of bioactive compounds of jujube products can benefit

  1. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). Howev