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Sample records for acid total cholesterol

  1. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Abbey, M; Noakes, M; Belling, G B; Nestel, P J

    1994-05-01

    Sixteen normolipidemic male volunteers aged 41 +/- 9 y (mean +/- SD) consumed a diet providing 36% of energy as fat (92 g fat/d) for 9 wk. A daily supplement of nuts (providing half of the total fat intake) was provided against a common background diet. In the first 3-wk period the background diet was supplemented with raw peanuts (50 g/d), coconut cubes (40 g/d), and a coconut confectionary bar (50 g/d), designed to provide 47 g fat with a ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P:M:S) to match the Australian diet (reference diet). During the following 3 wk the background diet was supplemented with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich raw almonds (84 g/d), equivalent to 46 g fat, and during the final 3-wk period the background diet was supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich walnuts (68 g/d), equivalent to 46 g fat. Compared with the reference diet there were significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol, 7% and 10%, respectively, after supplementation with almonds, and 5% and 9%, respectively, after supplementation with walnuts.

  2. New data on the total lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid composition of raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Bragagnolo, Neura; Rodriguez-Amaya, Délia B

    2003-09-01

    Simultaneous analyses of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids were carried out on raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi trimmed of external fat. Cholesterol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the fatty acids by gas chromatography. Mean total lipid (g/100 g) ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 for raw beef and 3.5 to 4.0 for grilled beef steaks. Cholesterol levels (mg/100 g) ranged from 40 to 43 for raw beef and 67 to 70 for grilled beef steaks. The main intramuscular fatty acids of the raw and grilled meat were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9, 18:1n7 and 18:2n6. Grilled lean beef steaks had significantly higher contents of the principal fatty acids and most of the minor fatty acids. The higher values for the three components in the grilled meat were due to loss of moisture during grilling. There was no significant difference between the apparent and true retentions values, both indicating no significant loss or degradation of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids during grilling.

  3. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  4. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  5. Role of bran in normals. Serum levels of cholesterols, triglyceride, calcium and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid, and intestinal transit time.

    PubMed

    Winreich, J; Pedersen, O; Dinesen, K

    1977-01-01

    After the intake of approximately 24 g wheat bran daily for 5 weeks, 25 trainee nurses showed no changes in the serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium or total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. On the other hand, the study revealed a reduced intestinal transit time with good correlation to an increased frequency of bowel movements. Average body weight fell significantly, by 0.4 kg. The daily caloric intake remained constant throughout the study period, whereas the calcium intake was significantly increased. Among the serum parameters and the dietary constituents, good correlation was found only between serum cholesterol and the dietary cholesterol content. In addition, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between the serum levels of cholesterol and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. The significance of this observation is as yet unknown.

  6. Fluorometric enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in serum.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Kauan, J W; Guilbault, G G

    1975-10-01

    We describe a fluorometric enzymatic method for determining total serum cholesterol, based on hydrolysis of cholesterol esters to free cholesterol by cholesterol ester hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.13). The free cholesterol formed, as well as that initially present, is then oxidized by cholesterol oxidase (EC 1.1.3.6) to cholest-4-en-3-one with simultaneous production of hydrogen peroxide. The latter catalytically oxidizes homovanillic acid in the presence of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) to form the highly fluorescent 2,2'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-biphenyl-5,5'-diacetic acid. A calibration curve is constructed from data on a series of standard cholesterol solutions vs. the corresponding fluorescence change (deltaf/5 min). This curve is linear up to 4.0 g of total serum cholesterol per liter of serum. The method is specific, precise, accurate, rapid, and simple, and results correlate well with those obtained by both the Liebermann-Burchard procedure and the colorimetric enzymatic method (correlation coefficients, 0.984 and 0.981, respectively).

  7. 21 CFR 862.1175 - Cholesterol (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cholesterol (total) test system. 862.1175 Section... Systems § 862.1175 Cholesterol (total) test system. (a) Identification. A cholesterol (total) test system is a device intended to measure cholesterol in plasma and serum. Cholesterol measurements are used...

  8. Effects of sample aging on total cholesterol values determined by the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid and Liebermann-Burchard procedures.

    PubMed

    Wood, P D; Bachorik, P S; Albers, J J; Stewart, C C; Winn, C; Lippel, K

    1980-04-01

    To investigate the comparability of three commonly used methods for determination of total cholesterol in plasma in several studies, we used fresh plasma samples as well as plasmas and reference sera that had been stored frozen at -15 degrees C for as long as several years. Duplicate determinations by the manual method of Abell et al. (J. Biol. Chem. 195: 357, 1952) were compared with estimates from one to five continuous-flow analyzers by the ferric chloride-sulfuric acid procedure and also with estimates from five to 13 continuous-flow analyzers by the Liebermann-Burchard procedure with calibrator, as part of the laboratory standardization activities of the Lipid Research Clinics. The agreement among all three procedures was generally within acceptable limits (within 5% of the manual method) when plasmas or sera were fresh or had been frozen for less than one month. Results by the manual method of Abell et al. agreed well with those by the automated Liebermann-Burchard method for samples that had been stored at -15 degrees C for as long as two years. However, the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid procedure often showed unacceptably high values (as compared with those from the manual method) for samples that had been stored frozen for a year or more. With the ferric chloride-sulfuric acid method, measured cholesterol concentration increased about 2.5% per year of storage for at least two years. We conclude that reference sera of plasmas that have been kept in long-term frozen storage (-15 degrees C) are not suitable for ongoing standardization of the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid assay for cholesterol.

  9. Quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism by promoting cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and cholesterol efflux in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xie, Zongkai; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Wei, Jingyu; Guo, Changjiang

    2016-03-01

    Quercetin, a common member of the flavonoid family, is widely present in plant kingdom. Despite that quercetin is implicated in regulating cholesterol metabolism, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that quercetin regulates cholesterol homeostasis through regulating the key enzymes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we compared the profile of key enzymes and transcription factors involved in the hepatic cholesterol metabolism in rats with or without quercetin supplementation. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and quercetin-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total bile acids in feces and bile were measured. Hepatic enzymatic activities were determined by activity assay kit and high-performance liquid chromatography-based analyses. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. The results showed that the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, a critical enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was significantly elevated by quercetin. The expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, as well as liver X receptor α, an important transcription factor, was also increased at both mRNA and protein levels by quercetin. However, quercetin exposure had no impact on the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. We also found that quercetin treatment significantly increased ATP binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA and protein expression in the liver, suggesting that quercetin may increase hepatic cholesterol efflux. Collectively, the results presented here indicate that quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism mainly through the pathways that promote cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and

  10. Amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol with nanoparticles of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, V; Malik, J; Prashant, A; Jaiwal, P K; Pundir, C S

    2016-05-01

    We describe the preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked and functionalized cholesterol esterase nanoparticles (ChENPs) and cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles (ChOxNPs) aggregates and their co-immobilization onto Au electrode for improved amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of ChENPs and ChOxNPs showed their spherical shape and average size of 35.40 and 56.97 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of Au electrode confirmed the co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The biosensor exhibited optimal response at pH 5.5 and 40°C within 5 s when polarized at +0.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. The working/linear range of the biosensor was 10-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The sensor showed high sensitivity and measured total cholesterol as low as 0.1 mg/dl. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for total cholesterol determination in sera of apparently healthy and diseased persons. The analytical recovery of added cholesterol was 90%, whereas the within-batch and between-batch coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 2% and less than 3%. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between serum cholesterol values as measured by the standard enzymic colorimetric method and the current method. The initial activity of ENPs/working electrode was reduced by 50% during its regular use (200 times) over a period of 60 days when stored dry at 4°C.

  11. The effects of polyoxyethylated cholesterol on fecal bile acids and nitrogen and on cholesterol balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Amorosa, L E; Martucci, C P; Stevenson, N R; Khachadurian, A K

    1991-03-01

    Polyoxyethylated cholesterol (POEC) is a water soluble derivative of cholesterol which decreases cholesterol absorption in rats without affecting body weight, fatty acid excretion, or intestinal histology. In the present study rat feces were analyzed for cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, muricholic and lithocholic acid following 3 months of feeding a standard or a 2% enriched cholesterol diet with or without 1.5% POEC. In rats maintained on the cholesterol free diet, POEC increased total bile acids (mg/day) by 50% from 14 +/- 3 to 21 +/- 3 (mean +/- SEM) but only the increase in chenodeoxycholic acid was significant (P less than 0.05). The corresponding POEC effect in the 2% cholesterol diet was 31% (70 +/- 8 to 93 +/- 3, P less than 0.01). Fecal nitrogen and serum cholesterol did not vary among groups. Comparing these data with neutral steroid excretion previously determined showed that POEC in the cholesterol-free diet increased the negative cholesterol balance more than three-fold (34 +/- 7 vs 118 +/- 13 P less than 0.01). In rats fed 2% cholesterol, POEC caused a negative cholesterol balance of 222 +/- 8 compared to the control of 27 +/- 52 (P less than 0.01). The data indicate that POEC exerts complex effects in the intestinal tract which increase both bile acid and cholesterol excretion.

  12. Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and choline esterase in overseas and Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S

    1985-04-01

    Serum lipids were studied in 97 overseas and 282 Japanese university students. As compared with Japanese, serum total cholesterol levels were low and high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was high in the overseas students, especially in Chinese and Korean students. 30-39-year-old Chinese students, moreover, showed elevated high density lipoprotein levels. Choline esterase levels were significantly lower in 30-39-year-old Chinese and Korean students than in Japanese and Taiwanese.

  13. Unnecessary repeated total cholesterol tests in biochemistry laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Suleyman; Zorbozan, Nergiz; Basak, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to determine the number of repeated cholesterol (RC) tests and the ratio of unnecessary-repeated cholesterol (URC) tests among patients admitted to Pamukkale University Hospital (Denizli, Turkey) and provide solutions to avoid URC testing. Materials and methods Total cholesterol (T-cholesterol) tests (N = 86,817) between June 2014 and May 2015 were evaluated. The tests performed more than once per patient were determined as RC test (N = 28,811). RC test with an interval shorter than 4 weeks were determined as URC test (N = 3968) according to the shortest retest interval stated in ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guideline. RC testing included internal medicine, surgery and paediatric outpatients and inpatients. Reference change value (RCV) of total cholesterol was calculated. Results The 33.1% of the T-cholesterol tests were RC tests (N = 28,811), 13.7% of them were URC tests (N = 3968). Our RCV value was 25%. The percentage change between consecutive tests was less than RCV in 86.1% (N = 3418) of URC tests. URC tests were performed more frequently in patients with desirable total cholesterol value (P < 0.001). Conclusion There is a significant part of repeated T-cholesterol tests requested in our hospital. URC test requests can be evaluated by laboratories and the obtained data should be shared with clinicians. Laboratories can calculate RCV for the tests they performed and report this value with the test result. To prevent from URC tests, a warning plug-in can be added to hospital information software in accordance with guidelines to prevent from URC test requests. PMID:26981021

  14. Colorimetric determination of free and total cholesterol by flow injection analysis with a fiber optic detector.

    PubMed

    Krug, A; Suleiman, A A; Guilbault, G G; Kellner, R

    1992-04-01

    A flow injection method for the determination of total and free cholesterol is presented. Cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase are immobilized on aminoalkyl glass beads. The beads are packed into a tubular glass reactor. The cholesterol esters traversing through the esterase reactor are cleaved to cholesterol and fatty acids. The oxidase reactor converts cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one and hydrogen peroxide is generated. The sample stream is merged with reagent streams consisting of a peroxidase solution and a solution of 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, and a hydrogen peroxide-dependent color reaction takes place in a short coiled reactor. The signal is monitored by means of fiber optic instrumentation. Cholesterol concentration can be related to the absorption of the oxidized dye form at a wavelength of 425 nm. The working range is 0.5-0.8 mmol l-1, and the sample throughputs are 60 and 30 h-1 for free and total cholesterol, respectively.

  15. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat.

  16. Fish protein decreases serum cholesterol in rats by inhibition of cholesterol and bile acid absorption.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2011-05-01

    Fish protein has been shown to decrease serum cholesterol content by inhibiting absorption of cholesterol and bile acid in laboratory animals, though the mechanism underlying this effect is not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of cholesterol and bile acid absorption following fish protein intake. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 dietary groups of 7 rats each, 1 group receiving a diet consisting of 20% casein and the other receiving a diet consisting of 10% casein and 10% fish protein. Both experimental diets also contained 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. After the rats had been on their respective diets for 4 wk, their serum and liver cholesterol contents and fecal cholesterol, bile acid, and nitrogen excretion contents were measured. Fish protein consumption decreased serum and liver cholesterol content and increased fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion and simultaneously increased fecal nitrogen excretion. In addition, fish protein hydrolyzate prepared by in vitro digestion had lower micellar solubility of cholesterol and higher binding capacity for bile acids compared with casein hydrolyzate. These results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effect of fish protein is mediated by increased fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion, which is due to the digestion products of fish protein having reduced micellar solubility of cholesterol and increased bile acid binding capacity.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1175 - Cholesterol (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cholesterol (total) test system. 862.1175 Section 862.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1175 - Cholesterol (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cholesterol (total) test system. 862.1175 Section 862.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1175 - Cholesterol (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cholesterol (total) test system. 862.1175 Section 862.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1175 - Cholesterol (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cholesterol (total) test system. 862.1175 Section 862.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. Fish protein hydrolysate reduces plasma total cholesterol, increases the proportion of HDL cholesterol, and lowers acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in liver of Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Wergedahl, Hege; Liaset, Bjørn; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita; Lied, Einar; Espe, Marit; Muna, Ziad; Mørk, Sverre; Berge, Rolf K

    2004-06-01

    There is growing evidence that soy protein improves the blood lipid profiles of animals and humans. We compared the effects of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), soy protein, and casein (control) on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats and genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. In Zucker rats, FPH treatment affected the fatty acid composition in liver, plasma, and triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. The mRNA levels of Delta 5 and Delta 6 desaturases were reduced by FPH and soy protein feeding compared with casein feeding. In Zucker rats both FPH and soy protein treatment reduced the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, the HDL cholesterol:total cholesterol ratio was greater in these rats and in the Wistar rats fed FPH and soy protein compared with those fed casein. Although fecal total bile acids were greater in soy protein-fed Zucker rats than in casein-fed controls, those fed FPH did not differ from the controls. However, the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was reduced in Zucker rats fed FPH and tended to be lower (P = 0.13) in those fed soy protein compared with those fed casein. Low ratios of methionine to glycine and lysine to arginine in the FPH and soy protein diets, compared with the casein diet, may be involved in lowering the plasma cholesterol concentration. Our results indicate that the effects of FPH and soy protein on fatty acid metabolism are similar in many respects, but the hypocholesterolemic effects of FPH and soy protein appear to be due to different mechanisms. FPH may have a role as a cardioprotective nutrient.

  2. Acid and bile tolerance and cholesterol removal ability of lactobacilli strains.

    PubMed

    Liong, M T; Shah, N P

    2005-01-01

    Eleven strains of lactobacilli were studied for their acid and bile tolerance. Possible mechanisms of cholesterol removal by strains of lactobacilli were examined. Cholesterol assimilation as determined by the difference in cholesterol content in the medium before and after the incubation period showed that all lactobacilli strains were able to assimilate cholesterol at varying levels ranging from 12.03 to 32.25 microg/mL. Cholesterol removal was associated with growth of cultures. Binding of cholesterol to lactobacilli cells was determined using growing, heat-killed, and resting cells in phosphate buffer. Cholesterol removed by dead and resting cells ranged from 0.79 to 3.82 mg/g of dry weight compared with growing cells, which ranged from 4.53 to 16.03 mg/g of dry weight. Fatty acid methyl esters, as quantified using gas chromatography, showed changes in lipid profiles in cells grown in the presence of cholesterol compared with those grown without cholesterol. Fatty acid profiles, especially of hexadecanoic, octadecanoic, total saturated, and unsaturated acids suggested that cholesterol from the medium was incorporated into the cellular membrane. These findings suggest that strains of lactobacilli could remove cholesterol via various mechanisms and may be promising candidates for use as a dietary adjunct to lower serum cholesterol in vivo.

  3. Cholesterol oxidase-based determination, by continuous-flow analysis, of total and free cholesterol in serum.

    PubMed

    Lie, R F; Schmitz, J M; Pierre, K J; Gochman, N

    1976-10-01

    We describe a continuous-flow, automated determination of total cholesterol in serum, which is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of cholesterol esters, oxidation of cholesterol by cholesterol oxidase, and colorimetric measurement of liberated perioxide with 4-aminoantipyrine, phenol, and peroxidase. Free cholesterol is determined with the same AutoAnalyzer II manifold and reagents, except that cholesterol esterase is omitted from the reagent. Cholesterol-in-serum materials that have been assayed by an established method are used for calibration. We found this approach to be necessary because primary cholesterol standards in organic solvents are incompatible with the aqueous reagent. Results of the enzymatic total cholesterol method correlated well with those by an AutoAnalyzer II method which involves an extraction with isopropanol and the Liebermann-Burchard color reaction (total cholesterol, g/liter, yenz= 0991xlb +0.05;r=0.996). Results of the enzymatic free cholesterol procedure agreed satisfactorily with one in which free cholesterol is precipitated as the digitonide and subsequently analyzed colorimetrically with the Liebermann-Burchard reaction (free cholesterol, %, yenz = 0.982xdig -0.7;r= 0.956).

  4. Development of cholesterol biosensor based on immobilized cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase on oxygen electrode for the determination of total cholesterol in food samples.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anjan Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Parimal; Roychoudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2007-05-01

    The development of a cholesterol biosensor by co-immobilization of cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOX) on oxygen electrode is described. The electrode consists of gold cathode and Ag/AgCl anode. The enzymes were immobilized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The immobilized enzymatic membrane was attached to the tip of the electrode by a push cap system. The optimum pH and temperature of the sensor was determined, these are 6 and 25 degrees C respectively. The developed sensor was calibrated from 1-75 mg/dl of cholesterol palmiate and found linear in the range of 2-50 mg/dL. The calibration curve was drawn with V(i) (ppm/min)(initial velocity) vs different concentrations of cholesterol palmiate (mg/dL). The application of the sensor to determine the total cholesterol in different real food samples such as egg, meat was investigated. The immobilized enzymatic layer can be reused over 30 times and the stability of the enzymatic layer was studied up to 9 weeks.

  5. Extraction and quantitation of total cholesterol, dolichol and dolichyl phosphate from mammalian liver

    SciTech Connect

    Crick, D.C.; Carroll, K.K.

    1987-12-01

    A procedure is described for the determination of total cholesterol, dolichol and dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) in mammalian liver. It is based on extraction of these compounds into diethyl ether after alkaline saponification of the tissue. Extractability is affected by the length of saponification and concentration of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the saponification mixture. After extraction, total cholesterol and dolichol are quantitated directly by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) on C18. Dol-P requires further purification before quantitation by HPLC, this is accomplished by chromatography on silicic acid. These methods gave recoveries of over 90% for cholesterol and dolichol and about 60% for Dol-P, using (4-/sup 14/C)cholesterol, a polyprenol containing 15 isoprene units, and (1-/sup 14/C)Dol-P as recovery standards. Concentrations of total cholesterol, dolichol and Dol-P in livers from one month-old-CBA mice were found to be 5.7 +/- 0.7 mg/g, 66.3 +/- 1.2 micrograms/g and 3.7 +/- 0.3 micrograms/g, respectively.

  6. High serum total cholesterol--an indicator for monitoring cholesterol lowering efforts: U.S. adults, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Schober, Susan E; Carroll, Margaret D; Lacher, David A; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2007-12-01

    Elevated serum total cholesterol is a major and modifiable risk factor for heart disease, the lead-ing cause of death in the United States (1,2). Reducing mean total serum cholesterol levels among adults to less than 200 mg/dL and reducing the proportion who have levels of 240 mg/dL or higher to less than 17% are national Healthy People 2010 objectives (3). Age-adjusted mean serum cholesterol levels among adults aged 20-74 years declined from 222 mg/dL in 1960-1962 to 203 mg/dL in 1999-2002 (4). Among adults aged 20 years and older, the percent of the population with high serum total cholesterol levels (240 mg/dL or higher) declined from 20% during 1988-1994 to 17% during 1999-2002 (4). In individual patients, a high serum total cholesterol level indicates a potential increased risk for heart disease, but further evaluation of other risk factors and the specific components of cholesterol provide the basis for determining the need for initiating therapeutic lifestyle changes or treatment with medication (5). Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) is the cholesterol component associated with arterial blockage, and it is the primary clinical target for cholesterol management. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) may help to protect individuals from developing heart disease. In populations, comparisons of total cholesterol levels over time can show if population groups are experiencing improvement in cholesterol levels, and knowledge of trends in levels of total cholesterol can help identify subgroups where additional prevention efforts may be needed.

  7. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (P<0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (P<0·001) were reduced after 8 weeks, compared with the C-diet group. The difference in change between the two groups at the end of the study was -9 and -11 % in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. No difference in change in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble TNF receptor 1 and interferon-γ) was observed between the groups. In conclusion, exchanging a few regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  8. The Metabolism of Cholestanol, Cholesterol, and Bile Acids in Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Salen, Gerald; Grundy, Scott M.

    1973-01-01

    The metabolism of cholesterol and its 5-dihydro derivative, cholestanol, was investigated by means of sterol balance and isotope kinetic techniques in 3 subjects with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) and 11 other individuals. All subjects were hospitalized on a metabolic ward and were fed diets practically free of cholesterol and cholestanol. After the intravenous administration of [1,2-3H]cholestanol, the radioactive sterol was transported and esterified in plasma lipoproteins in an identical manner to cholesterol. In these short-term experiments, the specific activity-time curves of plasma cholestanol conformed to two-pool models in both the CTX and control groups. However, cholestanol plasma concentrations, total body miscible pools, and daily synthesis rates were two to five times greater in the CTX than control individuals. The short-term specific activity decay curves of plasma [4-14C]cholesterol also conformed to two-pool models in both groups. However, in the CTX subjects the decay was more rapid, and daily cholesterol synthesis was nearly double that of the control subjects. Plasma concentrations and the sizes of the rapidly turning over pool of exchangeable cholesterol were apparently small in the CTX subjects, and these measurements did not correlate with the large cholesterol deposits found in tendon and tuberous xanthomas. Despite active cholesterol synthesis, bile acid formation was subnormal in the CTX subjects. However, bile acid sequestration was accompanied by a rise in plasma cholestanol levels and greatly augmented fecal cholestanol outputs. In contrast, the administration of clofibrate lowered plasma cholesterol levels 50% and presumably reduced synthesis in the CTX subjects. Plasma cholesterol concentrations and fecal steroid excretion did not change significantly during this therapy. These findings indicate that the excessive tissue deposits of cholesterol and cholestanol that characterize CTX were associated with hyperactive neutral

  9. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Service NCHS Total and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, ... 2012, 12.9% of adults had high total cholesterol, 17.4% had low HDL cholesterol, and 69. ...

  10. The effects of biopolymer encapsulation on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk during in vitro human digestion.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-08-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  12. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies.

  13. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  14. IL-1 regulates the Cyp7a1 gene and serum total cholesterol level at steady state in mice.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Misaki; Ashino, Takashi; Yoshida, Takemi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2009-02-06

    We examined the role of hepatic interleukin (IL)-1alpha/beta in serum total cholesterol homeostasis using male and female IL-1-knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Serum total cholesterol level was higher in males than in females in WT and KO mice. The difference between sexes was closely correlated with the difference in gene expression level of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), a rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. No significant sex difference in gene expression level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, was observed in WT mice. Interestingly, the gene expression level of hepatic Cyp7a1 was lower in KO mice than in sex-matched WT mice, while the serum total cholesterol level was the opposite. The present findings demonstrate that IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are positive regulators for the Cyp7a1 gene in steady-state mice and that Cyp7a1 is one of the factors that mediate the difference in serum total cholesterol level between sexes.

  15. Influence of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides on risk of cerebrovascular disease: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    PubMed Central

    Lindenstrøm, E.; Boysen, G.; Nyboe, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the influence of plasma total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides on risk of cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN--The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective observational survey with two cardiovascular examinations at five year intervals. Non-fasting plasma lipids were measured in participants once at each examination, along with other variables. The Cox regression model was used to establish the effect of the factors recorded on cerebrovascular events of mostly, but not exclusively, ischaemic origin. SUBJECTS--19,698 women and men at least 20 years old, randomly selected after age stratification from an area of central Copenhagen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Initial cases of stroke and transient ischaemic attack recorded from hospital records and death certificates from 1976 through 1988. RESULTS--660 non-haemorrhagic and 33 haemorrhagic events were recorded. Total cholesterol was positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events, but only for levels > 8 mmol/l, corresponding to the upper 5% of the distribution in the study population. For lower plasma cholesterol values the relative risk remained nearly constant. Plasma triglyceride concentration was significantly, positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events. The relative risk corresponding to an increase of 1 mmol/l was 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.16). There was a negative, log linear association between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of non-haemorrhagic events (0.53 (0.34 to 0.83)). There was no indication that the effects of plasma lipids were different in women and men. CONCLUSIONS--The pattern of the association between plasma cholesterol and risk of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease was not log linear, and the increased risk was confined to the upper 5% of the cholesterol distribution. Further studies should concentrate on the association between plasma cholesterol and verified haemorrhagic stroke. PMID

  16. Significance of the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity in patients with or without coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Kenji; Kuwano, Takashi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Tomohiko; Shiga, Yuhei; Suematsu, Yasunori; Miyase, Yuiko; Adachi, Sen; Nakamura, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that cholesterol efflux capacity is more useful than the lipid profile as a marker of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we investigated the associations between the presence and the severity of CAD and both the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity and the lipid profile including the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). The subjects consisted of 204 patients who were clinically suspected to have CAD and underwent CTA. We isolated HDL from plasma by ultracentrifugation and measured the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophage cells and calculated total cholesterol efflux capacity as follows: the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity/100× HDL-C levels. While the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity was not associated with the presence or the severity of CAD, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. In addition, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C, but not the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity, significantly decreased as the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis increased. Total cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL-C, whereas the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity showed only weak association. In a logistic regression analysis, the presence of CAD was independently associated with total cholesterol efflux capacity, in addition to age and gender. Finally, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the areas under the curves for total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C were similar. In conclusion, the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using the fixed amount of isolated HDL was not associated with CAD. On the other hand, the calculated total

  17. Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohkyung; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X; Park, Youngki; Martin, Derek A; Xie, Liyang; Taheri, Rod; Lee, Jiyoung; Bolling, Bradley W

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich chokeberry extract (CBE) would modulate hepatic lipid metabolism and improve antioxidant function in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed diets containing 15% fat with 0.2% cholesterol alone or supplemented with 0.005% or 0.05% CBE for 4 weeks. CBE polyphenol content was determined by the total phenols, 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 0.05% CBE diet provided mice with mean daily doses of 1.2 mg gallic acid equivalents of total phenols, 0.19 mg anthocyanins, 0.17 mg phenolic acids, 0.06 mg proanthocyanidins (as catechin-equivalents), and 0.02 mg flavonols. The 0.05% CBE group had 12% less plasma total cholesterol concentrations than the control. Despite the hypocholesterolemic effect of CBE, hepatic mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor, hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase in CBE-fed mice were not significantly different from controls. Dietary CBE did not alter hepatic lipid content or the hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation such as fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Plasma paraoxonase and catalase activities were significantly increased in mice fed 0.05% CBE. Both CBE diets increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but the 0.05% CBE group had 24% less proximal intestine GPx activity relative to controls. Thus, dietary CBE lowered total cholesterol and improved plasma and hepatic antioxidant function at nutritionally-relevant doses in apoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the CBE cholesterol-lowering mechanism in apoE(-/-) mice was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism.

  18. Phytosterols esterified with conjugated linoleic acid. In vitro intestinal digestion and interaction on cholesterol bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Moran-Valero, Maria I; Martin, Diana; Torrelo, Guzman; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F

    2012-11-14

    Intestinal in vitro digestion of phytosterols esterified with conjugated linoleic acid (PS-CLA) was performed to study (1) the potential bioaccessibility of the released bioactive-lipid products and (2) the interference with cholesterol bioaccessibility. Commercial food-grade PS ester (PS-C) was assayed as reference. Hydrolysis of PS-CLA by digestive enzymes was similar to that of PS-C (51 and 47%, respectively), most lipids products being mainly included in the bioaccessible fraction, namely, the micellar phase (MP). Control assays in the absence of PS esters showed most cholesterol solubilized within the MP, whereas a displacement of total cholesterol was caused from MP after digestion of PS esters (14 and 36% displacement for PS-CLA and PS-C, respectively), cholesterol being partially precipitated. Precipitated cholesterol was linearly related to a parallel precipitation of saturated-chain PS, mainly determined by sitosterol (R² = 0.936). The higher composition in sitosteryl esters of PS-C with respect to PS-CLA might explain their different effects on cholesterol. Therefore, besides being a lipid delivery form of PS similar to other commercial esterified PS, the PS-CLA might have the additional advantage of being a lipid delivery form of CLA. Moreover, PS-CLA might hinder the bioaccessibility of cholesterol. Furthermore, the qualitative/quantitative profile in esterified PS forms might determine the magnitude of cholesterol interaction.

  19. An enzyme thermistor-based assay for total and free cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, V; Ramanathan, K; Sundaram, P V; Danielsson, B

    1999-11-01

    A method to evaluate the free (FC) and total cholesterol (TC) in human serum, bile and gallstone extract using an enzyme thermistor (ET)-based flow injection analysis (FIA) is presented. The cholesterol in high-density (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) have also been evaluated. A heparin functionalized Sepharose column was employed for the isolation of HDL and LDL fractions from serum. The estimation of cholesterol and its esters was based on their reaction with cholesterol oxidase (CO), cholesterol esterase (CE) and catalase (CAT). Three different enzyme columns, i.e. co-immobilized CO/CAT (column A), only CE (column B) and co-immobilized CO/CE/CAT (column C) were prepared by cross-linking the enzymes on glass beads using glutaraldehyde. Column A was used for estimating FC and column C was used for estimating total cholesterol (cholesterol plus esterified cholesterol). Column B was used as a pre-column which could be switched 'in' or 'out' in conjunction with column A for the estimation of TC or FC, respectively. A calibration between 1.0 and 8.0 mmol/l for FC and 0. 25 and 4.0 mmol/l for TC was obtained. For more than 2000 assays with the ET device a C.V. of less than 4% was obtained. The assay time was approximately 4 min per assay. The cholesterol estimations on the ET correlated well with similar estimations using a commercially available cholesterol diagnostic kit.

  20. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)

  1. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Lei; Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  2. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P < 0.05) when compared with counterparts fed 6% nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  3. Differential impact of hepatic deficiency and total body inhibition of MTP on cholesterol metabolism and RCT in mice.

    PubMed

    Dikkers, Arne; Annema, Wijtske; de Boer, Jan Freark; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2014-05-01

    Because apoB-containing lipoproteins are pro-atherogenic and their secretion by liver and intestine largely depends on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity, MTP inhibition strategies are actively pursued. How decreasing the secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins affects intracellular rerouting of cholesterol is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of reducing either systemic or liver-specific MTP activity on cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) using a pharmacological MTP inhibitor or a genetic model, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were decreased in both MTP inhibitor-treated and liver-specific MTP knockout (L-Mttp(-/-)) mice (each P < 0.001). With both inhibition approaches, hepatic cholesterol as well as triglyceride content was consistently increased (each P < 0.001), while biliary cholesterol and bile acid secretion remained unchanged. A small but significant decrease in fecal bile acid excretion was observed in inhibitor-treated mice (P < 0.05), whereas fecal neutral sterol excretion was substantially increased by 75% (P < 0.001), conceivably due to decreased intestinal absorption. In contrast, in L-Mttp(-/-) mice both fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion remained unchanged. However, while total RCT increased in inhibitor-treated mice (P < 0.01), it surprisingly decreased in L-Mttp(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that: i) pharmacological MTP inhibition increases RCT, an effect that might provide additional clinical benefit of MTP inhibitors; and ii) decreasing hepatic MTP decreases RCT, pointing toward a potential contribution of hepatocyte-derived VLDLs to RCT.

  4. Effect of mevalonic acid on cholesterol synthesis in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Cheng, Haijian; Zhang, Qingfeng; Song, Enliang; Wan, Fachun; Han, Hong; Liu, Guifen

    2016-02-01

    Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key material in the synthesis of cholesterol; indeed, intracellular cholesterol synthesis is also called the mevalonic acid pathway. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is an essential enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. This study suggests that MVA may play an important role in the differentiation of bovine adipose tissue in vivo. We investigated differential mRNA expression in bovine intramuscular preadipocytes (BIPs) and bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes (BSPs) by culturing cells from the longissimus dorsi muscle and subcutaneous fat tissues of Luxi yellow cattle. The morphology of lipid accumulation of bovine preadipocytes was detected by Oil Red O staining, and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels were measured. Temporospatial expression of HMGR was investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The TC, LDLC, and HDLC content did not significantly differ over time but increased slowly with increasing MVA concentration. HMGR expression increased over time and with increasing concentrations of MVA. MVA increased adipose cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. MVA stimulated HMGR expression in two cell types and its influence on adipocyte differentiation.

  5. Adding monounsaturated fatty acids to a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.A.; Chiavaroli, Laura; Wong, Julia M.W.; Kendall, Cyril; Lewis, Gary F.; Vidgen, Edward; Connelly, Philip W.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Josse, Robert G.; Lamarche, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Background Higher intake of monounsaturated fat may raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol without raising low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We tested whether increasing the monounsaturated fat content of a diet proven effective for lowering LDL cholesterol (dietary portfolio) also modified other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, specifically by increasing HDL cholesterol, lowering serum triglyceride and further reducing the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Methods Twenty-four patients with hyperlipidemia consumed a therapeutic diet very low in saturated fat for one month and were then randomly assigned to a dietary portfolio low or high in monounsaturated fatty acid for another month. We supplied participants’ food for the two-month period. Calorie intake was based on Harris–Benedict estimates for energy requirements. Results For patients who consumed the dietary portfolio high in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol rose, whereas for those consuming the dietary portfolio low in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol did not change. The 12.5% treatment difference was significant (0.12 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.21, p = 0.003). The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol was reduced by 6.5% with the diet high in monounsaturated fat relative to the diet low in monounsaturated fat (−0.28, 95% CI −0.59 to −0.04, p = 0.025). Patients consuming the diet high in monounsaturated fat also had significantly higher concentrations of apolipoprotein AI, and their C-reactive protein was significantly lower. No treatment differences were seen for triglycerides, other lipids or body weight, and mean weight loss was similar for the diets high in monounsaturated fat (−0.8 kg) and low in monounsaturated fat (−1.2 kg). Interpretation Monounsaturated fat increased the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering dietary portfolio, despite statin-like reductions in LDL cholesterol. The potential benefits for cardiovascular risk were

  6. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Margaret D; Kit, Brian K; Lacher, David A; Yoon, Sung Sug

    2013-10-01

    High levels of total cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good cholesterol") are risk factors for coronary heart disease (1–5). To identify persons who may be at risk for developing coronary heart disease, adults are advised to have their cholesterol checked at least once every 5 years (i.e., to be screened for cholesterol) (6). A previous study reported declining trends in the percentage of adults with high total cholesterol during 1999–2010 (7). This report presents estimates of the percentages of adults aged 20 and over with high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, and screened for cholesterol, based on data from 2011–2012, and compares them with corresponding estimates from 2009–2010. Analysis is based on measured cholesterol only and does not take into account whether lipid-lowering medications were taken.

  7. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; Kim, G. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  8. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef.

  9. Metabolism of Cholesterol and Bile Acids by the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The human gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex and diverse microbial community, whose collective genetic coding capacity vastly exceeds that of the human genome. As a consequence, the gut microbiota produces metabolites from a large range of molecules that host's enzymes are not able to convert. Among these molecules, two main classes of steroids, cholesterol and bile acids, denote two different examples of bacterial metabolism in the gut. Therefore, cholesterol is mainly converted into coprostanol, a non absorbable sterol which is excreted in the feces. Moreover, this conversion occurs in a part of the human population only. Conversely, the primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids) are converted to over twenty different secondary bile acid metabolites by the gut microbiota. The main bile salt conversions, which appear in the gut of the whole human population, include deconjugation, oxidation and epimerization of hydroxyl groups at C3, C7 and C12, 7-dehydroxylation, esterification and desulfatation. If the metabolisms of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota are known for decades, their consequences on human health and disease are poorly understood and only start to be considered. PMID:25437605

  10. Metabolism of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Philippe

    2013-12-30

    The human gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex and diverse microbial community, whose collective genetic coding capacity vastly exceeds that of the human genome. As a consequence, the gut microbiota produces metabolites from a large range of molecules that host's enzymes are not able to convert. Among these molecules, two main classes of steroids, cholesterol and bile acids, denote two different examples of bacterial metabolism in the gut. Therefore, cholesterol is mainly converted into coprostanol, a non absorbable sterol which is excreted in the feces. Moreover, this conversion occurs in a part of the human population only. Conversely, the primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids) are converted to over twenty different secondary bile acid metabolites by the gut microbiota. The main bile salt conversions, which appear in the gut of the whole human population, include deconjugation, oxidation and epimerization of hydroxyl groups at C3, C7 and C12, 7-dehydroxylation, esterification and desulfatation. If the metabolisms of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota are known for decades, their consequences on human health and disease are poorly understood and only start to be considered.

  11. Validity of a portable glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides multi-analyzer in adults.

    PubMed

    Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Santos, Mateus Carmo; Neto, João de Souza Leal; Queiroz, Bruno Morbeck de; Brügger, Nelson Augusto Jardim; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and precision of the Accutrend Plus system to determine blood glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides in adults and evaluated its efficiency in measuring these blood variables. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (≥ 18 years). For blood variable laboratory determination, venous blood samples were collected and processed in a Labmax 240 analyzer. To measure blood variables with the Accutrend Plus system, samples of capillary blood were collected. In the analysis, the following tests were included: Wilcoxon and Student's t-tests for paired samples, Lin's concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman method, receiver operating characteristic curve, McNemar test, and k statistics. The results show that the Accutrend Plus system provided significantly higher values (p ≤ .05) of glucose and triglycerides but not of total cholesterol (p > .05) as compared to the values determined in the laboratory. However, the system showed good reproducibility (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .958, triglycerides = .992, total cholesterol = .940) and high concordance with the laboratory method (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .952, triglycerides = .990, total cholesterol = .944) and high sensitivity (glucose = 80.0%, triglycerides = 90.5%, total cholesterol = 84.4%) and specificity (glucose = 100.0%, triglycerides = 96.9%, total cholesterol = 95.2%) in the discrimination of high values of the three blood variables analyzed. It could be concluded that despite the tendency to overestimate glucose and triglyceride levels, a portable multi-analyzer is a valid alternative for the monitoring of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors.

  12. Inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, M; Endo, A

    1976-01-18

    Inhibitory effect of 44 species of fatty acids on cholesterol synthesis has been examined with a rat liver enzyme system. In the case of saturated fatty acids, the inhibitory activity increased with chain length to a maximum at 11 to 14 carbons, after which activity decreased rapidly. The inhibition increased with the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Introduction of a hydroxy group at the alpha-position of fatty acids abolished the inhibition, while the inhibition was enhanced by the presence of a hydroxy group located in an intermediate position of the chain. Branched chain fatty acids having a methyl group at the terminal showed much higher activity than the corresponding saturated straight chain fatty acids with the same number of carbons. With respect to the mechanism for inhibition, tridecanoate was found to inhibit acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase specifically without affecting the other reaction steps in the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The highly unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonate and linoleate, were specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. On the other hand, ricinoleate (hydroxy acid) and phytanate (branched-chain acid) diminished the conversion of mevalonate to sterols by inhibiting a step or steps between squalene and lanosterol.

  13. Age-related changes in total and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in elderly Dutch men.

    PubMed Central

    Weijenberg, M P; Feskens, E J; Kromhout, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in total and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations with age and time in elderly men. METHODS: A cohort of men born between 1900 and 1920 from the Dutch town of Zutphen was examined in 1977 and 1978 (n = 571), 1985 (n = 885), 1990 (n = 555), and 1993 (n = 345). Linear regression analysis and random-effects models were used to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal age- and time-related changes in cholesterol concentrations. RESULTS: In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, total cholesterol decreased by 0.04 mmol/L a year with age. The longitudinal change was observed in the entire population as well as in men who participated in all four examinations (n = 135) and in a subgroup of men who were free of common chronic diseases, were not on cholesterol-lowering medication or a prescribed diet, and rated themselves as being "healthy" (n = 64). HDL cholesterol did not change significantly with age neither on a cross-sectional nor on a longitudinal basis. CONCLUSIONS: Among elderly men, total cholesterol diminishes with age both on a cross-sectional and on a longitudinal basis; HDL cholesterol does not vary with age in any way. PMID:8659652

  14. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only...

  15. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only...

  16. Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  17. Total cholesterol concentration and mortality at a relatively young age: do men and women differ?

    PubMed Central

    Monique Verschuren, W. M.; Kromhout, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between total cholesterol concentration and mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, non-cardiovascular causes, and all causes. DESIGN--Population based cohort study. SUBJECTS--23,000 men and 26,000 women aged 30-54 years examined between 1974 and 1980. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mortality for the above mentioned end points for fifths of cholesterol distribution, and relative risks estimated by using Cox's proportional hazard (survival) analysis. Adjustment was made for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. RESULTS--Mortality from coronary heart disease in men was five times higher than that in women. A strong positive association between total cholesterol concentration and mortality from coronary heart disease and cardiovascular diseases was observed in both men and women. The relative risk for the highest compared with the lowest fifth of the cholesterol distribution was for mortality from coronary heart disease (3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 5.1) in men and 3.8 (1.1 to 13.1) in women) and for mortality from cardiovascular disease (2.8 (1.8 to 4.2) in men and 2.9 (1.4 to 6.0) in women). No increase of non-cardiovascular mortality at low cholesterol concentration was observed. All cause mortality was significantly higher in the highest compared with the lowest fifth of the cholesterol distribution: relative risk 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) in men and 1.5 (1.1 to 1.9) in women. CONCLUSION--Total cholesterol concentration is a strong predictor of mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, and all causes in women as well as in men. Low cholesterol concentrations are not associated with increased mortality from non-cardiovascular causes. PMID:7580439

  18. Cohort study of serum total cholesterol and in-hospital incidence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, C.; Jacobs, D. R.; Sidney, S.; Claxton, A. J.; Feingold, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    A multiethnic cohort of adult members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (55300 men and 65271 women) was followed for 15 years (1979-93) to assess the association between total cholesterol and risk of infections (other than respiratory and HIV) diagnosed in the in-patient setting. Using multivariate Cox regression, total cholesterol was inversely and significantly related to urinary tract, venereal, musculo-skeletal, and all infections among men; and to urinary tract, all genito-urinary, septicaemia or bacteraemia, miscellaneous viral site unspecified, and all infections among women. The reduction of risk of all infections associated with a 1 S.D. increase in total cholesterol was 8% in both men (95% CI, 4-12 %) and women (95% CI, 5-11%). For urinary tract infections among men, as for septicaemia or bacteraemia and nervous system infections among women, the risk relation was restricted to persons aged 55-89 years. Nervous system infections were positively related to total cholesterol among women aged 25-54. In both genders, the significant inverse association with all infections persisted after excluding the first 5 years of follow-up. Collectively, these data are suggestive of an inverse association, although not entirely consistent, between total cholesterol and incidence of infections either requiring hospitalization or acquired in the hospital. Further research is needed to elucidate whether these associations are biologically plausible or represent uncontrolled confounding by unmeasured risk factors. PMID:9825784

  19. Elevated cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in an adult patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Reduction by a high glucose diet.

    PubMed

    Stacpoole, P W; Grundy, S M; Swift, L L; Greene, H L; Slonim, A E; Burr, I M

    1981-11-01

    Elevated levels of cholesterol synthesis are reported for several young children with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HFH) and are considered to contribute directly to their hypercholesterolemia. In contrast, increased cholesterol production has not previously been found in adult patients with HFH. Using the fecal steroid balance technique, we studied rates of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in a 24-yr-old man who had severe hypercholesterolemia typical of HFH and who lacked skin fibroblast low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity. On an average diet (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) mean +/- SEM cholesterol (24.8 +/- 1.4 mg/kg per d) and bile acid (11.1 +/- 1.6 mg/kg per d) excretion were approximately threefold higher than normal. When an isocaloric high carbohydrate, low fat diet (90.5% glucose oligosaccharides, 1.3% safflower oil, 8.2% crystalline amino acids was substituted, mean cholesterol (13.0 +/- 0.5 mg/kg per d) and bile acid (8.6 +/- 0.4 mg/kg per d) fell markedly. The decline in fecal steroid excretion was accompanied by modest reductions in plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations and by a softening of cutaneous xanthomata. Although the patient phenotypically and biochemically resembled the HFH state, his family pedigree was not noteable for hypercholesterolemia. While the patient's father had premature cardiovascular disease, his mother had no evidence of heart disease, had normal plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels, and had normal fibroblast LDL receptor activity. Likewise, the plasma cholesterol levels of three other members of the patient's family were normal. Despite the unusual genotypic background of this individual, however, the fecal balance data shows that elevated cholesterol and bile acid synthesis may occur in adult, as well as juvenile, patients with HFH and may be responsive to dietary control.

  20. C3N4 Nanosheet Modified Microwell Array with Enhanced Electrochemiluminescence for Total Analysis of Cholesterol at Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Jiang, Depeng; Qin, Yanling; Xia, Juan; Jiang, Dechen; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-02-21

    Here, a g-C3N4 nanosheet modified microwell array providing enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and better visible sensitivity was prepared to simultaneously analyze total (membrane and intracellular) cholesterol at single cells. The detection limit for ECL visualization of hydrogen peroxide at microwell array was improved to be 500 nM that guaranteed the detection of low concentration cholesterol at single cells in parallel. To achieve single cell cholesterol analysis, the individual cells cultured at the microwell array were exposed to cholesterol oxidase generating hydrogen peroxide for luminescence analysis of membrane cholesterol, and then treated with triton X-100, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol oxidase to produce hydrogen peroxide from intracellular cholesterol for luminescence determination. The observation of the luminescence spots at microwells in these two steps confirmed the codetection of membrane and intracellular cholesterol at single cells. The inhibition of intracellular acyl-coA/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) resulted in less intracellular cholesterol storage (less luminescence) and more membrane cholesterol (more luminescence). The correlation of the luminescence intensity with the amount of cholesterol confirmed that our assay could simultaneously monitor membrane and intracellular cholesterol pools at different cellular states, which should offer more information for the study of cholesterol-related pathways at single cells.

  1. Nanostructured NiO-based reagentless biosensor for total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein detection.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) thin film has been explored as a matrix to develop a reagentless biosensor for free and total cholesterol as well as low density lipoprotein (LDL) detection. The redox property of the matrix has been exploited to enhance the electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode as well as to eliminate the toxic mediator in solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were carried out to characterize the NiO thin film. Biosensing response studies were accomplished using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The developed biosensors exhibited a high sensitivity of 27 and 63 μA/mM/cm(2) over a linear range of 0.12-10.23 and 1-12 mM, respectively, for free and total cholesterol. Reagentless estimation of LDL was also achieved over the wide range 0.018-0.5 μM with a sensitivity of 0.12 mA/μM/cm(2). The results are extremely promising for the realization of an integrated biosensor for complete detection of cholesterol in the serum samples. Graphical Abstract Reagentless sensing mechanism of (a) free cholesterol and (b) total cholesterol using nanostructured NiO matrix.

  2. Impacts of High Serum Total Cholesterol Level on Brain Functional Connectivity in Non-Demented Elderly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Li, He; Zhang, Junying; Li, Xin; Qi, Di; Wang, Nuo; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that high serum cholesterol is a risk factor of dementia. However, the effects of cholesterol on cognition and brain remain largely unclear. This study aims to investigate the associations between serum total cholesterol (TC) and neuropsychological performance, and intrinsic functional networks in non-demented elderly. Among a cohort of 120 community-dwelling Beijing residents, 29 subjects in the high-TC group (1st quartile) and 31 in the low-TC group (4th quartile) were included in this study, and underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including T2- and T1-weighted imaging, and resting-state functional MRI. No significant group difference was found in any of the neuropsychological tests used. Stronger connectivity in the default mode network was observed in the high-TC group compared to that in the low-TC group (p <  0.001, uncorrected). While in the salience network (SN), the high-TC group showed lower connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex and frontal regions, compared to the low-TC group (p <  0.05, FWE corrected). Our findings suggest that in non-demented elderly persons, high serum cholesterol is associated with disruption of functional connectivity in the SN. The results not only deepen our understanding of how cholesterol affects the brain, but are also significant for selecting sensitive indicators for monitoring the impairments of cholesterol on the neural system.

  3. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    PubMed

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet.

  4. Altered Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Block, Robert C.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Beck, Christopher A.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Shoulson, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities, cognitive decline, and involuntary movements that lead to a progressive decline in functional capacity, independence, and ultimately death. The pathophysiology of Huntington disease is linked to an expanded trinucleotide repeat of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) in the IT-15 gene on chromosome 4. There is no disease-modifying treatment for Huntington disease, and novel pathophysiological insights and therapeutic strategies are needed. Lipids are vital to the health of the central nervous system, and research in animals and humans has revealed that cholesterol metabolism is disrupted in Huntington disease. This lipid dysregulation has been linked to specific actions of the mutant huntingtin on sterol regulatory element binding proteins. This results in lower cholesterol levels in affected areas of the brain with evidence that this depletion is pathologic. Huntington disease is also associated with a pattern of insulin resistance characterized by a catabolic state resulting in weight loss and a lower body mass index than individuals without Huntington disease. Insulin resistance appears to act as a metabolic stressor attending disease progression. The fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have been examined in clinical trials of Huntington disease patients. Drugs that combat the dysregulated lipid milieu in Huntington disease may help treat this perplexing and catastrophic genetic disease. PMID:20802793

  5. Altered cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Block, Robert C; Dorsey, E Ray; Beck, Christopher A; Brenna, J Thomas; Shoulson, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities, cognitive decline, and involuntary movements that lead to a progressive decline in functional capacity, independence, and ultimately death. The pathophysiology of Huntington disease is linked to an expanded trinucleotide repeat of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) in the IT-15 gene on chromosome 4. There is no disease-modifying treatment for Huntington disease, and novel pathophysiological insights and therapeutic strategies are needed. Lipids are vital to the health of the central nervous system, and research in animals and humans has revealed that cholesterol metabolism is disrupted in Huntington disease. This lipid dysregulation has been linked to specific actions of the mutant huntingtin on sterol regulatory element binding proteins. This results in lower cholesterol levels in affected areas of the brain with evidence that this depletion is pathologic. Huntington disease is also associated with a pattern of insulin resistance characterized by a catabolic state resulting in weight loss and a lower body mass index than individuals without Huntington disease. Insulin resistance appears to act as a metabolic stressor attending disease progression. The fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have been examined in clinical trials of Huntington disease patients. Drugs that combat the dysregulated lipid milieu in Huntington disease may help treat this perplexing and catastrophic genetic disease.

  6. Fatty acid modifications and cholesterol oxidation in pork loin during frying at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Echarte, M; Ansorena, D; Astiasaran, I

    2001-07-01

    The effect of frying with sunflower oil for 4 min at different temperatures (160, 170, and 180 degrees C) on fatty acids and cholesterol of pork loin meat was studied. Total fat content increased from 5.6% in fresh loin to 7.3, 7.8, and 12.1% at 160, 170, and 180 degrees C, respectively. Interactions with culinary fat gave rise to a significant increase in unsaturated acids/saturated acids and polyunsaturated acids/saturated acids ratios, which could be considered an advantage from a nutritional point of view. Less than 1 ppm (microg/g of sample) of cholesterol oxidation products was detected in fresh loin, whereas fried loin pork contained between 8.58 and 10.89 ppm. 7-Ketocholesterol (5.99 to 8.47 ppm in fried samples) and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol (1.43 to 2.55 ppm in fried samples) were the main cholesterol oxidation products. Cholestanetriol was not detected in any sample, and small quantities of 25-hydroxycholesterol and 5,6alpha-epoxycholesterol were found in the fried sample.

  7. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of a gene encoding cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase into hamsters increases hepatic enzyme activity and reduces plasma total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Spady, D K; Cuthbert, J A; Willard, M N; Meidell, R S

    1995-01-01

    Clinical interventions that accelerate conversion of cholesterol to bile acids reduce circulating low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. The initial and rate-limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. To examine the effects of transient primary overexpression of this enzyme on sterol metabolism and lipoprotein transport, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus in which a cDNA encoding rat 7 alpha-hydroxylase is expressed from the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter (AdCMV7 alpha). Syrian hamsters administered AdCMV7 alpha intravenously accumulated transgene-specific mRNA in the liver and demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in hepatic microsomal 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. The increased conversion of cholesterol to bile acids resulted in a compensatory increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. In addition, overexpression of 7 alpha-hydroxylase reduced the rate of LDL cholesterol entry into the plasma space and, in animals maintained on a Western-type diet, restored hepatic LDL receptor expression. As a consequence, plasma LDL concentrations fell by approximately 60% in animals maintained on control diet and by approximately 75% in animals consuming a Western-type diet. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were reduced to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate that transient upregulation of bile acid synthesis by direct transfer of a 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene favorably alters circulating lipoprotein profiles and suggest one potential molecular target for genetic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk. Images PMID:7635963

  8. Serum total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratios in US white and black adults by selected demographic and socioeconomic variables (HANES II).

    PubMed Central

    Linn, S; Fulwood, R; Carroll, M; Brook, J G; Johnson, C; Kalsbeek, W D; Rifkind, B M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Framingham Study findings suggest that total cholesterol (TC):High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is a useful summary of the joint contribution of TC and HDL-C to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Information on the distribution of TC:HDL-C in the US population is limited to selected populations and the relationship of the ratio distribution and its correlates has received little attention. METHOD: TC/HDL-C ratios were examined in a representative sample of the United States adult population ages 20 to 74 years, between February 1976 and February 1980 during NHANES II, using stratification and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Age-adjusted mean ratios were higher in men compared with women and were higher in Whites compared with Blacks. White men had the highest TC/HDL-C mean ratios. These relationships remained after stratification by age, education, body mass index, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical activity. Using multivariate analyses, the ratios were positively related to BMI, age, and smoking; and negatively related to female sex, alcohol use, being Black, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Using a ratio reference point of greater than or equal to 4.5 from the Framingham study, at least an estimated 44 million persons ages 25 to 74 years in the US were found to be at higher risk of developing coronary heart disease. PMID:1853996

  9. Cholesterol-Lowering Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on Bile-Salt Hydrolase Activity and Effect of Potent Strains on Cholesterol Metabolism In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Pei; Hsieh, You-Miin; Zhang, Zi-yi; Wu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chun-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study collected different probiotic isolates from animal and plant sources to evaluate the bile-salt hydrolase activity of probiotics in vitro. The deconjugation potential of bile acid was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 cells were cultured with probiotic strains with high BSH activity. The triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) secretion by HepG2 cells were evaluated. Our results show that the BSH activity and bile-acid deconjugation abilities of Pediococcus acidilactici NBHK002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis NBHK006, Lactobacillus rhamnosus NBHK007, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NBHK008 were higher than those of the other probiotic strains. The cholesterol concentration in cholesterol micelles was reduced within 24 h. NBHK007 reduced the TG secretion by 100% after 48 h of incubation. NBHK002, NBHK006, and NBHK007 could reduce apo B secretion by 33%, 38%, and 39%, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. The product PROBIO S-23 produced a greater decrease in the total concentration of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, TG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the serum or livers of hamsters with hypercholesterolemia compared with that of hamsters fed with a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. These results show that the three probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria are better candidates for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25538960

  10. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphylla) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterized chemical structures of tetraploid jiaogulan saponins, and investigated their cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine saponins, including five reported for the first time, were obtained from total jiaogulan saponins (TJS) and el...

  11. Intestinal epithelial cell caveolin 1 regulates fatty acid and lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Chieh; Quinlivan, Vanessa; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Farber, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Caveolae and their structural protein caveolin 1 (CAV1) have roles in cellular lipid processing and systemic lipid metabolism. Global deletion of CAV1 in mice results in insulin resistance and increases in atherogenic plasma lipids and cholesterol, but protects from diet-induced obesity and atherosclerosis. Despite the fundamental role of the intestinal epithelia in the regulation of dietary lipid processing and metabolism, the contributions of CAV1 to lipid metabolism in this tissue have never been directly investigated. In this study the cellular dynamics of intestinal Cav1 were visualized in zebrafish and the metabolic contributions of CAV1 were determined with mice lacking CAV1 in intestinal epithelial cells (CAV1IEC-KO). Live imaging of Cav1–GFP and fluorescently labeled caveolae cargos shows localization to the basolateral and lateral enterocyte plasma membrane (PM), suggesting Cav1 mediates transport between enterocytes and the submucosa. CAV1IEC-KO mice are protected from the elevation in circulating fasted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol associated with a high-fat diet (HFD), but have increased postprandial LDL cholesterol, total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitoleic acid, and palmitic acid. The increase in circulating FAs in HFD CAV1IEC-KO mice is mirrored by decreased hepatic FAs, suggesting a non-cell-autonomous role for intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 in promoting hepatic FA storage. In conclusion, CAV1 regulates circulating LDL cholesterol and several FA species via the basolateral PM of enterocytes. These results point to intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 as a potential therapeutic target to lower circulating FFAs and LDL cholesterol, as high levels are associated with development of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:28130355

  12. Direct determination of total serum cholesterol by use of double-wavelength spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Sommers, P B; Jatlow, P I; Seligson, D

    1975-05-01

    We describe a simple, accurate method for direct determination of total cholesterol in serum. Systematic investigation of a previously described modified Liebermann-Burchard reagent has indicated the necessity of accounting for both bilirubin interference and decreased specificity owing to exothermia. Double-wavelength spectrophotometry was used to optically null out bilirubin as an interfering factor, whereas adding serum to the cold reagent increases its specificity for the cholesterol color reaction. Comparison of 106 cholesterol values with those obtained by the procedure of Abell et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 195, 357 (1952)] yielded a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99; our inter-run coefficient of variation of polled laboratory serum was 1.7%.

  13. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  14. A macadamia nut-rich diet reduces total and LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Griel, Amy E; Cao, Yumei; Bagshaw, Deborah D; Cifelli, Amy M; Holub, Bruce; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2008-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that the unique fatty acid profile of nuts beneficially affects serum lipids/lipoproteins, reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Nuts are low in SFA and high in PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Macadamia nuts are a rich source of MUFA. A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study (5-wk diet periods) compared a Macadamia nut-rich diet [42.5 g (1.5 ounces)/8.79 MJ (2100 kcal)] [MAC; 33% total fat (7% SFA, 18% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] vs. an average American diet [AAD; 33% total fat (13% SFA, 11% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] on the lipid/lipoprotein profile of mildly hypercholesterolemic (n = 25; 15 female, 10 male) subjects. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) following the MAC (4.94 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.14 +/- 0.14 mmol/L) were lower than the AAD (5.45 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.44 +/- 0.14 mmol/L; P < 0.05). The serum non-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and the ratios of TC:HDL-C and LDL-C:HDL-C were reduced following consumption of the MAC diet (3.83 +/- 0.17, 4.60 +/- 0.24, and 2.91 +/- 0.17, respectively) compared with the AAD (4.26 +/- 0.17, 4.89 +/- 0.24, and 3.09 +/- 0.18, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no change in serum triglyceride concentration. Thus, macadamia nuts can be included in a heart-healthy dietary pattern that reduces lipid/lipoprotein CVD risk factors. Nuts as an isocaloric substitute for high SFA foods increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and decrease SFA, thereby lowering CVD risk.

  15. Binding of cholesterol and bile acid to hemicelluloses from rice bran.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guohua; Yu, Wenjian

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using hemicellulose from rice bran to scavenge cholesterol and bile acid in vitro study. This paper demonstrates that rice bran hemicellulose A (RBHA), rice bran hemicellulose B (RBHB) and rice bran hemicellulose C (RBHC) have the potential for binding cholesterol and bile acid. The quantity of cholesterol and bile acid bound varies from one rice bran fibre to another. As it can be inferred from the results of the study, RBHB was characterized by the highest capacity for cholesterol binding, followed by RBHC and RBHA. Binding of cholesterol and bile acid to rice bran insoluble dietary fibre (RBDF) and cellulose from rice bran was found to be poor. Lignin from rice bran was the least active fraction for binding cholesterol and bile acid. This confirms that the RBHB preparation from defatted rice bran has great potential in food applications, especially in the development of functional foods.

  16. Insoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic sujects.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Quintela, José C; de la Fuente, Ester; Haya, Javier; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes

    2010-03-01

    Recently, polyphenols have been found to affect blood lipids in animals in a similar manner as soluble dietary fibre. The aim was to assess whether an insoluble dietary fiber very rich in polyphenols has a beneficial effect on serum lipids in humans. In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical study with parallel arms, 88 volunteers with hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to consume daily either, fiber with insoluble 84% polyphenols 4 g twice a day (n = 43) or placebo (n = 45). Serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. The insoluble polyphenols consumption reduced the total cholesterol by 17.8 +/- 6.1% (p < 0.05), LDL cholesterol by 22.5 +/- 8.9% (p < 0.001), LDL: HDL cholesterol ratio by 26.2 +/- 14.3% (p < 0.001) and triglycerides by 16.3 +/- 23.4% (p < 0.05) at the end of the study compared with baseline. No significant differences were found during the study time in the placebo group for the lipid profile. The consumption of fiber very rich in insoluble polyphenols shows beneficial effects on human blood lipid profile and may be effective in prevention and treatment of hyperlipemia.

  17. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M.; Brown, Robert J.

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Lipoprotein hydrolysis products were produced by lipoprotein lipase. • Hydrolysis products lowers expression of macrophage cholesterol transporters. • Hydrolysis products reduces expression of select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products lowers cholesterol transporters and select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophages. - Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  18. [Total synthesis of nordihydroguaiaretic acid].

    PubMed

    Wu, A X; Zhao, Y R; Chen, N; Pan, X F

    1997-04-01

    beta-Keto ester(5) was obtained from vanilin through etherification, oxidation and condensation with acetoacetic ester, (5) on oxidative coupling reaction by NaOEt/I2 produced dimer (6) in high yield. Acid catalyzed cyclodehydration of (6) gave the furan derivative(7), and by a series of selective hydrogenation nordihydroguaiaretic acid, furoguaiacin dimethyl ether and dihydroguaiaretic acid dimethyl ether were synthesized.

  19. Differential regulation of ABCA1 and macrophage cholesterol efflux by elaidic and oleic acids.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fei; Ford, David A

    2013-08-01

    Trans fatty acid consumption is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. This increased risk has been attributed to decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and increased levels of LDL cholesterol. However, the mechanism by which trans fatty acid modulates cholesterol transit remains poorly defined. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux is the rate-limiting step initiating apolipoprotein A-I lipidation. In this study, elaidic acid, the most abundant trans fatty acid in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, was shown to stabilize macrophage ABCA1 protein levels in comparison to that of its cis fatty acid isomer, oleic acid. The mechanism responsible for the disparate effects of oleic and elaidic acid on ABCA1 levels was through accelerated ABCA1 protein degradation in cells treated with oleic acid. In contrast, no apparent differences were observed in ABCA1 mRNA levels, and only minor changes were observed in Liver X receptor/Retinoic X receptor promoter activity in cells treated with elaidic and oleic acid. Efflux of both tracers and cholesterol mass revealed that elaidic acid slightly increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, while oleic acid led to decreased ABCA1-mediated efflux. In conclusion, these studies show that cis and trans structural differences in 18 carbon n-9 monoenoic fatty acids variably impact cholesterol efflux through disparate effects on ABCA1 protein degradation.

  20. Dietary fatty acids regulate cholesterol induction of liver CYP7alpha1 expression and bile acid production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hou, Meng Jun; Ma, Jing; Tang, Zhi Hong; Zhu, Hui Lian; Ling, Wen Hua

    2005-05-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of dietary fats containing predominantly PUFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), or saturated FA (SFA) on lipid profile and liver cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7alpha1) mRNA expression and bile acid production in C57BL/6J mice. The animals (n = 75) were randomly divided into five groups and fed a basic chow diet (AIN-93G) (BC diet), a chow diet with 1 g/100 g of cholesterol (Chol diet), a chow diet with 1 g/100 g of cholesterol and 14 g/100 g of safflower oil (Chol + PUFA diet), a chow diet with 1 g/100 g of cholesterol and olive oil (Chol + MUFA diet), or a chow diet with 1 g/100 g of cholesterol and myristic acid (Chol + SFA diet) for 6 wk. The results showed that the Chol + SFA diet decreased CYP7alpha1 gene expression and bile acid pool size, resulting in increased blood and liver cholesterol levels. Addition of PUFA and MUFA to a 1% cholesterol diet increased the bile acid pool production or bile acid excretion and simultaneously decreased liver cholesterol accumulation despite decreased CYP7alpha1 mRNA expression. The results indicate that the decreased bile acid pool size induced by the SFA diet is related to inhibition of the liver CYP7alpha1 gene expression, but an increased bile acid pool size and improved cholesterol homeostasis are disassociated from the liver CYP7alpha1 gene expression.

  1. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soymilk on Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Hirahata, Rie; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet), high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5), or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10) for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. PMID:23112918

  2. Chlorogenic acid exhibits cholesterol lowering and fatty liver attenuating properties by up-regulating the gene expression of PPAR-α in hypercholesterolemic rats induced with a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chun-Wai; Wong, Candy Ngai-Yan; Pin, Wing-Kwan; Wong, Marcus Ho-Yin; Kwok, Ching-Yee; Chan, Robbie Yat-Kan; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2013-04-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Natural compounds have been proved to be useful in lowering serum cholesterol to slow down the progression of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of the dietary consumption of chlorogenic acid were investigated by monitoring plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein) in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a normal diet, a high-cholesterol diet or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with chlorogenic acid (1 or 10 mg/kg/day p.o.) for 28 days. Chlorogenic acid markedly altered the increased plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein but decreased high-density lipoprotein induced by a hypercholesterolemic diet with a dose-dependent improvement on both atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor. Lipid depositions in liver were attenuated significantly in hypercholesterolemic animals supplemented with chlorogenic acid. It is postulated that hypocholesterolemic effect is the primary beneficial effect given by chlorogenic acid, which leads to other secondary beneficial effects such as atheroscleroprotective, cardioprotective and hepatoprotective functions. The hypocholesterolemic functions of chlorogenic acid are probably due to the increase in fatty acids unitization in liver via the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor α mRNA.

  3. Cholesterol reduces the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids on water and solute transport in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Broor, S L; Slota, T; Ammon, H V

    1980-01-01

    Jejunal perfusion studies were performed in 16 healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that intraluminal cholesterol can mitigate the fluid secretion induced by dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. Fluid secretion in the presence of 5 mM taurodeoxycholate was somewhat reduced by 4 mM mono-olein which was used for the solubilization of cholesterol. Addition of 0.8 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion further (P less than 0.05). Fluid secretion induced by 4 mM oleic acid was changed to net absorption in a linear fashion with increasing cholesterol concentration in the perfusion solutions. 1 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion induced by 6 mM oleic acid (P less than 0.005), but had no effect on fluid secretion induced by 6 mM linolenic acid. Glucose absorption was generally affected in a similar manner as water transport. In vitro, 1 mM cholesterol reduced monomer activity of 6 mM oleic acid to 72.3 +/- 0.9% of control and that of linolenic acid to 81.1 +/- 1.7% of control. Although statistically significant (P less than 0.001), the difference in the effects of cholesterol on monomer activities of the two fatty acids was rather small and it is unlikely that changes in monomer concentration of fatty acids and bile acids account for the protective effect of cholesterol. The in vivo observations point to a new physiological role for biliary cholesterol: the modification of the response of the small intestine to the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. PMID:7358850

  4. Chlorogenic acid protects against atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongming; Luan, Hong; Zhang, Xue; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Xiaopo; Sun, Xiaobo; Guo, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and is suggested to be a potential antiatherosclerotic agent due to its proposed hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CGA on atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/-) mice and its potential mechanism. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet without (control) or with CGA (200 and 400 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (4 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. During the study plasma lipid and inflammatory parameters were determined. Treatment with CGA (400 mg/kg) reduced atherosclerotic lesion area and vascular dilatation in the aortic root, comparable to atorvastatin. CGA (400 mg/kg) also significantly decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol as well as inflammatory markers. Supplementation with CGA or CGA metabolites-containing serum suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation and stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. CGA significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 as well as the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Cholesterol efflux assay showed that three major metabolites, caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids, significantly stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that CGA potently reduces atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/-) mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages. Caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids may be the potential active compounds accounting for the in vivo effect of CGA.

  5. Oxidation process affecting fatty acids and cholesterol in fried and roasted salmon.

    PubMed

    Echarte, M; Zulet, M A; Astiasaran, I

    2001-11-01

    Salmon was processed by three different culinary techniques: pan-frying with olive oil, pan-frying with soya oil, and roasting. Roasting did not modify the fat content from that of raw samples. Frying increased the fat content 2-fold, with no difference between samples fried with different oils. Total cholesterol oxidized products (COPs) were 0.74, 2.98, 3.35, and 7.38 microg/g fat in raw, fried with olive oil, fried with soya oil, and roasted salmon, respectively, which represent 0.01, 0.08, 0.09, and 0.15% of cholesterol. A significant correlation (r = 0.902, < or = 0.01) was found between acidity index and total COPs. The most abundant COPs were 7-ketocholesterol, which appeared in all the samples, and cholestanetriol (one of the most citotoxic COP), which appeared only in cooked samples (1.05-1.33 microg/g fat). All cooked samples supplied more omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than raw samples and showed higher omega-6/omega-3 ratios. Roasted salmon showed the lowest omega-3 content and the highest PUFAs/(SFAs)-C18:0 and MUFAs+PUFAs/(SFAs-C18:0) ratios.

  6. Fatty acids and cholesterol in the liver cell nuclei of hibernating Yakutian ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Kolomiytseva, I K; Lakhina, A A; Markevich, L N; Fesenko, E E

    2016-09-01

    The content of neutral lipids in tissue homogenates and liver cell nuclei of hibernating Yakutian ground squirrels was studied. In homogenates, hibernation increases the content of fatty acids and reduces the content of glycerides and cholesterol. When studying the liver cell nuclei of torpid winter ground squirrels, we detected a twofold increase in the content of fatty acids, cholesterol, and monoglycerides as compared to the "summer" ground squirrels. In the active "winter" ground squirrels, as compared to the torpid winter ones, the content of cholesterol did not change, whereas the content of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and diglycerides decreased but remained higher than in the "summer" ground squirrels.

  7. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  8. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  9. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Vermeer, Mario A; Trautwein, Elke A

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE) were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w) cholesterol (control) or the same diet supplemented with (i) 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii) 0.24% PSE, (iii) hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37%) plus PSE (0.24%) or (iv) OA/UA mixture (0.01%) for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA) enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  10. [Correlation values of total cholesterol and cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions in maternal serum and umbilical cord blood in high risk pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Rosić, B

    1989-01-01

    In 20 healthy and 40 high-risk pregnancy women (diabets mellitus and EPH gestosis) total cholesterol and cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions were estimated. This was done in mothers' sera and cord blood by using the "Lipoprotein Proffiling System Beckman". Total cholesterol was significantly increased in the sera of diabetic mothers (7.775 mmol/L, SD 1.512 in healthy and 10.475 mmol/L, SD 2.102 in diabetic mothers); it was slightly increased in the cord. In all groups with high-risk pregnancy HDL cholesterol was significantly decreased (1.539 mmol/L, SD 0.449 in healthy and 1.240 mmol/L, SD 0.179 in diabetic mothers; EPH gestoses 1.241 mol/L, SD 0.222); it was slightly decreased in the umbilical cord in the cases with EPH gestosis. LDL cholesterol values were significantly increased in diabetic mothers' sera (3.782 mmol/L, SD 1.174 in healthy and 4.616 mmol/L, SD 1.275 in diabetic pregnant women); in those with EPH gestoses they were on the borderline of significance. In mothers' sera of all high-risk groups VLDL cholesterol values were significantly increased (2.470 mmol/L, SD 1022 in healthy and 4.837 mmol/L, SD 1.484 in diabetic pregnant women; EPH gestoses 3.641 mmol/L, SD 0.974), while in the cord they were increased only in diabetic women and EPH gestoses (0.232 mmol/L, SD 0.186 in healthy and 0.650 mmol/L, SD 0.405 in diabetic women; EPH gestoses 0.497 mmol/L, SD 0.104).

  11. The N342S MYLIP polymorphism is associated with high total cholesterol and increased LDL receptor degradation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Calkin, Anna C.; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Zelcer, Noam; Riba, Laura; Tino, Ana Maria Vargas; Ordoñez-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Tontonoz, Peter; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) affects more than 1 in 3 American adults. Hypercholesterolemia is a major treatable risk factor for ASCVD, yet many individuals fail to reach target levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) through the use of statins and lifestyle changes. The E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain–interacting protein (MYLIP; also known as IDOL) is a recently identified regulator of the LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in populations of mixed European descent have identified noncoding variants in the MYLIP region as being associated with LDL-C levels, but no underlying functional variants were pinpointed. In order to fine-map actual susceptibility variants, we studied a population demographically distinct from the discovery population to ensure a different pattern of linkage disequilibrium. Our analysis revealed that in a Mexican population, the nonsynonymous SNP rs9370867, which encodes the N342S amino acid substitution, is an underlying functional variant that was associated with high total cholesterol and accounted for one of the previous significant GWAS signals. Functional characterization showed that the Asn-encoding allele was associated with more potent LDLR degradation and decreased LDL uptake. Mutagenesis of residue 342 failed to affect intrinsic MYLIP E3 ligase activity, but it was critical for LDLR targeting. Our findings suggest that modulation of MYLIP activity can affect LDL-C levels and that pharmacologic inhibition of MYLIP activity might be a useful strategy in the treatment of dyslipidemia and ASCVD. PMID:21765216

  12. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  13. Acid sphingomyelinase activity is regulated by membrane lipids and facilitates cholesterol transfer by NPC2[S

    PubMed Central

    Oninla, Vincent O.; Breiden, Bernadette; Babalola, Jonathan O.; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    During endocytosis, membrane components move to intraluminal vesicles of the endolysosomal compartment for digestion. At the late endosomes, cholesterol is sorted out mainly by two sterol-binding proteins, Niemann-Pick protein type C (NPC)1 and NPC2. To study the NPC2-mediated intervesicular cholesterol transfer, we developed a liposomal assay system. (Abdul-Hammed, M., B. Breiden, M. A. Adebayo, J. O. Babalola, G. Schwarzmann, and K. Sandhoff. 2010. Role of endosomal membrane lipids and NPC2 in cholesterol transfer and membrane fusion. J. Lipid Res. 51: 1747–1760.) Anionic lipids stimulate cholesterol transfer between liposomes while SM inhibits it, even in the presence of anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). Preincubation of vesicles containing SM with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) (SM phosphodiesterase, EC 3.1.4.12) results in hydrolysis of SM to ceramide (Cer), which enhances cholesterol transfer. Besides SM, ASM also cleaves liposomal phosphatidylcholine. Anionic phospholipids derived from the plasma membrane (phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid) stimulate SM and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by ASM more effectively than BMP, which is generated during endocytosis. ASM-mediated hydrolysis of liposomal SM was also stimulated by incorporation of diacylglycerol (DAG), Cer, and free fatty acids into the liposomal membranes. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol, Cer, DAG, monoacylglycerol, and fatty acids. Our data suggest that SM degradation by ASM is required for physiological secretion of cholesterol from the late endosomal compartment, and is a key regulator of endolysosomal lipid digestion. PMID:25339683

  14. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cholesterol content of foods. 101.62 Section 101.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Nutrient Content Claims § 101.62 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a...

  15. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with severity of coronary artery disease in men with high total cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Borzyszkowska, Joanna; Stanislawska-Sachadyn, Anna; Wirtwein, Marcin; Sobiczewski, Wojciech; Ciecwierz, Dariusz; Targonski, Radoslaw; Gruchala, Marcin; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Limon, Janusz

    2012-05-01

    This study examines whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms: ACE (encoding for angiotensin converting enzyme) c.2306-117_404 I/D, AGTR1 (encoding for angiotensin II type-1 receptor) c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 (encoding for aldosterone synthase) c.-344C>T are associated with the extension of coronary atherosclerosis in a group of 647 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography. The extension of CAD was evaluated using the Gensini score. The polymorphisms were determined by PCR and RFLP assays. The associations between genotypes and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by pairwise comparisons using Wilcoxon test. The population has been divided into groups defined by: sex, smoking habit, past myocardial infarction, BMI (>, ≤ 25), age (>, ≤ 55), diabetes mellitus, level of total cholesterol (>, ≤ 200 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (>, ≤ 130 mg/dl), HDL cholesterol (>, ≤ 40 mg/dl), triglycerides (>, ≤ 150 mg/dl). Significant associations between the ACE c.2306-117_404 I/D polymorphism and the Gensini score in men with high total cholesterol levels (P(Kruskal-Wallis) = 0.008; P(adjusted) = 0.009), high level of LDL cholesterol (P(Kruskal-Wallis) = 0.016; P(adjusted) = 0.028) and low level of HDL cholesterol (P(Kruskal-Wallis) = 0.04; P(adjusted) = 0.055) have been found. No association between the AGTR1 c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 c.-344C>T and the Gensini score has been found. These results suggest that men who carry ACE c.2306-117_404 DD genotype and have high total cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels may be predisposed to the development of more severe CAD.

  16. Longitudinal trends in total serum cholesterol levels in a Japanese cohort, 1958-1986.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Wong, F L; Kodama, K; Sasaki, H; Shimaoka, K; Yamakido, M

    1997-04-01

    The 28-year follow-up of a Japanese cohort, having collected vast amounts of data collected on total serum cholesterol (TC), provided an exceptional opportunity to examine TC temporal trends. The longitudinal statistical method of growth-curve analysis was used to elucidate the age-related changes in TC levels and to characterize these trends in relation to sex, birth cohort, time period, place of residence, and body mass index (BMI). Japanese TC levels at initial examination were remarkably lower than those in western countries. During the study period from 1958 to 1986, TC levels increased dramatically with age in both sexes. The slope of the cholesterol growth curve was steeper for women than for men, with the difference growing larger after age 40 years. Drastic changes in Japanese behavior and lifestyle, especially westernization of the diet, are thought to have affected the TC values as time-period effects. As a result of this temporal change, which affected different cohorts at different ages, TC values were higher in members of the younger cohort. The increase of the TC values as time-period effects were larger in earlier period than in later period. These time-period effects appeared to be almost similar in men and women. The TC growth curves also varied by city of residence. Subjects in urban areas had higher TC values than subjects in rural areas. Changes associated with BMI from 1958 to 1986 were only partially responsible for the increased steepness of the TC growth curve.

  17. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  18. Substitution of whole cows' milk with defatted milk for 4 months reduced serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB in a sample of Mexican school-age children (6-16 years of age).

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Salvador; Lara Zamudio, Yaveth; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Manzano, Alejandra Contreras; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2015-09-14

    We carried out this study to compare the effect of consuming whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months on serum concentrations of blood indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in Mexican children and adolescents. Children aged between 6 and 16 years living in indigenous boarding schools in Mexico and who were usual consumers of whole milk were recruited to this study. Totally, thirteen boarding schools were randomly selected to receive full supplies of whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months. Serum total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, apoA and total apoB, and Lp(a) concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Comparisons were made with multi-level mixed-effects linear regression models using the difference in differences approach. Compared with the whole milk group, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB were lower in defatted milk consumers by -0·43, -0·28, -0·16 mmol/l and -0·05 g/l, respectively (all P<0·001). Compared with the whole milk group, the group that consumed partially defatted milk showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (-0·12, P=0·01), apoA (-0·05 g/l, P=0·01) and total apoB (-0·05 g/l, P=0·001). Defatted milk intake for 4 months reduced some of the serum indicators of CVR.

  19. Interaction between Tea Polyphenols and Bile Acid Inhibits Micellar Cholesterol Solubility.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuki; Hirose, Sayumi; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Yanase, Emiko

    2016-01-13

    The molecular mechanism by which tea polyphenols decrease the micellar solubility of cholesterol is not completely clear. To clarify this mechanism, this study investigated the interaction between tea polyphenols (catechins and oolongtheanins) and cholesterol micelles. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was performed on a micellar solution containing taurocholic acid and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out on the precipitate and the supernatant that formed when EGCg was added to a cholesterol-micelle solution. The data indicated a regiospecific interaction of EGCg with taurocholic acid. Therefore, the ability of EGCg to lower the solubility of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol in micellar solutions can be attributed to their elimination from the micelles due to interaction between taurocholic acids and EGCg.

  20. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  1. Fatty acid bile acid conjugates (FABACs)—New molecules for the prevention of cholesterol crystallisation in bile

    PubMed Central

    Gilat, T; Somjen, G; Mazur, Y; Leikin-Frenkel, A; Rosenberg, R; Halpern, Z; Konikoff, F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Cholesterol gall stones are a frequent disease for which at present surgery is the usual therapy. Despite the importance of bile acids it has become evident that phospholipids are the main cholesterol solubilisers in bile. Even phospholipid components, such as fatty acids, have anticrystallising activity.
AIM—To synthesise fatty acid bile acid conjugates (FABACs) and study their effects on cholesterol crystallisation in bile in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS—FABACs were prepared by conjugation of cholic acid at position 3 with saturated fatty acids of variable chain length using an amide bond. Cholesterol crystallisation and its kinetics (crystal observation time, crystal mass) were studied in model bile, pooled enriched human bile, and fresh human bile using FABACs with saturated fatty acids of varying chain length (C-6 to C-22). Absorption of FABACs into blood and bile was tested in hamsters. Prevention of biliary cholesterol crystallisation in vivo was tested in hamsters and inbred mice.
RESULTS—FABACs strongly inhibited cholesterol crystallisation in model as well as native bile. The FABACs with longer acyl chains (C-16 to C-22) were more effective. At a concentration of 5 mM, FABACs almost completely inhibited cholesterol crystallisation in fresh human bile for 21 days. FABACs were absorbed and found in both portal and heart blood of hamsters. Levels in bile were 2-3 times higher than in blood, indicating active secretion. Appreciable levels were found in the systemic circulation 24-48 hours after a single administration. Ingested FABACs completely prevented the formation of cholesterol crystals in the gall bladders of hamsters and mice fed a lithogenic diet.
CONCLUSIONS—FABACs are potent inhibitors of cholesterol crystallisation in bile. They are absorbed and secreted into bile and prevent the earliest step of cholesterol gall stone formation in animals. These compounds may be of potential use in cholesterol gall stone disease in

  2. Predictors Associated with Changes of Weight and Total Cholesterol among two Occupational Cohorts over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Joseph B.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Greenwood, Jessica L.J.; Gren, Lisa H.; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Thiese, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ascertain worker health characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with changes in body weight and total cholesterol (TC) among two production operation populations. Methods We performed descriptive and predictive analysis of questionnaire data and biomedical measurements from two prospective cohort studies. Our key outcomes were changes in weight, and TC over 5–10 years between baseline and exit assessments. Results 146 subjects were analyzed. Increases in weight were associated with belief in being overweight and baseline overweight and obesity. Increases in TC levels were associated with female gender, belief that TC levels were “not good,” and feeling depressed. Conclusion Most of the reported associations with increases in weight and TC levels are amenable to interventions and may be a target for workplace intervention programs. PMID:26147542

  3. Measurement of Rates of Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Synthesis In Vivo Using Tritiated Water.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adam M; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Turley, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Every organ in the body is capable of synthesizing cholesterol de novo but at rates that vary with a constellation of factors. A significant proportion of the hydrogen atoms present in cholesterol that is synthesized in the body are derived from water. Thus, although water ordinarily makes up the bulk of body mass, the acute enrichment of the body water pool with a sufficiently large amount of tritiated water over a short interval of time (usually 1 h) yields measurable rates of incorporation of the labeled water into newly generated cholesterol and also fatty acids. Such data can provide a quantitative measure of how specific genetic, dietary, and pharmacological manipulations impact not just the rate of cholesterol synthesis in particular organs but also rates of whole-body cholesterol production and turnover.

  4. Association between baseline serum glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol, and prostate cancer risk categories.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Rhonda; Møller, Henrik; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars; Stattin, Pår; Malmstrom, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Robinson, David; Jungner, Ingmar; Hemelrijck, Mieke Van

    2016-06-01

    Lifestyle-related risk factors such as hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia have been associated with several cancers. However, studies exploring their link with prostate cancer (PCa) clinicopathological characteristics are sparse and inconclusive. Here, we investigated the associations between serum metabolic markers and PCa clinicopathological characteristics. The study comprised 14,294 men from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) cohort who were diagnosed with PCa between 1996 and 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to investigate the relation between glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol and PCa risk categories, PSA, Gleason score, and T-stage. Mean age at time of PCa diagnosis was 69 years. Men with glucose levels >6.9 mmol/L tend to have PSA<4 μg/L, while those with glucose levels of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L had a greater odds of PSA>20 μg/L compared to PSA 4.0-9.9 μg/L. Hypertriglyceridemia was also positively associated with PSA>20 μg/L. Hyperglycemic men had a greater odds of intermediate- and high-grade PCa and advanced stage or metastatic PCa. Similarly, hypertriglyceridemia was positively associated with high-grade PCa. There was also a trend toward an increased odds of intermediate risk localized PCa and advanced stage PCa among men with hypertriglyceridemia. Total cholesterol did not have any statistically significant association with any of the outcomes studied. Our findings suggest that high serum levels of glucose and triglycerides may influence PCa aggressiveness and severity. Further investigation on the role of markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in influencing PCa aggressiveness and severity is needed as this may help define important targets for intervention.

  5. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  6. Acute high-intensity exercise with low energy expenditure reduced LDL-c and total cholesterol in men.

    PubMed

    Lira, Fabio S; Zanchi, Nelo E; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Pires, Flávio O; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C; Santos, Ronaldo V; Caperuto, Erico C; Kiss, Maria A; Seelaender, Marília

    2009-09-01

    A reduction in LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol levels are clinically relevant parameters for the treatment of dyslipidaemia, and exercise is often recommended as an intervention. This study aimed to examine the effects of acute, high-intensity exercise ( approximately 90% VO(2max)) and varying carbohydrate levels (control, low and high) on the blood lipid profile. Six male subjects were distributed randomly into exercise groups, based on the carbohydrate diets (control, low and high) to which the subjects were restricted before each exercise session. The lipid profile (triglycerides, VLDL, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol) was determined at rest, and immediately and 1 h after exercise bouts. There were no changes in the time exhaustion (8.00 +/- 1.83; 7.82 +/- 2.66; and 9.09 +/- 3.51 min) and energy expenditure (496.0 +/- 224.8; 411.5 +/- 223.1; and 592.1 +/- 369.9 kJ) parameters with the three varying carbohydrate intake (control, low and high). Glucose and insulin levels did not show time-dependent changes under the different conditions (P > 0.05). Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were reduced after the exhaustion and 1 h recovery periods when compared with rest periods only in the control carbohydrate intake group (P < 0.05), although this relation failed when the diet was manipulated. These results indicate that acute, high-intensity exercise with low energy expenditure induces changes in the cholesterol profile, and that influences of carbohydrate level corresponding to these modifications fail when carbohydrate (low and high) intake is manipulated.

  7. Combined extractives of red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice improve total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Min; Su, Ih-Jen; Yen, Hsien-Tung; Sheu, Wayne H-H

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of a plant-extractive compound on lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice have synergistic benefits on cholesterol and metabolic syndrome. In this double-blinded study, adult subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to receive a plant-extractive compound or a placebo treatment for 12 weeks. Both total cholesterol (5.4 ± 0.8 to 4.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.4 ± 0.7 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P < .001) were significantly reduced after treatment with the plant extractives, and the magnitudes of reduction were significantly greater than in the placebo group (-1.0 ± 0.6 vs 0.0 ± 0.6mmol/L, P < .001; -0.7 ± 0.6 vs 0.0 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001). The reduction in the fasting triglycerides level was significantly greater in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (-0.5 ± 0.8 vs -0.2 ± 1.0 mmol/L, P = .039). There was also a significantly greater reduction in the proportion of subjects with hypertensive criteria in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (P = .040). In conclusion, the plant extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice were effective in reducing total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The plant extractives also showed potential for reducing triglyceride and normalizing blood pressure.

  8. Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet suppresses the complete pathway of cholesterol synthesis and induces bile acid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Kortner, Trond M; Björkhem, Ingemar; Krasnov, Aleksei; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-06-28

    Plants now supply more than 50 % of protein in Norwegian salmon aquafeeds. The inclusion of plant protein in aquafeeds may be associated with decreased lipid digestibility and cholesterol and bile salt levels, indicating that the replacement of fishmeal with plant protein could result in inadequate supplies of cholesterol in fish. A reduction in feed efficiency, fish growth and pathogen resistance is often observed in parallel to alterations in sterol metabolism. Previous studies have indicated that the negative effects induced by plant components can be attenuated when diets are supplemented with cholesterol. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation (1·5 %) in Atlantic salmon fed a plant-based diet for 77 d. The weights of body, intestines and liver were recorded and blood, tissues, faeces, chyme and bile were sampled for the evaluation of effects on growth, nutrient utilisation and metabolism, and transcriptome and metabolite levels, with particular emphasis on sterol metabolism and organ structure and function. Cholesterol supplementation did not affect the growth or organ weights of Atlantic salmon, but seemed to promote the induction of cholesterol and plant sterol efflux in the intestine while suppressing sterol uptake. Cholesterol biosynthesis decreased correspondingly and conversion into bile acids increased. The marked effect of cholesterol supplementation on bile acid synthesis suggests that dietary cholesterol can be used to increase bile acid synthesis in fish. The present study clearly demonstrated how Atlantic salmon adjusted their metabolic functions in response to the dietary load of cholesterol. It has also expanded our understanding of sterol metabolism and turnover, adding to the existing, rather sparse, knowledge of these processes in fish.

  9. Determination of cholesterol concentration in human milk samples using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamelska, A. M.; Pietrzak-Fiećko, R.; Bryl, K.

    2013-03-01

    Results of an inexpensive and rapid evaluation of the cholesterol concentration in human milk using ATR-FTIR techniques are presented. The FTIR spectrum of pure cholesterol was characterized and quantitatively estimated in the region between 2800 and 3200 cm-1. 125 samples at different stages of lactation were analyzed. There were no differences between the cholesterol concentrations in the samples of early (1-3 months), medium (4-6 months), and late (> 6 months) lactation stages ( p = 0.096968). The cholesterol concentration ranged from 4.30 to 21.77 mg/100 cm3. Such a broad range was due to the differences between the samples from different women ( p = 0.000184). The results indicate that ATR-FTIR has potential for rapid estimation of cholesterol concentration in human milk.

  10. Medium-chain fatty acids reduce serum cholesterol by regulating the metabolism of bile acid in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xinsheng; Xu, Qing; Yang, Xueyan; Xue, Changyong

    2017-01-25

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the important risk factors of atherosclerosis (AS). The aim of this study is to explore the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on serum cholesterol levels and their mechanism of action. Hyperlipemia, as a model of abnormal lipid hypermetabolism, was established by using a high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Forty eight mice with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 4 groups, 12 mice per group, including the control group, the 2% caprylic acid (C8:0)-treated group, 2% capric acid (C10:0)-treated group, and 2% oleic acid (C18:1)-treated group. All mice were fed with a high fat diet. After 16 weeks, the mice were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. The mouse portal vein blood, the liver and the start site of the ileum (1 cm) were collected. The body weight of the mice and blood lipid profiles were measured. Gene transcription and the expression level associated with bile acid metabolism in the liver and small intestine were determined by real-time PCR and the western blotting method. The concentrations of bile acid metabolites in bile and feces were analysed. After 16 weeks of treatment, the concentrations of TC and LDL-C in the caprylic acid group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05); the transcription and expression level of LXR, CYP7A1, CYP27A1 and ABCG8 in the caprylic acid and capric acid groups were significantly higher than those in the control group in the liver (P < 0.05), however the transcription and expression level of the small heterodimer partner (SHP) were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05); the transcription and expression level of LXR, ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the caprylic acid, capric acid and oleic acid groups were significantly higher than those in the control group in the small intestine (P < 0.05). The concentrations of total bile acid, mainly cholic acid and cholesterol in bile and feces were significantly higher in the caprylic and capric acid groups than

  11. Lysosomal acid lipase: at the crossroads of normal and atherogenic cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dubland, Joshua A.; Francis, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    Unregulated cellular uptake of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in the arterial intima leads to the formation of foam cells in atherosclerosis. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a crucial role in both lipoprotein lipid catabolism and excess lipid accumulation as it is the primary enzyme that hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters derived from both low density lipoprotein (LDL) and modified forms of LDL. Evidence suggests that as atherosclerosis progresses, accumulation of excess free cholesterol in lysosomes leads to impairment of LAL activity, resulting in accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the lysosome as well as the cytosol in foam cells. Impaired metabolism and release of cholesterol from lysosomes can lead to downstream defects in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 regulation, needed to offload excess cholesterol from plaque foam cells. This review focuses on the role LAL plays in normal cholesterol metabolism and how the associated changes in its enzymatic activity may ultimately contribute to atherosclerosis progression. PMID:25699256

  12. 12-((5-Iodo-4-azido-2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino)dodecanoic acid: Biological recognition by cholesterol esterase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnunen, P.M.; Klopf, F.H.; Bastiani, C.A.; Gelfman, C.M.; Lange, L.G. )

    1990-02-13

    Potential probes of protein cholesterol and fatty acid binding sites, namely, 12-((5-iodo-4-azido-2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino)dodecanoate (IFA) and its coenzyme A (IFA:CoA) and cholesteryl (IFA:CEA) esters, were synthesized. These radioactive, photoreactive lipid analogues were recognized as substrates and inhibitors of acyl-CoA;cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol esterase, neutral lipid binding enzymes which are key elements in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism. In the dark, IFA reversibly inhibited cholesteryl ({sup 14}C)oleate hydrolysis by purified bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterase with an apparent K{sub i} of 150 {mu}M. Cholesterol esterase inhibition by IFA became irreversible after photolysis with UV light and oleic acid provided 50% protection against inactivation. Incubation of homogeneous bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterase with IFA:CEA resulted in its hydrolysis to IFA and cholesterol, indicating recognition of IFA:CEA as a substrate by cholesterol esterase. The coenzyme A ester, IFA:CoA, was a reversible inhibitor of microsomal ACAT activity under dark conditions, and photolysis resulted in irreversible inhibition of enzyme activity with 87% efficiency. IFA:CoA was also recognized as a substrate by both liver and aortic microsomal ACATs, with resultant synthesis of {sup 125}IFA:CEA. IFA and its derivatives, IFA:CEA and IFA:CoA, are thus inhibitors and substrates for cholesterol esterase and ACAT. Biological recognition of these photoaffinity lipid analogues will facilitate the identification and structural analysis of hitherto uncharacterized protein lipid binding sites.

  13. Model membranes prepared with ceramide EOS, cholesterol and free fatty acids form a unique lamellar phase.

    PubMed

    Groen, Daniel; Gooris, Gert S; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2010-03-16

    The lipid matrix present in the human stratum corneum (the thin, uppermost layer of the skin) is considered to play a crucial role in the skin barrier function. The lipid matrix consists of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. The 13 nm lamellar phase present in the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum is very characteristic and plays an important role in the skin barrier function. One subclass of ceramides with a linoleic acid linked to a very long acyl (referred to as EOS) plays a crucial role in the formation of the 13 nm lamellar phase. In this article, we focus on the lipid phase behavior of EOS mixed with cholesterol or with cholesterol and free fatty acids. Our studies reveal that an equimolar ratio of EOS, cholesterol, and free fatty acids forms a lamellar phase with a very long repeat distance of approximately 14.7 nm. This phase exhibits exceptional behavior in that in the thermotropic response the fatty acid chains and the ceramide chains undergo an order-disorder transition in different temperature ranges while part of the hydrocarbon chains of ceramides and fatty acids are mixing in the orthorhombic lattice. On the basis of these observations, a molecular model for the 14.7 nm phase has been proposed in which the lipids are organized in a lamellar phase with three different lipid layers in a symmetric unit cell.

  14. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  15. The Liebermann-Burchard reaction: sulfonation, desaturation, and rearrangment of cholesterol in acid.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Quanbo; Wilson, William K; Pang, Jihai

    2007-02-01

    In the Liebermann-Burchard (LB) colorimetric assay, treatment of cholesterol with sulfuric acid, acetic anhydride, and acetic acid elicits a blue color. We studied the reactivity of cholesterol under LB conditions and provide definitive NMR characterization for approximately 20 products, whose structure and distribution suggest the following mechanistic picture. The major reaction pathways do not involve cholestadienes, i-steroids, or cholesterol dimers, as proposed previously. Instead, cholesterol and its acetate and sulfate derivatives undergo sulfonation at a variety of positions, often with skeletal rearrangements. Elimination of an SO(3)H group as H(2)SO(3) generates a new double bond. Repetition of this desaturation process leads to polyenes and ultimately to aromatic steroids. Linearly conjugated polyene cations can appear blue but form too slowly to account for the LB color response, whose chemical origin remains unidentified. Nevertheless, the classical polyene cation model is not excluded for Salkowski conditions (sulfuric acid), which immediately generate considerable amounts of cholesta-3,5-diene. Some rearrangements of cholesterol in H(2)SO(4) resemble the diagenesis pathways of sterols and may furnish useful lipid biomarkers for characterizing geological systems.

  16. Factors influencing the accuracy of the national reference system total cholesterol reference method.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; Akins, J R; Cooper, G R; Poulose, A K; Myers, G L; Sampson, E J

    1991-12-01

    Previous comparisons between the Reference and Definitive Methods for measuring serum cholesterol have demonstrated a small but persistent positive bias in the Reference Method, averaging about +1.6%. Here we describe the results of further investigations designed to better characterize the nature of this bias. Analysis of a well-characterized model serum sample (SRM 909) suggests that more than half of the difference in cholesterol values determined by the two methods is the result of small contributions from cholesterol precursor sterols and phytosterols, which are also measured for the Reference Method. An additional significant contribution may be from cholesterol oxidation products, particularly 7-hydroxycholesterol isomers, which are active in the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. The 7-hydroxycholesterol in SRM 909, most of which appeared to be already present in the serum rather than formed during saponification, may account for as much as 20% of the observed difference between the methods. Contributions from other possible sources, including impurities in the cholesterol standard and incomplete saponification of cholesteryl esters, are very small. Because the observed bias is both quite small and consistent among samples, the cholesterol Reference Method continues to meet all of the requirements generally expected for a dependable and effective Reference Method.

  17. Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Taku, Kyoko; Umegaki, Keizo; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Shaw

    2008-10-01

    When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1-3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein) on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966-2007), EMBASE (1966-2007), CENTRAL (1966-2007), ICHUSHI (1983-2008), and CNKI (1979-2007) were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials published in English, Japanese, and Chinese, describing the changes in lipid profiles in adult humans resulting from ingestion of extracted soy isoflavones for 1-3 months. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were hand-searched. Meta-analysis of 10 and 9 trials with usable information using REVMAN found that an average of 70 mg soy isoflavones/day (27-132 mg, as the aglycone form) alone had a nonsignificant effect on total (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.12, 0.14]; P = 0.86) and LDL (0.03 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.11, 0.16]; P = 0.71) cholesterol in menopausal women, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of about 70 mg extracted soy isoflavones/day alone for 1-3 months does not improve total and LDL cholesterol levels in normocholesterolemic menopausal women; further studies are needed to verify the effects of extracted soy isoflavones.

  18. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Nicola; Squeo, Valentina; Sangineto, Moris; Graziano, Giusi; Sabbà, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients' blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as "recovered" and "unrecovered", according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03). None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology.

  19. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Nicola; Squeo, Valentina; Sangineto, Moris; Graziano, Giusi; Sabbà, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients’ blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as “recovered” and “unrecovered”, according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03). None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology. PMID:26208311

  20. High-density lipoprotein remains elevated despite reductions in total cholesterol in fasting adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Tift, Michael S; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2011-08-01

    We examined changes in lipid profiles of 40 adult northern elephant seal bulls over the 3-month breeding fast and the 1-month molting fast to investigate impacts of fasting on serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were initially high (3930 ± 190mgL(-1)and 1610 ± 170mgL(-1), respectively) and decreased significantly over the breeding season. Total cholesterol and LDL declined significantly with adipose tissue reserves (p<0.001), and LDL levels as low as 43 mgL(-1) were measured in seals late in the breeding fast. Less dramatic but similar changes in lipid metabolism were observed across the molting fast. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) remained consistently elevated (>1750 mgL(-1)) suggesting that elephant seals defend HDL concentrations, despite significant depletion of TC and LDL across the breeding fast. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher during the molt, consistent with lower rates of lipid oxidation needed to meet metabolic energy demands during this period. The maintenance of HDL during breeding is consistent with its role in delivering cholesterol from adipose tissue for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis and potentially mitigates oxidative stress associated with fasting.

  1. The efficacy of vitamin C supplementation on reducing total serum cholesterol in human subjects: a review and analysis of 51 experimental trials

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective Observational studies in humans have shown an inverse relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and total serum cholesterol. However, experimental studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the ability of vitamin C to reduce total serum cholesterol. Methods Published reports of trials studying the effects of vitamin C on serum lipids were identified by a search of Medline from 1966 to 2004. Data from 51 experimental studies comprising of 1666 pooled subjects were selected for analysis. Results A very strong negative association was observed between baseline total serum cholesterol and the percent change in cholesterol (r = −0.585, p<0.001). When subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their baseline total serum cholesterol levels, the following weighted mean percent changes in cholesterol from baseline were observed: normal cholesterol (<199mg/dl): 0.91±6.8% (n=508); borderline high cholesterol (200–239mg/dl): 3.90±5.78% (n=605); high cholesterol (240–279mg/dl): 11.40±7.96% (n=300); severe cholesterol (>280mg/dl): 14.30±8.36% (n=253). A significant inverse relationship was found between the baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations and mean percent change in total cholesterol from baseline (r = −0.500, p<0.005). It was also observed that the high and severe baseline cholesterol groups possessed lower baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations than those in the normal cholesterol groups (0.79 and 0.55 versus 1.24 mg/dl respectively). Conclusion This finding strengthens the hypothesis that the cholesterol lowering and cardio-protective benefit of vitamin C supplementation may be in its ability to elevate plasma vitamin C concentrations in those patients who initially possess lower than normal vitamin C plasma concentrations. PMID:19674666

  2. Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and low ankle brachial index in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Yu, Jinming; Ding, Rongjing; Sun, Yihong; Hu, Dayi

    2014-05-01

    Hintergrund: Der Zusammenhang zwischen den Quotienten aus Triglycerid (TG) und High-density-lipoprotein-cholesterin (HDL‑C) sowie Gesamtcholesterin (TC) und HDL‑C und dem Knöchel-Arm-Index (ABI) wurde selten untersucht. Patienten und Methoden: Insgesamt 2.982 Teinehmer, die über 60 Jahre alt waren, wurden für die bevölkerungsbasierte Querschnittstudie rekrutiert. TG, TC, HDL‑C, und low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) wurden bei allen Teilnehmern getestet. Ein niedriger ABI wurde als ABI ≤ 0.9 definiert. Multiple Regressionsmodelle wurden für die Untersuchung der Assoziation zwischen TG/HDL‑C Ratio und TC/HDL‑C Ratio und niedrigem ABI angewendet. Ergebnisse: Die TG/HDL‑C Ratios für ABI > 0.9 und ABI ≤ 0.9 waren 1.28 ± 1.20 und 1.48 ± 1.13 (P < 0.0001), während die TC/HDL‑C Ratios 3.96 ± 1.09 bzw. 4.32 ± 1.15 (P < 0.0001) waren. Nach der Angleichung von Alter, Geschlecht, Body-Mass-Index, Fettleibigkeit, Alkoholkonsum, köperliche Aktivität, Hypertonie, Diabetes, Einnahme von lipidsenkenden Medikamenten, und Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen waren die Odds Ratios (OR) mit 95 % Konfidenzintervall (KI) bei dem niedrigen ABI und TG/HDL‑C Quotient 1,10 (0,96 - 1,26) und 1,34 (1,14 - 1,59) für TC/HDL‑C in der Nichtrauchergruppe. Wenn das TC weiter angeglichen wurde, waren die ORs (95 % CIs) 1.40 (0.79, 2.52) und 1.53 (1.21, 1.93) für die TG/HDL‑C Ratio und TC/HDL‑C Ratio. Nichtlineare Zusammenhänge wurden zwischen der TG/HDL‑C Ratio und TC/HDL‑C Ratio und dem niedrigen ABI in der Raucher- und Nichtrauchergruppe entdeckt. Schlussfolgerungen: Die TC/HDL‑C Ratio war signifikant mit einem niedrigen ABI in der Nichtrauchergruppe verbunden und die Assoziation war unabhängig von TC, TG, HDL‑C und LDL-C. TC/HDL‑C könnte als potentieller Biomarker für die frühe periphere arterielle Verschlusskrankheit beim Screening berücksichtigt werden.

  3. Aronia berry polyphenol consumption reduces plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in former smokers without lowering biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liyang; Vance, Terrence; Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Caceres, Christian; Wang, Ying; Hubert, Patrice A; Lee, Ji-Young; Chun, Ock K; Bolling, Bradley W

    2017-01-01

    Former smokers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that dietary aronia polyphenols would reduce biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk, inflammation, and oxidative stress in former smokers. We also determined the extent these effects were associated with polyphenol bioavailability. A 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 49 healthy adult former smokers (n = 24/placebo, n = 25/aronia) to evaluate if daily consumption of 500 mg aronia extract modulated plasma lipids, blood pressure, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and lipid transport genes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The primary outcome was change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline, and multivariate correlation analysis was performed to determine if changes in lipids were associated with urinary polyphenol excretion. Aronia consumption reduced fasting plasma total cholesterol by 8% (P = .0140), LDL-C by 11% (P = .0285), and LDL receptor protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P = .0036) at 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. Positive changes in the urinary polyphenol metabolites peonidin-3-O-galactoside, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, and unmetabolized anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-galactoside were associated with lower plasma total cholesterol and LDL-C in the aronia group. Aronia consumption did not change blood pressure or biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Aronia polyphenols reduced total and LDL-C in former smokers but did not improve biomarkers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The cholesterol-lowering activity of aronia extract was most closely associated with urinary levels of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and peonidin-3-O-galactoside, its methylated metabolite. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01541826.

  4. Joint analyses model for total cholesterol and triglyceride in human serum with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lijun; Lyu, Ning; Chen, Jiemei; Pan, Tao; Yu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The development of a small, dedicated near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer has promising potential applications, such as for joint analyses of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in human serum for preventing and treating hyperlipidemia of a large population. The appropriate wavelength selection is a key technology for developing such a spectrometer. For this reason, a novel wavelength selection method, named the equidistant combination partial least squares (EC-PLS), was applied to the wavelength selection for the NIR analyses of TC and TG in human serum. A rigorous process based on the various divisions of calibration and prediction sets was performed to achieve modeling optimization with stability. By applying EC-PLS, a model set was developed, which consists of various models that were equivalent to the optimal model. The joint analyses model of the two indicators was further selected with only 50 wavelengths. The random validation samples excluded from the modeling process were used to validate the selected model. The root-mean-square errors, correlation coefficients and ratio of performance to deviation for the prediction were 0.197 mmol L- 1, 0.985 and 5.6 for TC, and 0.101 mmol L- 1, 0.992 and 8.0 for TG, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for hyperlipidemia were 96.2% and 98.0%. These findings indicate high prediction accuracy and low model complexity. The proposed wavelength selection provided valuable references for the designing of a small, dedicated spectrometer for hyperlipidemia. The methodological framework and optimization algorithm are universal, such that they can be applied to other fields.

  5. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu Chen; Chang, Chen Kai; Chan, Shu Chang; Shieh, Jiunn Shiuh; Chiu, Chih Kwang; Duh, Pin-Der

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro. Methods The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method. The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt. Strains with lowering cholesterol activity, were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells. Results Strain B0007, B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC 17010. The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3 h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains, with more than 108 CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1% oxigall in MRS. In addition, strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines. Conclusions These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterol-lowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines. PMID:25183271

  6. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces membrane fluidity, inhibits cholesterol domain formation, and normalizes bilayer width in atherosclerotic-like model membranes.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65.5%, 54.9%, 46.8%, and 45.2%, respectively) compared to controls; other treatments had modest effects. EPA effects on cholesterol domain formation were dose-dependent. In membranes with 1:1 C/P (predisposing domain formation), DHA, but not EPA, dose-dependently increased membrane fluidity. DHA also induced cholesterol domain formation without affecting temperature-induced changes in-bilayer unit cell periodicity relative to controls (d-space; 57Å-55Å over 15-30°C). Together, these data suggest simultaneous formation of distinct cholesterol-rich ordered domains and cholesterol-poor disordered domains in the presence of DHA. By contrast, EPA had no effect on cholesterol domain formation and produced larger d-space values relative to controls (60Å-57Å; p<0.05) over the same temperature range, suggesting a more uniform maintenance of lipid dynamics despite the presence of cholesterol. These data indicate that EPA and DHA had different effects on membrane bilayer width, membrane fluidity, and cholesterol crystalline domain formation; suggesting omega-3 fatty acids with differing chain length or unsaturation may differentially influence membrane lipid dynamics and structural organization as a result of distinct phospholipid/sterol interactions.

  7. Fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis from specifically labeled leucine by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mathias, M M; Sullivan, A C; Hamilton, J G

    1981-10-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from female rats meal-fed a high-glucose diet were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate medium containing 16.5 mM glucose, 3H2O, and 14C-labeled amino acids (-)-Hydroxycitrate depressed the incorporation of 3H2O and [14C] alanine into fatty acids and cholesterol. Incorporation of [U-14C]leucine into lipids was not affected but incorporation of 3H2O into lipids was decreased significantly by (-)-hydroxycitrate. (-)-Hydroxycitrate depressed the incorporation of radioactivity from [2-14C]leucine into fatty acids and cholesterol by 61 and 38%, respectively, and stimulated the incorporation of radioactivity from [4,5-3H]leucine 35 and 28%. As [2-14C]leucine labels the acetyl-CoA pool and [4,5-3H]leucine labels the acetoacetate pool, it was concluded that mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA is not incorporated intact into cholesterol, and that acetoacetate can be activated effectively in the liver cytosol for support of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis.

  8. Characteristics associated with differences in reported versus measured total cholesterol among male physicians.

    PubMed

    Scranton, Richard E; Sesso, Howard D; Glynn, Robert J; Levenson, James W; Stedman, Margaret; Gagnon, David; Gaziano, J Michael

    2005-01-01

    We studied 4,543 male physicians to assess accuracy of self-reported cholesterol level. The rate of accurate reporting improved over 14 years (25% to 62%), while failing to report a cholesterol level decreased. Overweight, current or past smoking, and physical inactivity were significantly associated with not reporting or inaccurately reporting cholesterol level. Though an increasing proportion of physicians accurately reported their cholesterol level over time, those at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease tended to underestimate or fail to report their cholesterol level. Knowledge may be a critical factor in empowering physicians and patients to advocate for and adopt healthier lifestyles. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Rates of sedentary behavior and obesity in the U.S. continue to rise. In this promising study with a large sample, a longitudinal design, and multi-method assessments, we find that--even among this sample of highly educated medical professionals--those individuals who are at greatest cardiovascular risk might require different types of monitoring, motivational interventions, or health education.

  9. Normal Non-HDL Cholesterol, Low Total Cholesterol, and HDL Cholesterol Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Steady State: A Case-Control Study of Tema Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Adu, Patrick; Ake, Edem; Agbodzakey, Hope; Adoba, Prince; Cudjoe, Obed; Agoni, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8–28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8–38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. Results. Total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, p = 0.01, OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6–0.93); DBP, p = 0.023, OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05–2.0)]. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP. PMID:28078142

  10. Effects of exogenous fatty acids and cholesterol on aminopeptidase activities in rat astroglia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Ramírez, M; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2002-12-01

    Several studies have addressed the interaction between fatty acids and lipids with central nervous system peptides. Because aminopeptidases (AP) are involved in the regulation of neuropeptides, this work studies several AP expressed in cultured astroglia, after exogenous addition of oleic and linoleic fatty acids and cholesterol to the culture medium. Alanyl-AP, arginyl-AP, cystyl-AP, leucyl-AP, tyrosyl-AP and pyroglutamyl-AP activities were analysed in whole cells using the corresponding aminoacyl-beta-naphthylamides as substrates. Oleic acid inhibits alanyl-AP, cystyl-AP and leucyl-AP activities, whereas linoleic acid inhibits alanyl-AP, arginyl-AP and tyrosyl-AP activities. Neither oleic acid nor linoleic acid modifies pyroglutamyl-AP activity. In contrast, cholesterol increases arginyl-AP, cystyl-AP, leucyl-AP, tyrosyl-AP and pyroglutamyl-AP activities, although it does not modify alanyl-AP activity. The changes reported here suggest that oleic and linoleic fatty acids and cholesterol can modulate peptide activities via their degradation route involving aminopeptidases; each of them being differentially regulated.

  11. Modifying the fatty acid profile of dairy products through feedlot technology lowers plasma cholesterol of humans consuming the products.

    PubMed

    Noakes, M; Nestel, P J; Clifton, P M

    1996-01-01

    Intake of milk and butter has been clearly associated with higher coronary heart disease rates in different countries and this is likely to be mediated by the hypercholesterolemic effect of dairy fat. Fat-modified dairy products are an innovation involving a technology in which protected unsaturated lipids are fed to ruminants resulting in milk and tissue lipids with reduced saturated fatty acids. We examined the impact of these novel dairy fats on plasma lipids in a human dietary trial. Thirty-three men and women participated in an 8-wk randomized crossover trial comparing fat-modified with conventional dairy products. The trial consisted of a 2-wk low-fat baseline period followed by two 3-wk intervention phases. During the test periods, the fat-modified products resulted in a significant 0.28-mmol/L (4.3%) lowering of total cholesterol (P < 0.001). Most of this decrease was in LDL cholesterol, which decreased by 0.24 mmol/L (P < 0.001) whereas HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols remained essentially unchanged. This alteration in the fatty acid profile of dairy products, if applied to populations typical of developed Western countries, represents a potential strategy to lower the risk of coronary heart disease without any appreciable change in customary eating patterns.

  12. trans-trans Conjugated linoleic acid enriched soybean oil reduces fatty liver and lowers serum cholesterol in obese zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, William; Gadang, Vidya; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal; Devareddy, Latha

    2011-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collection of octadecadienoic fatty acids that have been shown to possess numerous health benefits. The CLA used in our study was produced by the photoisomerization of soybean oil and consists of about 20% CLA; this CLA consists of 75% trans-trans (a mixture of t8,t10; t9,t11; t10,t12) isomers. This method could be readily used to increase the CLA content of all soybean oil used as a food ingredient. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil, fed as a dietary supplement, on body composition, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and markers of glucose control and liver function of obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil lowered the serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by 41 and 50%, respectively, when compared to obese controls. Trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil supplementation also lowered the liver lipid content significantly (P < 0.05) with a concomitant decrease in the liver weight in the obese rats. In addition, glycated hemoglobin values were improved in the group receiving CLA-enriched soybean oil in comparison to the obese control. PPAR-γ expression in white adipose tissue was unchanged. In conclusion, trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil was effective in lowering total liver lipids and serum cholesterol.

  13. Fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and tenderness of ostrich meat as influenced by age at slaughter and muscle type.

    PubMed

    Girolami, A; Marsico, I; D'Andrea, G; Braghieri, A; Napolitano, F; Cifuni, G F

    2003-07-01

    Ten Blue Neck ostriches were used to study the effect of age at slaughter (10-11 and 14-15 months) and muscle on fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and texture of meat. Fatty acid profile of ostrich meat was significantly affected by age at slaughter (P<0.001) and muscles (P<0.001). Different age at slaughter (10-11 vs. 14-15 months) produced an increase of P/S ratio (P<0.001), total saturated (P<0.05) and monounsaturated (P<0.001) fatty acids. The highest percentage of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were found in M. iliofibularis (P<0.001), whereas M. gastrocnemius showed the highest content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P<0.001). Analysis of variance of data on cholesterol content (mg/100 g of meat) showed no significant effects of age at slaughter and muscle location. No effect of age on shear values was observed, whereas sensory panellists scored meat from younger birds as more tender (P<0.001). Both instrumental and sensory evaluation indicated that meat from M. iliofibularis was more tender (P<0.001).

  14. Very long chain fatty acids (policosanols) and phytosterols affect plasma lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jia, Xiaoming; Jones, Peter J H; Fairow, Clint; Jaeger, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) alone at 2 dietary levels, or in combination of VLCFA at the lower level with lecithin (LT) or phytosterols (PS), on lipid profiles and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters. Seventy-five male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 weeks before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 15 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (Licowax) (VLCFA25), 50 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (VLCFA50), 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of LT (VLCFA25/LT), and 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of PS (Cholestatin, VLCFA25/PS), respectively. Results showed that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not changed by VLCFA25, although increased by VLCFA50 (P<.05) relative to control. Total cholesterol (T-C) and non-HDL-C levels were not affected by VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 as compared with control. VLCFA25/LT had higher (P<.02) T-C and HDL-C levels than any other treatments and increased (P<.05) liver weight relative to control. In contrast, VLCFA25/PS reduced T-C (P=.0004) and non-HDL-C (P=.007) without effect on HDL-C levels compared with control. Triglyceride levels were not affected by any treatment. Cholesterol biosynthesis rate was higher (P<.05) in animals fed VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 than those fed control or VLCFA25/LT or VLCFA25/PS. Results suggest that PSs can decrease total and non-HDL-C cholesterol, whereas VLCFA may increase HDL-C in hamsters.

  15. Isomer-specific effects of conjugated linoleic acid on HDL functionality associated with reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Nicod, Nathalie; Parker, Robert S; Giordano, Elena; Maestro, Virginia; Davalos, Alberto; Visioli, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are atheroprotective because of their role in reverse cholesterol transport. The intestine is involved in this process because it synthesizes HDL, removes cholesterol from plasma and excretes it into the lumen. We investigated the role of selected dietary fatty acids on intestinal cholesterol uptake and HDL functionality. Caco-2 monolayers grown on Transwells were supplemented with either palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, arachidonic or conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs): c9,t11-CLA; t9,t11-CLA; c10,t12-CLA. Cells synthesized HDL in the basolateral compartment for 24 h in the absence or presence of an antibody to SR-BI (aSR-BI), which inhibits its interaction with HDL. Free cholesterol (FC) accumulated to a greater extent in the presence than in the absence of aSR-BI, indicating net uptake of FC by SR-BI. Uptake's efficiency was significantly decreased when cells were treated with c9,t11-CLA relative to the other fatty acids. These differences were associated with lower HDL functionality, since neither SR-BI protein expression nor expression and alternative splicing of other genes involved lipid metabolism were affected. Only INSIG2 expression was decreased, with no increase of its target genes. Increasing pre-β-HDL synthesis, by inducing ABCA1 and adding APOA1, resulted in reduced uptake of FC by SR-BI after c9,t11-CLA treatment, indicating reduced functionality of pre-β-HDL. Conversely, treatment with c9,t11-CLA resulted in a greater uptake of FC and esterified cholesterol from mature HDL. Therefore, Caco-2 monolayers administered c9,t11-CLA produced a nonfunctional pre-β-HDL but took up cholesterol more efficiently via SR-BI from mature HDL.

  16. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid affects concentrations of amino acids in tissues of young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the lipids may modulate AA availability in tissues. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of four treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0% (control), 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. In brain, cholesterol supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate, serine, glutamine, threonine, β-alanine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and γ-aminobutyrate but increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycine and lysine, whereas DHA supplementation similarly affected (P < 0.05) concentrations of the same AA (except for isoleucine and lysine) and taurine. In addition, concentrations of most AA in liver, muscle and plasma were substantially altered by dietary supplementation of cholesterol and DHA in a tissue-dependent manner. Further, DHA reduced concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle, as well as ammonia in both plasma and brain. The results reveal that cholesterol and DHA can regulate AA metabolism and availability in various tissues of piglets. These novel findings have important implications for designing the next generation of infant formula to optimize neonatal growth and development. PMID:18972185

  17. Family History Fails to Detect the Majority of Children with High Capillary Blood Total Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Dennis M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To examine the predictive value of family history in detecting children with high blood cholesterol, finger-stick screening was done in children (n=1,118) ages 9-10 with parental and grandparental history of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Findings showed that screening only children with positive family histories will leave most problems…

  18. Relationship Between Changes in Serum Thyrotropin and Total and Lipoprotein Cholesterol with Prolonged Antarctic Residence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    significant (Table 2). THYROID AND CHOLESTEROL CHANGES IN ANTARTICA 1161 Table 1. Thyroid Hormone and Carrier Protein Changes With AR Mean Monthly Change Rate...IN ANTARTICA 1163 cold-chamber studies13 will increase T3 requirements and In conclusion, humans appear to have an asymptomatic change thyroid hormone

  19. Fatty acid composition and properties of the liver microsomal membrane of rats fed diets enriched with cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Muriana, F J; Vazquez, C M; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V

    1992-10-01

    Male rats were fed diets containing olive (OO) or evening primrose (EPO) oil (10% w/w), with or without added cholesterol (1% w/w). After 6-week feeding, the lipid and fatty acid compositions, fluidity, and fatty acid desaturating and cholesterol biosynthesis/esterification related enzymes of liver microsomes were determined. Both the OO and EPO diets, without added cholesterol, increased the contents of oleic and arachidonic acids, respectively, of rat liver microsomes. The results were consistent with the increases in delta 9 and delta 6 desaturation of n-6 essential fatty acids and the lower microviscosity in the EPO group. Dietary cholesterol led to an increase in the cholesterol content of liver microsomes as well as that of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The cholesterol/phospholipid and PC/PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) ratios were also elevated. Fatty acid composition changes were expressed as the accumulation of monounsaturated fatty acids, with accompanying milder depletion of saturated fatty acids in rat liver microsomes. In addition, the arachidonic acid content was lowered, with a concomitant increase in linoleic acid, which led to a significant decrease in the 20:4/18:2 ratio in comparison to in animals fed the cholesterol-free diets. Cholesterol feeding also increased delta 9 desaturase activity as well as membrane microviscosity, whereas it decreased delta 6 and delta 5 desaturase activities. There was a very strong correlation between fluidity and the unsaturation index reduction in the membrane. Furthermore, the activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase increased and the activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase decreased in liver microsomes from both cholesterol-fed groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Meconium impairs pulmonary surfactant by a combined action of cholesterol and bile acids.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Echaide, Mercedes; Cruz, Antonio; Taeusch, H William; Perez-Gil, Jesus

    2011-02-02

    Mechanisms for meconium-induced inactivation of pulmonary surfactant as part of the meconium aspiration syndrome in newborn infants, to our knowledge, are not clearly understood. Here we have studied the biophysical mechanisms of how meconium affects surface activity of pulmonary surfactant and whether the membrane-perturbing effects of meconium can be mimicked by exposure of surfactant to a mixture of bile acids and cholesterol. Surface activity of pulmonary surfactant complexes purified from animal lungs was analyzed in the absence and in the presence of meconium in standard surface balances and in a captive bubble surfactometer. We have also evaluated accumulation of surfactant at the air-liquid interface by what we believe to be a novel microtiter plate fluorescent assay, and the effect of meconium components on surfactant membrane fluidity using Laurdan fluorescence thermotropic profiles and differential scanning calorimetry thermograms. Rapid interfacial adsorption, low surface tension upon film compression, efficient film replenishment upon expansion, and thermotropic properties of surfactant complexes are all adversely affected by meconium, and, in a similar manner, they are affected by cholesterol/taurocholate mixtures but not by taurocholate alone. We conclude that inhibition of surfactant by meconium can be mimicked by a bile salt-promoted incorporation of excess cholesterol into surfactant complexes. These results highlight the potential pathogenic role of cholesterol-mobilizing agents as a crucial factor resulting in cholesterol induced alterations of structure and dynamics of surfactant membranes and films.

  1. Covalent interaction of chloroacetic and acetic acids with cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Bhat, H K; Ansari, G A

    1989-01-01

    The covalent interaction of chloroacetic acid with rat liver lipids was studied in vivo. Rats were given a single oral dose (8.75 mg/kg, 50 microCi) of 1-[14C]chloroacetic acid and sacrificed after 24 hours. Lipids extracted from the livers were separated into neutral lipids and phospholipids by solid-phase extraction using sep-pak silica cartridges. The neutral lipid fraction was further fractionated by preparative thin-layer chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The fraction corresponding to the retention time of standard cholesteryl chloroacetate gave a pseudomolecular ion peak at m/z 480/482 ratio: (3:1) on ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and the fragmentation pattern was found to be similar to that of the standard sample. Under similar conditions, acetic acid resulted in the formation of cholesteryl acetate. The effect of such conjugation reactions on the cell membrane and their contribution to toxicity is presently unknown.

  2. Effects of CYP7A1 overexpression on cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pandak, W M; Schwarz, C; Hylemon, P B; Mallonee, D; Valerie, K; Heuman, D M; Fisher, R A; Redford, K; Vlahcevic, Z R

    2001-10-01

    The initial and rate-limiting step in the classic pathway of bile acid biosynthesis is 7alpha-hydroxylation of cholesterol, a reaction catalyzed by cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). The effect of CYP7A1 overexpression on cholesterol homeostasis in human liver cells has not been examined. The specific aim of this study was to determine the effects of overexpression of CYP7A1 on key regulatory steps involved in hepatocellular cholesterol homeostasis, using primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and HepG2 cells. Overexpression of CYP7A1 in HepG2 cells and PHH was accomplished by using a recombinant adenovirus encoding a CYP7A1 cDNA (AdCMV-CYP7A1). CYP7A1 overexpression resulted in a marked activation of the classic pathway of bile acid biosynthesis in both PHH and HepG2 cells. In response, there was decreased HMG-CoA-reductase (HMGR) activity, decreased acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity, increased cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) activity, and increased low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA expression. Changes observed in HMGR, ACAT, and CEH mRNA levels paralleled changes in enzyme specific activities. More specifically, LDLR expression, ACAT activity, and CEH activity appeared responsive to an increase in cholesterol degradation after increased CYP7A1 expression. Conversely, accumulation of the oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol in the microsomes after CYP7A1 overexpression was correlated with a decrease in HMGR activity.

  3. A Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Bile Acid and Cholesterol Excretion and Inhibition of Hepatic Lipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Downing, Laura E; Heidker, Rebecca M; Caiozzi, Gianella C; Wong, Brian S; Rodriguez, Kelvin; Del Rey, Fernando; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) exerts a triglyceride-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic state using the fructose-fed rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were fed either a starch control diet or a diet containing 65% fructose for 8 weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the 9th week of the study, rats were maintained on their respective diet and administered vehicle or GSPE via oral gavage for 7 days. Fructose increased serum triglyceride levels by 171% after 9 weeks, compared to control, while GSPE administration attenuated this effect, resulting in a 41% decrease. GSPE inhibited hepatic lipogenesis via down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in the fructose-fed animals. GSPE increased fecal bile acid and total lipid excretion, decreased serum bile acid levels and increased the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, bile acid biosynthetic gene expression was not increased in the presence of GSPE and fructose. Serum cholesterol levels remained constant, while hepatic cholesterol levels decreased. GSPE did not modulate expression of genes responsible for esterification or biliary export of the newly synthesized cholesterol, but did increase fecal cholesterol excretion, suggesting that in the presence of GSPE and fructose, the liver may secrete more free cholesterol into the plasma which may then be shunted to the proximal small intestine for direct basolateral to apical secretion and subsequent fecal excretion. Our results demonstrate that GSPE effectively lowers serum triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats after one week administration. This study provides novel insight into the mechanistic actions of GSPE in treating hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrates that it targets hepatic de novo lipogenesis, bile acid homeostasis and non-biliary cholesterol excretion as important mechanisms for

  4. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF THE BLOOD PLASMA OF RABBIT UNDER ARGININE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Hopanenko, O O; Rivis, J F

    2015-01-01

    The content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol were studied in the blood plasma of rabbits under acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction using linseed oil. It is established that the transport and anti-inflammatory functions of blood plasma deteriorates under acute arginine pancreatitis due to a decrease of the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids. The amount of cholesterol esterified with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increases in the blood plasma of rabbits. The concentration of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol is normalized and their fatty acid composition is improved in the lipid composition of the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis fed with linseed oil.

  5. Probiotics--interactions with bile acids and impact on cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Nebojša; Stankov, Karmen; Mikov, Momir

    2012-12-01

    The use of probiotics, alone or in interaction with bile acids, is a modern strategy in the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Numerous mechanisms for hypocholesterolemic effect of probiotics have been hypothesized, based mostly on in vitro evidence. Interaction with bile acids through reaction of deconjugation catalyzed by bile salt hydrolase enzymes (BSH) is considered as the main mechanism of cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotic bacteria, but it has been reported that microbial BSH activity could be potentially detrimental to the human host. There are several approaches for prevention of possible side effects associated with BSH activity, which at the same time increase the viability of probiotics in the intestines and also in food matrices. The aim of our study was to summarize present knowledge of probiotics-bile acids interactions, with special reference to cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of probiotics, and to report novel biotechnological approaches for increasing the pharmacological benefits of probiotics.

  6. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population.

  7. The effect of BAY o 2752 on bile acid absorption and cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Harnett, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    BAY o 2752 (N,N-(1,11-undecandiyl)bis(2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-indole-1-carboxamide)) has been demonstrated to inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption in rats. Studies were carried out on male Wistar rats to determine if this drug alters intestinal bile acid absorption or cholesterol esterification by acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) or cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH). BAY o 2752 did not affect intestinal absorption of taurocholic acid (TC) from ileal segments perfused in vivo with a tragacanth suspension in phosphate buffer containing NaCl, TC, and 24-{sup 14}C-TC as determined by the excretory rate of radioactivity in bile. BAY o 2752 also did not affect the uptake of TC into ileal everted sacs incubated in stirred, gassed Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer with 1 mM TC, 24-{sup 14}C-TC and {sup 3}H-inulin. BAY o 2752 also did not bind TC; TG, in a filtrate of the above solutions remained at 92-98% of control.

  8. The Lipid domain Phase diagram in a Dipalmitoyl-PC/Docosahaexnoic Acid-PE/Cholesterol System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lor, Chai; Hirst, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Lipid domains in bilayer membrane and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are thought to play an important role in cellular activities. In particular, lipids containing docosahaexnoic acid are an interesting class of PUFAs due to their health benefits. In this project, we perform oxidation measurements of DHA-PE to determine the rate of oxidation in combination with antioxidants. A ternary diagram of DPPC/DHA-PE/cholesterol is mapped out to identify phase separation phenomena using atomic force microscope (AFM). Fluorescence microscopy is also used to image lipid domains in a flat bilayer with fluorescent labels. As expected, we observe the phase, shape, and size of lipid domains changes with varying composition. Moreover, we find that the roughness of the domains changes possibly due to overpacking of cholesterol in domains. This model study provides further understanding of the role of cholesterol in the bilayer membrane leading towards a better understanding of cell membranes. NSF award # DMR 0852791, ``CAREER: Self-Assembly of Polyunsaturated Lipids and Cholesterol In The Cell Membrane.''

  9. Mechanisms of cholesterol and saturated fatty acid lowering by Quillaja saponaria extract, studied by in vitro digestion model.

    PubMed

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Damyanova, Borislava; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Stoyanov, Simeon

    2015-04-01

    Quillaja saponin extracts are known to reduce plasma cholesterol levels in humans. Here we study the mechanism of this effect with Quillaja Dry saponin extract (QD). In vitro model of triglyceride lipolysis is used to quantify the effect of QD on the solubilization of cholesterol and of the lipolysis products (fatty acids and monoglycerides) in the dietary mixed micelles (DMM). We found that QD extract decreases significantly both the cholesterol (from 80% to 20%) and saturated fatty acids (SFA, from 70% to 10%) solubilised in DMM. Series of dedicated experiments prove that QD may act by two mechanisms: (1) direct precipitation of cholesterol and (2) displacement of cholesterol from the DMM. Both mechanisms lead to increased cholesterol precipitation and, thus, render cholesterol bio-inaccessible. We prove also that the saponin molecules are not the active component of QD, because highly purified Quillaja extract with very similar saponin composition does not exhibit cholesterol-lowering or SFA-lowering effect. The effect of QD extract on cholesterol solubilisation is most probably caused by the high-molecular weight polyphenol molecules, present in this extract. The reduced SFA solubilisation is caused by Ca(2+) ions of relatively high concentration (1.25 wt%), also present in QD extract, which precipitate the fatty acids into calcium soaps.

  10. Effects of radiation on the longitudinal trends of total serum cholesterol levels in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wong, F L; Yamada, M; Sasaki, H; Kodama, K; Hosoda, Y

    1999-06-01

    The effects of radiation on the long-term trends of the total serum cholesterol levels of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were examined using data collected in the Adult Health Study over a 28-year period (1958-1986). The growth-curve method was used to model the longitudinal age-dependent changes in cholesterol levels. For each sex, temporal trends of cholesterol levels were characterized with respect to age, body mass index, city and birth year. We then examined whether the temporal trends differed by radiation dose. We showed that the mean growth curve of cholesterol levels for the irradiated subjects were significantly higher than that for the unirradiated subjects, and that the increase was greater for women than for men. No difference in dose response was detected between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An increased mean level of cholesterol was evident for irradiated women in general, but a notable increase was apparent in males only for the youngest birth cohort of 1935-1945. The difference in the mean cholesterol levels between the irradiated and unirradiated subjects diminished past 70 years of age. It is not known whether this is due to natural progression or is an artifact of nonrandom variation in the rate of participation in the examinations. The maximum predicted increase at 1 Gy for women occurred at age 52 years for the 1930 cohort: 2.5 mg/dl (95% CI 1.6-3.3 mg/dl) for Hiroshima and 2.3 mg/dl (95% CI 1.5-3.1 mg/dl) for Nagasaki. The corresponding increase for men occurred at age 29 years for the 1940 cohort: 1.6 mg/dl (95% CI 0.4-2.8) for Hiroshima and 1.4 mg/dl (95% CI 0.3-2.6) for Nagasaki. Controlling for cigarette smoking did not alter the dose-response relationship. Although the difference in the mean growth curves of the irradiated and unirradiated groups was statistically significant, there was a considerable overlap in the individual growth curves of the two groups. The significant sex difference and the greater magnitude of

  11. Asymmetric Total Syntheses of Megacerotonic Acid and Shimobashiric Acid A

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Scott W.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric total syntheses of the α-benzylidene-γ-butyrolactone natural products megacerotonic acid and shimobashiric acid A have been accomplished in nine and 11 steps, respectively, from simple, commercially available starting materials. The key step for each synthesis is the (arene)RuCl(monosulfonamide)-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution-asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (DKR-ATH) of racemic α,δ-diketo-β-aryl esters to establish the absolute stereochemistry. Intramolecular diastereoselective Dieckmann cyclization forms the lactone core, and ketone reduction/alcohol elimination installs the α-arylidene. PMID:25699999

  12. Amperometric cholesterol biosensors based on the electropolymerization of pyrrole and aniline in sulphuric Acid for the determination of cholesterol in serum.

    PubMed

    Muhammet, Sinan M; Cete, Servet; Arslan, Fatma; Yaşar, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    A new amperometric cholesterol biosensor was prepared by immobilizing cholesterol oxidase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on polypyrrole-polyaniline (ppy-pani) composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. In order to prepare a biosensor for the determination of cholesterol, electropolymerization of pyrrole and aniline on Pt surface was performed with an electrochemical cell containing pyrrole and aniline in sulphuric acid by cyclic voltammetry between 0.0 and 0,7 V (vs.Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 50 mV upon Pt electrode. The amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H(2)O(2), which is generated in enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. The cholesterol determined by the oxidation of enzymatically generated H(2)O(2) at 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The optimized cholesterol oxidase biosensor displayed linear working range and a response time of 300 s. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 7.0, 25 degrees C, respectively. In addition to this, the stability and reproducibility of biosensor were tried. Operational stability of the proposed cholesterol biosensor was obtained by periodical measurements of the biosensor response. Biosensor at optimum activity conditions was used in 30 activity assays in one day to determine the operational stability. The results show that 82% of the response current was retained after 30 activity assays. The electrode was stored in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C after the measurements. The storage stability of the biosensor was determined by performing activity assays within 23 days. The results demonstrate that 60% of the response current was retained after 23 days. Preparing biosensor is used for the analysis of cholesterol in serum.

  13. [Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in serum: accuracy and comparison with other methods (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stähler, F; Munz, E; Kattermann, R

    1975-04-18

    Cholesterol can be specifically measured without difficulty and without complex reagents by means of a newly developed enzymatic colour test. Intensive technical evaluation confirmed its accuracy. Manual use gave a day-to-day coefficient of variation of 2-3 per cent; the sensitivity at a cholesterol concentration of 200 mg/dl was E equals 0.153 (gamma equals 405 nm), with a linearity up to 1000 mg/dl. Recovery of added pure cholesterol solution was 100 plus or minus 2 percent. A quantitative study of 53 representative drugs, anti-coagulants and metabolites was performed both in test tube and on patients. Accuracy of the result was unaffected by any of the substances (alpha equals 0.05). Comparison with the multi-step extraction method used at present as a reference (Abell-Kendall) gave a regression equation of y equals 0.99 times plus 1.1 (x axis: extraction method; y axis: enzymatic colour test). The direct chemical method after Liebermann and Burchard gave, in part, markedly differing results because of considerable systematic and accidental errors.

  14. Are plant-based diets efficacious in lowering total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels?

    PubMed

    Ware, Kathrine M

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and around the globe. A large body of literature accumulated over the past several decades has shown the benefit of lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce cardiovascular risk. National guidelines suggest therapeutic lifestyle changes, beginning with diet, as a first step toward lowering TC and LDL-C. It has been suggested a plant-based, low fat diet can substantially reduce TC and LDL- C and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the state of the science regarding the efficacy of plant-based diets in reducing serum TC and LDL-C levels. While results of the research review indicate some benefit, strong evidence supporting the efficacy of plant-based diet in reducing atherogenic lipids is lacking.

  15. A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total and LDL-cholesterol in older adults.

    PubMed

    Abeysekara, Saman; Chilibeck, Philip D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Zello, Gordon A

    2012-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effects of a pulse-based diet in individuals 50 years or older for reducing CVD risk factors. A total of 108 participants were randomised to receive pulse-based foods (two servings daily of beans, chickpeas, peas or lentils; about 150 g/d dry weight) or their regular diet for 2 months, followed by a washout of 1 month and a cross-over to the other diet for 2 months. Anthropometric measures, body composition and biochemical markers (i.e. serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), as the primary outcome, and other lipids, glucose, insulin and C-reactive protein) were assessed before and after each diet phase. A total of eighty-seven participants (thirty males and fifty-seven females; 59·7 (sd 6·3) years, body mass 76 (sd 16) kg) completed the study. Compared with the regular diet, the pulse-based diet decreased total cholesterol by 8·3 % (pulse, 4·57 (sd 0·93) to 4·11 (sd 0·91) mmol/l; regular, 4·47 (sd 0·94) to 4·39 (sd 0·97) mmol/l; P < 0·001) and LDL-C by 7·9 % (pulse, 2·93 (sd 0·84) to 2·55 (sd 0·75) mmol/l; regular, 2·96 (sd 0·86) to 2·81 (sd 0·83) mmol/l; P = 0·01). In a sub-analysis of individuals with high lipid levels at baseline (twenty individuals with high cholesterol), the pulse-based diet reduced cholesterol by 6 % compared with the regular diet (pulse, 5·62 (sd 0·78) to 5·26 (sd 0·68) mmol/l; regular, 5·60 (sd 0·91) to 5·57 (sd 0·85) mmol/l; P = 0·05). A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total cholesterol and LDL-C in older adults and therefore reduces the risk of CVD.

  16. Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1 to 9, breast cancer resistance protein, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G members 5 and 8, are responsible for the unidirectional export of endogenous and exogenous substances. Other efflux transporters [ATPase copper-transporting β polypeptide (ATP7B) and ATPase class I type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1) as well as organic solute transporters (OST) α and β] also play major roles in the transport of some endogenous chemicals across biological membranes. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of these transporters (both rodent and human) with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and substrate preferences. Because uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in multiple cell types, the roles of transporters in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidneys, intestine, brain, heart, placenta, mammary glands, immune cells, and testes are discussed. Attention is also placed upon a variety of regulatory

  17. Xenobiotic, bile acid, and cholesterol transporters: function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Curtis D; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2010-03-01

    Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1 to 9, breast cancer resistance protein, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G members 5 and 8, are responsible for the unidirectional export of endogenous and exogenous substances. Other efflux transporters [ATPase copper-transporting beta polypeptide (ATP7B) and ATPase class I type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1) as well as organic solute transporters (OST) alpha and beta] also play major roles in the transport of some endogenous chemicals across biological membranes. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of these transporters (both rodent and human) with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and substrate preferences. Because uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in multiple cell types, the roles of transporters in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidneys, intestine, brain, heart, placenta, mammary glands, immune cells, and testes are discussed. Attention is also placed upon a variety of

  18. Novel gene-by-environment interactions: APOB and NPC1L1 variants affect the relationship between dietary and total plasma cholesterol[S

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel S.; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Plasma cholesterol level is a key risk factor in CVD pathogenesis. Genetic and dietary variation both influence plasma cholesterol; however, little is known about dietary interactions with genetic variants influencing the absorption and transport of dietary cholesterol. We sought to determine whether gut expressed variants predicting plasma cholesterol differentially affected the relationship between dietary and plasma cholesterol levels in 1,128 subjects (772/356 in the discovery/replication cohorts, respectively). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within three genes (APOB, CETP, and NPC1L1) were significantly associated with plasma cholesterol in the discovery cohort. These were subsequently evaluated for gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions with dietary cholesterol for the prediction of plasma cholesterol, with significant findings tested for replication. Novel GxE interactions were identified and replicated for two variants: rs1042034, an APOB Ser4338Asn missense SNP and rs2072183 (in males only), a synonymous NPC1L1 SNP in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs 5′ of NPC1L1. This study identifies the presence of novel GxE and gender interactions implying that differential gut absorption is the basis for the variant associations with plasma cholesterol. These GxE interactions may account for part of the “missing heritability” not accounted for by genetic associations. PMID:23482652

  19. [Studies on the accuracy and precision of total serum cholesterol in regional interlaboratory trials (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hohenwallner, W; Sommer, R; Wimmer, E

    1976-01-02

    The between-run precision of the Liebermann-Burchard reaction modified by Watson was, in our laboratory, 2-3%, the within-run coefficient of variation was 1-2%. The between-run precision of the enzymatic test was 3-4%, the within-run coefficient of variation was 3%. The regression analysis of 92 serum specimens from patients was y = -17.31 + 1.04 chi, the coefficient of regression was r = 0.996. Interlaboratory trials of serum cholesterol were studied in the normal and pathological range. Lyophilized samples of serum prepared commercially and from fresh specimens from patients were analysed by the method of Liebermann-Burchard as well as by the enzymatic procedure. Acceptable results estimated by Liebermann-Burchard were obtained in the different laboratories after using a common standard of cholesterol. The coefficient of variation of the enzymatic test in the interlaboratory trial was higher in comparison to the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. Methodological difficulties of the Liebermann-Burchard reaction are discussed and compared with the specific, enzymatic assay.

  20. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  1. Impact of physiological levels of chenodeoxycholic acid supplementation on intestinal and hepatic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in Cyp7a1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan D; Lopez, Adam M; Tong, Ernest Y; Posey, Kenneth S; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Repa, Joyce J; Turley, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) have a diminished bile acid pool (BAP) and therefore represent a useful model for investigating the metabolic effects of restoring the pool with a specific BA. Previously we carried out such studies in Cyp7a1(-/-) mice fed physiological levels of cholic acid (CA) and achieved BAP restoration, along with an increased CA enrichment, at a dietary level of just 0.03% (w/w). Here we demonstrate that in Cyp7a1(-/-) mice fed chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) at a level of 0.06% (w/w), the BAP was restored to normal size and became substantially enriched with muricholic acid (MCA) (>70%), leaving the combined contribution of CA and CDCA to be <15%. This resulted in a partial to complete reversal of the main changes in cholesterol and BA metabolism associated with Cyp7a1 deficiency such as an elevated rate of intestinal sterol synthesis, an enhanced level of mRNA for Cyp8b1 in the liver, and depressed mRNA levels for Ibabp, Shp and Fgf15 in the distal small intestine. When Cyp7a1(-/-) and matching Cyp7a1(+/+) mice were fed a diet with added cholesterol (0.2%) (w/w), either alone, or also containing CDCA (0.06%) (w/w) or CA (0.03%) (w/w) for 18days, the hepatic total cholesterol concentrations (mg/g) in the Cyp7a1(-/-) mice were 26.9±3.7, 16.4±0.9 and 47.6±1.9, respectively, vs. 4.9±0.4, 5.0±0.7 and 6.4±1.9, respectively in the corresponding Cyp7a1(+/+) controls. These data affirm the importance of using moderate levels of dietary BA supplementation to elicit changes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism through shifts in BAP size and composition.

  2. Inhibition of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Henin, N; Vincent, M F; Gruber, H E; Van den Berghe, G

    1995-04-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase is a multisubstrate protein kinase that, in liver, inactivates both acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. AICAR (5-amino 4-imidazolecarboxamide ribotide, ZMP) was found to stimulate up to 10-fold rat liver AMP-activated protein kinase, with a half-maximal effect at approximately 5 mM. In accordance with previous observations, addition to suspensions of isolated rat hepatocytes of 50-500 microM AICAriboside, the nucleoside corresponding to ZMP, resulted in the accumulation of millimolar concentrations of the latter. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent inactivation of both acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Addition of 50-500 microM AICAriboside to hepatocyte suspensions incubated in the presence of various substrates, including glucose and lactate/pyruvate, caused a parallel inhibition of both fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. With lactate/pyruvate (10/1 mM), half-maximal inhibition was obtained at approximately 100 microM, and near-complete inhibition at 500 microM AICAriboside. These findings open new perspectives for the simultaneous control of triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis by pharmacological stimulators of AMP-activated protein kinase.

  3. Juxtamembranous aspartic acid in Insig-1 and Insig-2 is required for cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yi; Lee, Joon No; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Ye, Jin

    2006-01-01

    Insig-1 and Insig-2 are closely related proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that mediate feedback control of cholesterol synthesis by sterol-dependent binding to the following two membrane proteins: the escort protein Scap, thus preventing proteolytic processing of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins; and the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, thus inducing the ubiquitination and ER-associated degradation of the enzyme. Here, we report that the conserved Asp-205 in Insig-1, which abuts the fourth transmembrane helix at the cytosolic side of the ER membrane, is essential for its dual function. When Asp-205 was mutated to alanine, the mutant Insig-1 lost the ability to bind to Scap and, thus, was unable to suppress the cleavage of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. The mutant Insig-1 was ineffective also in accelerating sterol-stimulated degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase. Alanine substitution of the corresponding aspartic acid in Insig-2 produced the same dual defects. These studies identify a single amino acid residue that is crucial for the function of Insig proteins in regulating cholesterol homeostasis in mammalian cells. PMID:16606821

  4. cAMP increases mitochondrial cholesterol transport through the induction of arachidonic acid release inside this organelle in Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana Fernanda; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Castilla, Rocío; Duarte, Alejandra; Maloberti, Paula; Paz, Cristina; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated the direct effect of arachidonic acid on cholesterol transport in intact cells or isolated mitochondria from steroidogenic cells and the effect of cyclic-AMP on the specific release of this fatty acid inside the mitochondria. We show for the first time that cyclic-AMP can regulate the release of arachidonic acid in a specialized compartment of MA-10 Leydig cells, e.g. the mitochondria, and that the fatty acid induces cholesterol transport through a mechanism different from the classical pathway. Arachidonic acid and arachidonoyl-CoA can stimulate cholesterol transport in isolated mitochondria from nonstimulated cells. The effect of arachidonoyl-CoA is inhibited by the reduction in the expression or in the activity of a mitochondrial thioesterase that uses arachidonoyl-CoA as a substrate to release arachidonic acid. cAMP-induced arachidonic acid accumulation into the mitochondria is also reduced when the mitochondrial thioesterase activity or expression is blocked. This new feature in the regulation of cholesterol transport by arachidonic acid and the release of arachidonic acid in specialized compartment of the cells could offer novel means for understanding the regulation of steroid synthesis but also would be important in other situations such as neuropathological disorders or oncology disorders, where cholesterol transport plays an important role.

  5. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  6. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Salto, Lorena M; Bu, Liming; Beeson, W Lawrence; Firek, Anthony; Cordero-MacIntyre, Zaida; De Leon, Marino

    2015-12-23

    The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr) of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele) had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele). Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes.

  7. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Salto, Lorena M.; Bu, Liming; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Firek, Anthony; Cordero-MacIntyre, Zaida; De Leon, Marino

    2015-01-01

    The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr) of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele) had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele). Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes. PMID:26703680

  8. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  9. Promotion of classic neutral bile acids synthesis pathway is responsible for cholesterol-lowing effect of Si-miao-yong-an decoction: Application of LC-MS/MS method to determine 6 major bile acids in rat liver and plasma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ruowen; Gu, Liqiang; Chen, Xiaohui

    2017-02-20

    Si-miao-yong-an decoction (SMYAD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, significantly reduced plasma TC, LDL-c levels and increased HDL-c level in hyperlipidemia rats. Liver function test and tissue section examination indicated that SMYAD improved liver function and reduced fat accumulation in hyperlipidemia rat liver. A LC-MS/MS method was established and well validated to evaluate major bile acids derived from cholesterol metabolism through the classic neutral pathway and the alternative acidic pathway (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and their taurine and glycine conjugates) in liver and plasma. Increased total 6 bile acids concentrations in both liver and plasma were observed after oral administration of 12g/kg/d, 24g/kg/d and 36g/kg/d of SMYAD in a dose dependent manner which contributed to eliminate of cholesterol. Cholic acid, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid act as the main products of bile acid classic neutral synthesis pathway and show sharp increase (p<0.01) after treatment of SMYAD at dosage of 24-36g/kg/d. For liver samples, taurocholic acid level act as the largest growth section, while in plasma samples, cholic acid act as the largest growth section after SMYAD treatment, compared with Model group. By contrast, the main products of alternative acidic pathway (chenodeoxycholic acid and its glycine and taurine conjugates) show no significant increase after treatment of SMYAD. In conclusion, the cholesterol lowing effect of SMYAD may be related with the accelerated transformation of cholesterol into bile acids through the classic neutral pathway.

  10. Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Concentrations in Usually Consumed Fish in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Carlos; Gagliardi, Ana Carolina Moron; Miname, Marcio Hiroshi; Santos, Raul Dias

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. Objective The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. Methods The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops) and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. Results The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish) and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g). Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g) and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g). Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. Conclusion All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3. PMID:25424160

  11. Serum cholesterol, uric acid and cholinesterase in victims of the Tokyo subway sarin poisoning: a relation with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Tochigi, Mamoru; Umekage, Tadashi; Otani, Toshiyuki; Kato, Tadafumi; Iwanami, Akira; Asukai, Nozomu; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kato, Nobumasa

    2002-11-01

    Cholesterol and uric acid, which might correlate with steroidogenesis and monoamine functions, may change under emotionally stressful conditions and in mental disturbances. Among anxiety disorders, an increase of serum cholesterol has been observed in panic disorder. However, the issue has not been adequately investigated in other anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study investigated serum cholesterols, uric acid and cholinesterase in victims of the Tokyo subway sarin poisoning, 1995, in a series of 5-year follow-ups. Cholinesterase was studied, in relevance with serum lipid changes and symptoms of PTSD, and also in light of a biological effect of sarin. Out of 34 victims, eight developed PTSD and two were currently diagnosed with PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). No significant relationship was observed between PTSD and serum cholesterols or uric acid. Several factors including co-occurrence of other mental disturbances with PTSD, in addition to the limited sample size, might have affected the result. In contrast, serum cholinesterase level was significantly reduced in the victims with the development of PTSD, compared with the matched controls (P<0.02, t-test). This might partly reflect a long-term remnant effect of sarin intoxication, although an effect of the psychological experience could not be totally excluded.

  12. Effects of ellagic acid-rich extract of pomegranates peel on regulation of cholesterol metabolism and its molecular mechanism in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Run; Li, Jianke; Cheng, Yujiang; Huo, Tianbo; Xue, Jiayi; Liu, Yingli; Liu, Jianshu; Chen, Xiping

    2015-03-01

    The study investigated the effect of pomegranates ellagic acid (PEA) on blood cholesterol and investigated its effects on LXR/RXR/PPAR-ABCA1 nuclear receptors-signaling pathways of cholesterol metabolism on molecular level in hamsters. In this experiment, hamsters were randomly divided into two groups: the first group (NG, n = 9) was always fed the normal diet, whereas the other group (HFG, n = 45) was fed a high fat diet during the first 4 weeks and then fed the normal diet for the last 4 weeks. In HFG, which was divided into five groups (n = 9) during the last 4 weeks, three groups were treated with PEA at 44 mg per kg bw, 88 mg per kg bw and 177 mg per kg bw, one group was treated with simvastatin at 1.77 mg per kg bw, and one was given sterile double-distilled water. The data validated that PEA dose-dependently decreased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride level accompanied by a greater excretion of fecal bile acid. The result of RT-PCR revealed that PEA up-regulated liver X receptor (LXRα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and their downstream gene ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), with no effect on retinoid X receptor (RXRα). PEA promoted cholesterol removal by enhancing fecal bile acid and up-regulation of the two pathways, LXR/PPAR-ABCA1. Moreover, PEA was stronger than simvastatin in some aspects.

  13. [Association between food intake and the serum total cholesterol level among adults in 9 regions of China].

    PubMed

    Song, J; He, J J; Fang, A P; Li, H; Guo, M H; Shen, X; Li, K J

    2017-03-24

    Objective: To analyze the association between food intake and the serum total cholesterol(TC) level in adult Chinese population. Methods: This study included apparent healthy residents aged between 20 and 70 years who participated in the eighth round of China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS) in 9 regions of China including Liaoning, Helongjiang, Shandong, Jiangsu, Henan, Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2009. The association between the serum TC level and the diet and other related factors were analyzed. Results: (1) Linear trend test showed that age, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively related with serum TC level in 20-45 and 46-70 years old male and female (all P<0.01), while physical activity level was negatively related with serum TC level in 20-45 and 46-70 years old male and 46-70 years old female (all P<0.01). (2) Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that livestock meat intake was positively related with serum TC level in following populations: 20-45 years old male, β=0.133, P<0.001; 46-70 years old male, β=0.102, P=0.001; 20-45 years old male, β=0.065, P=0.041; years old female, β=0.059, P=0.045. Vegetable oil intake was negatively related with serum TC level in 20-45 years old male (β=-0.071, P=0.021). Saturated fat intake was positively related with serum TC level in 46-70 years old female (β=0.084, P=0.019). Total dietary cholesterol intake was positively related with serum TC level in male (20-45 years old, β=0.067, P=0.021; 46-70 years old, β=0.070, P=0.012), but not in female (20-45 years old, β=0.007, P=0.809; 46-70 years old, β=0.038, P=0.144). Cholesterol intake from livestock meat was positively related with serum TC level in male (20-45 years old, β=0.156, P<0.001; 46-70 years old, β=0.099, P=0.001), and positively related with serum TC level in 46-70 years old female (β=0.063, P=0.028). Cholesterol intake from egg was positively

  14. Hepatic entrapment of esterified cholesterol drives continual expansion of whole body sterol pool in lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Aqul, Amal; Lopez, Adam M; Posey, Kenneth S; Taylor, Anna M; Repa, Joyce J; Burns, Dennis K; Turley, Stephen D

    2014-10-15

    Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) results from loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). Hepatomegaly and deposition of esterified cholesterol (EC) in multiple organs ensue. The present studies quantitated rates of synthesis, absorption, and disposition of cholesterol, and whole body cholesterol pool size in a mouse model of CESD. In 50-day-old lal(-/-) and matching lal(+/+) mice fed a low-cholesterol diet, whole animal cholesterol content equalled 210 and 50 mg, respectively, indicating that since birth the lal(-/-) mice sequestered cholesterol at an average rate of 3.2 mg·day(-1)·animal(-1). The proportion of the body sterol pool contained in the liver of the lal(-/-) mice was 64 vs. 6.3% in their lal(+/+) controls. EC concentrations in the liver, spleen, small intestine, and lungs of the lal(-/-) mice were elevated 100-, 35-, 15-, and 6-fold, respectively. In the lal(-/-) mice, whole liver cholesterol synthesis increased 10.2-fold, resulting in a 3.2-fold greater rate of whole animal sterol synthesis compared with their lal(+/+) controls. The rate of cholesterol synthesis in the lal(-/-) mice exceeded that in the lal(+/+) controls by 3.7 mg·day(-1)·animal(-1). Fractional cholesterol absorption and fecal bile acid excretion were unchanged in the lal(-/-) mice, but their rate of neutral sterol excretion was 59% higher than in their lal(+/+) controls. Thus, in this model, the continual expansion of the body sterol pool is driven by the synthesis of excess cholesterol, primarily in the liver. Despite the severity of their disease, the median life span of the lal(-/-) mice was 355 days.

  15. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acid esters of cholesterol and phytosterols on an ionic liquid capillary column.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2015-12-15

    Steryl esters are high molecular weight compounds (600-700g/mol) regularly present as a minor lipid class in animal and plant lipids. Different sterol backbones (e.g., cholesterol, β-sitosterol and brassicasterol) which can be esterified with various fatty acids can result in highly complex steryl ester patterns in food samples. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of intact steryl esters is challenging, since high elution temperatures are required for their elution. On nonpolar GC phases, steryl esters with fatty acids with differing degree of unsaturation (e.g., oleate and linoleate) cannot be separated and there are only few polar columns available with sufficient temperature stability. In this study, we used gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and analyzed intact steryl esters on a commercial room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) column which was shortened to a length of 12m. The column separated the steryl esters both by total carbon number and by degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. For instance, cholesteryl esters with stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1n-9), linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) could be resolved (R≥1.3) from each other. By analysis of synthesized standard substances, the elution orders for different steryl backbones and different fatty acids on a given sterol backbone could be determined. Analysis of spreads and plant oils allowed to determine retention times for 37 steryl esters, although a few co-elutions were observed. The ionic liquid column proved to be well-suited for the analysis of intact steryl esters.

  16. The thyroid hormone mimetic compound KB2115 lowers plasma LDL cholesterol and stimulates bile acid synthesis without cardiac effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Berkenstam, Anders; Kristensen, Jens; Mellström, Karin; Carlsson, Bo; Malm, Johan; Rehnmark, Stefan; Garg, Neeraj; Andersson, Carl Magnus; Rudling, Mats; Sjöberg, Folke; Angelin, Bo; Baxter, John D

    2008-01-15

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a major problem despite the availability of drugs that influence major risk factors. New treatments are needed, and there is growing interest in therapies that may have multiple actions. Thyroid hormone modulates several cardiovascular risk factors and delays atherosclerosis progression in humans. However, use of thyroid hormone is limited by side effects, especially in the heart. To overcome this limitation, pharmacologically selective thyromimetics that mimic metabolic effects of thyroid hormone and bypass side effects are under development. In animal models, such thyromimetics have been shown to stimulate cholesterol elimination through LDL and HDL pathways and decrease body weight without eliciting side effects. We report here studies on a selective thyromimetic [KB2115; (3-[[3,5-dibromo-4-[4-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethyl)-phenoxy]-phenyl]-amino]-3-oxopropanoic acid)] in humans. In moderately overweight and hypercholesterolemic subjects KB2115 was found to be safe and well tolerated and elicited up to a 40% lowering of total and LDL cholesterol after 14 days of treatment. Bile acid synthesis was stimulated without evidence of increased cholesterol production, indicating that KB2115 induced net cholesterol excretion. KB2115 did not provoke detectable effects on the heart, suggesting that the pharmacological selectivity observed in animal models translates to humans. Thus, selective thyromimetics deserve further study as agents to treat dyslipidemia and other risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  17. Unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols regulate cholesterol transporter genes in Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngki; Carr, Timothy P

    2013-02-01

    Dietary consumption of phytosterols and certain fatty acids has been shown to reduce cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether phytosterols or fatty acids can alter the expression of cholesterol transporters by functioning as signaling molecules. This study tested the hypothesis that various fatty acids and phytosterols commonly found in the food supply can modulate the expression of transporters including Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and scavenger receptor class B type I and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cells were used as models of enterocytes, and HepG2 cells were used as a model of hepatocytes. The cells were treated for 18 hours with 100 μmol/L of a fatty acid, or for 24 hours with 10 μmol/L of 25α-hydroxycholesterol, or 100 μmol/L of cholesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol to measure expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caco-2 cells and sterols in HepG2 cells significantly reduced the messenger RNA expression levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B type I, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Importantly, sitosterol and stigmasterol reduced the messenger RNA levels of genes to a similar extent as cholesterol. The data support the hypothesis that unsaturated fatty acid and phytosterols can act as signaling molecules and alter the expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and metabolism.

  18. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of total cholesterol measured in five Israeli populations.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T; Carmelli, D; Cameron, E

    1985-07-01

    Three structured exploratory data analysis-functionals are applied to plasma total cholesterol concentrations measured for 2,480 young men and women aged 17-18 years and living in Jerusalem, and for their parents. These triad families are divided into five groups according to whether both parents were born in Asia, North Africa, Europe-America, or Israel or whether they were of mixed "origins." The significances of the functionals were determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffled the trait values across families in order to systematically alter certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. These analyses suggest that generational differences and various distributional effects influence patterns of spouse and parent-offspring interactions within these families and that the nature and forms of these effects and interactions may differ according to the origin of the parents. Results are discussed in relationship to historical and cultural differences among groups.

  19. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. Z.; Park, B. K.; Yan, C. G.; Choi, J. G.; Ahn, J. S.; Shin, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  20. Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk Fatty Acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S

    2012-11-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  1. Association of total cholesterol and HDL-C levels and outcome in coronary heart disease patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qin; Li, Jianfei; Yang, Jin; Li, Rongshan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with heart failure (HF). Patients who were angiographical-diagnosis of CHD and echocardiographical-diagnosis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45% were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were collected and association of TC and HDL-C levels with rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality was assessed. A total of 118 patients were recruited. Mean age was 58.6 ± 10.9 years and male accounted for 65%. Mean LVEF was 39.5 ± 4.0%. Twenty-eight patients were rehospitalized for HF and 6 patients were dead. In patients with poor prognosis, lower body mass index (BMI), TC, HDL-C and albumin while higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) was observed. TC was positively correlated with BMI and albumin, and HDL-C was inversely correlated with Hs-CRP. The associations of TC level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were attenuated but consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with odds ratio (OR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–0.99). Associations of HDL-C level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were also consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with OR of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90–0.98). Strength of association was attenuated prominently in model 3 after adjusted for Hs-CRP, and no change was observed after further adjusted for BMI and albumin. Higher baseline TC and HDL-C levels are associated with better outcome in CHD patients with HF. PMID:28248864

  2. Impact of ursodeoxycholic acid on a CCK1R cholesterol-binding site may contribute to its positive effects in digestive function

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Aditya J.; Dong, Maoqing; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the type 1 cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor (CCK1R) as a result of increased gallbladder muscularis membrane cholesterol has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, which is structurally related to cholesterol, has been shown to have beneficial effects on gallstone formation. Our aims were to explore the possible direct effects and mechanism of action of bile acids on CCK receptor function. We studied the effects of structurally related hydrophobic chenodeoxycholic acid and hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid in vitro on CCK receptor function in the setting of normal and elevated membrane cholesterol. We also examined their effects on a cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant (Y140A) disrupting a key site of cholesterol action. The results show that, similar to the impact of cholesterol on CCK receptors, bile acid effects were limited to CCK1R, with no effects on CCK2R. Chenodeoxycholic acid had a negative impact on CCK1R function, while ursodeoxycholic acid had no effect on CCK1R function in normal membranes but was protective against the negative impact of elevated cholesterol on this receptor. The cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant Y140A was resistant to effects of both bile acids. These data suggest that bile acids compete with the action of cholesterol on CCK1R, probably by interacting at the same site, although the conformational impact of each bile acid appears to be different, with ursodeoxycholic acid capable of correcting the abnormal conformation of CCK1R in a high-cholesterol environment. This mechanism may contribute to the beneficial effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in reducing cholesterol gallstone formation. PMID:26138469

  3. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-05

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  4. Differential regulation of bile acid and cholesterol metabolism by the farnesoid X receptor in Ldlr -/- mice versus hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gardès, Christophe; Chaput, Evelyne; Staempfli, Andreas; Blum, Denise; Richter, Hans; Benson, G Martin

    2013-05-01

    Modulating bile acid synthesis has long been considered a good strategy by which to improve cholesterol homeostasis in humans. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the key regulator of bile acid synthesis, was, therefore, identified as an interesting target for drug discovery. We compared the effect of four, structurally unrelated, synthetic FXR agonists in two fat-fed rodent species and observed that the three most potent and selective agonists decreased plasma cholesterol in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr (-/-)) mice, but none did so in hamsters. Detailed investigation revealed increases in the expression of small heterodimer partner (Shp) in their livers and of intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 or 19 (Fgf15/19) in mice only. Cyp7a1 expression and fecal bile acid (BA) excretion were strongly reduced in mice and hamsters by all four FXR agonists, whereas bile acid pool sizes were reduced in both species by all but the X-Ceptor compound in hamsters. In Ldlr (-/-) mice, the predominant bile acid changed from cholate to the more hydrophilic β-muricholate due to a strong repression of Cyp8b1 and increase in Cyp3a11 expression. However, FXR agonists caused only minor changes in the expression of Cyp8b1 and in bile acid profiles in hamsters. In summary, FXR agonist-induced decreases in bile acid pool size and lipophilicity and in cholesterol absorption and synthesis could explain the decreased plasma cholesterol in Ldlr (-/-) mice. In hamsters, FXR agonists reduced bile acid pool size to a smaller extent with minor changes in bile acid profile and reductions in sterol absorption, and consequently, plasma cholesterol was unchanged.

  5. Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular diseases: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Oggioni, C; Cena, H; Wells, J C K; Lara, J; Celis-Morales, C; Siervo, M

    2015-12-01

    Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs.

  6. Blood zinc protoporphyrin, serum total protein, and total cholesterol levels in automobile workshop workers in relation to lead toxicity: Our experience.

    PubMed

    Pachathundikandi, Suneesh Kumar; Varghese, Earaly Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), serum total protein (TP), and total cholesterol (TC) levels in automobile workshop workers in relation to lead toxicity were analysed. In the present study, automobile workshop workers (healthy male workers at an age between 28 and 35 from four major automobile workshops in Kottayam, Kerala State, India) and the control (male healthy adults at an age between 28 and 35 residing at Aymanam, a distant village at Kottayam District, Kerala having reduced or no chance of lead exposure) displayed significant difference in blood lead (BPb) and blood ZZP (BZPP) level. The mean value of BPb in automobile workshop workers was 15.76±0.33 μg/dl, while in the control it was 8.20±0.15 μg/dl. In automobile workshop workers, the mean value of BZPP was 34.2±0.62 μg/dl. The control group exhibited a mean of 11.5±0.22 μg/dl. Automobile workshop workers exhibited significant increase in BZPP was corresponding to the increase in BPb level. The total protein levels estimated in automobile workshop workers showed significant decrease compared to control individuals, but was within the reference range of healthy individuals. The mean value of TP level in automobile workshop workers and control was 6.9±0.13 g/dl and 7.71±0.18 g/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference in blood haemoglobin (BHb) level among the automobile workshop workers and control. The serum TC level in automobile workshop workers showed significant decrease compared to the control individuals, but was with in the reference range of healthy individuals. The mean level of serum TC in automobile workshop workers was 162.00±3.44 mg/dl and the same in control was 172.86±4.32 mg/dl. The present study affirms occupational lead toxicity in automobile workshop workers and its effect on serum protein and cholesterol levels.

  7. Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    De Graaf, Jacqueline; De Sauvage Nolting, Pernette R W; Van Dam, Marjel; Belsey, Elizabeth M; Kastelein, John J P; Haydn Pritchard, P; Stalenhoef, Anton F H

    2002-11-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol levels below 8 mmol/l). For 4 weeks, participants consumed three servings of the phytosterol-enriched chocolate/d that provided 1.8 g unesterified phytosterols/d or a placebo chocolate in conjunction with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels were statistically significantly reduced by 6.4 % (-0.44 mmol/l) and 10.3 % (-0.49 mmol/l), respectively, after 4 weeks of phytosterol-enriched-chocolate treatment. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not affected. Consumption of phytosterol-enriched chocolates significantly increased plasma lathosterol concentration (+20.7 %), reflecting an increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis in response to phytosterol-induced decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. Furthermore, the chocolates enriched with phytosterols significantly increased both plasma sitosterol (+95.8 %) and campesterol (+64.1 %) levels, compared with the placebo chocolate group. However, the absolute values of plasma sitosterol and campesterol remained within the normal range, that is, below 10 mg/l. The chocolates with phytosterols were palatable and induced no clinical or biochemical side effects. These findings indicate that dietary chocolate enriched with tall oil-derived phytosterols (1.8 g/d) is effective in lowering blood total and LDL-cholesterol levels in subjects with mild hypercholesterolaemia and thus may be helpful in reducing the risk of CHD in these individuals.

  8. Effects of total body irradiation on fatty acid and total lipid content of rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuemeka, Nwokocha; Philippe, Mounmbegna; Magdalene, Nwokocha; Onyezuligbo, Onyekachi

    2012-01-01

    We examined time-dependent changes in plasma lipids of rats given total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays at 3 Gy. for consecutive periods. Animals were exposed to x ray radiations consecutively for 20 days at 5 day interval thereafter five animals were picked at random and sacrificed (5, 10, 15 and 20 days after beginning the exposure). The triacylglycerols and total cholesterol serum levels were significant differences between control and experimental groups after the first exposure (5 days), values for the triacylglcerols were significantly higher with the second (day 10) and third (day 15) radiation exposures but not with the fourth radiation exposures (day 20) (p<0.05). However, the serum cholesterol values were not found to be significant with the second and third exposures but with the fourth exposure (day 20) (p<0.05). The serum HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different between control and experimental groups at any time analyzed. But the LDL cholesterol was found to decrease on days 5 and 20 of the experimental period. Our results indicate that the applied long term exposure to x rays ionization radiations exposure may induce slight but statistically significant alterations in some serum lipids profile of rats, within the physiological range. The mechanisms for the effects of these ionizing radiations on serum lipid profile are not well understand yet, we suggest that the changes could be due to some non-specific stress reactions. The consequences of our observation are not known yet, but could point to some possible clinical intervention.

  9. Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, L Anne; Crouse, Stephen F; Carbuhn, Aaron; Klooster, Jennifer; Calles, José Antonio Elias; Meade, Thomas; Smith, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and exercise increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by independent mechanisms, so there would be additive effects between a single, intensive session of exercise and high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and blood risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Seventeen postmenopausal women completed a 2-way crossover design in which they consumed five 114-g ground beef patties per week for two 6-week periods separated by a 4-week washout (habitual diet) period. The ground beef patties contained 21% total fat with either 9.97 (low-MUFA) or 12.72 (high-MUFA) g total MUFA. Blood was taken at entry, at the end of each 6-week diet period, after the 4-week washout period, and 24 hours after aerobic exercise sessions (75% VO₂peak, 2.07 MJ). After the ground beef intervention, the high-MUFA ground beef increased plasma palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle density, HDL-C, and HDL2b-C (all P < .05), whereas the low-MUFA ground beef increased LDL density. After the washout (habitual diet) period, the single exercise session increased serum LDL cholesterol, HDL-C, and HDL2a and decreased TAG and oleic acid. After the low-MUFA ground beef diet, exercise increased LDL size and HDL density and decreased LDL density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but had no effect on HDL-C fractions. After the high-MUFA ground beef intervention, exercise decreased palmitioleic acid, oleic acid, HDL-C, and HDL2a-C, but not HDL2b-C. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of exercise and a high-MUFA diet were not additive; instead, exercise attenuated the effects of the high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and plasma MUFAs. The differential effects of high-MUFA ground beef and exercise on HDL2a-C and HDL2b-C indicate that diet and exercise affect HDL-C by different mechanisms.

  10. Dynamics of hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid pathways: The impact of the animal model of estrogen deficiency and exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol level is determined by a complex dynamics that involves transport lipoproteins which levels are tightly dependent on how the liver and the intestine regulate cholesterol and biliary acid metabolism. Regulation of cholesterol and biliary acids by the liver and the intestine is in turn coupled to a large array of enzymes and transporters that largely influence the inflow and the outflow of cholesterol and biliary acids through these organs. The activity of the key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acids may be influenced by several external factors such as pharmacological drugs and the nutritional status. In recent years, more information has been gathered about the impact of estrogens on regulation of cholesterol in the body. Exposure to high levels of estrogens has been reported to promote cholesterol gallstone formation and women are twice as likely as men to develop cholesterol gallstones. The impact of estrogen withdrawal, such as experienced by menopausal women, is therefore of importance and more information on how the absence of estrogens influence cholesterol regulation is started to come out, especially through the use of animal models. An interesting alternative to metabolic deterioration due to estrogen deficiency is exercise training. The present review is intended to summarize the present information that links key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acid pathways in liver and intestine to the absence of estrogens in an animal model and to discuss the potential role of exercise training as an alternative. PMID:27621762

  11. Total cholesterol performance of Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall reference measurement procedure: Certification of Japanese in-vitro diagnostic assay manufacturers through CDC’s Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network☆

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Kayamori, Yuzo; Koyama, Isao; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Dasti, Mahnaz; Vesper, Hubert W.; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of total cholesterol (TC) is important for cardiovascular disease risk management. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network (CRMLN) perform Abell–Levy–Brodie–Kendall (AK) reference measurement procedure (RMP) for TC as a secondary reference method, and implement Certification Protocol for Manufacturers. Japanese CRMLN laboratory at Osaka performed the AK RMP for 22 years, and conducted TC certification for reagent/calibrator/instrument systems of six Japanese manufacturers every 2 years for 16 years. Osaka TC performance was examined and compared to CDC’s reference values. Methods AK RMP involved sample hydrolysis, cholesterol extraction, and determination of cholesterol levels by spectrophotometry. The Certification Protocol for Manufacturers includes comparison with AK RMP using at least 40 fresh specimens. Demonstration of average bias ≤3% and total coefficient of variation ≤3% qualified an analytical system for certification. Results In the AK RMP used in the Osaka CRMLN laboratory, the regression equation for measuring TC was y (Osaka) = 1.000x (CDC) + 0.032 (n = 619, R2 = 1.000). Six Japanese manufacturers had allowable performance for certification. Conclusions The AK RMP for TC measurement was accurate, precise, and stable for 22 years. Six Japanese manufacturers were certified for 16 years. PMID:25818239

  12. Characterization of Putative Cholesterol Recognition/Interaction Amino Acid Consensus-Like Motif of Campylobacter jejuni Cytolethal Distending Toxin C

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Ho; Lai, Cheng-Kuo; Lin, Ying-Ju; Hung, Chiu-Lien; Chu, Chia-Han; Feng, Chun-Lung; Chang, Chia-Shuo; Su, Hong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) produced by Campylobacter jejuni comprises a heterotrimeric complex formed by CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. Among these toxin subunits, CdtA and CdtC function as essential proteins that mediate toxin binding to cytoplasmic membranes followed by delivery of CdtB into the nucleus. The binding of CdtA/CdtC to the cell surface is mediated by cholesterol, a major component in lipid rafts. Although the putative cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) domain of CDT has been reported from several bacterial pathogens, the protein regions contributing to CDT binding to cholesterol in C. jejuni remain unclear. Here, we selected a potential CRAC-like region present in the CdtC from C. jejuni for analysis. Molecular modeling showed that the predicted functional domain had the shape of a hydrophobic groove, facilitating cholesterol localization to this domain. Mutation of a tyrosine residue in the CRAC-like region decreased direct binding of CdtC to cholesterol rather than toxin intermolecular interactions and led to impaired CDT intoxication. These results provide a molecular link between C. jejuni CdtC and membrane-lipid rafts through the CRAC-like region, which contributes to toxin recognition and interaction with cholesterol. PMID:23762481

  13. Piperine prevents cholesterol gallstones formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiu-Yun; Xu, Shuang; Hu, Jin-Feng; Tang, Jia; Chu, Shi-Feng; Liu, Hang; Han, Ning; Li, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Li, Yue-Ting; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2015-03-15

    Biliary cholesterol may contribute to the formation of cholesterol gallstones, and regulation of these levels could be a useful therapeutic strategy for gallstones disease. Piperine (PA) is a potential cholesterol lowering agent. In this study, we assessed the effect and mechanism of PA in preventing cholesterol gallstones formation induced by feeding lithogenic diet containing high cholesterol levels to mice. C57BL/6 inbred mice were fed lithogenic or chow diets for 10 weeks, with or without PA (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 60 mg/kg) administration. Cholesterol, phospholipids and crystals in bile, the lipid in serum, pathological changes and proteins expression in liver were analyzed. The results showed that PA could decrease the cholesterol potency and crystals in bile, reduce total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and increase high-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) levels in serum. Furthermore, PA treatment reduced liver lipid peroxidation and protected hepatobiliary cells from liver injury by decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, PA inhibited the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters G5/8 (ABCG5/8) and liver X receptor (LXR) in liver, and reduced cholesterol transport from the hepatocytes to the gallbladder. It may be the mechanism of PA in preventing cholesterol gallstones formation. PA as a potential drug for prevention cholesterol gallstones merits further investigation.

  14. The Interpretation of Cholesterol Balance Derived Synthesis Data and Surrogate Noncholesterol Plasma Markers for Cholesterol Synthesis under Lipid Lowering Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Stellaard, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol balance procedure allows the calculation of cholesterol synthesis based on the assumption that loss of endogenous cholesterol via fecal excretion and bile acid synthesis is compensated by de novo synthesis. Under ezetimibe therapy hepatic cholesterol is diminished which can be compensated by hepatic de novo synthesis and hepatic extraction of plasma cholesterol. The plasma lathosterol concentration corrected for total cholesterol concentration (R_Lath) as a marker of de novo cholesterol synthesis is increased during ezetimibe treatment but unchanged under treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin. Cholesterol balance derived synthesis data increase during both therapies. We hypothesize the following. (1) The cholesterol balance data must be applied to the hepatobiliary cholesterol pool. (2) The calculated cholesterol synthesis value is the sum of hepatic de novo synthesis and the net plasma—liver cholesterol exchange rate. (3) The reduced rate of biliary cholesterol absorption is the major trigger for the regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism under ezetimibe treatment. Supportive experimental and literature data are presented that describe changes of cholesterol fluxes under ezetimibe, statin, and combined treatments in omnivores and vegans, link plasma R_Lath to liver function, and define hepatic de novo synthesis as target for regulation of synthesis. An ezetimibe dependent direct hepatic drug effect cannot be excluded. PMID:28321334

  15. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p <0.05) in supplemented diet( sumac seed and ginger root powder). Fatty acid content in yolk; saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and rate of n6/n3 were not significant (p <0.05). However, dietary supplementation with sumac and ginger powder reduced and yolk/blood cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p < 0.05) in treatment groups. Moreover, LDL positively decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggested that feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens.

  16. Enzymatic analysis of total- and HDL-cholesterol: comparison with the standardized Liebermann-Burchard method used by the Lipid Research Clinics program.

    PubMed

    Bachorik, P S; Virgil, D G; Derby, C; Widman, D; McMahon, R; Fulwood, R P; Ezzati, T

    1988-06-15

    We compared two enzymatic cholesterol methods with the standardized chemical method used in the Lipid Research Clinic's (LRC) program. The methods were used to measure total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in heparin-MnCl2 supernatants of 1,812 sera collected over a 16-mth period from subjects who were sampled as part of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Thirty percent of the subjects had fasted for 12 h or more before venepuncture. The enzymatic total cholesterol values were 1.4-1.8% lower than the LRC method and both enzymatic methods correlated highly with the LRC method (r greater than 0.97). The enzymatic HDL cholesterol values were 2.4 and 6.4% higher than the LRC method, and the correlation between the enzymatic and LRC methods was greater than 0.93. The differences between the enzymatic and LRC methods were the same in samples from fasting and non-fasting subjects.

  17. Cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in view of bile acid pathway of resveratrol and resveratrol-glucuronides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol (Res) was previously reported to be capable of lowering plasma TC and LDL-C. The mechanism behind Res is not clearly understood, although it is presumed to have an effect on bile acid metabolism in the liver: a significant way in eliminating cholesterol from the body. As one of the major...

  18. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  19. Lack of response to chenodeoxycholic acid in obese and non-obese patients. Role of cholesterol synthesis and possible response to ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Maton, P N; Murphy, G M; Dowling, R H

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes seven patients with radiolucent gallstones in functioning gallbladders who did not respond to chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Despite large doses (greater than or equal to 19 mg CDCA/kg/day), CDCA-rich bile (CDCA conjugates 70-97% of total biliary bile acids) and greater than or equal to one year's treatment, their fasting duodenal bile remained supersaturated with cholesterol and their gallstones did not dissolve. Five patients came to cholecystectomy, gallstone analysis and liver biopsy for measurement of hepatic cholesterogenesis (HMGCoAR activity). In three who stopped CDCA before surgery, the mean HMGCoAR (pmol/mg microsomal protein/min) of 50.2 was higher than in our untreated gallstone controls (32.2 +/- SEM 2.0; P less than 0.05). Two patients who took CDCA until surgery had a mean HMGCoAR of 33.5--more than twice that in CDCA-treated gallstone controls. These findings suggest that non-response to CDCA may be related to high or unsuppressed hepatic cholesterogenesis. In one patient who did not respond to CDCA, treatment with 19 mg ursodeoxycholic acid/kg/day did desaturate his bile. PMID:7461467

  20. Whole body cholesterol, fat, and fatty acid concentrations of mice (Mus domesticus) used as a food source.

    PubMed

    Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Lintzenich, B A

    1999-06-01

    The concentrations of dry matter, cholesterol, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and 29 fatty acids were measured in four size categories of whole mice (Mus domesticus) that are commonly fed to zoo animals. Dry matter increased with age/size of mice, whereas cholesterol decreased with age/size. Significant differences in fatty acid content were found among mice categories with capric, lauric, and myristic acids. Mice categories had similar levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, heptadecenoic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, gamma linolenic, alpha linolenic, eicosenoic, eicosadienoic, arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, and lignoceric acids. Analyzed lipid content of mice exceeded domestic carnivorous animal requirements for linoleic and arachidonic acids. The fatty acid levels in mice were high, falling between published values in beef and fish. Generally, mice contained higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including the omega-3 fatty acids, and lower levels of saturated fatty acids than beef. Although fatty acid levels met or exceeded some dietary requirements for carnivores and omnivores, a possibility of excessive levels exists that could lead to eye and tissue abnormalities. Furthermore, as the intake of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids increases, the dietary requirement for vitamin E increases. Thus, it is important that lipid profiles of feeder mice be known and considered when examining captive animal diets.

  1. Simplified quantitative determination of total fecal bile acids.

    PubMed

    de Wael, J; Raaymakers, C E; Endeman, H J

    1977-09-01

    To determine total fecal bile acids, these are extracted with diethyl ether after boiling with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanediol. After evaporating the ether and dissolving the residue in methanol, the bile acids are directly determined with 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Values for 9 normals are given.

  2. Salvianolic acid B accelerated ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux by targeting PPAR-γ and LXRα

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Jianmei; Li, Bo; Jing, Qingping; Guan, Qingbo

    2015-07-03

    Objectives: Cholesterol efflux has been thought to be the main and basic mechanism by which free cholesterol is transferred from extra hepatic cells to the liver or intestine for excretion. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of Sal B on the cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. Methods: After PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells were exposed to 50 mg/L of oxLDL and [{sup 3}H] cholesterol (1.0 μCi/mL) for another 24 h, the effect of Sal B on cholesterol efflux was evaluated in the presence of apoA-1, HDL{sub 2} or HDL{sub 3}. The expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), and liver X receptor-alpha (LXRα) was detected both at protein and mRNA levels in THP-1 cells after the stimulation of Sal B. Meanwhile, specific inhibition of PPAR-γ and LXRα were performed to investigate the mechanism. Results: The results showed that Sal B significantly accelerated apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, Sal B treatment also enhanced the expression of ABCA1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Then the data demonstrated that Sal B increased the expression of PPAR-γ and LXRα. And the application of specific agonists and inhibitors of further confirmed that Sal exert the function through PPAR-γ and LXRα. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that Sal B promotes cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages through ABCA1/PPAR-γ/LXRα pathway. - Highlights: • Sal B promotes the expression of ABCA1. • Sal B promotes cholesterol efflux in macrophages. • Sal B promotes the expression of ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux through PPAR-γ/LXRα signaling pathway.

  3. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum.

    PubMed

    Lata, Kusum; Dhull, Vikas; Hooda, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM-5.83 mM) with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM). The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  4. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Kusum; Dhull, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM) with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM). The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components. PMID:26885393

  5. Food products containing free tall oil-based phytosterols and oat beta-glucan lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Shinnick, Fred; Seeley, Marlyn A; Veith, Patricia E; Quinn, Laura C; Hallissey, Pamela J; Temer, Arlene; Davidson, Michael H

    2003-03-01

    This randomized, double-blind, controlled trial evaluated the influence of low fat, low saturated fat food products that contained free tall oil-based phytosterols (TOP) and oat beta-glucan (from whole oats and bran concentrate) on serum lipid concentrations in adults with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia. After a 5-wk National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet lead-in period, 112 subjects incorporated one of two treatments into their diets for 6 wk: food products (cereal, snack bar and beverage) that provided 1.8 g TOP and 2.8 g beta-glucan/d and contained < or =3.0 g total fat and < or =1.0 g saturated fat (TOP/beta-glucan treatment) or similar control foods. The serum LDL cholesterol response from baseline to the end of study was significantly larger in the TOP/beta-glucan treated group than in the control group, in which there was no change (-3.7 vs. 0.4%; P = 0.013). Likewise, total cholesterol decreased in the TOP/beta-glucan treatment group and did not change significantly in the controls (-2.3 vs. 0.8%; P = 0.043). Serum HDL cholesterol and triglyceride responses did not differ between the groups. The results of this trial suggest that consumption of a group of low fat, TOP and beta-glucan- containing foods is a useful adjunct in the dietary management of hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Total Synthesis of (±)- and (−)-Actinophyllic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Connor L.; Overman, Larry E.; Rohde, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of efficient sequences for the total syntheses of (±)-actinophyllic acid (rac-1) and (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) are described. The central step in these syntheses is the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction, which constructs the previously unknown hexacyclic ring system of actinophyllic acid in one step from much simpler tetracyclic precursors. The tetracyclic hexahydro-1,5-methano-1H-azocino[4,3-b]indole ketone rac-37 is assembled from o-nitrophenylacetic acid in four steps, with oxidative cyclization of a dienolate derivative of tricyclic precursor rac-35 being the central step. In the first-generation synthesis, this intermediate is transformed in two steps to homoallyl amine rac-43, whose formaldiminium derivative undergoes efficient aza-Cope/Mannich reaction to give pentacyclic ketone rac-44. In four additional steps, this intermediate is advanced to (±)-actinophyllic acid. The synthesis is streamlined by elaborating ketone rac-37 to β-hydroxyester intermediate rac-53, which is directly transformed to (±)-actinophyllic acid upon exposure to HCl and paraformaldehyde. This concise second-generation total synthesis of (±)-actinophyllic acid is realized in 22% overall yield from commercially available di-tert-butylmalonate and o-nitrophenylacetic acid by a sequence that proceeds by way of only six isolated intermediates. The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) is accomplished by this direct sequence from tricyclic keto malonate (S)-35. Catalytic enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketone 66 is the key step in the preparation of intermediate (S)-35 from the commercially available Boc-amino acid 65. Discussed also is the possibility that the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction might be involved in the biosynthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid. PMID:20218696

  7. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    To assess accuracy of blood cholesterol measurements in the office, fingerprick blood cholesterol assays by a dry reagent chemistry analyzer were compared in 151 patients with simultaneous venipuncture cholesterol assays by standard laboratory methods. Compared with the laboratory assay, seven of eight analyzers had total absolute biases less than 5%. Variability in results was comparable to that of community laboratories. PMID:21229050

  8. What's Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? Print A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  9. What's Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? A A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  10. Quantitative analysis of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in thirty Hypericum taxa.

    PubMed

    Pilepić, Kroata Hazler; Males, Zeljan; Crkvencić, Maja

    2013-03-01

    The content of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in the aerial parts of thirty Hypericum taxa collected over two consecutive seasons was investigated by spectrophotometric methods. All taxa examined contained flavonoids and phenolic acids in different quantities, although the differences between species and year's harvest were not found to be significant. The quantity of total flavonoids ranged from 0.1 to 1.6%. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the samples of H. japonicum (1.6%) and H. perforatum (1.5%), while the samples of H. androsaemum and H. balearicum comprised the lowest flavonoid amount (0.13%). The content of total phenolic acids in the investigated samples was found to be between 1.1-10.4%. The samples of H. perforatum were found to contain the highest quantity of phenolic acids (10.4% and 10.2%), whereas the sample ofH. linarifolium showed the lowest amount of phenolic acids (1.1%).

  11. Loss of von Hippel-Lindau Protein (VHL) Increases Systemic Cholesterol Levels through Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α and Regulation of Bile Acid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Taylor, Matthew; Qu, Aijuan; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Suresh, Madathilparambil V.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol synthesis is a highly oxygen-dependent process. Paradoxically, hypoxia is correlated with an increase in cellular and systemic cholesterol levels and risk of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism for the increase in cholesterol during hypoxia is unclear. Hypoxia signaling is mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α. The present study demonstrates that activation of HIF signaling in the liver increases hepatic and systemic cholesterol levels due to a decrease in the expression of cholesterol hydroxylase CYP7A1 and other enzymes involved in bile acid synthesis. Specifically, activation of hepatic HIF-2α (but not HIF-1α) led to hypercholesterolemia. HIF-2α repressed the circadian expression of Rev-erbα, resulting in increased expression of E4BP4, a negative regulator of Cyp7a1. To understand if HIF-mediated decrease in bile acid synthesis is a physiologically relevant pathway by which hypoxia maintains or increases systemic cholesterol levels, two hypoxic mouse models were assessed, an acute lung injury model and mice exposed to 10% O2 for 3 weeks. In both models, cholesterol levels increased with a concomitant decrease in expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis. The present study demonstrates that hypoxic activation of hepatic HIF-2α leads to an adaptive increase in cholesterol levels through inhibition of bile acid synthesis. PMID:24421394

  12. Unexpected inhibition of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase by cholesterol in New Zealand white and Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, G; Salen, G; Shefer, S; Ness, G C; Nguyen, L B; Parker, T S; Chen, T S; Zhao, Z; Donnelly, T M; Tint, G S

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cholesterol feeding on plasma cholesterol concentrations, hepatic activities and mRNA levels of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and hepatic LDL receptor function and mRNA levels in 23 New Zealand White (NZW) and 17 Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were 9.9 times greater in WHHL than NZW rabbits and rose significantly in both groups when cholesterol was fed. Baseline liver cholesterol levels were 50% higher but rose only 26% in WHHL as compared with 3.6-fold increase with the cholesterol diet in NZW rabbits. In both rabbit groups, hepatic total HMG-CoA reductase activity was similar and declined > 60% without changing enzyme mRNA levels after cholesterol was fed. In NZW rabbits, cholesterol feeding inhibited LDL receptor function but not mRNA levels. As expected, receptor-mediated LDL binding was reduced in WHHL rabbits. Hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA levels were 2.8 and 10.4 times greater in NZW than WHHL rabbits. Unexpectedly, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was reduced 53% and mRNA levels were reduced 79% in NZW rabbits with 2% cholesterol feeding. These results demonstrate that WHHL as compared with NZW rabbits have markedly elevated plasma and higher liver cholesterol concentrations, less hepatic LDL receptor function, and very low hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA levels. Feeding cholesterol to NZW rabbits increased plasma and hepatic concentrations greatly, inhibited LDL receptor-mediated binding, and unexpectedly suppressed cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA to minimum levels similar to WHHL rabbits. Dietary cholesterol accumulates in the plasma of NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits are hypercholesterolemic because reduced LDL receptor function is combined with decreased catabolism of cholesterol to bile acids. Images PMID:7706454

  13. Cholesterol and triglyceride reduction in rats fed Matthiola incana seed oil rich in (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Z; Schafferman, D; Shamir, I; Madar, Z

    1999-02-01

    Seeds of Matthiola incana contain oil rich (55-65%) in (n-3) linolenic acid. Selected lines were developed and evaluated for their agronomic and chemical parameters. Extracted oil was fed for 6 weeks to rats, which were compared with rats fed a diet containing coconut oil or sunflower oil. Cholesterol levels were significantly lowest in rats fed diets rich in M. incana oil (27% reduction), and triglycerides were significantly lower in rats receiving either M. incana or sunflower oil (36% reduction). The contents of arachidonic acid and other (n-6) fatty acids were significantly the lowest in the liver and plasma of rats that had received M. incana oil. The levels of (n-3) fatty acids were significantly greater in both the liver and plasma of rats fed M. incana oil. The ratio of (n-3)/(n-6) long-chain fatty acids in the plasma was 7 times higher in rats fed with M. incana oil than in those fed with sunflower oil and 6 times higher than in those fed coconut oil. The results demonstrate for the first time a beneficial effect of dietary M. incana oil in reducing cholesterol levels and increasing (n-3) fatty acid levels in the plasma. This new, terrestrial plant source of (n-3) fatty acids could replace marine oils and thereby contribute beneficially to the human diet.

  14. Statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, anion-exchange resins, omega-3 fatty acids: which drugs for which patients?

    PubMed

    Drexel, Heinz

    2009-12-01

    Classes of lipid lowering drugs differ strongly with respect to the types of lipids or lipoproteins they predominantly affect. Statins inhibit the de-novo synthesis of cholesterol. Consequently, the liver produces less VLDL, and the serum concentration primarily of LDL cholesterol (but, to a lesser extent, also of triglycerides) is lowered. Further, statins somewhat increase HDL cholesterol. There is abundant evidence that statins lower the rate of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular risk reduction is the better, the lower the LDL cholesterol values achieved with statin therapy are. Some evidence is available that anion exchange resins which also decrease LDL cholesterol decrease vascular risk, too. This is not the case for the ezetimibe, which strongly lowers LDL cholesterol: its potential to decrease vascular risk remains to be proven. In contrast evidence for cardiovascular risk reduction through the mainly triglyceride lowering fibrates as well as for niacin is available. Niacin is the most potent HDL increasing drug currently available and besides increasing HDL cholesterol efficaciously lowers triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. Large ongoing trials address the decisive question whether treatment with fibrates and niacin provides additional cardiovascular risk reduction when given in addition to statin treatment.

  15. A high-performance direct transmethylation method for total fatty acids assessment in biological and foodstuff samples.

    PubMed

    Castro-Gómez, Pilar; Fontecha, Javier; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis M

    2014-10-01

    Isolation is the main bottleneck in the analysis of fatty acids in biological samples and foods. In the last few decades some methods described direct derivatization procedures bypassing these steps. They involve the utilization of methanolic HCL or BF3 as catalysts, but several evidences from previous works suggest these reagents are unstable, lead to the formation of artifacts and alter the distribution of specific compounds as hydroxy fatty acids or CLA. However, the main issue is that they are excellent esterification reagents but poor in transterification, being not suitable for the analysis of all lipid classes and leading to erroneous composition quantitations. The present research work is a comprehensive comparison of six general methylation protocols using base, acid or base/acid catalysts plus a proposed method in the analysis of total fatty acids in lipid standards mixtures, foodstuff and biological samples. The addition of aprotic solvents to the reaction mixture to avoid alterations was also tested. Results confirmed that procedures solely involving acid catalyst resulted in incomplete derivatizations and alteration of the fatty acid profile, partially corrected by addition of the aprotic solvent. The proposed method combining sodium methoxyde and sulfuric acid showed absence of alteration of the FAME profile and the best values for response factors (short chain fatty acids to PUFA), accuracy in the determination of total cholesterol and derivatization performance, thus showing a high reliability in the determination of the total fatty acid composition in biological samples and foods.

  16. Intramembrane aspartic acid in SCAP protein governs cholesterol-induced conformational change

    PubMed Central

    Feramisco, Jamison D.; Radhakrishnan, Arun; Ikeda, Yukio; Reitz, Julian; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    The polytopic membrane protein SCAP transports sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi, thereby activating cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol accumulation in the ER membranes changes SCAP to an alternate conformation in which it binds ER retention proteins called Insigs, thereby terminating cholesterol synthesis. Here, we show that the conserved Asp-428 in the sixth transmembrane helix of SCAP is essential for SCAP's dissociation from Insigs. In transfected hamster cells, mutant SCAP in which Asp-428 is replaced by alanine (D428A) remained in an Insig-binding conformation when cells were depleted of sterols. As a result, mutant SCAP failed to dissociate from Insigs, and it failed to carry SREBPs to the Golgi. These data identify an important functional residue in SCAP, and they provide genetic evidence that the conformation of SCAP dictates the rate of cholesterol synthesis in animal cells. PMID:15728349

  17. Polarizable multipolar electrostatics for cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Timothy L.; Popelier, Paul L. A.

    2016-08-01

    FFLUX is a novel force field under development for biomolecular modelling, and is based on topological atoms and the machine learning method kriging. Successful kriging models have been obtained for realistic electrostatics of amino acids, small peptides, and some carbohydrates but here, for the first time, we construct kriging models for a sizeable ligand of great importance, which is cholesterol. Cholesterol's mean total (internal) electrostatic energy prediction error amounts to 3.9 kJ mol-1, which pleasingly falls below the threshold of 1 kcal mol-1 often cited for accurate biomolecular modelling. We present a detailed analysis of the error distributions.

  18. Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R.; Frost, C.; Collins, R.; Appleby, P.; Peto, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative importance of dietary fatty acids and dietary cholesterol to blood concentrations of total, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies of solid food diets in healthy volunteers. SUBJECTS: 395 dietary experiments (median duration 1 month) among 129 groups of individuals. RESULTS: Isocaloric replacement of saturated fats by complex carbohydrates for 10% of dietary calories resulted in blood total cholesterol falling by 0.52 (SE 0.03) mmol/l and low density lipoprotein cholesterol falling by 0.36 (0.05) mmol/l. Isocaloric replacement of complex carbohydrates by polyunsaturated fats for 5% of dietary calories resulted in total cholesterol falling by a further 0.13 (0.02) mmol/l and low density lipoprotein cholesterol falling by 0.11 (0.02) mmol/l. Similar replacement of carbohydrates by monounsaturated fats produced no significant effect on total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Avoiding 200 mg/day dietary cholesterol further decreased blood total cholesterol by 0.13 (0.02) mmol/l and low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.10 (0.02) mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: In typical British diets replacing 60% of saturated fats by other fats and avoiding 60% of dietary cholesterol would reduce blood total cholesterol by about 0.8 mmol/l (that is, by 10-15%), with four fifths of this reduction being in low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:9006469

  19. Efficient nuclear drug translocation and improved drug efficacy mediated by acidity-responsive boronate-linked dextran/cholesterol nanoassembly.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Yi; Lei, Qi; Yang, Bin; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Qiu, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Xuli; Zeng, Xuan; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-06-01

    The present study reported a lysosome-acidity-targeting bio-responsive nanovehicle self-assembled from dextran (Dex) and phenylboronic acid modified cholesterol (Chol-PBA), aiming at the nucleus-tropic drug delivery. The prominent advantage of this assembled nanoconstruction arose from its susceptibility to acidity-labile dissociation concurrently accompanied with the fast liberation of encapsulated drugs, leading to efficient nuclear drug translocation and consequently favorable drug efficacy. By elaborately exploiting NH4Cl pretreatment to interfere with the cellular endosomal acidification progression, this study clearly evidenced at a cellular level the strong lysosomal-acidity dependency of nuclear drug uptake efficiency, which was shown to be the main factor influencing the drug efficacy. The boronate-linked nanoassembly displayed nearly no cytotoxicity and can remain structural stability under the simulated physiological conditions including 10% serum and the normal blood sugar concentration. The cellular exposure to cholesterol was found to bate the cellular uptake of nanoassembly in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a cholesterol-associated mechanism of the intracellular internalization. The in vivo antitumor assessment in xenograft mouse models revealed the significant superiority of DOX-loaded Dex/Chol-PBA nanoassembly over the controls including free DOX and the DOX-loaded non-sensitive Dex-Chol, as reflected by the more effective tumor-growth inhibition and the better systematic safety. In terms of the convenient preparation, sensitive response to lysosomal acidity and efficient nuclear drug translocation, Dex/Chol-PBA nanoassembly derived from natural materials shows promising potentials as the nanovehicle for nucleus-tropic drug delivery especially for antitumor agents. More attractively, this study offers a deeper insight into the mechanism concerning the contribution of acidity-responsive delivery to the enhanced chemotherapy performance.

  20. Fatty acid proportions in cholesterol esters and risk of premature death from cancer in middle aged French men.

    PubMed Central

    Zureik, M.; Ducimetière, P.; Warnet, J. M.; Orssaud, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the association of proportions of fatty acids in cholesterol esters with the risk of premature death from cancer in middle aged men. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--Paris, France. SUBJECTS--3277 working men aged 36-52 in 1981-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cancer mortality during an average of 9.3 years of follow up. RESULTS--59 men died of cancer during follow up. The age adjusted relative risks for men in the highest thirds of the distribution of the proportions of linoleic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid in cholesterol esters as compared with those in the corresponding lowest thirds were 0.16 (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.51), 3.39 (1.63 to 7.05), and 4.22 (1.95 to 9.12), respectively. Adjustment for and stratification by smoking, alcohol consumption, serum cholesterol concentration, and body mass index did not alter the results. At the time of examination subjects with cancer had a lower intake of polyunsaturated fats, assessed by 24 hour recall, than those without cancer (13.2 v 17.4 g/day, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS--Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids of cholesterol esters are strong biological markers that predict premature death from cancer in French men. Consistently, intake of polyunsaturated fats did not seem to increase the risk of death from cancer. The association of biological markers of dietary fat intake with incidence of and mortality from cancer should be investigated prospectively in other populations. PMID:7496232

  1. Effect of dietary fish oil on fatty acid deposition and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver and plasma lipid profile: comparison of two animal models.

    PubMed

    Komprda, T; Rozíková, V; Zamazalová, N; Škultéty, O; Vícenová, M; Trčková, M; Faldyna, M

    2016-10-16

    The objective of the present study was to compare hepatic fatty acid deposition, plasma lipid level and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver of rats (Wistar Albino; n = 32) and pigs (Large White × Landrace; n = 32) randomly assigned into two groups of 16 animals each and fed 10 weeks the diet with either 2.5% of fish oil (F; source of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, EPA+DHA) or 2.5% of palm oil (P; high content of saturated fatty acids; control). F-rats deposited in the liver three times less EPA, but 1.3 times more DHA than F-pigs (p < 0.05). Dietary fish oil relative to palm oil increased PPARα and SREBP-2 gene expression much strongly (p < 0.01) in the pig liver in comparison with the rat liver, but expression of Insig-1 and Hmgcr genes in the liver of the F-pigs relative to the expression of these genes in the liver of the P-pigs was substantially lower (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) as compared to rats. When plasma lipid concentration in the F-animals was expressed as a ratio of the plasma concentration in the P-counterparts, dietary fish oil decreased HDL cholesterol less (p < 0.01), but LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols more (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 respectively) in rats than in pigs: more favourable effect of fish oil on rat plasma lipids in comparison with pigs can therefore be concluded. Concentration of total cholesterol and both its fractions in the rat plasma was negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with hepatic DHA, but also with unsaturated myristic and palmitic acid respectively. It has been concluded that regarding the similarity of the plasma lipid levels to humans, porcine model can be considered superior; however, using this model, dietary fish oil at the tested amount (2.5%) was not able to improve plasma lipid markers in comparison with saturated palm oil.

  2. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS) has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET) as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10) or HFD (n = 37). After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF), LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group). After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019). In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019), serum insulin (P = 0.022) and TNF-α (P = 0.044). Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021) levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042). Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration. PMID:21899736

  3. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet.

  4. ["Butter, my love" joy, sorrow and rehabilitation: not simply cholesterol and saturated fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Caramia, G

    2014-01-01

    The author refers to his "love" for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD) epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of "cherry picking", i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: "If you were to give each the right amount of

  5. Increased cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase expression and size of the bile acid pool in the lactating rat

    PubMed Central

    Wooton-Kee, Clavia Ruth; Cohen, David E.; Vore, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Maximal bile acid secretory rates and expression of bile acid transporters in liver and ileum are increased in lactation, possibly to facilitate increased enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We determined changes in the size and composition of the bile acid pool and key enzymes of the bile acid synthetic pathway [cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), sterol 27-hydroxylase (Cyp27a1), and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (Cyp8b1)] in lactating rats relative to female virgin controls. The bile acid pool increased 1.9 to 2.5-fold [postpartum (PP) days 10, 14, and 19–23], compared with controls. A 1.5-fold increase in cholic acids and a 14 to 20% decrease in muricholic acids in lactation significantly increased the hydrophobicity index. In contrast, the hepatic concentration of bile acids and small heterodimer partner mRNA were unchanged in lactation. A 2.8-fold increase in Cyp7a1 mRNA expression at 16 h (10 h of light) demonstrated a shift in the diurnal rhythm at day 10 PP; Cyp7a1 protein expression and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity were significantly increased at this time and remained elevated at day 14 PP but decreased to control levels by day 21 PP. There was an overall decrease in Cyp27a1 mRNA expression and a 20% decrease in Cyp27a1 protein expression, but there was no change in Cyp8b1 mRNA or protein expression at day 10 PP. The increase in Cyp7a1 expression PP provides a mechanism for the increase in the bile acid pool. PMID:18292185

  6. A diet-sensitive BAF60a-mediated pathway links hepatic bile acid metabolism to cholesterol absorption and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhuo-Xian; Wang, Lin; Chang, Lin; Sun, Jingxia; Bao, Jiangyin; Li, Yaqiang; Chen, Y. Eugene; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Baf60a stimulates expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, modification, and transport through a CAR/Baf60a feedforward regulatory loop. Baf60a is required for the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to facilitate an activating epigenetic switch on target genes. These studies elucidate a regulatory pathway that mediates the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of western diet consumption. PMID:26586440

  7. Cytotoxic bile acids, but not cytoprotective species, inhibit the ordering effect of cholesterol in model membranes at physiologically active concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mello-Vieira, João; Sousa, Tânia; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Aleksander; Lucas, Susana D; Moreira, Rui; Castro, Rui E; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prieto, Manuel; Fernandes, Fábio

    2013-09-01

    Submillimolar concentrations of cytotoxic bile acids (BAs) induce cell death via apoptosis. On the other hand, several cytoprotective BAs were shown to prevent apoptosis in the same concentration range. Still, the mechanisms by which BAs trigger these opposite signaling effects remain unclear. This study was aimed to determine if cytotoxic and cytoprotective BAs, at physiologically active concentrations, are able to modulate the biophysical properties of lipid membranes, potentially translating into changes in the apoptotic threshold of cells. Binding of BAs to membranes was assessed through the variation of fluorescence parameters of suitable derivatized BAs. These derivatives partitioned with higher affinity to liquid disordered than to the cholesterol-enriched liquid ordered domains. Unlabeled BAs were also shown to have a superficial location upon interaction with the lipid membrane. Additionally, the interaction of cytotoxic BAs with membranes resulted in membrane expansion, as concluded from FRET data. Moreover, it was shown that cytotoxic BAs were able to significantly disrupt the ordering of the membrane by cholesterol at physiologically active concentrations of the BA, an effect not associated with cholesterol removal. On the other hand, cytoprotective bile acids had no effect on membrane properties. It was concluded that, given the observed effects on membrane rigidity, the apoptotic activity of cytotoxic BAs could be potentially associated with changes in plasma membrane organization (e.g. modulation of lipid domains) or with an increase in mitochondrial membrane affinity for apoptotic proteins.

  8. Exercise raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men after consumption of ground beef with a high but not low monounsaturated fatty acid-saturated fatty acid ratio.

    PubMed

    Crouse, Stephen F; Green, John S; Meade, Thomas H; Smith, Dana R; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-09-01

    Exercise and diets with higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA):saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratios are independently linked to improved blood lipid profiles, yet interactive effects in men have not been studied. We hypothesized that dietary ground beef with a high MUFA:SFA ratio (HR = 1.1) would augment the beneficial changes in the lipid profile induced by exercise compared to dietary ground beef with a lower MUFA:SFA ratio (LR = 0.71). Untrained men (n = 13, age = 35 ± 12 y, weight = 91.4 ± 14.2 kg, body mass index = 27.8 ± 3.3kg/m(2)) consumed 5 HR or LR 114 g ground beef patties weekly for 5 weeks (random order) interspersed with a 4-week self-selected (SS) washout diet. One session of exercise (70% VO2max, 1675 kJ) was completed at the end of HR and LR diets, and again after a 5-week SS diet. Diets and physical activity were otherwise not controlled. Fasting blood samples for lipid and lipoprotein analyses were obtained 30 min before and 24 h after exercise. Subjects reported no other changes in diets or physical activity patterns, and body weight and body mass index did not change over the study duration. Diet (3) × Exercise Time (2) repeated measures analysis of variance (α = .05) and follow-up analyses revealed that blood concentrations (mmol/L ± SD) of total cholesterol (5.07 ± 1.16 to 5.73 ± 1.36), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.19 ± 0.20 to 1.36 ± 0.29), HDL2-C (0.24 ± 0.08 to 0.28 ± 0.11), HDL3-C (0.94 ± 0.14 to 1.08 ± 0.20), and non-HDL-C (3.88 ± 1.24 to 4.37 ± 1.38) were significantly elevated with exercise after the HR beef diet, but not after LR and SS diets. Thus, in healthy, untrained men the dietary beef MUFA:SFA ratio affects the blood lipid response to a single session of aerobic exercise.

  9. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products.

  10. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; Arenas de Moreno, Lilia; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (P<0.05). No significant variation was detected in cholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (P<0.05), however, interspecific similarities were found in fatty acid ratios. For health-related indices, only atherogenic index (AI) showed lower values in favor of Buffalo meat (P<0.05) at both harvesting ages. Although, meat derived from both bovid groups was leaner and showed lower cholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint.

  11. Influence of dietary fat source and copper supplementation on broiler performance, fatty acid profile of meat and depot fat, and on cholesterol content in meat.

    PubMed

    Skrivan, M; Skrivanová, V; Marounek, M; Tůmová, E; Wolf, J

    2000-12-01

    1. Three hundred and twenty d-old chickens were fed on a wheat/maize-soyabean meal diet supplemented with (i) 50 g/kg lard, (ii) 25 g/kg lard and 25 g/kg rapeseed oil, (iii) 50 g/kg rapeseed oil, and (iv) 50 g/kg rapeseed oil and 200 mg copper per kg as copper sulphate pentahydrate. 2. Final weights at 39 d of age in chickens receiving rapeseed oil were lower by 9% than in those fed on the diet containing only lard (P<0.05). The fatty acids profiles of lipids extracted from the tissues of 10 chickens per group reflected those of the diets. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of breast muscles and abdominal fat (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids) was increased and the ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids was decreased by the substitution of lard by rapeseed oil (P<0.001). These changes were more pronounced for the adipose tissue than for breast muscles. 4. Copper sulphate supplementation increased the final body weight of chickens by 4.3% (P<0.05), reduced the saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportion (P<0.05) in abdominal fat and increased the PUFA:SFA ratio (P<0.05). The magnitude of improvement, however, was small. 5. The substitution of rapeseed oil for lard decreased the concentration of cholesterol in breast muscles by 13%. Copper supplementation further reduced the cholesterol content by 25%. Both effects were significant (P<0.001).

  12. Pretreatment direct bilirubin and total cholesterol are significant predictors of overall survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Jianlin; Lou, Yuqing; Hu, Song; Yu, Keke; Li, Rong; Zhang, Xueyan; Jin, Bo; Han, Baohui

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the prediction of pretreatment circulating bilirubin and cholesterol for overall survival in 459 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Circulating total bilirubin, direct bilirubin (DB), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured at baseline. The mean age (standard deviation) of all study patients was 58.7 (10.5) years, and 42.9% of them was males. Ever smokers accounted for 27.0% and lung adenocarcinoma for 90.4%. The median follow-up time and survival time were 29.5 and 34.9 months, respectively. Patients with higher DB had a 1.68-fold increased risk of death compared with patients with lower DB (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.30, p = 0.001), while patients with higher TC were at a 63% reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower TC (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.20-0.67, p = 0.001). As for HDL-C, patients with higher levels had the risk of death reduced by 46% (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-1.00, p = 0.049) compared with patients with lower levels. After the Bonferroni correction, only DB and TC were significantly associated with NSCLC survival. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that pretreatment DB was identified as a significant risk factor, yet TC as a protective factor, for overall survival in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations.

  13. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  14. About Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  15. Effects of a pharmacological dose of cholecystokinin on bile acid kinetics and biliary cholesterol saturation in man.

    PubMed Central

    Jazrawi, R P; Northfield, T C

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the mechanisms influencing bile acid pool size and cholesterol saturation index of fasting gall bladder bile, eight obese volunteers were placed on a low calorie diet for six weeks, and given intramuscular injections of a pharmacological dose of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP, 5 micrograms) at mealtimes for half that period (alternating order). During CCK-OP administration, postprandial emptying of the gall bladder (mean +/- SEM) increased from 58 +/- 11% to 82 +/- 5% (p less than 0.005), and small intestinal transit time decreased from 205 +/- 27 to 178 +/- 26 minutes (NS). Bile acid pool size decreased from 4.6 +/- 0.3 to 3.1 +/- 0.3 mmol (p less than 0.001), while fractional turnover rate for chenodeoxycholic acid increased from 0.23 +/- 0.02 to 0.36 +/- 0.03 per day (p less than 0.005), suggesting an increase in recycling frequency of the pool. Synthesis rate was unchanged (0.43 +/- 0.08 vs 0.44 +/- 0.07 mmol/day), suggesting a new steady state. The cholesterol saturation index of fasting gall bladder bile increased in all subjects from 1.3 +/- 0.1 to 1.6 +/- 0.1 (p less than 0.005). Fasting gall bladder volume was reduced from 29 +/- 4 to 20 +/- 7 ml (p less than 0.01). Fractional turnover rate on the two regimens correlated with gall bladder emptying (n = 16, r = 0.61, p less than 0.01), but not with small intestinal transit time (r = 0.07, NS). Bile acid pool size correlated with fractional turnover rate (r = -0.73, p less than 0.005) and with cholesterol saturation index (r = -0.56, p less than 0.025). These findings suggest that CCK influences bile acid kinetics and cholesterol saturation index of fasting gall bladder in man; and that these effects of CCK are mainly mediated via alterations in gall bladder emptying rather than through alterations in small intestinal transit rate. PMID:3957106

  16. Self-Reported Snoring Is Associated with Dyslipidemia, High Total Cholesterol, and High Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Rural Area of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naijin; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Jia, Pengyu; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-17

    Studies to explore the relationship between self-reported snoring and dyslipidemia, especially high total cholesterol (TC) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), in the general population are still lacking. Our study was designed to examine whether self-reported snoring is significantly associated with dyslipidemia and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on dyslipidemia. There were 10,139 participants in our study. After adjustment for all confounding factors, self-reported snoring (OR = 1.207; p = 0.003), moderate (OR = 1.229; p = 0.015), strong (OR = 1.222; p = 0.033), and very strong (OR = 1.467; p = 0.012) snoring intensity, but not low (OR = 1.110; p = 0.224) snoring intensity, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia among adults with BMI (body mass index) ≥ 25 kg/m². In addition, self-reported snoring was significantly associated with high TC (OR = 1.167; p = 0.048) and high LDL-C (OR = 1.228; p = 0.044), rather than low HDL-C (OR = 1.171; p = 0.057) and high triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.110; p = 0.141). In conclusion, adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and who experience snoring, especially moderate, strong, and very strong intensity levels of snoring, should be on the alert regarding the possibility of dyslipidemia, especially high LDL-C and high TC.

  17. Self-Reported Snoring Is Associated with Dyslipidemia, High Total Cholesterol, and High Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naijin; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Jia, Pengyu; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-01

    Studies to explore the relationship between self-reported snoring and dyslipidemia, especially high total cholesterol (TC) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), in the general population are still lacking. Our study was designed to examine whether self-reported snoring is significantly associated with dyslipidemia and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on dyslipidemia. There were 10,139 participants in our study. After adjustment for all confounding factors, self-reported snoring (OR = 1.207; p = 0.003), moderate (OR = 1.229; p = 0.015), strong (OR = 1.222; p = 0.033), and very strong (OR = 1.467; p = 0.012) snoring intensity, but not low (OR = 1.110; p = 0.224) snoring intensity, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia among adults with BMI (body mass index) ≥ 25 kg/m2. In addition, self-reported snoring was significantly associated with high TC (OR = 1.167; p = 0.048) and high LDL-C (OR = 1.228; p = 0.044), rather than low HDL-C (OR = 1.171; p = 0.057) and high triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.110; p = 0.141). In conclusion, adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and who experience snoring, especially moderate, strong, and very strong intensity levels of snoring, should be on the alert regarding the possibility of dyslipidemia, especially high LDL-C and high TC. PMID:28106727

  18. Screening of Cholesterol-lowering Bifidobacterium from Guizhou Xiang Pigs, and Evaluation of Its Tolerance to Oxygen, Acid, and Bile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rujiao; He, Laping; Zhang, Ling; Li, Cuiqin; Zhu, Qiujin

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases seriously harm human health, and Bifidobacterium is the most beneficial probiotic in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. This work aimed to screen cholesterol-lowering Bifidobacterium from Guizhou Xiang Pig and evaluate its tolerance to oxygen, acid, and bile. Twenty-seven aerotolerant strains with similar colony to Bifidobacterium were isolated through incubation at 37℃ in 20% (v/v) CO2-80% (v/v) atmospheric air by using Mupirocin lithium modified MRS agar medium, modified PTYG with added CaCO3, and modified PTYG supplemented with X-gal. Ten strains with cholesterol-lowering rates above 20% (w/w) were used for further screening. The selected strains’ tolerance to acid and bile was then determined. A combination of colony and cell morphology, physiological, and biochemical experiments, as well as 16S rRNA gene-sequence analysis, was performed. Results suggested that BZ25 with excellent characteristics of high cholesterol-removal rate of 36.32% (w/w), as well as tolerance to acid and bile, was identified as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. To further evaluate Bifidobacterium BZ25’s growth characteristic and tolerance to oxygen, culture experiments were performed in liquid medium and an agar plate. Findings suggested that BZ25 grew well both in environmental 20% (v/v) CO2-80% (v/v) atmospheric air and in 100% atmospheric air because BZ25 reached an absorbance of 1.185 at 600 nm in 100% atmospheric air. Moreover, BZ25 was aerotolerant and can grow in an agar medium under the environmental condition of 100% atmospheric air. This study can lay a preliminary foundation for the potential industrial applications of BZ25. PMID:27499662

  19. Effects of cigarette smoke on cell viability, linoleic acid metabolism and cholesterol synthesis, in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Silvia; Risé, Patrizia; Ceruti, Stefania; Galli, Claudio

    2007-07-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) contains thousands of substances, mainly free radicals that have as a target the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Long chain PUFA are produced through elongation and desaturation reactions from their precursors; the desaturation reactions are catalyzed by different enzymes: the conversion of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid, LA) to 18:3n-6 by Delta6 desaturase, while that of 20:3n-6 to 20:4n-6 by Delta5 desaturase. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of serum exposed to cigarette smoke (SE-FBS) on (1) cell viability and proliferation, (2) [1-(14)C] LA conversion and desaturase activities in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. In THP-1, CS inhibits cell proliferation dose-dependently, by producing a modification in the cell cycle with a reduced number of cells in synthesis and mitosis phases at higher concentrations. CS also decreases [1-(14)C] LA conversion to its derivatives in a concentration-dependent manner, inhibiting the activities of Delta6 and mainly Delta5 desaturase. In addition, CS does not modify the incorporation of LA into various lipid classes but it reduces cholesterol synthesis from radiolabelled acetate, and increases free fatty acid, TG and CE levels. In conclusion, CS affects lipid metabolism, inhibiting LA conversion and desaturase activities. CS also shifts the "de novo" lipid synthesis from free cholesterol to TG and CE, where LA is preferentially esterified.

  20. Cholesterol Asymmetry in Synaptic Plasma Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Wood, W. Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2010-01-01

    Lipids are essential for the structural and functional integrity of membranes. Membrane lipids are not randomly distributed but are localized in different domains. A common characteristic of these membrane domains is their association with cholesterol. Lipid rafts and caveolae are examples of cholesterol enriched domains, which have attracted keen interest. However, two other important cholesterol domains are the exofacial and cytofacial leaflets of the plasma membrane. The two leaflets that make up the bilayer differ in their fluidity, electrical charge, lipid distribution, and active sites of certain proteins. The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) cytofacial leaflet contains over 85% of the total SPM cholesterol as compared with the exofacial leaflet. This asymmetric distribution of cholesterol is not fixed or immobile but can be modified by different conditions in vivo: 1) chronic ethanol consumption; 2) statins; 3) aging; and 4) apoE isoform. Several potential candidates have been proposed as mechanisms involved in regulation of SPM cholesterol asymmetry: apoE, low-density-lipoprotein receptor, sterol carrier protein-2, fatty acid binding proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, p-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. This review examines cholesterol asymmetry in SPM, potential mechanisms of regulation and impact on membrane structure and function. PMID:21214553

  1. Inhibition of Cholesterol and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Oxidation through the Use of Annatto and Bixin in High-Pressure Processed Fish.

    PubMed

    Figueirêdo, Bruno C; Bragagnolo, Neura; Skibsted, Leif H; Orlien, Vibeke

    2015-08-01

    Annatto and bixin, the main carotenoid of annatto seeds, were both found to inhibit cholesterol oxidation in minced herring (Clupea harengus) and minced mackerel (Scomber scombrus) during high pressure processing (600 MPa for 10 min) and subsequent chilled storage for 2 wk, a treatment which otherwise increased the content of cholesterol oxidation products above a critical limit for human consumption. Annatto but not bixin reduced the loss of docosahexaenoic acid caused by high pressure processing of herring from 12% to 7%, an effect assigned to antioxidative effects of phenolic compounds in annatto, while bixin as a carotenoid binds to membranes protecting membrane cholesterol.

  2. A nutraceutical approach (Armolipid Plus) to reduce total and LDL cholesterol in individuals with mild to moderate dyslipidemia: Review of the clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Burke, David; Fasching, Peter; Banach, Maciej; Bruckert, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs). To date only a proprietary formulation of three naturally occurring substances with putative complementary lipid-lowering properties - red yeast rice, policosanol and berberine - combined with folic acid, astaxanthin, and coenzyme Q10 (Armolipid Plus(®)) has been extensively investigated in several RCTs, 7 of which were placebo-controlled, 2 were ezetimibe comparators and 4 were "real life" studies comparing diet and Armolipid Plus to diet alone. The trials included mostly patients with mild to moderate dyslipidemia, treated for 6-48 weeks. The trials also included special populations and patients in whom statins were contraindicated or who could not tolerate them. Armolipid Plus has proved to be able to achieve significant reductions in TC (11-21%) and in LDL-C (15-31%) levels, which is equivalent to expectations from low dose statins. In patients intolerant to statins, who do not achieve their therapeutic target with ezetimibe, Armolipid Plus can achieve a further 10% improvement in TC and LDL-C. The safety and tolerability of Armolipid Plus were excellent, thought likely due to the intentional combination of low doses of its active ingredients: low enough not to be associated with untoward effects, but high enough to exert therapeutic effects in combination with other complementary substances. Consequently, in the event of intolerance to statins, Armolipid Plus offers an effective alternative, which is devoid of the safety risks

  3. Total serum bile acid as a potential marker for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma without jaundice.

    PubMed

    Sombattheera, Sutthikan; Proungvitaya, Tanakorn; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Wongkham, Sopit; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Luvira, Vor; Proungvitaya, Siriporn

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is difficult when patients do not show jaundice. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using the total serum bile acid (TSBA) level as an aid for the diagnosis of CCA in patients without jaundice. For this purpose, TSBA of the following groups were measured using a Beckman Synchron CX4 clinical chemistry analyzer: 60 cases of CCA with total serum bilirubin ≤2 mg/dL (low total bilirubin group, LTB); 32 cases of CCA with total serum bilirubin >2 mg/dL (high total bilirubin group, HTB); and 115 healthy controls. Liver function parameters such as serum cholesterol, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also examined. The results showed that the TSBA of both LTB and HTB groups of the CCA patients were significantly higher than that of the healthy controls. Also, significant correlation was observed between TSBA and total bilirubin levels in the HTB group of CCA patients. However, no such correlation was seen in the LTB group. The cut-off value of TSBA was determined for the LTB group of CCA patients using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and it was 6.05 μmol/L with the sensitivity and specificity of 46.7% and 84.4%, respectively. In addition, the ALP level was correlated well with the TSBA level and ALP in HTB group was significantly higher than that of LTB group. Moreover, the combination of high TSBA and high ALP levels gave higher specificity up to 97.4%. TSBA might be useful for the diagnosis of CCA patients without jaundice.

  4. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia: A case-control study among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized.A case-control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted.After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24-2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44-5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5-29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02-3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27-5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27-6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36-5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25-3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43-5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in women.Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in

  5. Species-specific mechanisms for cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) regulation by drugs and bile acids.

    PubMed

    Handschin, Christoph; Gnerre, Carmela; Fraser, David J; Martinez-Jimenez, Celia; Jover, Ramiro; Meyer, Urs A

    2005-02-01

    The gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is tightly regulated in order to control intrahepatic cholesterol and bile acid levels. Ligands of the xenobiotic-sensing pregnane X receptor inhibit CYP7A1 expression. To retrace the evolution of the molecular mechanisms underlying CYP7A1 inhibition, we used a chicken hepatoma cell system that retains the ability to be induced by phenobarbital and other drugs. Whereas bile acids regulate CYP7A1 via small heterodimer partner and liver receptor homolog-1, mRNA expression of these nuclear receptors is unchanged by xenobiotics. Instead, drugs repress chicken hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) transcript levels concomitant with a reduction in CYP7A1 expression. Importantly, no reduction of HNF4alpha levels is found in mouse liver in vivo and in human primary hepatocyte cultures, respectively. Thus, besides the importance of HNF4alpha in CYP7A1 regulation in all species, birds and mammals use different signaling pathways to adjust CYP7A1 levels after exposure to xenobiotics.

  6. Recovery of fermented inulin fiber by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from inulin hydrolysate using fungi inulinase enzymes of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 and class of Deuteromycetes-CBS4 as cholesterol binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Maryati, Yati; Aspiyanto

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation of Lactobacillus Acid Bacteria (LAB) which are mixtures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteriumbifidum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus on hydrolysate as a result of inulin hydrolysis using inulinase enzymes obtained from endophytic fungi ofScopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 (inulin hydrolysate of S) and Class of Deuteromycetes-CBS4 (inulin hydrolysate of D) generate potential fermented inulin fiber as cholesterol binder. Fermentation process was conducted under concentrations of inulin hydrolysate 50% (w/v), LAB 15% (v/v) and skim milk 12.5% (w/v) at room temperature and 40°C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, respectively. Result of experimental work showed that longer time of LAB fermentation increased total acids, TPC and CBC at pH 2, but decreased total sugar, reducing, IDF, SDF, CBC pH 2 and CBC pH 7. Based on Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC), optimization of fermentation process on inulin hydrolysate of S was achieved by combining treatment at 40°C for 24 hours resulted in CBC pH 2 of 19.11 mg/g TDF and inulin hydrolysate of D was achieved by fermentation at 40 °C for 48 hours resulted in CBC pH 2 of 24.28 mg/g TDF. Inulin hydrolysate of class of Deutrymecetes CBS4 fermented by LAB had better functional property as cholesterol binder than that inulin hydrolysate of S fermented by LAB. This is due to cholesterol binder and cholesterol derivatives as a result of degradation of LAB on digestive system (stomach) when compared to higher colon under optimal process condition.

  7. Gas chromatographic analysis of infant formulas for total fatty acids, including trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Fritsche, Jan; Rader, Jeanne I

    2002-01-01

    Twelve powdered and 13 liquid infant formulas were analyzed by using an extension of AOAC Official Method 996.01 for fat analysis in cereal products. Samples were hydrolyzed with 8 N HCl and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by refluxing the mixed ether extracts with methanolic sodium hydroxide in the presence of 14% boron trifluoride in methanol. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. In powdered formulas, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (mean +/- SD; n = 12) was 41.05 +/- 3.94%, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was 36.97 +/- 3.38%, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was 20.07 +/- 3.08%, and total trans fatty acid content was 1.30 +/- 1.27%. In liquid formulas, SFA content (mean +/- SD; n = 13) was 42.29 +/- 2.98%, MUFA content was 36.05 +/- 2.47%, PUFA content was 20.65 +/- 2.40%, and total trans fatty acid content was 0.88 +/- 0.54%. Total fat content in powdered formulas ranged from 4.4 to 5.5 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 868 to 1166 mg/100 kcal. In liquid formulas, total fat content ranged from 4.1 to 5.1 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 820 to 1100 mg/100 kcal. There were no significant differences between powdered and liquid infant formulas in concentrations of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or trans fatty acids.

  8. A Cholesterol Recognition Amino Acid Consensus Domain in GP64 Fusion Protein Facilitates Anchoring of Baculovirus to Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Asanov, Alexander; Camacho-Zarco, Aldo R.; Sampieri, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviridae is a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that selectively infect insects. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is the best-studied baculovirus from the family. Many studies over the last several years have shown that AcMNPV can enter a wide variety of mammalian cells and deliver genetic material for foreign gene expression. While most animal viruses studied so far have developed sophisticated mechanisms to selectively infect specific cells and tissues in an organism, AcMNPV can penetrate and deliver foreign genes into most cells studied to this date. The details about the mechanisms of internalization have been partially described. In the present study, we have identified a cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) domain present in the AcMNPV envelope fusion protein GP64. We demonstrated the association of a CRAC domain with cholesterol, which is important to facilitate the anchoring of the virus at the mammalian cell membrane. Furthermore, this initial anchoring favors AcMNPV endocytosis via a dynamin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism. Under these conditions, efficient baculovirus-driven gene expression is obtained. In contrast, when cholesterol is reduced from the plasma membrane, AcMNPV enters the cell via a dynamin- and clathrin-independent mechanism. The result of using this alternative internalization pathway is a reduced level of baculovirus-driven gene expression. This study is the first to document the importance of a novel CRAC domain in GP64 and its role in modulating gene delivery in AcMNPV. PMID:23986592

  9. A cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus domain in GP64 fusion protein facilitates anchoring of baculovirus to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Asanov, Alexander; Camacho-Zarco, Aldo R; Sampieri, Alicia; Vaca, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Baculoviridae is a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that selectively infect insects. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is the best-studied baculovirus from the family. Many studies over the last several years have shown that AcMNPV can enter a wide variety of mammalian cells and deliver genetic material for foreign gene expression. While most animal viruses studied so far have developed sophisticated mechanisms to selectively infect specific cells and tissues in an organism, AcMNPV can penetrate and deliver foreign genes into most cells studied to this date. The details about the mechanisms of internalization have been partially described. In the present study, we have identified a cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) domain present in the AcMNPV envelope fusion protein GP64. We demonstrated the association of a CRAC domain with cholesterol, which is important to facilitate the anchoring of the virus at the mammalian cell membrane. Furthermore, this initial anchoring favors AcMNPV endocytosis via a dynamin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism. Under these conditions, efficient baculovirus-driven gene expression is obtained. In contrast, when cholesterol is reduced from the plasma membrane, AcMNPV enters the cell via a dynamin- and clathrin-independent mechanism. The result of using this alternative internalization pathway is a reduced level of baculovirus-driven gene expression. This study is the first to document the importance of a novel CRAC domain in GP64 and its role in modulating gene delivery in AcMNPV.

  10. 13-hydroxy linoleic acid increases expression of the cholesterol transporters ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI and stimulates apoA-I-dependent cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) stimulate cholesterol removal from macrophages through PPAR-dependent up-regulation of liver × receptor α (LXRα) and subsequent induction of cholesterol exporters such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI). The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the hydroxylated derivative of linoleic acid (LA), 13-HODE, which is a natural PPAR agonist, has similar effects in RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 macrophages were treated without (control) or with LA or 13-HODE in the presence and absence of PPARα or PPARγ antagonists and determined protein levels of LXRα, ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI, PPARα and PPARγ and apolipoprotein A-I mediated lipid efflux. Results Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with 13-HODE increased PPAR-transactivation activity and protein concentrations of LXRα, ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI when compared to control treatment (P < 0.05). In addition, 13-HODE enhanced cholesterol concentration in the medium but decreased cellular cholesterol concentration during incubation of cells with the extracellular lipid acceptor apolipoprotein A-I (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment of cells with a selective PPARα or PPARγ antagonist completely abolished the effects of 13-HODE on cholesterol efflux and protein levels of genes investigated. In contrast to 13-HODE, LA had no effect on either of these parameters compared to control cells. Conclusion 13-HODE induces cholesterol efflux from macrophages via the PPAR-LXRα-ABCA1/SR-BI-pathway. PMID:22129452

  11. Serum hs-CRP varies with dietary cholesterol, but not dietary fatty acid intake in individuals free of any history of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, M; Heidari-Bakavoli, A; Khayyatzadeh, S S; Azarpazhooh, M R; Nematy, M; Safarian, M; Esmaeili, H; Parizadeh, S M R; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Kengne, A P; Ferns, G A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration varies with dietary fatty acid intake in Iranian adults free of any history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional study involved 8105 adults (3142 men) aged 35-65 years. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. The relationship between anthropometric, cardiometabolic risk factors and dietary data and serum hs-CRP was assessed using SPSS software. Median crude dietary saturated fat decreased across hs-CRP quarters (P =0.009 for linear trend), whereas energy-adjusted total fat (P =0.017), trans-fat (P =0.016), monounsaturated fatty acids (P =0.030) and cholesterol (P =0.005) monotonically increased, with some evidence of statistical interactions by gender. In conclusion, serum hs-CRP concentrations were associated with some components of dietary fatty acid intake in our population of individuals without CVD, suggesting that dietary fat intake could be associated with subclinical inflammation.

  12. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.

  13. Total Synthesis of Five Lipoteichoic acids of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Hogendorf, Wouter F J; Gisch, Nicolas; Schwudke, Dominik; Heine, Holger; Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2014-10-13

    The emergence of hypervirulent resistant strains have made Clostridium difficile a notorious nosocomial pathogen and has resulted in a renewed interest in preventive strategies, such as vaccines based on (synthetic) cell wall antigens. Recently, the structure of the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of this species has been elucidated. Additionally, this LTA was found to induce the formation of protective antibodies against C. difficile in rabbits and mice. The LTA from C. difficile is isolated as a microheterogenous mixture, differing in size and composition, impeding any structure-activity relationship studies. To ensure reliable biological results, pure and well-defined synthetic samples are required. In this work the total synthesis of LTAs from C. difficile with defined chain length is described and the initial biological results are presented.

  14. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soy-derived glyceollins in the golden Syrian hamster model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Boue, Stephen M; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2013-06-19

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Consumption of soy foods has been recognized to lower the risk of CVD, and phytochemicals in soy are believed to contribute to the health benefits. Glyceollin is one of the candidate phytochemicals synthesized in stressed soy that may account for many unique biological activities. In this study, the in vivo cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins was investigated. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets including (1) 36 kcal% fat diet, (2) 36 kcal% fat diet containing 250 mg/kg diet glyceollins, or (3) chow for 28 days. Hepatic cholesterol esters and free cholesterol, hepatic total lipid content, plasma lipoproteins, fecal bile acid, fecal total cholesterol, and cholesterol metabolism related gene expressions were measured. Glyceollin supplementation led to significant reduction of plasma VLDL, hepatic cholesterol esters, and total lipid content. Consistent with changes in circulating cholesterol, glyceollin supplementation also altered expression of the genes related to cholesterol metabolism in the liver. In contrast, no change in plasma LDL and HDL, fecal bile acid, or cholesterol content was observed. The cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins appeared not to go through the increase of bile excretion. These results supported glyceollins' role as novel soy-derived cholesterol-lowering phytochemicals that may contribute to soy's health effects.

  15. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  16. Effects of bran on serum cholesterol, faecal mass, fat, bile acids and neutral sterols, and biliary lipids in patients with diverticular disease of the colon 1

    PubMed Central

    Tarpila, S.; Miettinen, T. A.; Metsäranta, L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with symptomatic diverticular disease of the colon were randomly allocated to control and high-fibre groups so that the long-term effect (up to 12 months) of bran on serum, faecal and biliary lipids could be studied. Even in cases of high initial values, faecal mass was increased by bran and the change was positively correlated with the change in dietary fibre. Faecal fat and dry weight were also increased. Faecal bile acids were initially slightly raised and were positively correlated with wet weight both off and on bran. The latter significantly decreased the excretion and concentration of bile acids, in particular the high initial values. The change in bile acids was not correlated with the change in dietary fibre or faecal wet weight. Sterol balance values indicated that the bran-induced decrease in faecal bile acids was associated with a lower cholesterol synthesis. Serum cholesterol decreased significantly in two hypercholesterolaemic individuals only. Correlations between different parameters revealed that the higher the initial level or the greater the drop in cholesterol synthesis, the greater the decrease in serum cholesterol. Bran had no effect on the biliary saturation of cholesterol. The percentage of biliary deoxycholate was negatively correlated with faecal mass (less so with faecal bile acid output) both before and during bran and was significantly decreased by bran. The percentage of cholic acid increased correspondingly and that of chenodeoxycholate remained unchanged. Faecal bile acids also indicated that the synthesis of the two primary bile acids was lowered by bran to the same degree. PMID:344156

  17. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  18. Cholesterol (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  19. 1-[4-[4[(4R,5R)-3,3-Dibutyl-7-(dimethylamino)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxido-1-benzothiepin-5-yl]phenoxy]butyl]-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane methanesulfonate (SC-435), an ileal apical sodium-codependent bile acid transporter inhibitor alters hepatic cholesterol metabolism and lowers plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    West, Kristy L; Ramjiganesh, Tripurasundari; Roy, Suheeta; Keller, Bradley T; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2002-10-01

    Male Hartley guinea pigs (10/group) were assigned either to a control diet (no drug treatment) or to diets containing 0.4, 2.2, or 7.3 mg/day of an ileal apical sodium-codependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) inhibitor, 1-[4-[4[(4R,5R)-3,3-dibutyl-7-(dimethylamino)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxido-1-benzothiepin-5-yl]phenoxy]butyl]-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2] octane methanesulfonate (SC-435). Based on food consumption, guinea pigs received 0, 0.8, 3.7, or 13.4 mg/kg/day of the ASBT inhibitor. The amount of cholesterol in the four diets was maintained at 0.17%, equivalent to 1200 mg/day in the human situation. Guinea pigs treated with 13.4 mg/kg/day SC-435 had 41% lower total cholesterol and 44% lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations compared with control (P < 0.01), whereas no significant differences were observed with either of the lower doses of SC-435. Hepatic cholesterol esters were significantly reduced by 43, 56, and 70% in guinea pigs fed 0.8, 3.7, and 13.4 mg/kg/day of the ASBT inhibitor, respectively (P < 0.01). In addition, the highest dose of the inhibitor resulted in a 42% increase in the number of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol molecules and a larger VLDL diameter compared with controls (P < 0.05). Acyl-CoA cholesterol/acyltransferase activity was 30% lower with the highest dose treatment, whereas cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, the regulatory enzyme of bile acid synthesis, was 30% higher with the highest ASBT inhibitor dose (P < 0.05). Furthermore, bile acid excretion increased 2-fold with the highest dose of SC-435 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the reduction in total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations by the ASBT inhibitor is a result of alterations in hepatic cholesterol metabolism due to modifications in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids.

  20. Ezetimibe markedly attenuates hepatic cholesterol accumulation and improves liver function in the lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mouse, a model for cholesteryl ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Lopez, Adam M; Posey, Kenneth S; Turley, Stephen D

    2014-01-17

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a critical role in the intracellular handling of lipids by hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters (CE) and triacylglycerols (TAG) contained in newly internalized lipoproteins. In humans, mutations in the LAL gene result in cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD), or in Wolman disease (WD) when the mutations cause complete loss of LAL activity. A rat model for WD and a mouse model for CESD have been described. In these studies we used LAL-deficient mice to investigate how modulating the amount of intestinally-derived cholesterol reaching the liver might impact its mass, cholesterol content, and function in this model. The main experiment tested if ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor, had any effect on CE accumulation in mice lacking LAL. In male Lal(-/-) mice given ezetimibe in their diet (20 mg/day/kg bw) for 4 weeks starting at 21 days of age, both liver mass and hepatic cholesterol concentration (mg/g) were reduced to the extent that whole-liver cholesterol content (mg/organ) in the treated mice (74.3±3.4) was only 56% of that in those not given ezetimibe (133.5±6.7). There was also a marked improvement in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Thus, minimizing cholesterol absorption has a favorable impact on the liver in CESD.

  1. A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation.

  2. Refeeding with conjugated linoleic acid increases serum cholesterol and modifies the fatty acid profile after 48 hours of fasting in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela Salim; Andreoli, María Florencia; Illesca, Paola G; Payão Ovídio, Paula; Bernal, Claudio A; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2014-12-01

    There is no consensus about the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism, especially in animals fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum, liver and adipose tissue, as well as the oxidative stress generated in rats refed with high-fat diets after a 48 hour fast. Rats were refed with diets containing soybean oil, rich in linoleic acid [7% (Control Group - C) or 20% (LA Group)], CLA [CLA Group - 20% CLA mixture (39.32 mole% c9,t11-CLA and 40.59 mole% t10,c12- CLA)], soybean oil + CLA (LA+CLA Group - 15.4% soybean oil and 4.6% CLA) or animal fat (AF, 20% lard). The CLA group showed lower weight gain and liver weight after refeeding, as well as increased serum cholesterol. The high dietary fat intake induced fat accumulation and an increase in -tocopherol in the liver, which were not observed in the CLA group. Circulating -tocopherol was increased in the CLA and CLA+LA groups. The high- fat diets reduced liver catalase activity. CLA isomers were incorporated into serum and tissues. In this shortterm refeeding experimental model, CLA prevented hepatic fat accumulation, although it produced an increase in serum cholesterol.

  3. Suppression of brain cholesterol synthesis in male Mecp2-deficient mice is age dependent and not accompanied by a concurrent change in the rate of fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adam M; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Posey, Kenneth S; Turley, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) are the principal cause of Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder afflicting 1 in 10,000 to 15,000 females. Studies using hemizygous Mecp2 mouse models have revealed disruptions to some aspects of their lipid metabolism including a partial suppression of cholesterol synthesis in the brains of mature Mecp2 mutants. The present studies investigated whether this suppression is evident from early neonatal life, or becomes manifest at a later stage of development. We measured the rate of cholesterol synthesis, in vivo, in the brains of male Mecp2(-)(/y) and their Mecp2(+/y) littermates at 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days of age. Brain weight was consistently lower in the Mecp2(-/y) mice than in their Mecp2(+/y) controls except at 7 days of age. In the 7- and 14-day-old mice there was no genotypic difference in the rate of brain cholesterol synthesis but, from 21 days and later, it was always marginally lower in the Mecp2(-/y) mice than in age-matched Mecp2(+/y) littermates. At no age was a genotypic difference detected in either the rate of fatty acid synthesis or cholesterol concentration in the brain. Cholesterol synthesis rates in the liver and lungs of 56-day-old Mecp2(-/y) mice were normal. The onset of lower rates of brain cholesterol synthesis at about the time closure of the blood brain barrier purportedly occurs might signify a disruption to mechanism(s) that dictate intracellular levels of cholesterol metabolites including oxysterols known to exert a regulatory influence on the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.

  4. Use of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MARRA, FRANCESCO; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BRUZZONE, MATTEO; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; DETTONI, FEDERICO; ROSSI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose different strategies have been developed to reduce blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The efficacy of both systemic and local tranexamic acid (TXA) administration is demonstrated in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of systemic, local and combined (systemic + local) administration of TXA in reducing blood loss after TKA. Methods we enrolled all patients submitted to a primary TKA in our department between November 2014 and August 2015. They were divided into three groups corresponding to the method of TXA administration used: intravenous (IV), intra-articular (IA), and a combination of the two. Demographic data, as well as preoperative hemoglobin and platelet levels, were collected. The primary outcome was the maximum hemoglobin loss, while the secondary outcomes were the amount of blood in the drain (cc/hour) and the rate of transfusions; postoperative pain was also assessed. Student’s t-test or a χ2 test was used to evaluate between-group differences, using p<0.05 as the cut-off for statistically significant differences. Results the sample comprised 34 patients: IV, 10 cases; IA, 15 cases, and combined (IV + IA), 9 cases. The average age of the patients was 71.1±6.4 years. No significant differences in the outcome measures were found between the groups, with the exception of a significantly lower maximum hemoglobin loss in the combined versus the IV group (p=0.02). There were no differences between the groups in the amount of blood in the drain or the rate of transfusions. Conclusions the data from this preliminary study, as well as data from the literature, confirm that TXA administration is safe and effective in reducing total blood loss in TKA, and no administration protocol seems to be superior to the others. Level of evidence Level II, prospective comparative study. PMID:28217656

  5. Cytoplasmic Delivery of Liposomal Contents Mediated by an Acid-Labile Cholesterol-Vinyl Ether-PEG Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Boomer, Jeremy A.; Qualls, Marquita M.; Inerowicz, H. Dorota; Haynes, Robert H.; Patri, G.V. Srilaksmi; Kim, Jong-Mok; Thompson, David H.

    2009-01-01

    An acid-cleavable PEG lipid, 1′-(4′-cholesteryloxy-3′-butenyl)-ω-methoxy-polyethylene[112] glycolate (CVEP), has been developed that produces stable liposomes when dispersed as a minor component (0.5–5 mol%) in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Cleavage of CVEP at mildly acidic pH’s results in dePEGylation of the latently fusogenic DOPE liposomes, thereby triggering the onset of contents release. This paper describes the synthesis of CVEP via a six step sequence starting from the readily available precursors 1,4-butanediol, cholesterol, and mPEG acid. The hydrolysis rates and release kinetics from CVEP:DOPE liposome dispersions as a function of CVEP loading, as well as the cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and pH-dependent monolayer properties of 9:91 CVEP:DOPE mixtures, also are reported. When folate-receptor positive KB cells were exposed to calcein-loaded 5:95 CVEP:DOPE liposomes containing 0.1 mol% folate-modified 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-polyethylene[76] glycolamide (folate-PEG-DSPE), efficient delivery of the calcein cargo to the cytoplasm of the cells was observed as determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of lipid mixing in these cells was consistent with membrane-membrane fusion between the liposome and endosomal membranes. PMID:19072698

  6. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases brain cholesterol content in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J

    2013-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content are known to occur in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43 %, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of postnatal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats.

  7. Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase Acid-like 3A (SMPDL3A) Is a Novel Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Regulated by Cholesterol in Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Traini, Mathew; Quinn, Carmel M.; Sandoval, Cecilia; Johansson, Erik; Schroder, Kate; Kockx, Maaike; Meikle, Peter J.; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-loaded foam cell macrophages are prominent in atherosclerotic lesions and play complex roles in both inflammatory signaling and lipid metabolism, which are underpinned by large scale reprogramming of gene expression. We performed a microarray study of primary human macrophages that showed that transcription of the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3A (SMPDL3A) gene is up-regulated after cholesterol loading. SMPDL3A protein expression in and secretion from primary macrophages are stimulated by cholesterol loading, liver X receptor ligands, and cyclic AMP, and N-glycosylated SMPDL3A protein is detectable in circulating blood. We demonstrate for the first time that SMPDL3A is a functional phosphodiesterase with an acidic pH optimum. We provide evidence that SMPDL3A is not an acid sphingomyelinase but unexpectedly is active against nucleotide diphosphate and triphosphate substrates at acidic and neutral pH. SMPDL3A is a major source of nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity secreted by liver X receptor-stimulated human macrophages. Extracellular nucleotides such as ATP may activate pro-inflammatory responses in immune cells. Increased expression and secretion of SMPDL3A by cholesterol-loaded macrophage foam cells in lesions may decrease local concentrations of pro-inflammatory nucleotides and potentially represent a novel anti-inflammatory axis linking lipid metabolism with purinergic signaling in atherosclerosis. PMID:25288789

  8. Intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid in primary total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Liang, Yuan; Chen, Pengtao; Fang, Yongchao; He, Jinshan; Wang, Jingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: As the prevalence of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasing, it is usually associated with considerable blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been reported to reduce perioperative blood loss in hip joint arthroplasty. But the best route of TXA administration continues to be controversial. So, we conducted a meta-analysis that integrated all data from the 7 included trials to compare the effectiveness and safety of topical and intravenous TXA administration in primary THA. The endpoints assessed in this meta-analysis include the comparisons of total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, the incidence rate of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolisms (PE), and wound infection. Methods: Literature searches of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, the CNKI database, and Wan Fang Data were performed up to August 30, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our meta-analysis if they compared the efficiency and safety of intravenous versus topical administration of TXA in patients who underwent primary THA. The endpoints included the comparisons of total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, the incidence rate of DVT, PE, and wound infection. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and the PRISMA statement. The pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.3, Denmark. Results: Seven RCTs involving 964 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in the 2 groups in terms of total blood loss ([mean difference (MD) = −14.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): −89.21 to 59.74, P = 0.7], transfusion rates [RD = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.05 to 0.02, P = 0.39]; no significant differences were found regarding the incidence of adverse effects such as deep venous thrombosis [DVT] [RD = 0.00, 95% CI: −0

  9. Lipid Peroxidation and Total Cholesterol in HAART-Naïve Patients Infected with Circulating Recombinant Forms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Teto, Georges; Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Torimiro, Judith N.; Alemnji, George; Nguemaim, Flore N.; Takou, Désiré; Nanfack, Aubin; Tazoacha, Asonganyi

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV infection has commonly been found to affect lipid profile and antioxidant defense. Objectives To determine the effects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and viral subtype on patient’s cholesterol and oxidative stress markers, and determine whether in the absence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), these biochemical parameters could be useful in patient’s management and monitoring disease progression in Cameroon. For this purpose, we measured total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC), HDL cholesterol (HDLC), total antioxidant ability (TAA), lipid peroxidation indices (LPI), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in HIV negative persons and HIV positive HAART-naïve patients infected with HIV-1 group M subtypes. Methods We measured serum TC, LDLC, HDLC, plasma MDA, and TAA concentrations, and calculated LPI indices in 151 HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients and 134 seronegative controls. We also performed gene sequence analysis on samples from 30 patients to determine the effect of viral genotypes on these biochemical parameters. We also determined the correlation between CD4 cell count and the above biochemical parameters. Results We obtained the following controls/patients values for TC (1.96±0.54/1. 12±0. 48 g/l), LDLC (0. 67±0. 46/0. 43±0. 36 g/l), HDLC (105. 51±28. 10/46. 54±23. 36 mg/dl) TAA (0. 63±0. 17/0. 16±0. 16 mM), MDA (0. 20±0. 07/0. 41±0. 10 µM) and LPI (0. 34±0. 14/26. 02±74. 40). In each case, the difference between the controls and patients was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was a positive and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and HDLC (r = +0.272; p<0.01), TAA (r = +0.199; p<0.05) and a negative and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and LPI (r = −0.166; p<0.05). Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and TC, CD4cell count and LDLC was positive but not statistically significant while it was negative but

  10. Disturbances in cholesterol, bile acid and glucose metabolism in peroxisomal 3-ketoacylCoA thiolase B deficient mice fed diets containing high or low fat contents.

    PubMed

    Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Arnauld, Ségolène; Kaminski, Jacques; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Clémencet, Marie-Claude; Chamouton, Julie; Athias, Anne; Grober, Jacques; Gresti, Joseph; Degrace, Pascal; Lagrost, Laurent; Latruffe, Norbert; Mandard, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B (ThB) catalyzes the thiolytic cleavage of straight chain 3-ketoacyl-CoAs. Up to now, the ability of ThB to interfere with lipid metabolism was studied in mice fed a laboratory chow enriched or not with the synthetic agonist Wy14,643, a pharmacological activator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARα. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether ThB could play a role in obesity and lipid metabolism when mice are chronically fed a synthetic High Fat Diet (HFD) or a Low Fat Diet (LFD) as a control diet. To investigate this possibility, wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for Thb (Thb(-/-)) were subjected to either a synthetic LFD or a HFD for 25 weeks, and their responses were compared. First, when fed a normal regulatory laboratory chow, Thb(-/-) mice displayed growth retardation as well as a severe reduction in the plasma level of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), suggesting alterations in the GH/IGF-1 pathway. When fed the synthetic diets, the corrected energy intake to body mass was significantly higher in Thb(-/-) mice, yet those mice were protected from HFD-induced adiposity. Importantly, Thb(-/-) mice also suffered from hypoglycemia, exhibited reduction in liver glycogen stores and circulating insulin levels under the LFD and the HFD. Thb deficiency was also associated with higher levels of plasma HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) cholesterol and increased liver content of cholesterol under both the LFD and the HFD. As shown by the plasma lathosterol to cholesterol ratio, a surrogate marker for cholesterol biosynthesis, whole body cholesterol de novo synthesis was increased in Thb(-/-) mice. By comparing liver RNA from WT mice and Thb(-/-) mice using oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR, a coordinated decrease in the expression of critical cholesterol synthesizing genes and an increased expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis (Cyp7a1, Cyp17a1, Akr1d1) were

  11. Comparative effects of three 48-week community-based physical activity and exercise interventions on aerobic capacity, total cholesterol and mean arterial blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Steven; Jimenez, Alfonso; Domone, Sarah; Beedie, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Aim Insufficient research examines the treatment effectiveness of real-world physical activity (PA) interventions. Purpose We investigated the effects of 3 interventions on directly measured cardiovascular variables. All treatments and measures were administered in community settings by fitness centre staff. Methods Participants were sedentary individuals receiving no medication to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (n=369, age 43 ±5 years). In a semirandomised design, participants were allocated to a structured gym exercise programme (STRUC), unstructured gym exercise (FREE), physical activity counselling (PAC) or a measurement-only control condition (CONT). Measures were: predicted aerobic capacity (VO2: mL kg min), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP: mm Hg) and total cholesterol (TC: mmol/L), and were taken at baseline and 48 weeks. Results Data analysis indicated a statistically significant deterioration in TC in CONT (0.8%, SD=0.5, p=0.005), and a statistically significant improvement in MAP in STRUC (2.5%, SD=8.3, p=0.004). Following a median split by baseline VO2, paired-sample t tests indicated significant improvements in VO2 among low-fit participants in STRUC (3.5%, SD=4.8, p=0.003), PAC (3.3%, SD=7.7, p=0.050) and FREE (2.6%, SD=4.8, p=0.006), and significant deterioration of VO2 among high-fit participants in FREE (−2.0%, SD=5.6, p=0.037), and PAC (−3.2%, SD=6.4, p=0.031). Conclusions Several forms of PA may offset increased cholesterol resulting from inactivity. Structured PA (exercise) might be more effective than either unstructured PA or counselling in improving blood pressure, and community-based PA interventions might be more effective in improving VO2 among low-fit than among high-fit participants. PMID:27900172

  12. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

  13. In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil.

    PubMed

    Lekshmi Sheela, Devi; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Manalil, Jeksy Jos; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-12-01

    The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis. The molecular docking studies were carried out using CDOCKER protocol in Accelery's Discovery Studio, by taking different proteins like HMG- CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase as targets and the different phytocompounds in coconut as ligands. Molecular docking highlighted the potential of lauric acid in inhibiting the protein targets involved in hyperlipidemics. Further, validation of in silico results was carried out through in vivo studies. The activity of key enzymes HMG- CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase were found reduced in animals fed with lauric acid and CO.

  14. Evaluation of oxidative stress via total antioxidant status, sialic acid, malondialdehyde and RT-PCR findings in sheep affected with bluetongue

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, I.; Aksit, H.; Sait, A.; Kaya, F.; Aksit, D.; Gokmen, M.; Baca, A. Unsal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious infectious disease of ruminants. The disease agent bluetongue virus (BTV) is classified in the Reoviridae family Orbivirus. Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to determine serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative stres (TAS), total sialic acid (TSA), ceruloplasmin, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), cholesterol, creatinine, albumin, and total protein levels in sheep with and without bluetongue (BT). Materials and Methods The study included 13 Sakiz crossbreed sheep, aged 1–4 years and usually in the last stage of pregnancy, as the BT group and a control group consisting of 10 healthy sheep. All sheep were clinically examined before collecting blood samples. Serum ALT, AST, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, GGT, total protein, creatinine and TAS levels were measured using commercially available kits as per manufacturer's recommendations using a Biochemistry Auto Analyzer (Sinnowa D280, China). Serum lipid peroxidation was estimated through a previously described method in which MDA reacts with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a coloured complex at a maximum absorbance of 535 nm. The TSA value was measured at 549 nm using the method described by Warren (1959): sialic acid was oxidised to formyl-pyruvic acid, which reacts with TBA to form a pink product. The ceruloplasmin concentration was measured according to Sunderman and Nomoto (1970): ceruloplasmin and p-phenylenediamine formed a coloured oxidation product that was proportional to the concentration of serum ceruloplasmin. Real time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR were performed as described by Shaw and others (2007). Results Biochemistry analysis of serum showed that in the BT group, TSA, MDA, triglyceride and ALT and AST were higher and that ceruloplasmin and TAS were lower than in the control group. Serum albumin, cholesterol, creatinine, total protein and GGT did

  15. The action of peroxyl radicals, powerful deleterious reagents, explains why neither cholesterol nor saturated fatty acids cause atherogenesis and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Spiteller, Gerhard; Afzal, Mohammad

    2014-11-10

    Cells respond to alterations in their membrane structure by activating hydrolytic enzymes. Thus, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are liberated. Free PUFAs react with molecular oxygen to give lipid hydroperoxide molecules (LOOHs). In case of severe cell injury, this physiological reaction switches to the generation of lipid peroxide radicals (LOO(·)). These radicals can attack nearly all biomolecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and enzymes, impairing their biological functions. Identical cell responses are triggered by manipulation of food, for example, heating/grilling and particularly homogenization, representing cell injury. Cholesterol as well as diets rich in saturated fat have been postulated to accelerate the risk of atherosclerosis while food rich in unsaturated fatty acids has been claimed to lower this risk. However, the fact is that LOO(·) radicals generated from PUFAs can oxidize cholesterol to toxic cholesterol oxides, simulating a reduction in cholesterol level. In this review it is shown how active LOO(·) radicals interact with biomolecules at a speed transcending usual molecule-molecule reactions by several orders of magnitude. Here, it is explained how functional groups are fundamentally transformed by an attack of LOO(·) with an obliteration of essential biomolecules leading to pathological conditions. A serious reconsideration of the health and diet guidelines is required.

  16. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2009-02-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils.

  17. Temperature-Dependent Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Gamma Linolenic Acid Effects on Phospholipid Membranes With and Without Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonar, D.; Horasanb, N.; Sünnetçioğlu, M. Maral

    2016-07-01

    Free docosahexaenoic acid (DHAn-3) and gamma linolenic acid (GLAn-6) effects on dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes were studied as a function of temperature by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. 5- and 16-doxyl stearic acid (5-, 16-DS) spin labels were utilized to obtain information from the interfacial and alkyl chain region, respectively. In the studied temperature range, the presence of DHAn-3 or GLAn-6 caused decreases in maximum hyperfi ne splitting values and correlation times of DMPC membranes. Both in the interfacial region and depths of membrane, changes were more pronounced for DHAn-3 in pure DMPC. In the presence of cholesterol (CH), DHAn-3 and GLAn-6 effects were similar and more pronounced in the depths of the membrane. The changes in the structure and dynamics of samples were obtained from simulations of spectra, which indicated some changes in the number of spectral components by incorporation of DHAn-3 and GLAn-6. In the interfacial region and below the main phase transition temperature of DMPC, there was an increase in heterogeneity. For temperatures above the phase transition, a more homogeneous environment for spin label was obtained in the presence of fatty acids.

  18. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that stearic acid (STE) differentially affects lipoprotein risk factors compared with other saturated fatty acids (SFA). When compared to cholesterol-raising SFA, STE lowers LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and has a neutral effect on HDL-C, thus lowering the ratio of total cholesterol to H...

  19. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, a microbiota-derived metabolite of quercetin, protects against pancreatic β-cells dysfunction induced by high cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Gotteland, Martin; Castillo, Rodrigo L; Chen, Chen

    2015-06-10

    Cholesterol plays an important role in inducing pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, characterized by an impaired insulin secretory response to glucose, representing a hallmark of the transition from pre-diabetes to diabetes. 3,4 dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (ES) is a scarcely studied microbiota-derived metabolite of quercetin with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of ES against apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by cholesterol in Min6 pancreatic β-cells. Cholesterol decreased viability, induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction by reducing complex I activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels and oxygen consumption. Cholesterol promoted oxidative stress by increasing cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and decreasing antioxidant enzyme activities; in addition, it slightly increased Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus. These events resulted in the impairment of the glucose-induced insulin secretion. ES increased Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus and protected pancreatic β-cells against impaired insulin secretion induced by cholesterol by preventing oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Nrf2 activation seems to be involved in the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant protection exerted by ES in addition to preventing the disruption of antioxidant enzymatic defenses. Although additional in vivo experiments are required, this metabolite is suggested as a promising drug target for the prevention of the pathological development from a pre-diabetic to a diabetic state.

  20. The cholesterol lowering property of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Joseph, J Mini; Ramaswamy, V K; Moorthi, M; Kumar, A Senthil

    2008-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) has been documented as a traditional treatment for cholesterol and diabetes patients. In the present study, coriander seeds incorporated into diet and the effect of the administration of coriander seeds on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats, fed with high fat diet and added cholesterol. The seeds had a significant hypolipidemic action. In the experimental group of rats (tissue) the level of total cholesterol and triglycerides increased significantly There was significant increase in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol decreased while that of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The increased activity of plasma LCAT enhanced degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect.

  1. Essential amino acid supplementation in patients following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Hans C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Senesac, Hilary A.; Hocker, Austin D.; Smolkowski, Keith; Shah, Steven N.; Jewett, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. By the year 2030, 3.48 million older U.S. adults are projected to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Following this surgery, considerable muscle atrophy occurs, resulting in decreased strength and impaired functional mobility. Essential amino acids (EAAs) have been shown to attenuate muscle loss during periods of reduced activity and may be beneficial for TKA patients. Methods. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial with 28 older adults undergoing TKA. Patients were randomized to ingest either 20 g of EAAs (n = 16) or placebo (n = 12) twice daily between meals for 1 week before and 2 weeks after TKA. At baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after TKA, an MRI was performed to determine mid-thigh muscle and adipose tissue volume. Muscle strength and functional mobility were also measured at these times. Results. TKA patients receiving placebo exhibited greater quadriceps muscle atrophy, with a –14.3 ± 3.6% change from baseline to 2 weeks after surgery compared with –3.4 ± 3.1% for the EAA group (F = 5.16, P = 0.036) and a –18.4 ± 2.3% change from baseline to 6 weeks after surgery for placebo versus –6.2 ± 2.2% for the EAA group (F = 14.14, P = 0.001). EAAs also attenuated atrophy in the nonoperated quadriceps and in the hamstring and adductor muscles of both extremities. The EAA group performed better at 2 and 6 weeks after surgery on functional mobility tests (all P < 0.05). Change in quadriceps muscle atrophy was significantly associated with change in functional mobility (F = 5.78, P = 0.021). Conclusion. EAA treatment attenuated muscle atrophy and accelerated the return of functional mobility in older adults following TKA. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00760383. Funding. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Office of the Director (OD), and the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), NIH grant K01HD057332, and the Medical

  2. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (≥6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  3. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  4. Systematic evaluation of coding variation identifies a candidate causal variant in TM6SF2 influencing total cholesterol and myocardial infarction risk

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Oddgeir L.; Zhang, He; Fan, Yanbo; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Zhou, Wei; Guo, Yanhong; Zhang, Ji; Langhammer, Arnulf; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Vatten, Lars; Skorpen, Frank; Dalen, Håvard; Zhang, Jifeng; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Chen, Jin; Platou, Carl; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Njølstad, Inger; Boehnke, Michael; Chen, Y. Eugene; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Hveem, Kristian; Willer, Cristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood lipid levels are heritable, treatable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We systematically assessed genome-wide coding variation to identify novel lipid genes, fine-map known lipid loci, and evaluate whether low frequency variants with large effect exist. Using an exome array, we genotyped 80,137 coding variants in 5,643 Norwegians. We followed up 18 variants in 4,666 Norwegians to identify 10 loci with coding variants associated with a lipid trait (P < 5×10−8). One coding variant in TM6SF2 (p.Glu167Lys), residing in a GWAS locus for lipid levels, modifies total cholesterol levels and is associated with myocardial infarction. Transient overexpression and knockdown of TM6SF2 in mouse produces alteration in serum lipid profiles consistent with the association observed in humans, identifying TM6SF2 as the functional gene at a large GWAS locus previously known as NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 or 19p13. This study demonstrates that systematic assessment of coding variation can quickly point to a candidate causal gene. PMID:24633158

  5. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “nonfat... of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the... fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated fat,”...

  6. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without fat,” “nonfat... of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the... fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated fat,”...

  7. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....409. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without... contains 3 g or less of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat...,” “no saturated fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated...

  8. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....309. (b) Fat content claims. (1) The terms “fat free,” “free of fat,” “no fat,” “zero fat,” “without... contains 3 g or less of total fat per 100 g of product and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat...,” “no saturated fat,” “zero saturated fat,” “without saturated fat,” “trivial source of saturated...

  9. Eicosapentaenoic acid membrane incorporation impairs ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux via a protein kinase A signaling pathway in primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Natalie; Tardivel, Sylviane; Benoist, Jean-François; Vedie, Benoît; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Nowak, Maxime; Allaoui, Fatima; Paul, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    A diet rich in n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is cardioprotective. Dietary PUFAs affect the cellular phospholipids composition, which may influence the function of membrane proteins. We investigated the impact of the membrane incorporation of several PUFAs on ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, a key antiatherogenic pathway. Arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6 n-3) decreased or increased cholesterol efflux from J774 mouse macrophages, respectively, whereas they had no effect on efflux from human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Importantly, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5 n-3) induced a dose-dependent reduction of ABCA1 functionality in both cellular models (-28% for 70μM of EPA in HMDM), without any alterations in ABCA1 expression. These results show that PUFA membrane incorporation does not have the same consequences on cholesterol efflux from mouse and human macrophages. The EPA-treated HMDM exhibited strong phospholipid composition changes, with high levels of both EPA and its elongation product docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5 n-3), which is associated with a decreased level of AA. In HMDM, EPA reduced the ATPase activity of the membrane transporter. Moreover, the activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and the inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine restored ABCA1 cholesterol efflux in EPA-treated human macrophages. In conclusion, EPA membrane incorporation reduces ABCA1 functionality in mouse macrophages as well as in primary human macrophages and this effect seems to be PKA-dependent in human macrophages.

  10. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube probes for monitoring blood cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Somenath; Vedala, Harindra; Choi, Wonbong

    2006-02-01

    Detection of blood cholesterol is of great clinical significance. The amperometric detection technique was used for the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), vertically aligned on a silicon platform, promote heterogeneous electron transfer between the enzyme and the working electrode. Surface modification of the MWNT with a biocompatible polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), converted the hydrophobic nanotube surface into a highly hydrophilic one, which facilitates efficient attachment of biomolecules. The fabricated working electrodes showed a linear relationship between cholesterol concentration and the output signal. The efficacy of the multiwall carbon nanotubes in promoting heterogeneous electron transfer was evident by distinct electrochemical peaks and higher signal-to-noise ratio as compared to the Au electrode with identical enzyme immobilization protocol. The selectivity of the cholesterol sensor in the presence of common interferents present in human blood, e.g. uric acid, ascorbic acid and glucose, is also reported.

  11. Development of molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid)/silica for clean-up and selective extraction of cholesterol in milk prior to analysis by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Clausen, D N; Visentainer, J V; Tarley, C R T

    2014-10-07

    In the present paper the assessment of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer, poly(methacrylic acid)/silica, for clean-up and selective extraction of cholesterol in milk samples is described. The relative selectivity coefficient (k) values for cholesterol/5-α-cholestane and cholesterol/7-dehydrocholesterol systems were found to be 5.08 and 6.08, respectively, thus attesting the selectivity of the MIP for cholesterol under competitive adsorption with structurally analogous steroid compounds. The milk analysis was initially based on saponification followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. Then, the protocol of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) was carried out by loading the milk hexanic extract through 200 mg of MIP or NIP (non-imprinted polymer) packed into SPE cartridges at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). The washing step was performed by using n-hexane followed by further elution with ethanol and HPLC-UV analysis at 208 nm. From the breakthrough curve the maximum adsorption capacity of the MIP towards cholesterol was found to be 29.51 mg g(-1). The precision of the MISPE protocol was assessed as intra- and inter-days yielding RSD (relative standard deviations) lower than 4.10%. Cleaner HPLC chromatograms were obtained for milk samples submitted to the MISPE protocol in comparison to the solid phase extraction using the NIP or modified octadecyl silica (C18). Recoveries varying from 96.6 up to 102.2% for milk samples spiked with cholesterol were achieved, thus ensuring the accuracy of the proposed method.

  12. The microstructure of the stratum corneum lipid barrier: mid-infrared spectroscopic studies of hydrated ceramide:palmitic acid:cholesterol model systems.

    PubMed

    Garidel, Patrick; Fölting, Bettina; Schaller, Ingrid; Kerth, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    The current mid-infrared spectroscopic study is a systematic investigation of hydrated stratum corneum lipid barrier model systems composed of an equimolar mixture of a ceramide, free palmitic acid and cholesterol. Four different ceramide molecules (CER NS, CER NP, CER NP-18:1, CER AS) were investigated with regard to their microstructure arrangement in a stratum corneum lipid barrier model system. Ceramide molecules were chosen from the sphingosine and phytosphingosine groups. The main differences in the used ceramide molecules result from their polar head group architecture as well as hydrocarbon chain properties. The mixing properties with cholesterol and palmitic acid are considered. This is feasible by using perdeuterated palmitic acid and proteated ceramides. Both molecules can be monitored separately, within the same experiment, using mid-infrared spectroscopy; no external label is necessary. At physiological relevant temperatures, between 30 and 35 degrees C, orthorhombic as well as hexagonal chain packing of the ceramide molecules is observed. The formation of these chain packings are extremely dependent on lipid hydration, with a decrease in ceramide hydration favouring the formation of orthorhombic hydrocarbon chain packing, as well as temperature. The presented data suggest in specific cases phase segregation in ceramide and palmitic acid rich phases. However, other ceramides like CER NP-18:1 show a rather high miscibility with palmitic acid and cholesterol. For all investigated ternary systems, more or less mixing of palmitic acid with cholesterol is observed. The investigated stratum corneum mixtures exhibit a rich polymorphism from crystalline domains with heterogeneous lipid composition to a "fluid" homogeneous phase. Thus, a single gel phase is not evident for the presented stratum corneum model systems. The study shows, that under skin physiological conditions (pH 5.5, hydrated, 30-35 degrees C) ternary systems composed of an equimolar ratio of

  13. Improved selective cholesterol adsorption by molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid)/silica (PMAA-SiO₂) hybrid material synthesized with different molar ratios.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Débora Nobile; Pires, Igor Matheus Ruiz; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2014-11-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer - poly(methacrylic acid)/silica and reports its performance feasibility with desired adsorption capacity and selectivity for cholesterol extraction. Two imprinted hybrid materials were synthesized at different methacrylic acid (MAA)/tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) molar ratios (6:1 and 1:5) and characterized by FT-IR, TGA, SEM and textural data. Cholesterol adsorption on hybrid materials took place preferably in apolar solvent medium, especially in chloroform. From the kinetic data, the equilibrium time was reached quickly, being 12 and 20 min for the polymers synthesized at MAA/TEOS molar ratio of 6:1 and 1:5, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model provided the best fit for cholesterol adsorption on polymers, confirming the chemical nature of the adsorption process, while the dual-site Langmuir-Freundlich equation presented the best fit to the experimental data, suggesting the existence of two kinds of adsorption sites on both polymers. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained for the polymers synthesized at MAA/TEOS molar ratios of 6:1 and 1:5 were found to be 214.8 and 166.4 mg g(-1), respectively. The results from isotherm data also indicated higher adsorption capacity for both imprinted polymers regarding to corresponding non-imprinted polymers. Nevertheless, taking into account the retention parameters and selectivity of cholesterol in the presence of structurally analogue compounds (5-α-cholestane and 7-dehydrocholesterol), it was observed that the polymer synthesized at the MAA/TEOS molar ratio of 6:1 was much more selective for cholesterol than the one prepared at the ratio of 1:5, thus suggesting that selective binding sites ascribed to the carboxyl group from MAA play a central role in the imprinting effect created on MIP.

  14. A pH-responsive drug nanovehicle constructed by reversible attachment of cholesterol to PEGylated poly(l-lysine) via catechol-boronic acid ester formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Lv, Yin; Zhu, Jing-Yi; Han, Yun-Tao; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Wei-Hai; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2014-08-01

    The present work reports the construction of a drug delivery nanovehicle via a pH-sensitive assembly strategy for improved cellular internalization and intracellular drug liberation. Through spontaneous formation of boronate linkage in physiological conditions, phenylboronic acid-modified cholesterol was able to attach onto catechol-pending methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine). This comb-type polymer can self-organize into a micellar nanoconstruction that is able to effectively encapsulate poorly water-soluble agents. The blank micelles exhibited negligible in vitro cytotoxicity, yet doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles could effectively induce cell death at a level comparable to free DOX. Owing to the acid-labile feature of the boronate linkage, a reduction in environmental pH from pH 7.4 to 5.0 could trigger the dissociation of the nanoconstruction, which in turn could accelerate the liberation of entrapped drugs. Importantly, the blockage of endosomal acidification in HeLa cells by NH4Cl treatment significantly decreased the nuclear uptake efficiency and cell-killing effect mediated by the DOX-loaded nanoassembly, suggesting that acid-triggered destruction of the nanoconstruction is of significant importance in enhanced drug efficacy. Moreover, confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assay revealed the effective internalization of the nanoassemblies, and their cellular uptake exhibited a cholesterol dose-dependent profile, indicating the contribution of introduced cholesterol functionality to the transmembrane process of the nanoassembly.

  15. Ratio of fat to energy intake independently associated with the duration of diabetes and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Young-Seol; Cho, Mi-Ran; Choue, Ryowon

    2011-04-01

    The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat (R(2) = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; R(2) = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients.

  16. Liquid-crystalline phases of cholesterol/lipid bilayers as revealed by the fluorescence of trans-parinaric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes Mateo, C; Ulises Acuña, A; Brochon, J C

    1995-01-01

    The presence of two liquid-crystalline phases, alpha and beta, in mixed bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol was detected by the changes in the distribution of the fluorescence lifetimes of t-PnA, as analyzed by the Maximum Entropy Method. The formation of the liquid-ordered beta-phase, in the 30-40 degrees C temperature range as a function of cholesterol concentration (0-40 mol%), could be related quantitatively to the relative amplitude of a long lifetime component of the probe (10-14 ns). Based on this evidence, the phase behavior of mixtures of the unsaturated lipid palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol was determined using the same technique, for cholesterol concentrations in the 0-50 mol% range, between 10 and 40 degrees C. It was found that two liquid-crystalline phases are also formed in this system, with physical properties reminiscent of the alpha- and beta-phases formed with saturated lipids. However, in this case it was determined that, for temperatures in the physiological range, the alpha- and beta-phases coexist up to 40 mol% cholesterol. This finding may be of significant biological relevance, because it supports the long held notion that cholesterol is responsible for the lipid packing heterogeneity of several natural membranes rich in unsaturated lipid components. PMID:7756560

  17. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  18. Construction of a DOPC/PSM/cholesterol phase diagram based on the fluorescence properties of trans-parinaric acid.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, Thomas K M; Lindroos, Daniel; Westerlund, Bodil; Slotte, J Peter

    2011-07-05

    Cell membranes have a nonhomogenous lateral organization. Most information about such nonhomogenous mixing has been obtained from model membrane studies where defined lipid mixtures have been characterized. Various experimental approaches have been used to determine binary and ternary phase diagrams for systems under equilibrium conditions. Such phase diagrams are the most useful tools for understanding the lateral organization in cellular membranes. Here we have used the fluorescence properties of trans-parinaric acid (tPA) for phase diagram determination. The fluorescence intensity, anisotropy, and fluorescence lifetimes of tPA were measured in bilayers composed of one to three lipid components. All of these parameters could be used to determine the presence of liquid-ordered and gel phases in the samples. However, the clearest information about the phase state of the lipid bilayers was obtained from the fluorescence lifetimes of tPA. This is due to the fact that an intermediate-length lifetime was found in samples that contain a liquid-ordered phase and a long lifetime was found in samples that contained a gel phase, whereas tPA in the liquid-disordered phase has a markedly shorter fluorescence lifetime. On the basis of the measured fluorescence parameters, a phase diagram for the 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin/cholesterol system at 23 °C was prepared with a 5 mol % resolution. We conclude that tPA is a good fluorophore for probing the phase behavior of complex lipid mixtures, especially because multilamellar vesicles can be used. The determined phase diagram shows a clear resemblance to the microscopically determined phase diagram for the same system. However, there are also significant differences that likely are due to tPA's sensitivity to the presence of submicroscopic liquid-ordered and gel phase domains.

  19. Difference in amounts between titratable acid and total carboxylic acids produced by oral streptococci during sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Y; Hata, S; Takahashi, N; Yamada, T

    1989-01-01

    The acid produced by the resting cells of Streptococcus mutants NCTC 10449 and HS 6 and S. sanguis ATCC 10556 during sugar metabolism was estimated with a pH-stat and a carboxylic acid analyzer. Lactic, formic, acetic, pyruvic, and carbonic acids were detected in the reaction mixtures, but propionic, citric, succinic, iso-butyric, butyric, iso-valeric, and valeric acids were not detected. The amount of titratable acid estimated by alkaline titration with the pH-stat was larger than the amount of total carboxylic acids estimated with the carboxylic acid analyzer. The difference in quantity between the titratable and the total carboxylic acids increased significantly with an increase in the period of incubation with sugar. Moreover, the value of the alkaline titration of standard lactic, formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids was equal to the amount analyzed with the carboxylic acid analyzer. The results indicated that these two streptococci produced not only these carboxylic acids but also other acid(s), possibly non-carboxylic acid(s), during their sugar metabolism.

  20. High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid-induced amelioration on impairment of memory learning in amyloid beta-infused rats relates to the decreases of amyloid beta and cholesterol levels in detergent-insoluble membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Agdul, Haqu; Shido, Osamu

    2005-12-30

    We investigated the effects of dietary administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) on the levels of amyloid beta (A beta) peptide (1-40) and cholesterol in the nonionic detergent Triton 100 x-insoluble membrane fractions (DIFs) of the cerebral cortex and, also, on learning-related memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats infused with A beta peptide (1-40) into the cerebral ventricle. The infusion increased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs concurrently with a significant increase in reference memory errors (measured by eight-arm radial-maze tasks) compared with those of vehicle rats. Conversely, the dietary administration of DHA to AD-model rats decreased the levels of A beta peptide and cholesterol in the DIFs, with the decrease being more prominent in the DHA-administered rats. Regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between A beta peptide and each of cholesterol, palmitic acid and stearic acid, and between the number of reference memory errors and each of cholesterol, palmitic, stearic and oleic acid; moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between the number of reference memory errors and the molar ratio of DHA to palmitic plus stearic acid. These results suggest that DHA-induced protection of memory deficits in AD-model rats is related to the interactions of cholesterol, palmitic acid or stearic acid with A beta peptides in DIFs where DHA ameliorates these interactions.

  2. [The food cholesterol controversy].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2012-07-01

    Arteriosclerosis of blood vessels, the main cause of heart attack and stroke, is a disease of multifactor pathogenesis. Multiple experimental, clinical and epidemiologic studies indicate that free radicals and lipid oxidation products take part in aterogenesis process. Homocysteine possess also cytotoxic activity leading to degradation of elastine of internal membrane of blood vessels. Deficiency of vitamin folic acid, B12 and B6 cause homocysteine accumulation in human organism. Identifying the arteriosclerosis with oxidation of LDL-cholesterol results with faulty conclusions. Metabolism of cholesterol in human organism depends on content of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, fitosterols, food fiber, Lactobacillus and antioxidants in the diet. In aterogenesis antioxidant defficiency, especially long-lasting ones, are more important then amount of fat itself. Considering cholesterol intake with average food and its absorption amounting 25-30%, one can conclude that amount of cholesterol in intestine originates in 90% from liver synthesis, which is excreted with bile, and in more than ten percent--from food. This is why reduction of cholesterol intake with food only little improves blood lipid indexes.

  3. Cholesterol depletion induces autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jinglei; Ohsaki, Yuki; Tauchi-Sato, Kumi; Fujita, Akikazu; Fujimoto, Toyoshi . E-mail: tfujimot@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2006-12-08

    Autophagy is a mechanism to digest cells' own components, and its importance in many physiological and pathological processes is being recognized. But the molecular mechanism that regulates autophagy is not understood in detail. In the present study, we found that cholesterol depletion induces macroautophagy. The cellular cholesterol in human fibroblasts was depleted either acutely using 5 mM methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin or 10-20 {mu}g/ml nystatin for 1 h, or metabolically by 20 {mu}M mevastatin and 200 {mu}M mevalonolactone along with 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum for 2-3 days. By any of these protocols, marked increase of LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting and by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the increase was more extensive than that caused by amino acid starvation, i.e., incubation in Hanks' solution for several hours. The induction of autophagic vacuoles by cholesterol depletion was also observed in other cell types, and the LC3-positive membranes were often seen as long tubules, >50 {mu}m in length. The increase of LC3-II by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin was suppressed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors and was accompanied by dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. By electron microscopy, autophagic vacuoles induced by cholesterol depletion were indistinguishable from those seen after amino acid starvation. These results demonstrate that a decrease in cholesterol activates autophagy by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

  4. An Immunomodulating Fatty Acid Analogue Targeting Mitochondria Exerts Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect beyond Plasma Cholesterol-Lowering Activity in apoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Cinzia; Bjørndal, Bodil; Holm, Sverre; Bohov, Pavol; Halvorsen, Bente; Brattelid, Trond; Manzini, Stefano; Ganzetti, Giulia S.; Dellera, Federica; Nygård, Ottar K.; Aukrust, Pål; Sirtori, Cesare R.; Chiesa, Giulia; Berge, Rolf K.

    2013-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a hypolipidemic antioxidant with immunomodulating properties involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and proliferation of mitochondria. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of TTA on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein (apo)-E-/- mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.3% TTA for 12 weeks. These mice displayed a significantly less atherosclerotic development vs control. Plasma cholesterol was increased by TTA administration and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in plasma and liver were decreased by TTA supplementation, the latter, probably due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipogenesis. TTA administration also changed the fatty acid composition in the heart, and the amount of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was reduced and increased, respectively. The heart mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxidase (NOS)-2 was decreased in TTA-treated mice, whereas the mRNA level of catalase was increased. Finally, reduced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators as IL-1α, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected in TTA-treated mice. These data show that TTA reduces atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice and modulates risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders. TTA probably acts at both systemic and vascular levels in a manner independent of changes in plasma cholesterol, and triggers TAG catabolism through improved mitochondrial function. PMID:24324736

  5. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in childhood: changes in serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and body mass index after 2 years of intervention in Jerusalem schoolchildren age 7-9 years.

    PubMed

    Tamir, D; Feurstein, A; Brunner, S; Halfon, S T; Reshef, A; Palti, H

    1990-01-01

    A school health education and promotion program, the Israeli version of the American Health Foundation's "Know Your Body" program, was developed by the Department of Public Health of the Municipality of Jerusalem in 1983. Eight experimental and eight control schools participated in this cohort study of Arab and Jewish first-grade children. After the first 2 years of intervention, comparison of experimental and control groups showed a significant increase in serum high density lipoproteins among Jewish children and a decrease in serum total cholesterol and body mass index among both Jewish and Arab children. These results indicate that changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors such as blood total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, and body mass index are possible after a health education program is introduced to first-grade students for a relatively short period of time.

  6. Sericin reduces serum cholesterol in rats and cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Trisat, Kanittaporn; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Tiyaboonchai, Waree; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote

    2010-12-08

    A cholesterol lowering effect of sericin was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Rats were dosed with cholesterol with and without sericin for 14 days. Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total serum cholesterols were reduced in rats fed high-cholesterol diet with all three tested doses of sericin (10, 100, and 1000 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). The potential mechanism of actions was determined by measuring the uptake of radiolabeled cholesterol into differentiated Caco-2 cells and cholesterol solubility in mixed lipid micelles. Concentration of sericin as low as 25 and 50 μg/mL inhibited 30% of cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells whereas no effect was found at higher concentration. Cholesterol micellar solubility was reduced in the presence of sericin. This study suggests the cholesterol lowering effect of sericin results from its inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestinal cells and its reduction of cholesterol solubility in lipid micelles.

  7. [Oil of Piper longum unsaponifiable matter prevents cholesterol gallstone formation].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuang; Hu, Jin-Feng; Chu, Shi-Feng; Han, Ning; Li, Jing-Wei; Li, Yue-Ting; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2013-07-01

    To observe the effect of various doses of oil of Piper longum unsaponifiable matter (OPUM) to cholesterol gallstones in experimental mice. C57BL/6 mice (n = 60) were randomly divided into 6 groups: control group, model group, OPUM (15, 30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, administered for 10 weeks. The level of serum lipid and liver function enzymes were tested. The gallbladder was removed and bile was obtained by centrifugation. Next, the levels of the bile total cholesterol (TC), phospholipid (PL) and bile acid (TBA) were measured. The indicators of lipid peroxidation were determined and cholesterol saturation index (CSI) was calculated. The liver histological changes were observed by HE staining. The results showed that serum TC, TG (triglycerides) and AST (aspartate transaminase) contents, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI increased significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of SOD decreased significantly and MDA content increased significantly in liver (P < 0.05). HE staining results showed that the hepatic cord disorder and intracellular lipid droplets increased significantly. All results indicate that lithogenic diet lead to the formation of cholesterol gallstones. In OPUM (30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, serum TC, TG and AST content, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI decreased significantly, the activity of SOD increased significantly and MDA content decreased significantly. HE staining results showed that OPUM can improve the morphology of liver cell, reduce the degree of hepatic cord disorders and restore the cell morphology close to normal. The cause of OPUM prevents cholesterol gallstone formation maybe due to protect the integrity of the liver cells, lower CSI, and reduce cholesterol crystal formation and hence prevent cholesterol gallstone formation.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic effect of sericin-derived oligopeptides in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Lapphanichayakool, Phakhamon; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effect of cholesterol-lowering proteins and/or peptides derived from various dietary sources is continuously reported. A non-dietary protein from silk cocoon, sericin, has also demonstrated cholesterol-lowering activity. A sericin hydrolysate prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis was also expected to posses this effect. The present study was aimed at investigating the cholesterol-lowering effect of sericin peptides, so called "sericin-derived oligopeptides" (SDO) both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that SDO at all three doses tested (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1), and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) suppressed serum total and non-HDL cholesterol levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed among all groups. The fecal contents of bile acids and cholesterol did not differ among high-cholesterol fed rats. SDO dose-dependently reduced cholesterol solubility in lipid micelles, and inhibited cholesterol uptake in monolayer Caco-2 cells. SDO also effectively bound to all three types of bile salts including taurocholate, deoxytaurocholate, and glycodeoxycholate. Direct interaction with bile acids of SDO may disrupt micellar cholesterol solubility, and subsequently reduce the absorption of dietary cholesterol in intestines. Taking all data together, SDO or sericin peptides exhibit a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol levels and could be potentially used as a health-promoting dietary supplement or nutraceutical product.

  9. Enhancement of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis accompanied by enhanced biliary but not very-low-density lipoprotein lipid secretion following sustained pravastatin blockade of hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Carrella, M; Fong, L G; Loguercio, C; Del Piano, C

    1999-05-01

    A 3-week treatment of rats with pravastatin (PV) augmented biliary cholesterol and phospholipid output 3.6- and 2.2-fold over controls, while bile acid (BA) output and kinetics were unchanged. No major changes were detected in hepatic and serum cholesterol concentrations despite the PV inhibitory property on hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase. To evaluate the mechanisms of this adaptive phenomenon, several parameters of hepatic lipid homeostasis were assessed. Biliary cholesterol changes could not be attributed to an increased influx of lipoprotein cholesterol to the liver and bile. Hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor content, as inferred from Western blot analysis, was unchanged, as was the biliary excretion of labeled cholesterol derived from chylomicron remnants. In vivo 3H2O-incorporation studies showed an 80% increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis, evidence for bypass of the PV block. Remarkably, fatty acid synthesis was also stimulated twofold, providing substrate for hepatic triglycerides, which were slightly enhanced. However, serum triglycerides decreased 52% associated with a 22% decrease in hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. Thus, the biochemical adaptation following PV treatment produces complex alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism. An enhanced supply of newly synthesized cholesterol and fatty acids in association with a limited VLDL secretion rate augments the biliary lipid secretion pathway in this experimental model.

  10. Transfer of cholesterol by the NPC team.

    PubMed

    Vance, Jean E

    2010-08-04

    The mechanisms of intracellular cholesterol transport are largely unknown. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Wang et al. (2010) identify amino acid residues on the lumenal lysosomal protein Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) that are required for intralysosomal transfer of endocytosed cholesterol to membrane-bound NPC1 via a process that avoids movement of hydrophobic cholesterol through the aqueous phase.

  11. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  12. The effects of clozapine on levels of total cholesterol and related lipids in serum of patients with schizophrenia: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, S M; Szemis, A; Andrews, H; Reveley, M A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 12 weeks of clozapine treatment on levels of cholesterol and related lipids in patients with schizophrenia. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University department associated with a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients (6 women and 2 men) with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia consistent with DSM-IV criteria. The patients were classified as treatment-resistant and had not responded to treatment with at least 2 conventional antipsychotics. INTERVENTIONS: Current antipsychotic medications were tapered and treatment with clozapine was initiated. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cholesterol and serum lipid levels, as well as Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores were measured before and after 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine. RESULTS: Clozapine treatment significantly improved the BPRS scores but did not significantly alter serum lipid levels, except triglyceride levels, which increased. CONCLUSION: The previously reported lower levels of cholesterol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia cannot be attributed to the effects of clozapine administration. Further research is required to support and clarify the effects of antipsychotic drugs on lipid levels. Images Fig. 1 PMID:10586536

  13. Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Budak, Nilgun H; Kumbul Doguc, Duygu; Savas, Cagri M; Seydim, Atif C; Kok Tas, Tugba; Ciris, Metin I; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2011-06-22

    Red delicious apples were used to produce natural apple cider with and without inclusion of maceration. Traditional surface and industrial submersion methods were then applied to make vinegar from apple ciders. Apple cider vinegar samples produced with inclusion of maceration in the surface method had the highest total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, ORAC, and TEAC levels. Cholesterol and apple vinegar samples were administered using oral gavage to all groups of rats except the control group. Apple cider vinegars, regardless of the production method, decreased triglyceride and VLDL levels in all groups when compared to animals on high-cholesterol diets without vinegar supplementation. Apple cider vinegars increased total cholesterol and HDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased liver function tests when compared to animals on a high-cholesterol diet without vinegar supplementation. A high-cholesterol diet resulted in hepatic steatosis. VSBM and VSB groups significantly decreased steatosis.

  14. PPARα-dependent cholesterol/testosterone disruption in Leydig cells mediates 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yukiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Ichikawa, Motoki; Kamijo, Yuji; Sugiyama, Eiko; Gonzalez, Frank J; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2016-12-01

    It was reported that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a commonly used herbicide and a possible endocrine disruptor, can disturb spermatogenesis, but the precise mechanism is not understood. Since 2,4-D is a weak peroxisome proliferator in hepatocytes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is also expressed in Leydig cells, this study aimed to investigate the link between PPARα and 2,4-D-mediated testicular dysfunction. 2,4-D (130 mg/kg/day) was administered to wild-type and Ppara-null mice for 2 weeks, and the alterations in testis and testosterone/cholesterol metabolism in Leydig cells were examined. Treatment with 2,4-D markedly decreased testicular testosterone in wild-type mice, leading to degeneration of spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. The 2,4-D decreased cholesterol levels in Leydig cells of wild-type mice through down-regulating the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase 1 and reductase, involved in de novo cholesterogenesis. However, the mRNAs encoding the important proteins involved in testosterone synthesis were unchanged by 2,4-D except for CYP17A1, indicating that exhausted cholesterol levels in the cells is a main reason for reduced testicular testosterone. Additionally, pregnancy rate and the number of pups between 2,4-D-treated wild-type male mice and untreated female mice were significantly lower compared with those between untreated couples. These phenomena were not observed in 2,4-D-treated Ppara-null males. Collectively, these results suggest a critical role for PPARα in 2,4-D-induced testicular toxicity due to disruption of cholesterol/testosterone homeostasis in Leydig cells. This study yields novel insights into the possible mechanism of testicular dysfunction and male infertility caused by 2,4-D.

  15. Cholesterol-deprivation increases mono-unsaturated very long-chain fatty acids in skin fibroblasts from patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Engelen, M; Ofman, R; Mooijer, P A W; Poll-The, B T; Wanders, R J A; Kemp, S

    2008-03-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder and is characterized by a striking and unpredictable variation in phenotypic expression. It ranges from a rapidly progressive and fatal cerebral demyelinating disease in childhood (CCALD), to the milder slowly progressive form in adulthood (AMN). X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes a peroxisomal membrane located ABC half-transporter named ALDP. Mutations in ALDP result in reduced beta-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA, >22 carbon atoms) in peroxisomes and elevated levels of VLCFA in plasma and tissues. Previously, it has been shown that culturing skin fibroblasts from X-ALD patients in lipoprotein-deficient medium results in reduced VLCFA levels and increased expression of the functionally redundant ALD-related protein (ALDRP). The aim of this study was to further resolve the interaction between cholesterol and VLCFA metabolism in X-ALD. Our data show that the reduction in 26:0 in X-ALD fibroblasts grown in lipoprotein-deficient culture medium (free of cholesterol) is offset by a significant increase in both the level and synthesis of 26:1. We also demonstrate that cholesterol-deprivation results in increased expression of stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD) and increased desaturation of 18:0 to 18:1. Finally, there was no increase in [1-(14)C]-26:0 beta-oxidation. Taken together, we conclude that cholesterol-deprivation reduces saturated VLCFA, but increases mono-unsaturated VLCFA. These data may have implications for treatment of X-ALD patients with lovastatin.

  16. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers.

  17. Cholesterol and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  18. Women and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  19. LDL Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities LDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  20. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  1. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  2. HDL Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  3. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  4. Role of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in nutrigenetics and pharmacogenetics of cholesterol lowering.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Bobkova, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between dietary composition/cholesterol-lowering therapy and final plasma lipid levels is to some extent genetically determined. It is clear that these responses are under polygenic control, with multiple variants in many genes participating in the total effect (and with each gene contributing a relatively small effect). Using different experimental approaches, several candidate genes have been analyzed to date.Interesting and consistent results have been published recently regarding the A-204C promoter variant in the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene. CYP7A1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis and therefore plays an important role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. CYP7A1-204CC homozygotes have the greatest decrease in total cholesterol level in response to dietary changes in different types of dietary intervention studies. In contrast, one study has reported that the effect of statins in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels was slightly greater in -204AA homozygotes. The CYP7A1 A-204C variant accounts for a significant proportion of the genetic predisposition of the response of plasma cholesterol levels.

  5. Association of fatty acids in serum phospholipids with hay fever, specific and total immunoglobulin E.

    PubMed

    Kompauer, Iris; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Bolte, Gabriele; Linseisen, Jakob; Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-04-01

    The dietary intake of certain fatty acids might contribute to the development of allergic diseases such as hay fever and asthma. We investigated the association between the concentrations of fifteen fatty acids in serum phospholipids, as a marker of dietary intake and metabolism, and hay fever, allergic sensitisation and total IgE in adults. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study on respiratory health, including the measurement of fatty acids in the serum phospholipids of 740 adults between 20 and 64 years of age, were analysed. Positive associations were found between hay fever and arachidonic acid, and allergic sensitisation and oleic acid. No other fatty acids showed any association with hay fever or allergic sensitisation. Elevated levels of total IgE were not related to fatty acids. Concentrations of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, trans fatty acids or saturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids were not associated with allergic diseases in adults in this study. The present result on the association between hay fever and arachidonic acid is consistent with current hypotheses but warrants further research.

  6. Enteral obeticholic acid promotes intestinal growth in total parenteral nutrition fed neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal atrophy is an adverse outcome associated with prolonged total parenteral nutrition (PN) partly due to disruption of normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Previously we showed that enteral treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a dual agonist for the nuclear receptor, farne...

  7. Consumption of high-oleic acid ground beef increases HDL-cholesterol concentration but both high- and low-oleic acid ground beef decrease HDL particle diameter in normocholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, L Anne; Walzem, Rosemary L; Crouse, Stephen F; Smith, Dana R; Adams, Thaddeus H; Vaidyanathan, Vidya; Cao, Xiaojuan; Smith, Stephen B

    2011-06-01

    On the basis of previous results from this laboratory, this study tested the hypothesis that ground beef high in MUFA and low in SFA would increase the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and LDL particle diameter. In a crossover dietary intervention, 27 free-living normocholesterolemic men completed treatments in which five 114-g ground beef patties/wk were consumed for 5 wk with an intervening 4-wk washout period. Patties contained 24% total fat with a MUFA:SFA ratio of either 0.71 (low MUFA, from pasture-fed cattle) or 1.10 (high MUFA, from grain-fed cattle). High-MUFA ground beef provided 3.21 g more 18:1(n-9), 1.26 g less 18:0, 0.89 g less 16:0, and 0.36 g less 18:1(trans) fatty acids per patty than did the low-MUFA ground beef. Both ground beef interventions decreased plasma insulin and HDL(2) and HDL(3) particle diameters and increased plasma 18:0 and 20:4(n-6) (all P ≤ 0.05) relative to baseline values. Only the high-MUFA ground beef intervention increased the HDL-C concentration from baseline (P = 0.02). The plasma TG concentration was positively correlated with the plasma insulin concentration (r = 0.40; P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with HDL-C (r = -0.47; P < 0.001) and plasma 18:0 (r = -0.24; P < 0.01). Plasma insulin and HDL diameters were not correlated (r = 0.01; P > 0.50), indicating that reductions in these measures were not coordinately regulated. The data indicate that dietary beef interventions have effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease that are independent (insulin, HDL diameters) and dependent (HDL-C) on beef fatty acid composition.

  8. Epigenetic regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Although best known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cholesterol is a vital component of all mammalian cells. In addition to key structural roles, cholesterol is a vital biochemical precursor for numerous biologically important compounds including oxysterols and bile acids, as well as acting as an activator of critical morphogenic systems (e.g., the Hedgehog system). A variety of sophisticated regulatory mechanisms interact to coordinate the overall level of cholesterol in cells, tissues and the entire organism. Accumulating evidence indicates that in additional to the more “traditional” regulatory schemes, cholesterol homeostasis is also under the control of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation. The available evidence supporting a role for these mechanisms in the control of cholesterol synthesis, elimination, transport and storage are the focus of this review. PMID:25309573

  9. Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss and Blood Transfusion Reduction after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Young-Jun; Seon, Jong-Keun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Jin, Cheng; Prakash, Jatin; Park, Yong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) accompanies the risk of bleeding and need for transfusion. There are several methods to reduce postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion. One such method is using tranexamic acid during TKA. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion after TKA. Materials and Methods A total of 100 TKA patients were included in the study. The tranexamic acid group consisted of 50 patients who received an intravenous injection of tranexamic acid. The control included 50 patients who received a placebo injection. The amounts of drainage, postoperative hemoglobin, and transfusion were compared between the groups. Results The mean amount of drainage was lower in the tranexamic acid group (580.6±355.0 mL) than the control group (886.0±375.5 mL). There was a reduction in the transfusion rate in the tranexamic acid group (48%) compared with the control group (64%). The hemoglobin level was higher in the tranexamic acid group than in the control group at 24 hours postoperatively. The mean units of transfusion were smaller in the tranexamic acid group (0.76 units) than in the control group (1.28 units). Conclusions Our data suggest that intravenous injection of tranexamic acid decreases the total blood loss and transfusion after TKA. PMID:27595071

  10. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  11. Chylomicron remnant cholesteryl esters as the major constituent of very low density lipoproteins in plasma of cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ross, A C; Zilversmit, D B

    1977-03-01

    Feeding rabbits 500 mg of cholesterol daily for 4 to 15 days greatly increased the concentration of esterified cholesterol in lipoproteins of d less than 1.006 g/ml. The origin of hypercholesterolemic very low density lipoproteins was investigated by monitoring the degradation of labeled lymph chyomicrons administered to normal and cholesterol-fed rabbits. Chylomicrons were labeled in vivo by feeding either 1) [3H]cholesterol and [14C]oleic acid or 2) [14C]cholesterol and [3H]retinyl acetate. After intravenous injection of labeled chylomicrons to recipient rabbits, [14C]triglyceride hydrolysis was equally rapid in normal and cholesterol-fed animals. Normal rabbits rapidly removed from plasma both labeled cholesteryl and retinyl esters, whereas cholesterol-fed rabbits retained nearly 50% of doubly labeled remnants in plasma 25 min after chylomicron injection. Ultracentrifugal separation of plasma into subfractions of very low density lipoproteins showed that chylomicron remnants in cholesterol-fed animals are found among all subclasses of very low density lipoproteins. Analysis of cholesteryl ester specific activity-time curves for the very low density lipoproteins subfraction from hypercholesterolemic plasma showed that nearly all esterified cholesterol in large very low density lipoproteins and approximately 30% of esterified cholesterol in small very low density lipoproteins was derived from chylomicron degradation. Apparently, nearly two-thirds of the esterified cholesterol in total very low density lipoproteins from moderately hypercholesterolemic rabbits is of dietary origin.

  12. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  13. Effects of soluble and insoluble fractions from bilberries, black currants, and raspberries on short-chain fatty acid formation, anthocyanin excretion, and cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Nilsson, Ulf; Blanco, Narda; Sterner, Olov; Nyman, Margareta

    2014-05-14

    Dietary fiber and flavonoids, important components in berries, are suggested to improve metabolic health. This study investigates whether soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from bilberry, black currant, and raspberry affect the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), uptake and excretion of flavonoids, and levels of cholesterol differently. Cecal SCFA pools were higher in rats fed the soluble than the insoluble fractions (525 vs 166 μmol, P < 0.001), whereas higher concentrations of butyric acid were found in the distal colon and serum of rats fed the insoluble fractions (5 vs 3 μmol/g and 58 vs 29 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.001). The soluble bilberry fraction gave lower amounts of liver cholesterol (56 mg) than the other berry fractions (87 ± 5 mg), formed the highest amount of SCFAs (746 vs 266 ± 21 μmol), and contributed the highest intake of anthocyanins. Cyanidin-3-glucoside monoglucuronide was detected in the urine of all groups, whereas anthocyanins were found only in groups fed soluble black currant and raspberry.

  14. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7–14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk. PMID:27741299

  15. PKCβ: Expanding role in hepatic adaptation of cholesterol homeostasis to dietary fat/cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Devina; Mehta, Kamal D

    2017-03-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis relies on an intricate network of cellular processes whose deregulation in response to Western type high-fat/cholesterol diets can lead to several life-threatening pathologies. Significant advances have been made in resolving the molecular identity and regulatory function of transcription factors sensitive to fat, cholesterol, or bile acids, but whether body senses the presence of both fat and cholesterol simultaneously is not known. Assessing the impact of a high-fat/cholesterol load, rather than an individual component alone, on cholesterol homeostasis is more physiologically relevant because Western diets deliver both fat and cholesterol at the same time. Moreover, dietary fat and dietary cholesterol are reported to act synergistically to impair liver cholesterol homeostasis. A key insight into the role of protein kinase C-β (PKCβ) in hepatic adaptation to high-fat/cholesterol diets was gained recently through the use of knockout mice. The emerging evidence indicates that PKCβ is an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis that ensures normal adaptation to high-fat/cholesterol intake. Consistent with this function, high-fat/cholesterol diets induce PKCβ expression and signaling in the intestine and liver, while systemic PKCβ deficiency promotes accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and bile. PKCβ disruption results in profound dysregulation of hepatic cholesterol and bile homeostasis and imparts sensitivity to cholesterol gallstone formation. The available results support involvement of a two-pronged mechanism by which intestine and liver PKCβ signaling converge on liver ERK1/2 to dictate diet-induced cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis. Collectively, PKCβ is an integrator of dietary fat/cholesterol signal and mediates changes to cholesterol homeostasis.

  16. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with the minimum ratio of total soluble solids to anhydrous citric acid: Table II Total soluble solids (average pct) Maximum anhydrous citric acid (average pct) Minimum ratio of total soluble solids to... 1.027 9.25-1 9.6 1.043 9.20-1 9.7 1.060 9.15-1 9.8 1.077 9.10-1 9.9 1.094 9.05-1 10.0 1.111...

  17. Electron spin echo modulation studies of doxylstearic acid spin probes in frozen vesicles: Interaction of the spin probe with D sub 2 O and effects of cholesterol addition

    SciTech Connect

    Hiff, T.; Kevan, L. )

    1989-02-23

    Electron spin echo studies have been carried out for a series of x-doxylstearic acid (x = 5, 7, 10, 12 and 16) spin probes in frozen deuteriated aqueous solutions of phospholipid vesicles and cationic dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) vesicles. Modulation effects due to interactions of the nitroxide group of the spin probes with D{sub 2}O give information about the conformations of the probes and the degree of hydration of the surfactant headgroups as well as about the degree of packing of the alkyl chain. We show that DODAC headgroups are more hydrated than choline headgroups and that the doxylstearic acid probes show a larger tendency for bending in DODAC vesicles than in phospholipid vesicles. Upon addition of cholesterol into phospholipid vesicles, the headgroups are separated and their degree of hydration increases.

  18. Early steps in steroidogenesis: intracellular cholesterol trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2011-01-01

    Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol, primarily derived from lipoproteins that enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. In endo-lysosomes, cholesterol is released from cholesterol esters by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL; disordered in Wolman disease) and exported via Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) proteins (disordered in NPC disease). These diseases are characterized by accumulated cholesterol and cholesterol esters in most cell types. Mechanisms for trans-cytoplasmic cholesterol transport, membrane insertion, and retrieval from membranes are less clear. Cholesterol esters and “free” cholesterol are enzymatically interconverted in lipid droplets. Cholesterol transport to the cholesterol-poor outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) appears to involve cholesterol transport proteins. Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) then initiates steroidogenesis by converting cholesterol to pregnenolone on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Acute steroidogenic responses are regulated by cholesterol delivery from OMM to IMM, triggered by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Chronic steroidogenic capacity is determined by CYP11A1 gene transcription. StAR mutations cause congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, with absent steroidogenesis, potentially lethal salt loss, and 46,XY sex reversal. StAR mutations initially destroy most, but not all steroidogenesis; low levels of StAR-independent steroidogenesis are lost later due to cellular damage, explaining the clinical findings. Rare P450scc mutations cause a similar syndrome. This review addresses these early steps in steroid biosynthesis. PMID:21976778

  19. Indole diterpene synthetic studies. Total synthesis of (+)-nodulisporic acid F and construction of the heptacyclic cores of (+)-nodulisporic acids A and B and (-)-nodulisporic acid D.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Davulcu, Akin H; Cho, Young Shin; Ohmoto, Kazuyuki; Kürti, László; Ishiyama, Haruaki

    2007-06-22

    A first-generation strategy for construction of (+)-nodulisporic acids A (1) and B (2) is described. The strategy entails union of the eastern and western hemisphere subtargets via the indole synthesis protocol developed in our laboratory. Subsequent elaboration of rings E and F, however, revealed the considerable acid instability of the C(24) hydroxyl, thereby preventing further advancement. Nonetheless, preparation of the heptacyclic core of (+)-nodulisporic acids A and B, the total synthesis of (+)-nodulisporic acid F, the simplest member of the nodulisporic acid family, and elaboration of the heptacyclic core of (-)-nodulisporic acid D were achieved.

  20. Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tomoko; Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2007-12-01

    We examined the effects of different types of buckwheat sprouts on the plasma cholesterol concentration, fecal steroid excretion and hepatic mRNA expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 5 g of Kitawasesoba common buckwheat sprout powder (KS)/100 g, 5 g of Hokkai T no. 8 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-8)/100 g or 5 g of Hokkai T no. 9 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-9)/100 g of diet for 4 wk. Control rats were fed a diet with alpha-cornstarch instead of sprout powder for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in food intake, body weight, liver weight or cecal contents among the groups. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly lower than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the KS and control groups. Fecal bile acid excretion and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly greater than in the control group. Furthermore, fecal matter excretion in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups tended to be increased compared to the control group, with that in the HS-8 group being significantly higher than in the control group. Hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the HS-9 group were significantly higher than in the control group. The results suggest that tartary buckwheat sprout powder has a serum cholesterol-lowering function by enhancing fecal bile acid excretion through increased fecal matter excretion or the upregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats.

  1. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies have been linked to AD, CVD, and cancer. Results Using plasmalogen deficient (NRel-4) and plasmalogen sufficient (HEK293) cells we investigated the effect of species-dependent plasmalogen restoration/augmentation on membrane cholesterol processing. The results of these studies indicate that the esterification of cholesterol is dependent upon the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-containing ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn) present in the membrane. We further elucidate that the concentration-dependent increase in esterified cholesterol observed with PUFA-PlsEtn was due to a concentration-dependent increase in sterol-O-acyltransferase-1 (SOAT1) levels, an observation not reproduced by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibition. Conclusion The present study describes a novel mechanism of cholesterol regulation that is consistent with clinical and epidemiological studies of cholesterol, aging and disease. Specifically, the present study describes how selective membrane PUFA-PlsEtn enhancement can be achieved using 1-alkyl-2-PUFA glycerols and through this action reduce levels of total and free cholesterol in cells. PMID:20546600

  2. Effects of FSH extracted from in vitro cultured anterior pituitary cells of male buffalo calves on body and testes weight, serum FSH and total cholesterol and hematological variables in male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Muhammad Riaz; Ahmad, Nazir; Ahmad, Ijaz; Akhtar, Nafees; Ali, Shujait; Zubair, Muhammad; Murtaza, Saeed

    2014-11-30

    In this study, anterior pituitary glands were collected from 12 young male buffalo calves after slaughter, cultured with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen stimulus and the extract obtained. Adult male rabbits (n = 15) were divided into three equal groups. Rabbits of Group A served as control; those of Groups B and C were given extract containing 4 and 8 mIU of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), respectively twice daily for 3 weeks. Body weight of rabbits was recorded before and after treatment; blood samples were collected after treatment and analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), platelet counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), while serum samples were analyzed for FSH and total cholesterol. Then, all rabbits were slaughtered, and weight of paired testes was recorded. Results showed that the values for weight gain, RBC count, WBC count, PCV and MCH did not differ among rabbits of three groups. Blood Hb was greater (P < 0.05) in rabbits of Group B than Group C. Testis weight, serum FSH, total cholesterol and blood platelets count were greater in rabbits of Groups B and C, while MCV was less in rabbits of Group C, compared to the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in vitro cultured cells of adenohypophysis from male buffalo calves showed FSH activity. This FSH increased testes size, serum FSH, total cholesterol and blood platelets counts and decreased MCV in rabbits. However, it had no effect on weight gain, RBC counts, WBC counts, PCV and MCH.

  3. Epiberberine reduces serum cholesterol in diet-induced dyslipidemia Syrian golden hamsters via network pathways involving cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zong-Yao; Hu, Yin-Ran; Ma, Hang; Feng, Min; Li, Xue-Gang; Ye, Xiao-Li

    2016-03-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effect of epiberberine in dyslipidemia Syrian golden hamsters induced by high fat and high cholesterol (HFHC) diet and its regulation mechanism on some key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into six groups: normal control group (NC), HFHC group, simvastatin (Sim) and three doses of epiberberine group. The body weight, organs weight and serum lipid levels, as well as total cholesterol (TC) and total bile acids (TBA) levels in liver and feces were determined. Furthermore, the antidyslipidemia effect of epiberberine on key genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, conversion and elimination such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor), 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) were investigated. The results showed that epiberberine at high dosage significantly reduced serum TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and TBA levels by 20.2%, 22.3% and 43.8%, respectively, and increased TBA and TC levels in feces. Epiberberine inhibited HMGCR mRNA and protein expressions and slightly reduced the protein level of ASBT, as well as dramatically up-regulated mRNA and protein expressions of CYP7A1 and LDL receptor. These findings suggested that the antidyslipidemia effects of epiberberine can be achieved via inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol, promoting the uptake and conversion of TC in liver and increasing the excretion of TC and TBA in feces. Thus, epiberberine should be considered as one of the promising natural drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  4. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  5. Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Natalie Marinho; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Ferreira, Fernanda Silva; Labre, Tatiana da Silva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.

  6. Effects of fatty acid supplements on ruminal and total tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient digestion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 +/- 12 days in milk, mean +/- SD) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from supplemented saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). All rations contained identical forage and concentrate components including 37.2% forage and 13.5% cottonseed. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and linearly decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. The reduction in ruminal NDF digestibility was because of a linear decrease in digestion rate and a linear increase in passage rate of potentially digestible NDF with increasing saturated FS. Total tract digestibility of NDF was not different between treatments because of compensatory postruminal digestion. Ruminal fatty acid and C18 fatty acid digestibility tended to increase linearly with increasing unsaturated FS, and postruminal C18 fatty acid digestibility decreased with increasing saturated FS. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal organic matter digestibility and decreased intestinal long-chain fatty acid digestibility, although differences in fatty acid digestibility may be partially explained by fatty acid intake.

  7. Linoleic acid suppresses cholesterol efflux and ATP-binding cassette transporters in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly associated with elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Paradoxically, evidence suggests that unsaturated, compared to saturated fatty acids, suppress macrophage chole...

  8. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern.

  9. Serum amino acid concentrations in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition with an amino acid plus dextrose mixture.

    PubMed

    Philcox, J C; Hartley, T F; Worthley, L I; Thomas, D W

    1984-01-01

    The results of monitoring the serum amino acid concentrations during three infusion regimens using a 5:4 mixture of 70% glucose and the synthetic L-amino acid solution, Synthamin 17 (Travasol) are reported. Twelve stabilized patients received continuous total parenteral nutrition (TPN), eight of whom were subsequently placed on a second regimen of cyclical feeding. A separate group of five patients was infused with amino acids, both with and without simultaneous glucose. The serum amino acid concentrations indicated that the supply of valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine, and the synthesis of taurine from the infused methionine was suboptimal, particularly if the period of TPN was prolonged. The synthesis of tyrosine from phenylalanine appeared to be inversely proportional to the infusion rate of the TPN mixture, in particular the glucose component, resulting in depressed tyrosine and increased phenylalanine concentrations in serum during continuous iv nutrition. Cyclical infusions, on the other hand, permitted the tyrosine and phenylalanine concentrations to return to normal during the noninfusion stage of the cycle. Amino acid measurements enabled us to design an amino acids additive mixture which normalized the serum concentrations in three long-term home parenteral nutrition patients. As a result of these investigations serum amino acid measurements are used routinely to monitor the efficacy of TPN and accommodate any specific amino acid requirements of individual patients.

  10. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  11. The inhibitory effect of black soybean on hepatic cholesterol accumulation in high cholesterol and high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2013-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as excess of fat in the liver. We investigated the effects of black soybean on the cholesterol metabolism and insulin resistance of mice fed high cholesterol/fat diets. Mice were randomly allocated into four groups that were fed different diets: the normal cholesterol/fat diet; high cholesterol/fat diets (HCD); and HCD with 1%, and 4% black soybean powder (1B-HCD, and 4B-HCD). Liver total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the black soybean-supplemented groups than that in the HCD group. PCR revealed significantly lower hepatic SREBP2 and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels of black soybean-supplemented mice. Real-time PCR revealed significantly higher hepatic ABCA1 mRNA level of black soybean-supplemented mice, which may increase cholesterol efflux. Liver bile acids concentration was significantly high in the 4B-HCD group. Black soybean stimulated secretion of adiponectin, activation of pAMPK, and eliminated free fatty acids in the liver. Black soybean supplementation decreased MDA and nitrate level. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GPx were restored by black soybean supplementation. Our data strongly indicate that black soybean influences the balance between oxidative and antioxidative stress. We suggest that black soybean improves cholesterol metabolism, insulin resistance, and alleviates oxidative damage in NAFLD.

  12. What Is Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  13. What Is Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol A A A What's ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  14. Total synthesis of racemic and (R) and (S)-4-methoxyalkanoic acids and their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswanath; Shinde, Digambar Balaji; Kanth, Boddu Shashi; Kamle, Avijeet; Kumar, C Ganesh

    2011-07-01

    The total synthesis of 4-methoxydecanoic acid and 4-methoxyundecanoic acid in racemic and stereoselective [(R) and (S)] forms has been accomplished. For stereoselective synthesis of the compounds (S) and (R)-BINOL complexes have been used to generate the required chiral centres. The antifungal activity of these compounds has been studied against different organisms and the results were found to be impressive. The activity of the compounds in racemic and in stereoselective forms was compared. (R)-4-Methoxydecanoic acid was found to be most potent (MIC: 0.019 mg/mL against Candida albicans MTCC 227, C. albicans MTCC 4748, Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) MTCC 281 and Issatchenkia orientalis MTCC 3020).

  15. Fluorimetric determination of total ascorbic acid by a stopped-flow mixing technique.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Fenoll, J; Fenol, J

    2001-08-01

    A simple, rapid and automatic fluorimetric method for the determination of total ascorbic acid is described. The method makes use of the stopped-flow mixing technique in order to achieve the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid by dissolved oxygen to dehydroascorbic acid, which then reacts with o-phenylenediamine to form a fluorescent quinoxaline. The initial rate and fluorescence signal of this system are directly proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-30 microg ml(-1) (kinetic method) and 0.25-34 microg ml(-1) (equilibrium method). The precision (% RSD) was close to 0.5%. The method has been used for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, fruit juices, soft drinks and blood serum.

  16. Comparison study between fasting total serum bile acid and post prandial bile acid in hepatic diseases: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Boonyapisit, S; Lekhakula, S; Amornkittichareon, B; Shumnumsirivath, D

    1994-01-01

    Fasting bile acid, two-hour post prandial bile acid and other liver function tests (Bili, AST, ALT, ALB, Glob, ALP) were measured in 22 normal and 28 liver diseased patients. In normal volunteers, the mean value of fasting total serum bile acid (FTBA) and postprandial serum bile acid (PTBA) were 3.08 mumole/L (S.D. 1.65) range 0.21-6.26 mumol/L, and 8.07 mumole/L (S.D. 2.99) range 4.06-15.65 mumole/L. Comparison between FTBA, PTBA and other liver function tests in various liver diseases from this study the PTBA was not statistically significant superior to FTBA. Therefore, it is not necessary to do the PTBA at this time until more data is available.

  17. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion in the rat. Role of hepatic cholesterol esterification.

    PubMed Central

    Nervi, F; Bronfman, M; Allalón, W; Depiereux, E; Del Pozo, R

    1984-01-01

    Although the significance of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in the solubilization and biliary excretion of cholesterol is well established, little is known about the intrahepatic determinants of biliary cholesterol output. Studies were undertaken to elucidate some of these determinants in the rat. Feeding 1% diosgenin for 1 wk increased biliary cholesterol output and saturation by 400%. Bile flow, biliary bile salt, phospholipid and protein outputs remained in the normal range. When ethynyl estradiol (EE) was injected into these animals, biliary cholesterol output decreased to almost normal levels under circumstances of minor changes in the rates of biliary bile salt and phospholipid outputs. Similarly, when chylomicron cholesterol was intravenously injected into diosgenin-fed animals, biliary cholesterol output significantly decreased as a function of the dose of chylomicron cholesterol administered. Relative rates of hepatic cholesterol synthesis and esterification were measured in isolated hepatocytes. Although hepatic cholesterogenesis increased 300% in diosgenin-fed animals, the contribution of newly synthesized cholesterol to total biliary cholesterol output was only 19 +/- 9%, compared with 12 +/- 6% in control and 15 +/- 5% in diosgenin-fed and EE-injected rats. The rate of oleate incorporation into hepatocytic cholesterol esters was 30% inhibited in diosgenin-fed rats. When EE was injected into these animals, the rate of cholesterol esterification increased to almost 300%. To investigate further the interrelationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and biliary cholesterol output, we studied 21 diosgenin-fed rats. Six of them received in addition EE and 10 received chylomicron cholesterol. The relationships between biliary cholesterol output as a function of both microsomal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and hepatic cholesterol ester concentration were significantly correlated in a reciprocal manner. From these

  18. Economic impact of tranexamic acid in healthy patients undergoing primary total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Blake P; Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Duncan, Christopher M; Smith, Hugh M; Trousdale, Robert T; Pagnano, Mark W; Sierra, Rafael J

    2013-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TA) has been shown to reduce perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion. While concern remains about the cost of antifibrinolytic medication, we hypothesized that routine use of tranexamic acid would result in lower direct hospital total cost by decreasing costs associated with blood transfusion, laboratory testing, and room & board. Patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class II or less undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty at a single institution during 2007-2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The estimated mean direct hospital total cost, operating room, blood/lab, room & board, and pharmacy costs were compared between patients who did and did not receive TA. The study population included 1018 patients, and 580 patients received TA. The mean direct total cost of hospitalization with and without TA was $15,099 and $15,978 (P<.0002) respectively, a difference of $879. The only increased cost associated with TA was the pharmacy cost which was $921 versus $781 (P<.0001). The routine use of tranexamic acid TA was associated with lower mean direct hospital total costs after primary total hip and knee arthroplasty as the increase in pharmacy costs was more than offset by cost savings in other categories.

  19. [The high content of palmitinic fatty acid in food as a major cause of increase of concentration of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins and atheromatous plaques of arteries' intima].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2013-02-01

    The positioning of individual triglycerides of blood serum in palmitinic and oleic lipoproteins ofvery low density in the order ofincrease of the rate constant of their hydrolysis under action of post-heparin lipoprotein leads to the sequence as follows: palmitoil-palmitoil-palmitate-->palmitoil-palmitoil-oleate-->palmitoil-oleil-palmitat-->oleil-palmitoil-palmitate-->oleil-palmitate-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-oleate. The shift to the left and to the right is discerned with this spectrum of isoforms of triglycerides. The shift to the left into direction of palmitinicc triglycerides occurs in case of eating of animal food (i.e. beef andfoodstuf of fat saw milk) when the content of palmitinic saturated fatty acid supersedes 15% of fatty acids total and under the development of endogenic syndrome of insulin resistance. The content of low density lipoproteins cholesterol is high in blood The shift to the right with prevalence of oleinic triglycerides occurs in case of low content of beef and foodstuff of fat saw milk in food, fish eating, seafood and olive oil. The physiologic levels of carbohydrates in food and insulin function are present too. The shift to the right initiates the action of insulin, ometa-3 essential polyenic fatty acids, glytazones and fibrates. They increase the activity of delta9-stearil-KoA-desaturase-2 and the transformation of palmitine saturated fatty acid into mono unsaturated oleinic fatty acid. The shift to the left forms the palmitine alternative of metabolism of substrate to supply cells with energy. The shift to the right is a more effective oleinic alternative.

  20. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.

  1. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    MedlinePlus

    ... Checked Print This Topic En español Get Your Cholesterol Checked Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cholesterol Test ... How often do I need to get my cholesterol checked? The general recommendation is to get your ...

  2. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  3. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  4. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  5. Total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester via Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marek; Bałczewski, Piotr; Owsianik, Krzysztof; Różycka-Sokołowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard

    2016-02-07

    In this paper, we have described the first total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester from non-natural sources, in four steps (20% overall yield). The key step involves the Diels-Alder reaction of isobenzofuran with methyl 3-(dimethoxyphosphoryl)acrylate which is controlled by "ortho" regio- and endo stereoselectivities due to the COOMe group.

  6. Total synthesis of (−)-dihydroprotolichesterenic acid via diastereoselective conjugate addition to chiral fumarates

    PubMed Central

    Hethcox, J. Caleb; Shanahan, Charles S.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    A diastereoselective conjugate addition of a variety of monoorganocuprates, Li[RCuI], to chiral fumarates to provide funtionalized succinates has been developed. The utility of this reaction is demonstrated in a concise total synthesis of (−)-dihydroprotolichesterenic acid that required only four steps and proceeded in an overall 31% yield. PMID:23539490

  7. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1020 - Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acid phosphatase (total or prostatic) test system. 862.1020 Section 862.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  12. [Metabolic pathway and metabolites of total diterpene acid isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Guo, Hong-Zhu; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Xu, Man; Guo, Hui; Sun, Shi-Feng; Guo, De-An

    2014-08-01

    The preliminary metabolic profile of total diterpene acid (TDA) isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro tests. Pseudolaric acid C2 (PC2) was identified as the predominant metabolite in plasma, urine, bile and feces after both oral and intravenous administrations to rats using HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI/MS(n), and demethoxydeacetoxypseudolaric acid B (DDPB), a metabolite proposed to be the glucoside of PC2 (PC2G), as well as pseudolaric acid C (PC), pseudolaric acid A (PA), pseudolaric acid A O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PAG), pseudolaric acid B O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PBG) and deacetylpseudolaric acid A (DPA) originated from TDA could also be detected. It was demonstrated by tests that the metabolism of TDA is independent of intestinal microflora, and neither of pepsin and trypsin is in charge of metabolism of TDA, TDA is also stable in both pH environments of gastric tract and intestinal tract. The metabolites of TDA in whole blood in vitro incubation were found to be PC2, DDPB and PC2G, which demonstrated that the metabolic reaction of TDA in vivo is mainly occurred in blood and contributed to be the hydrolysis of plasma esterase to ester bond, as well as the glucosylation reaction. These results clarified the metabolic pathway of TDA for the first time, which is of great significance to the in vivo active form and acting mechanism research of P. kaempferi.

  13. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood

    2013-02-01

    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  14. Cell Cholesterol Homeostasis: Mediation by Active Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Theodore L.; Lange, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the major pathways mediating cell cholesterol homeostasis respond to a common signal: active membrane cholesterol. Active cholesterol is that fraction which exceeds the complexing capacity of the polar bilayer lipids. Increments in plasma membrane cholesterol exceeding this threshold have an elevated chemical activity (escape tendency) and redistribute via diverse transport proteins to both circulating plasma lipoproteins and intracellular organelles. Active cholesterol prompts several feedback responses thereby. It is the substrate for its own esterification and for the synthesis of regulatory side-chain oxysterols. It also stimulates manifold pathways that down-regulate the biosynthesis, curtail the ingestion and increase the export of cholesterol. Thus, the abundance of cholesterol is tightly coupled to that of its polar lipid partners through active cholesterol. PMID:20843692

  15. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  16. Senescent case of cholesterol ester storage disease that progressed to liver cirrhosis with a novel mutation (N250H) of lysosomal acid lipase gene.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Seiichiro; Watanabe, Norihito; Takashimizu, Shinji; Kagawa, Tatehiro; Shiraishi, Koichi; Koizumi, Jun; Hirabayashi, Ken-Ichi; Ohkubo, Tomoichi; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Michio; Mine, Tetsuya

    2013-12-01

    The patient, a 69-year-old man, had a chief complaint of hepatomegaly. The liver was palpated four fingerbreadths below the costal margin, and the spleen was three fingerbreadths below the costal margin. There were no other abnormal findings. Laparoscopy showed that the liver resembled an orange-yellow crayon in appearance and was nodular. The pathological findings of the liver biopsy tissue were consistent with liver cirrhosis. Inside the fibrous septum was an apparent aggregation of enlarged macrophages that phagocytosed lipid components, as well as enlarged Kupffer cells that phagocytosed lipid droplets. Electron microscopy showed the lipid droplets to have a moth-eaten appearance. Using monocytes extracted from the peripheral blood, acid lipase activity was measured by fluorescence spectrometry using 4-methylumbelliferone palmitate as a substrate. This patient's human lysosomal acid lipase activity was 0.020 nM/min per 10(6)  cells, corresponding to 5.9% of that in healthy subjects (0.332 ± 0.066 nM/min per 10(6)  cells). Cholesterol ester storage disease was therefore diagnosed. The acid lipase A base sequence obtained from leukocytes by direct sequencing was compared with a library. This patient had a point mutation of N250H/N250H in exon 7, a novel gene abnormality that has not previously been reported.

  17. Direct sensing of total acidity by chronopotentiometric flash titrations at polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gemene, Kebede L; Bakker, Eric

    2008-05-15

    Polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes containing lipophilic ionophores are traditionally interrogated by zero current potentiometry, which, ideally, gives information on the sample activity of ionic species. It is shown here that a discrete cathodic current pulse across an H (+)-selective polymeric membrane doped with the ionophore ETH 5294 may be used for the chronopotentiometric detection of pH in well-buffered samples. However, a reduction in the buffer capacity leads to large deviations from the expected Nernstian response slope. This is explained by the local depletion of hydrogen ions at the sample-membrane interface as a result of the galvanostatically imposed ion flux in direction of the membrane. This depletion is found to be a function of the total acidity of the sample and can be directly monitored chronopotentiometrically in a flash titration experiment. The subsequent application of a baseline potential pulse reverses the extraction process of the current pulse, allowing one to interrogate the sample with minimal perturbation. In one protocol, total acidity is found to be proportional to the magnitude of applied current at the flash titration end point. More conveniently, the square root of the flash titration end point time observed at a fixed applied current is a linear function of the total acid concentration. This suggests that it is possible to perform rapid localized pH titrations at ion-selective electrodes without the need for volumetric titrimetry. The technique is explored here for acetic acid, MES and citric acid with promising results. Polymeric membrane electrodes based on poly(vinyl chloride) plasticized with o-nitrophenyl octyl ether in a 1:2 mass ratio may be used for the detection of acids of up to ca. 1 mM concentration, with flash titration times on the order of a few seconds. Possible limitations of the technique are discussed, including variations of the acid diffusion coefficients and influence of electrical migration.

  18. Stability effect of cholesterol-poly(acrylic acid) in a stimuli-responsive polymer-liposome complex obtained from soybean lecithin for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Simões, M G; Alves, P; Carvalheiro, Manuela; Simões, P N

    2017-04-01

    The development of polymer-liposome complexes (PLCs), in particular for biomedical applications, has grown significantly in the last decades. The importance of these studies comes from the emerging need in finding intelligent controlled release systems, more predictable, effective and selective, for applications in several areas, such as treatment and/or diagnosis of cancer, neurological, dermatological, ophthalmic and orthopedic diseases, gene therapy, cosmetic treatments, and food engineering. This work reports the development and characterization of a pH sensitive system for controlled release based on PLCs. The selected hydrophilic polymer was poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a cholesterol (CHO) end-group to improve the anchoring of the polymer into the lipid bilayer. The polymer was incorporated into liposomes formulated from soybean lecithin and stearylamine, with different stearylamine/phospholipid and polymer/phospholipid ratios (5, 10 and 20%). The developed PLCs were characterized in terms of particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, release profiles, and encapsulation efficiency. Cell viability studies were performed to assess the cytotoxic potential of PLCs. The results showed that the liposomal formulation with 5% of stearylamine and 10% of polymer positively contribute to the stabilization of the complexes. Afterwards, the carboxylic acid groups of the polymer present at the surface of the liposomes were crosslinked and the same parameters analyzed. The crosslinked complexes showed to be more stable at physiologic conditions. In addition, the release profiles at different pHs (2-12) revealed that the obtained complexes released all their content at acidic conditions. In summary, the main accomplishments of this work are: (i) innovative synthesis of cholesterol-poly(acrylic acid) (CHO-PAA) by ATRP; (ii) stabilization of the liposomal formulation by incorporation of stearylamine and CHO

  19. [Determination of HDL-cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, W; Schütz, C; Reuter, W

    1983-01-01

    For the clinical practice methods of the determination of HDL-cholesterol made their way which are based on the precipitation of apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins and a determination of cholesterol following. The expensive methods of the ultracentrifugation serve as reference methods. The most-spread precipitation techniques (heparin/MCl2, dextran sulphate/CaCl2 or MgCl2 photungstic acid/MgCl2) are comparatively observed with regard to their effectiveness, practicability and methodical and technical conditions (influence of the concentration of the precipitation reagents, pH-value, temperature, incubation and centrifugation conditions). Results of own investigations as well as data from literature are presented to the problem of the harmonization of the cholesterol determination with the precipitation technique. According to the opinion of the authors for the enzymatic determination of cholesterol by means of the CHOD-PAP-method the phosphotungstic acid precipitation well stood the test, whereas for the chemical determination of cholesterol after Liebermann-Burchard in manual or automatized works the precipitation by means of dextran sulphate/CaCl2 (40 g/l, 2.0 mol/l) is to be recommended. The superabundant precipitations with phosphotungstic acid and dextran sulphate/MgCl2 (20 g/l, 2.0 mol/l) achieve higher results in Liebermann-Burchard's reaction likely on account of interferences.

  20. Dietary oleic and palmitic acids modulate the ratio of triacylglycerols to cholesterol in postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in men and cell viability and cycling in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    López, Sergio; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Moreda, Wenceslao; Villar, José; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2007-09-01

    The postprandial metabolism of dietary fats produces triacylglycerol (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL) that could interact with circulating cells. We investigated whether the ratios of oleic:palmitic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA):SFA in the diet affect the ratio of TG:cholesterol (CHOL) in postprandial TRL of healthy men. The ability of postprandial TRL at 3 h (early postprandial period) and 5 h (late postprandial period) to affect cell viability and cycle in the THP-1 human monocytic cell line was also determined. In a randomized, crossover experiment, 14 healthy volunteers (Caucasian men) ate meals enriched (50 g/m(2) body surface area) in refined olive oil, high-palmitic sunflower oil, butter, and a mixture of vegetable and fish oils, which had ratios of oleic:palmitic acid (MUFA:SFA) of 6.83 (5.43), 2.36 (2.42), 0.82 (0.48), and 13.81 (7.08), respectively. The ratio of TG:CHOL in postprandial TRL was inversely correlated (r = -0.89 to -0.99) with the ratio of oleic:palmitic acid and with the MUFA:SFA ratio in the dietary fats (P < 0.05). Postprandial TRL at 3 h preferentially increased the proportion of necrotic cells, whereas postprandial TRL at 5 h increased the proportion of apoptotic cells (P < 0.05). Cell cycle analysis showed that postprandial TRL blocked the human monocytes in S-phase. Our findings suggest that the level of TG and CHOL into postprandial TRL is associated with the ratios of oleic:palmitic acid and MUFA:SFA in dietary fats, which determines the ability of postprandial TRL to induce cytotoxicity and disturb the cell cycle in THP-1 cells.

  1. Alimentary proteins, amino acids and cholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Blachier, François; Lancha, Antonio H; Boutry, Claire; Tomé, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Numerous data from both epidemiological and experimental origins indicate that some alimentary proteins and amino acids in supplements can modify the blood LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol. After an initial approval of the health claim for soy protein consumption for the prevention of coronary heart disease, more recently it has been concluded from an overall analysis of literature that isolated soy protein with isoflavones only slightly decrease LDL and total cholesterol. Other plant extracts and also some proteins from animal origin have been reported to exert a lowering effect on blood cholesterol when compared with a reference protein (often casein). The underlying mechanisms are still little understood. Individual amino acids and mixture of amino acids have also been tested (mostly in animal studies) for their effects on cholesterol parameters and on cholesterol metabolism. Methionine, lysine, cystine, leucine, aspartate and glutamate have been tested individually and in combination in different models of either normo or hypercholesterolemic animals and found to be able to modify blood cholesterol and/or LDL cholesterol and/or HDL cholesterol. It is however not known if these results are relevant to human nutrition.

  2. Decreased Expression of Cholesterol 7α-Hydroxylase and Altered Bile Acid Metabolism in Apobec-1−/− Mice Lead to Increased Gallstone Susceptibility*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Blanc, Valerie; Kerr, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Susan; Luo, Jianyang; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative trait mapping in mice identified a susceptibility locus for gallstones (Lith6) spanning the Apobec-1 locus, the structural gene encoding the RNA-specific cytidine deaminase responsible for production of apolipoprotein B48 in mammalian small intestine and rodent liver. This observation prompted us to compare dietary gallstone susceptibility in Apobec-1−/− mice and congenic C57BL/6 wild type controls. When fed a lithogenic diet (LD) for 2 weeks, 90% Apobec-1−/− mice developed solid gallstones in comparison with 16% wild type controls. LD-fed Apobec-1−/− mice demonstrated increased biliary cholesterol secretion as well as increased cholesterol saturation and bile acid hydrophobicity indices. These changes occurred despite a relative decrease in cholesterol absorption in LD-fed Apobec-1−/− mice. Among the possible mechanisms to account for this phenotype, expression of Cyp7a1 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in chow-fed Apobec-1−/− mice, decreasing further in LD-fed animals. Cyp7a1 transcription in hepatocyte nuclei, however, was unchanged in Apobec-1−/− mice, excluding transcriptional repression as a potential mechanism for decreased Cyp7a1 expression. We demonstrated that APOBEC-1 binds to AU-rich regions of the 3′-untranslated region of the Cyp7a1 transcript, containing the UUUN(A/U)U consensus motif, using both UV cross-linking to recombinant APOBEC-1 and in vivo RNA co-immunoprecipitation. In vivo Apobec-1-dependent modulation of Cyp7a1 expression was further confirmed following adenovirus-Apobec-1 administration to chow-fed Apobec-1−/− mice, which rescued Cyp7a1 gene expression. Taken together, the findings suggest that the AU-rich RNA binding-protein Apobec-1 mediates post-transcriptional regulation of murine Cyp7a1 expression and influences susceptibility to diet-induced gallstone formation. PMID:19386592

  3. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K

    2015-10-01

    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of cholesterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels is incomplete. One way of addressing the remaining questions is by making use of computational models. Here, we critically evaluate existing computational models of cholesterol metabolism making use of ordinary differential equations and addressed whether they used assumptions and make predictions in line with current knowledge on cholesterol homeostasis. Having studied the results described by the authors, we have also tested their models. This was done primarily by testing the effect of statin treatment in each model. Ten out of eleven models tested have made assumptions in line with current knowledge of cholesterol metabolism. Three out of the ten remaining models made correct predictions, i.e. predicting a decrease in plasma total and LDL cholesterol or increased uptake of LDL upon treatment upon the use of statins. In conclusion, few models on cholesterol metabolism are able to pass a functional test. Apparently most models have not undergone the critical iterative systems biology cycle of validation. We expect modeling of cholesterol metabolism to go through many more model topologies and iterative cycles and welcome the increased understanding of cholesterol metabolism these are likely to bring.

  4. Effect of flaxseed oil and microalgae DHA on the production performance, fatty acids and total lipids of egg yolk and plasma in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Ojekudo, O; House, J D

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the egg is dependent on both the transfer efficiency of preformed dietary omega-3 fatty acids to the eggs as well as endogenous PUFA metabolism and deposition. Employing an experimental design consisting of 70 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens (n=10/treatment) in a 6-week feeding trial, we examined the impact of graded levels of either flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) or algal DHA (preformed docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), each supplying 0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3s. The control diet was practically low in omega-3s. Study parameters included monitoring the changes of fatty acid contents in yolk, measures of hen performance, eggshell quality, total lipids and fatty acid contents of plasma. Data were analysed as a complete randomized design using Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. No significant differences were observed between treatments with respect to hen performance, eggshell quality and cholesterol content in plasma and egg yolk. Individual and total omega-3 PUFA in the yolk and plasma increased (P<0.0001) linearly as a function of total omega-3 PUFA intake. At the highest inclusion levels, DHA-fed hens incorporated 3-fold more DHA in eggs compared with ALA-fed hens (179±5.55 vs. 66.7±2.25mg/yolk, respectively). In both treatment groups, maximal enrichment of total n-3 PUFA was observed by week-2, declined by week-4 and leveled thereafter. In addition, accumulation of DHA in egg yolk showed linear (P<0.0001) and quadratic (P<0.05) effects for flaxseed oil (R(2)=0.89) and algal DHA (R(2)=0.95). The current data, based on defined level of total omega-3s in the background diet, provides evidence to suggest that exogenous as well as endogenous synthesis of DHA may be subject to a similar basis of regulation, and serve to highlight potential regulatory aspects explaining the limitations in the deposition of endogenously produced omega-3 LCPUFA.

  5. Comparative effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) pectin and pectin hydrolyzates on the cholesterol homeostasis of hamsters fed high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Li, Tuo-Ping; Chen, Gang; Peng, Xue; Duan, Wen-Bin; Zheng, Zheng-Zheng; Shi, Shu-Lei; Xu, Jing-Guo; Liu, Yan-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Yi

    2015-08-05

    This study aims to compare the effects of feeding haw pectin (HP), haw pectin hydrolyzates (HPH), and haw pectin pentasaccharide (HPPS) on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters induced by high-cholesterol diets. The animals were fed a standard diet (SD), high-cholesterol diet (HCD), or HCD plus HP, HPH, or HPPS at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight for 4weeks. Results showed that HPPS was more effective than HP and HPH in decreasing the body weight gain (by 38.2%), liver weight (by 16.4%), and plasma and hepatic total cholesterol (TC; by 23.6% and 27.3%, respectively) of hamsters. In addition, the bile acid levels in the feces were significantly higher by 39.8% and 132.8% in the HPH and HPPS groups than in the HCD group. Such changes were not noted in the HP group. However, the HP group had higher cholesterol excretion capacities than the HPH and HPPS groups by inhibiting cholesterol absorption in the diet, with a 21.7% increase in TC excretion and a 31.1% decrease in TC absorption. Thus, HPPS could be a promising anti-atherogenic dietary ingredient for the development of functional food to improve cholesterol metabolism.

  6. Total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in rats: comparison of different amino acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Belli, D C; Fournier, L A; Lepage, G; Yousef, I; Weber, A M; Tuchweber, B; Roy, C C

    1987-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity of amino acids perfused is a pathogenetic factor in total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated hepatotoxicity. However, the effect of the qualitative pattern of amino acid solutions has not been studied. Rats on parenteral nutrition for 5 days received 10.2 g of dextrose and 3.4 g of amino acids daily. Bile flow (microliter/min/g liver protein) after administration of Vamin was 16.2 +/- 0.8, which was similar to that in controls given chow and dextrose iv, but it was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than those on Travasol (12.3 +/- 0.8). The decrease in bile flow was not related to the large concentrations of alanine and glycine present in Travasol. However, the addition to Travasol of serine present only in Vamin increased bile flow significantly. Bile acid secretion rate, biliary lipid constituents, calcium, sodium, and glucose showed little change. In contrast, alpha-amino nitrogen was increased (p less than 0.05) in Vamin-perfused animals. Steatosis was noted in only a few animals in the Travasol group, and was not associated with an increase in the triglycerides content of the liver. Glycogen and protein content of the livers did not differ. The data show that the composition of amino acid solutions may be a determinant of TPN-induced cholestasis and suggest that the presence of methyl donor amino acids may have a protective effect.

  7. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Updated:Oct 28,2016 A heart-healthy eating ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  8. Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-01-01

    Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data.

  9. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.

  10. Effect of acute bile acid pool depletion on total and ionized calcium concentrations in human bile.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, D; Murphy, G M; Dowling, R H

    1995-04-01

    Although calcium salts are important components of gallstones, there are few data on the total and ionized calcium content of human bile. Therefore, in 14 fasting T-tube patients studied 7-11 days after cholecystectomy, we measured bile flow, bile acid [BA], total [CaTOT] and free ionized [Ca++] calcium concentrations, in 20-30 min bile collections during acute BA pool depletion induced by 6-8 h of continuous bile drainage. During washout of the BA pool there were parallel falls in bile flow, BA output and total calcium output (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.99; P < 0.02-0.001). In 12 of the 14 patients, [CaTOT] also fell (from 1.84 +/- 0.29 to 1.32 +/- 0.34 mmol L-1) in parallel with [BA] (from 34.0 +/- 14.0 to 8.2 +/- 8.0 mmol L-1; r = 0.75-0.98; P < 0.005). In contrast, biliary [Ca++] remained virtually unchanged. These data suggest that the BAs are linked to the bound, rather than to the free, ionized, fraction of biliary calcium, which is consistent with in vivo calcium binding by BAs. A model is proposed in which BA-induced biliary calcium secretion results from (i) bile acid-induced water flow via solvent drag; and (ii) calcium binding in the bile canaliculus by bile acids, which induces paracellular diffusion of Ca++, thereby maintaining [Ca++] independent of [BA].

  11. L-Carnitine effects on chemical composition of plasma lipoproteins of rabbits fed with normal and high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M; Lopez, F; Hernandez, F; Urbina, J A

    2000-06-01

    L-Carnitine plays an important role in the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain fatty acids in mammals. It has recently been shown that this compound has a marked hypo-cholesterolemic effect when used in conjunction with lipid-rich diets. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipoproteins in rabbits fed with different diets. Four different groups were investigated: group I (standard diet), group II (standard diet supplemented with L-carnitine at 80 mg/kg), group III (standard diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol), and group IV (standard diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol plus L-carnitine at 80 mg/kg). The feeding period was 126 d. Total plasma cholesterol was indistinguishable in groups I and II, but increased nearly 40-fold in group III. This increment was reduced by 50% in group IV. Correspondingly, total cholesterol content in lipoprotein fractions [very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) separated by agarose gel chromatography was the same for groups I and II, while for animals fed a cholesterol-rich diet (III) total cholesterol in VLDL + LDL increased nearly 100-fold when compared with groups I and II but, again, the increment was reduced by 50% in group IV. In contrast, total cholesterol in HDL increased only fivefold for both groups III and IV when compared with groups I and II, indicating no effects of L-carnitine on this parameter. The reduction of total cholesterol in VLDL + LDL particles in animals fed a cholesterol-rich diet plus L-carnitine was associated with a marked decrease in the ratio of cholesteryl ester to free cholesterol and a dramatic increase in their phospholipid content; opposite effects were observed for HDL. L-Carnitine induced a marked decrease in the saturated to unsaturated C16 + C18 fatty acid ratio in cholesteryl esters associated with VLDL and LDL from animals fed with both normal and cholesterol

  12. Overexpression of a Gene Involved in Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Substantially Increases Phytic Acid and Total Phosphorus in Rice Seeds.

    PubMed

    Tagashira, Yusuke; Shimizu, Tomoe; Miyamoto, Masanobu; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-04-24

    The manipulation of seed phosphorus is important for seedling growth and environmental P sustainability in agriculture. The mechanism of regulating P content in seed, however, is poorly understood. To study regulation of total P, we focused on phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP₆) biosynthesis-related genes, as InsP₆ is a major storage form of P in seeds. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) low phytic acid mutant lpa1-1 has been identified as a homolog of archael 2-phosphoglycerate kinase. The homolog might act as an inositol monophosphate kinase, which catalyzes a key step in InsP₆ biosynthesis. Overexpression of the homolog in transgenic rice resulted in a significant increase in total P content in seed, due to increases in InsP₆ and inorganic phosphates. On the other hand, overexpression of genes that catalyze the first and last steps of InsP₆ biosynthesis could not increase total P levels. From the experiments using developing seeds, it is suggested that the activation of InsP₆ biosynthesis in both very early and very late periods of seed development increases the influx of P from vegetative organs into seeds. This is the first report from a study attempting to elevate the P levels of seed through a transgenic approach.

  13. igr Genes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer C; Miner, Maurine D; Pandey, Amit K; Gill, Wendy P; Harik, Nada S; Sassetti, Christopher M; Sherman, David R

    2009-08-01

    Recently, cholesterol was identified as a physiologically important nutrient for Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival in chronically infected mice. However, it remained unclear precisely when cholesterol is available to the bacterium and what additional bacterial functions are required for its metabolism. Here, we show that the igr locus, which we previously found to be essential for intracellular growth and virulence of M. tuberculosis, is required for cholesterol metabolism. While igr-deficient strains grow identically to the wild type in the presence of short- and long-chain fatty acids, the growth of these bacteria is completely inhibited in the presence of cholesterol. Interestingly, this mutant is still able to respire under cholesterol-dependent growth inhibition, suggesting that the bacteria can metabolize other carbon sources during cholesterol toxicity. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that the growth-inhibitory effect of cholesterol in vitro depends on cholesterol import, as mutation of the mce4 sterol uptake system partially suppresses this effect. In addition, the Delta igr mutant growth defect during the early phase of disease is completely suppressed by mutating mce4, implicating cholesterol intoxication as the primary mechanism of attenuation. We conclude that M. tuberculosis metabolizes cholesterol throughout infection.

  14. Downregulation of miR-150 Expression by DNA Hypermethylation Is Associated with High 2-Hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic Acid-Induced Hepatic Cholesterol Accumulation in Nursery Piglets.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yimin; Ling, Mingfa; Zhang, Luchu; Jiang, Shuxia; Sha, Yusheng; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-10-12

    Excess 2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid (HMB) supplementation induces hyperhomocysteinemia, which contributes to hepatic cholesterol accumulation. However, it is unclear whether and how high levels of HMB break hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in nursery piglets. In this study, HMB oversupplementation suppressed food intake and decreased body weight in nursery piglets. Hyperhomocysteinemia and higher hepatic cholesterol accumulation were observed in HMB groups. Accordingly, HMB significantly increased the protein content of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) but decreased that of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1). Significant downregulation of miR-150, miR-181d-5p, and miR-296-3p targeting the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of GNMT and HMGCR was detected in the liver of HMB-treated piglets, and their functional validation was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, hypermethylation of miR-150 promoter was detected in association with suppressed miR-150 expression in the livers of HMB-treated piglets. This study indicated a new mechanism of hepatic cholesterol unhomeostasis by dietary methyl donor supplementation.

  15. Macrophage-mediated cholesterol handling in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Formation of foam cells is a hallmark at the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Monocytes attracted by pro-inflammatory stimuli attach to the inflamed vascular endothelium and penetrate to the arterial intima where they differentiate to macrophages. Intimal macrophages phagocytize oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). Several scavenger receptors (SR), including CD36, SR-A1 and lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), mediate oxLDL uptake. In late endosomes/lysosomes of macrophages, oxLDL are catabolysed. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) hydrolyses cholesterol esters that are enriched in LDL to free cholesterol and free fatty acids. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) in turn catalyses esterification of cholesterol to store cholesterol esters as lipid droplets in the ER of macrophages. Neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolases nCEH and NCEH1 are involved in a secondary hydrolysis of cholesterol esters to liberate free cholesterol that could be then out-flowed from macrophages by cholesterol ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 and SR-BI. In atherosclerosis, disruption of lipid homoeostasis in macrophages leads to cholesterol accumulation and formation of foam cells.

  16. microRNAs and cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kathryn J.; Rayner, Katey J.; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated at the cellular level. In addition to classic transcriptional regulation of cholesterol metabolism (e.g., by SREBP and LXR), members of a class of non-coding RNAs termed microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified to be potent post-transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism genes, including cholesterol homeostasis. We and others have recently shown that miR-33 regulates cholesterol efflux and HDL biogenesis by downregulating the expression of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1. In addition to miR-33, miR-122 and miR-370 have been shown to play important roles in regulating cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. These new data suggest important roles of microRNAs in the epigenetic regulation of cholesterol metabolism and have opened new avenues for the treatment of dyslipidemias. PMID:20880716

  17. [Diagnostic importance of HDL cholesterol determination].

    PubMed

    Reissner, J; Herrmann, W

    1990-01-01

    The present paper describes the sensitivity to quantification of changes of HDL-cholesterol in serum by two different precipitation and analytical techniques during the treatment of patients. After the precipitation of VLDL and LDL by phosphotungstic acid/magnesium chloride the chemical determination of HDL-cholesterol in serum with the Liebermann-Burchard reaction yields different results in comparison to enzymatic HDL-cholesterol determined in serum supernatant after the precipitation by polyethylene glycol 20.000. Correlation analyses of apolipoprotein A-I with enzymatic HDL-, HDL2-, HDL3-cholesterol or electrophoretic alpha-cholesterol demonstrate that the therapeutically induced changes (by training and diet) of lipid composition are more correctly reflected by the enzymatic determination of HDL-cholesterol after serum precipitation by polyethylene glycol.

  18. Glucagon and cAMP inhibit cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expression in human hepatocytes: discordant regulation of bile acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Kwang-Hoon; Chiang, John Y L

    2006-01-01

    The gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is tightly regulated to control bile acid synthesis and maintain lipid homeostasis. Recent studies in mice suggest that bile acid synthesis is regulated by the fasted-to-fed cycle, and fasting induces CYP7A1 gene expression in parallel to the induction of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). How glucagon regulates CYP7A1 gene expression in the human liver is not clear. Here we show that glucagon and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) strongly repressed CYP7A1 mRNA expression in human primary hepatocytes. Reporter assays confirmed that cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibited human CYP7A1 gene transcription, in contrast to their stimulation of the PEPCK gene. Mutagenesis analysis identified a PKA-responsive region located within the previously identified HNF4alpha binding site in the human CYP7A1 promoter. Glucagon and cAMP increased HNF4alpha phosphorylation and reduced the amount of HNF4alpha present in CYP7A1 chromatin. Our findings suggest that glucagon inhibited CYP7A1 gene expression via PKA phosphorylation of HNF4alpha, which lost its ability to bind the CYP7A1 gene and resulted in inhibition of human CYP7A1 gene transcription. In conclusion, this study unveils a species difference in nutrient regulation of the human and mouse CYP7A1 gene and suggests a discordant regulation of bile acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis by glucagon in human livers during fasting.

  19. Bile acids and cytokines inhibit the human cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene via the JNK/c-jun pathway in human liver cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiangang; Jahan, Asmeen; Chiang, John Y L

    2006-06-01

    Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) of the bile acid biosynthesis pathway is suppressed by bile acids and inflammatory cytokines. Bile acids are known to induce inflammatory cytokines to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway that inhibits CYP7A1 gene transcription. c-Jun has been postulated to mediate bile acid inhibition of CYP7A1. However, the c-Jun target involved in the regulation of CYP7A1 is unknown. Human primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were used as models to study chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) regulation of human CYP7A1 gene expression via real-time polymerase chain reaction, reporter assays, co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunocipitation (ChIP) assays. IL-1 beta and CDCA reduced CYP7A1 but induced c-Jun messenger RNA expression in human primary hepatocytes. IL-1beta inhibited human CYP7A1 reporter activity via the HNF4 alpha binding site. A JNK-specific inhibitor blocked the inhibitory effect of IL-1 beta on HNF4 alpha expression and CYP7A1 reporter activity. c-Jun inhibited HNF4 alpha and PPARgamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) coactivation of CYP7A1 reporter activity, whereas a dominant negative c-Jun did not. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assays revealed that IL-1 beta and CDCA reduced HNF4 alpha bound to the CYP7A1 chromatin, and that c-Jun interacted with HNF4 alpha and blocked HNF4 alpha recruitment of PGC-1 alpha to the CYP7A1 chromatin. In conclusion, IL-1 beta and CDCA inhibit HNF4 alpha but induce c-Jun, which in turn blocks HNF 4 alpha recruitment of PGC-1 alpha to the CYP7A1 chromatin and results in inhibition of CYP7A1 gene transcription. The JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway inhibits bile acid synthesis and protects hepatocytes against the toxic effect of inflammatory agents.

  20. Selective precipitation of ribonucleic acid from a mixture of total cellular nucleic acids extracted from cultured mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method is described for precipitating RNA selectively from total mammalian-cell nucleic acids extracted by the phenol–sodium dodecyl sulphate procedure at pH8.0. Under specified conditions bulk RNA is precipitated almost quantitatively whereas bulk DNA remains in solution. Minor components of RNA (detected by pulse-labelling and chromatography on methylated albumin–kieselguhr) and rapidly labelled components of DNA containing single-stranded regions are also precipitated. The usefulness of the method is discussed in the context of isolating separately both RNA and DNA from cultured cells that are difficult to obtain in quantity. PMID:5165620

  1. Quantification of Cholesterol Solubilized in Dietary Micelles: Dependence on Human Bile Salt Variability and the Presence of Dietary Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Coreta-Gomes, Filipe M; Vaz, Winchil L C; Wasielewski, Emeric; Geraldes, Carlos F G; Moreno, Maria João

    2016-05-10

    The solubility of cholesterol in bile salt (BS) micelles is important to understand the availability of cholesterol for absorption in the intestinal epithelium and to develop strategies to decrease cholesterol intake from the intestinal lumen. This has been the subject of intense investigation, due to the established relation between the development of diseases such as atherosclerosis and high levels of cholesterol in the blood. In this work we quantify the effect of BS variability on the amount of cholesterol solubilized. The effect of some known hypocholesterolemic agents usually found in the diet is also evaluated, as well as some insight regarding the mechanisms involved. The results show that, depending on the bile salt composition, the average value of sterol per micelle is equal to or lower than 1. The amount of cholesterol solubilized in the BS micelles is essentially equal to its total concentration until the solubility limit is reached. Altogether, this indicates that the maximum cholesterol solubility in the BS micellar solution is the result of saturation of the aqueous phase and depends on the partition coefficient of cholesterol between the aqueous phase and the micellar pseudophase. The effect on cholesterol maximum solubility for several food ingredients usually encountered in the diet was characterized using methodology developed recently by us. This method allows the simultaneous quantification of both cholesterol and food ingredient solubilized in the BS micelles even in the presence of larger aggregates, therefore avoiding their physical separation with possible impacts on the overall equilibrium. The phytosterols stigmasterol and stigmastanol significantly decreased cholesterol solubility with a concomitant reduction in the total amount of sterol solubilized, most pronounced for stigmasterol. Those results point toward coprecipitation being the major cause for the decrease in cholesterol solubilization by the BS micelles. The presence of

  2. Effects of inositol, inositol-generating phytase B applied alone, and in combination with 6-phytase A to phosphorus-deficient diets on laying performance, eggshell quality, yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid deposition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zyla, K; Mika, M; Duliński, R; Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J; Pustkowiak, H; Piironen, J

    2012-08-01

    Phytase B, a product of Aspergillus niger phyB gene expressed in Trichoderma reesei, which increased myo-inositol concentrations in 20 mM sodium phytate solution 7.5-fold during 120-min incubation, a combination of phytase B with 6-phytase A, and pure myo-inositol were tested as feed supplements in Bovans Brown laying hens. In the 2-factorial experiment (2×5), birds from wk 50 to 62 were fed 2 basal diets, corn-soybean (CSM) or wheat-soybean (WSM), using 12 one-hen cages per treatment. For both basal diets, the dietary treatments included negative control (0.08% nonphytate P in CSM, 0.13% nonphytate P in WSM; NC); internal control groups, NC+0.04% nonphytate P from monocalcium phosphate, MCP (IC); NC+0.1% of myo-inositol (Inos), NC+phytase B at 1,300 units of phytase B-acid phosphatase activity (AcPU)/kg (PhyB), NC+phytase B at 1,300 AcPU/kg+6-phytase A at 300 FTU/kg (PhyA+B). Feed intake, laying performance, and eggshell quality were determined. The total lipid and cholesterol contents as well as fatty acid profile were assessed in egg yolks collected from hens fed CSM diets, as was fatty acid profile. The hens fed the WSM diet consumed significantly more feed, laid a higher mass of eggs daily with higher mean weights, and had a higher hen-day egg production than the birds receiving the CSM diets. Similarly, higher values for yolk weights, shell weights, shell thickness, shell density, and breaking strengths were determined in the eggs laid by the hens fed the WSM diets. In hens fed either the CSM diets with phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, enhanced feed intakes, egg mass, and hen-day egg production were recorded. Phytases also enhanced the eggshell quality parameters in the hens fed both variants of the diets. Phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, reduced the total lipid and cholesterol concentrations in egg yolks collected from the hens fed the CSM diets, whereas the combination of both phytases improved the n-6:n-3

  3. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  4. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    PubMed

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in patients with benign breast disease and all the markers were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls. All the markers had a low accuracy (AUCs < 0.75) in differentiating between breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  5. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklany, I.M.; Hoffnagle, G.F.; Brackbill, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    ''Best estimates'' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulfates are developed for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern U.S. These may, in turn, be used for modeling of acidic or sulfate deposition. The factors are based upon a critical evaluation of the generic measurement methods used to quantify total and acidic primary sulfate emissions, and an exhaustive review and critique of individual papers and studies available in the open literature which present measurement data on primary sulfate emissions. It develops a qualitative rating scheme which specifies the level of confidence that should be attached to the emission factor determinations. The paper concludes that much of the existing data on primary sulfates from stationary combustion sources are, probably, significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Therefore, existing estimates of primary sulfate emissions for these source categories are, probably, substanitally inflated. It also concludes that, for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias. 68 references.

  6. A new microwave acid digestion bomb method for the determination of total fluorine.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J

    1998-01-01

    A new microwave acid digestion method for total fluorine analysis was compared to the reliable reverse-extraction technique. The commercially available Parr bombs which are compatible with microwave heating were modified for this purpose. The Mann-Whitney statistical test did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) in the determinations of total fluorine in various samples between the two above-mentioned methods. The microwave method also gave high fluorine recoveries (> 97%) when fluoride was added to different samples. The great advantage of the microwave acid digestion bomb method is that the digestion under pressure is so aggressive that only a few minutes is needed for complete digestion (also of covalently bonded fluorine), which reduces the time for fluorine analysis dramatically, while no loss of fluorine or contamination from extraneous sources could take place during the ashing procedure. The digestion solution was made up of 300 microliter of concentrated nitric acid plus 537 microliter of water. After digestion 675 microliter of approximately 8.5 M sodium hydroxide plus 643 microliter of citrate/TISAB buffer was added resulting in an alkaline solution (pH approximately 12) which was finally adjusted to a pH of approximately 5.3 for fluoride determination.

  7. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P < 0.05). Plasma concentration of adipic acid was significantly higher by 101.6% one year after total gastrectomy procedure in the patients when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.01). Plasma concentration of silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid

  8. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Bruce, Stephen J; Blondel-Lubrano, Anny; Oguey-Araymon, Sylviane; Beaumont, Maurice; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Nielsen-Moennoz, Corine; Vigo, Mario; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Grathwohl, Dominik; Rezzi, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects.

  9. Cholesterol Level: Can It Be Too Low?

    MedlinePlus

    ... low? Can your total cholesterol level be too low? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. A high blood cholesterol level increases your ... better, but in rare cases having a very low level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or "bad") ...

  10. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice.

    PubMed

    Merkel, M; Velez-Carrasco, W; Hudgins, L C; Breslow, J L

    2001-11-06

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway.

  11. Bioprocess monitoring: minimizing sample matrix effects for total protein quantification with bicinchoninic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Wieland N; Waldschitz, Daniel; Herwig, Christoph; Neutsch, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Determining total protein content is a routine operation in many laboratories. Despite substantial work on assay optimization interferences, the widely used bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay remains widely recognized for its robustness. Especially in the field of bioprocess engineering the inaccuracy caused by interfering substances remains hardly predictable and not well understood. Since the introduction of the assay, sample pre-treatment by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation has been indicated as necessary and sufficient to minimize interferences. However, the sample matrix in cultivation media is not only highly complex but also dynamically changing over process time in terms of qualitative and quantitative composition. A significant misestimation of the total protein concentration of bioprocess samples is often observed when following standard work-up schemes such as TCA precipitation, indicating that this step alone is not an adequate means to avoid measurement bias. Here, we propose a modification of the BCA assay, which is less influenced by sample complexity. The dynamically changing sample matrix composition of bioprocessing samples impairs the conventional approach of compensating for interfering substances via a static offset. Hence, we evaluated the use of a correction factor based on an internal spike measurement for the respective samples. Using protein spikes, the accuracy of the BCA protein quantification could be improved fivefold, taking the BCA protein quantification to a level of accuracy comparable to other, more expensive methods. This will allow reducing expensive iterations in bioprocess development to due inaccurate total protein analytics.

  12. Total dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids have modest effects on urinary sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...

  13. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of carboxylic acids adsorbed onto mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, J. D.; Schroeter, L. M.; Itoh, M. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Apitz, S. E.

    1999-09-01

    A suite of naturally-occurring carboxylic acids (acetic, oxalic, citric, benzoic, salicylic and phthalic) and their corresponding sodium salts were adsorbed onto a set of common mineral substrates (quartz, albite, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) in batch slurry experiments. Solution pH's of approximately 3 and 6 were used to examine the effects of pH on sorption mechanisms. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to obtain vibrational frequencies of the organic ligands on the mineral surfaces and in solution. UV/visible spectroscopy on supernatant solutions was also employed to confirm that adsorption from solution had taken place for benzoic, salicylic and phthalic acids. Molecular orbital calculations were used to model possible surface complexes and interpret the experimental spectra. In general, the tectosilicates, quartz and albite feldspar, did not chemisorb (i.e., strong, inner-sphere adsorption) the carboxylate anions in sufficient amounts to produce infrared spectra of the organics after rinsing in distilled water. The clays (illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) each exhibited similar ATR FTIR spectra. However, the illite sample used in this study reacted to form strong surface and aqueous complexes with salicylic acid before being treated to remove free Fe-hydroxides. Chemisorption of carboxylic acids onto clays is shown to be limited without the presence of Fe-hydroxides within the clay matrix.

  14. Rapid intravenous administration of amino acids prevents biliary sludge induced by total parenteral nutrition in humans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z S; Yu, L; Lin, Y J; Jun, Z J; Min, W S; Jun, Y; Hua, Z B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether daily rapid intravenous administration of amino acids (IVAA) prevented the formation of biliary sludge in humans receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Thirty adult patients receiving TPN for more than 28 consecutive days were studied. They were randomized to receive either saline solution (placebo) intravenously (15 patients) or 6.9% branched chain amino acid (BCAA)-enriched amino acid (15 synthetic amino acids; Freamine HBC) solution given by administration rapid intravenous (15 patients). The groups were similar with respect to age, sex, diagnosis, liver function test results, amylase levels, TPN time, and time of study. All patients underwent weekly ultrasound studies. Volume and emptying studies of the gallbladder in response to the study drug were performed after 1 week. As a result, none of the patients receiving rapid IVAA had sludge, whereas 11 of the 15 patients receiving placebo had sludge (P < 0.01). Results of emptying studies showed significant contraction of the gallbladder in those in the rapid IVAA group, but not in the placebo group. Consequently, the data suggest that rapid IVAA given daily prevents TPN-induced stasis and sludge in the gallbladder. We conclude that rapid IVAA should be used as routine prophylaxis against biliary sludge and formation of gallstones in patients receiving long-term TPN.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Alcohol, Sugar, and Tartaric Acid in Alcoholic Beverages Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, A.; Bajaj, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode was used for quantifying ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid in alcoholic beverages. One hundred synthetic samples were prepared with different ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid concentrations. Experiments were carried out on Bio-Rad 175 C FTS using an ATR accessory. Spectra were recorded in the wavelength region 600–4000 cm −1 . Calibration was performed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Commercially available alcoholic beverages (gin, rum, vodka, etc.) were experimented and concentration of ethanol in these samples was predicted using the developed calibration model. Chemical analysis of these commercial samples was carried out in order to compare the results. The agreement between ATR results with those of chemical analysis revealed good reliability and repeatability of the technique used. PMID:17671618

  16. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklamy, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    This paper develops 'best estimates' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulphates for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern US, which may, in turn, be used for modelling acidic or sulphate deposition. The authors conclude that much of the existing data on primary sulphates from stationary combustion sources are probably significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Existing estimates of primary sulphate emissions for these source categories are probably substantially inflated. It also concludes that for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias.

  17. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid as markers for carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Vivas, I; Spagnuolo, L; Palacios, P

    1992-08-01

    Concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) were determined in serum samples from 88 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 26 normal subjects, and 44 patients with benign uterine or ovarian disease. TSA concentrations in patients with cervical cancer were found to correlate with advanced-stage disease. LSA concentrations were only increased in stage IV of the disease. Sensitivity of the test for stage IB was zero for TSA and 27% for LSA. The specificity of both markers was about 80% due to a low incidence of false-positive values in the pathologic control group. Measurements of TSA or LSA appear to be of no value for the early detection of cervical cancer or to complement the clinical staging of this tumor.

  18. [Studies on hydroxyapatite applicatied in coprecipitate of total salvianolic acids phospholipid complex].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Liu, Dan; Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare total salvianolic acids-phytosome-HA coprecipitate to improve drug dissolution and its micromeritic properties. Firstly, the coprecipitate was prepared by solvent method and in vitro dissolution of tripterine was performed with the salvianolic acid B and danshensu as criteria. At the same time, the micromeritic properties was characterizated, the structure of samples was characterized by TEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR. Results showed that when the ratio of drug to HA was 1:2, it had a better dissolution, the accumulative drug-release percent in vitro at 60 min was over 90%. At the same time, it has good liquidity and low moisture absorption. Its micromeritic properties have improved. It is proved that the drug still existed amorphously by microstructure analysis. The preparation process is simple and feasible, it has practical value.

  19. Total trans fatty acid analysis in spreadable cheese by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Patrícia Mendonça; Barra, Marcelo Macedo; Costa Ribeiro, Mauro Carlos; Aued-Pimentel, Sabria; Da Silva, Simone Alves; De Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2010-02-10

    An alternative method for determination of total trans fatty acids expressed as elaidic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under indirect UV detection at 224 nm within an analysis time of 7.5 min was developed. The optimized running electrolyte includes 15.0 mmol L(-1) KH(2)PO(4)/Na(2)HPO(4) buffer (pH approximately 7.0), 4.0 mmol L(-1) SDBS, 8.0 mmol L(-1) Brij35, 45%v/v ACN, 8% methanol, and 1.5% v/v n-octanol. Baseline separation of the critical pair C18-9cis/C18:1-9t with a resolution higher than 1.5 was achieved using C15:0 as the internal standard. The optimum capillary electrophoresis (CE) conditions for the background electrolyte were established with the aid of Raman spectroscopy and experiments of a 3(2) factorial design. After response factor (R(F)) calculations, the CE method was applied to total trans fatty acid (TTFA) analysis in a hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) sample, and compared with the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) official method by gas chromatography (GC). The methods were compared with an independent sample t test, and no significant difference was found between CE and GC methods within the 95% confidence interval for six genuine replicates of TTFA analysis (p-value > 0.05). The CE method was applied to TTFA analysis in a spreadable cheese sample. Satisfactory results were obtained, indicating that the optimized methodology can be used for trans fatty acid determination for these samples.

  20. Comparison between intravenous and intra-articular regimens of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Soni, Ashwani; Saini, Raghav; Gulati, Anmol; Paul, Rajesh; Bhatty, Shiraj; Rajoli, Sreekanth Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic drug used widely to prevent bleeding. Its use in reducing bleeding during total knee arthroplasty surgery is well proven but there is no final consensus regarding the regimen. The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and intra-articular regimen of tranexamic acid during the total knee arthroplasty surgery. A total of 40 patients were received three doses of intravenous tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty surgery. Intra-articular tranexamic acid was used in 40 patients during the surgery. We concluded that intra-articular tranexamic acid is equally effective as three dose intravenous regimen in reducing blood loss during total knee arthroplasty surgery.

  1. Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Berger, A; Rein, D; Kratky, E; Monnard, I; Hajjaj, H; Meirim, I; Piguet-Welsch, C; Hauser, J; Mace, K; Niederberger, P

    2004-01-01

    Introduction There has been renewed interest in mushroom medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Gl), a renowned medicinal species. Results Organic fractions containing oxygenated lanosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepatocytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC) 9.8%, and HDL 11.2%. Gl (2.5 and 5%) had effects on several fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. Both Gl doses reduced hepatic microsomal ex-vivo HMG-CoA reductase activity. In minipigs, 2.5 Gl decreased TC, LDL- and HDL cholesterol 20, 27, and 18%, respectively (P < 0.05); increased fecal cholestanol and coprostanol; and decreased cholate. Conclusions Overall, Gl has potential to reduce LDL cholesterol in vivo through various mechanisms. Next steps are to: fully characterize bioactive components in lipid soluble/insoluble fractions; evaluate bioactivity of isolated fractions; and examine human cholesterol lowering properties. Innovative new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines containing Gl are envisioned. PMID:14969592

  2. [Accuracy of HDL cholesterol measurements].

    PubMed

    Niedmann, P D; Luthe, H; Wieland, H; Schaper, G; Seidel, D

    1983-02-01

    The widespread use of different methods for the determination of HDL-cholesterol (in Europe: sodium phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2) in connection with enzymatic procedures (in the USA: heparin/MnCl2 followed by the Liebermann-Burchard method) but common reference values makes it necessary to evaluate not only accuracy, specificity, and precision of the precipitation step but also of the subsequent cholesterol determination. A high ratio of serum vs. concentrated precipitation reagent (10:1 V/V) leads to the formation of variable amounts of delta-3.5-cholestadiene. This substance is not recognized by cholesterol oxidase but leads to an 1.6 times overestimation by the Liebermann-Burchard method. Therefore, errors in HDL-cholesterol determination should be considered and differences up to 30% may occur between HDL-cholesterol values determined by the different techniques (heparin/MnCl2 - Liebermann-Burchard and NaPW/MgCl2-CHOD-PAP).

  3. Deletion of N-terminal amino acids from human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase differentially affects enzyme activity toward alpha- and beta-substrate lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Vickaryous, Nicola K; Teh, Evelyn M; Stewart, Bruce; Dolphin, Peter J; Too, Catherine K L; McLeod, Roger S

    2003-03-21

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the enzyme responsible for generation of the majority of the cholesteryl esters (CE) in human plasma. Although most plasma cholesterol esterification occurs on high-density lipoprotein (HDL), via alpha-LCAT activity, esterification also occurs on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) via the beta-activity of the enzyme. Computer threading techniques have provided a three-dimensional model for use in the structure-function analysis of the core and catalytic site of the LCAT protein, but the model does not extend to the N-terminal region of the enzyme, which may mediate LCAT interaction with lipoprotein substrates. In the present study, we have examined the functional consequences of deletion of the highly conserved hydrophobic N-terminal amino acids (residues 1-5) of human LCAT. Western blot analysis showed that the mutant proteins (Delta 1-Delta 5) were synthesized and secreted from transfected COS-7 cells at levels approximately equivalent to those of wild-type hLCAT. The secreted proteins had apparent molecular weights of 67 kDa, indicating that they were correctly processed and glycosylated during cellular transit. However, deletion of the first residue of the mature LCAT protein (Delta 1 mutant) resulted in a dramatic loss of alpha-LCAT activity (5% of wild type using reconstituted HDL substrate, rHDL), although this mutant retained full beta-LCAT activity (108% of wild-type using human LDL substrate). Removal of residues 1 and 2 (Delta 2 mutant) abolished alpha-LCAT activity and reduced beta-LCAT activity to 12% of wild type. Nevertheless, LCAT Delta 1 and Delta 2 mutants retained their ability to bind to rHDL and LDL lipoprotein substrates. The dramatic loss of enzyme activity suggests that the N-terminal residues of LCAT may be involved in maintaining the conformation of the lid domain and influence activation by the alpha-LCAT cofactor apoA-I (in Delta 1) and/or loss of enzyme activity (in Delta 1-Delta 5). Since the

  4. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

  5. Synthesis of hydrochloric acid solution for total mercury determination in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Patel-Sorrentino, Nathalie; Benaim, Jean-Yves; Cossa, Daniel; Lucas, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg(T)) determination requires the addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid solution (≥10 mol L(-1) HCl) in relatively high amounts to preserve the samples and to prepare reagent solutions. A method for the preparation of concentrated HCl with Hg(T) concentration of lower than 5 ng L(-1) is described in this article. It is based on the well-known chemical reaction: 2 NH(4)Cl + H(2)SO(4) → (NH(4))(2)SO(4) + 2 HCl. This method is validated thanks to the US Environmental Protection Agency method 1631 and standard reference materials BCR-579 (mercury in coastal seawater).

  6. A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial of topical tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andrew G; Muh, Stephanie J; Silverton, Craig D; Weir, Robb M; Laker, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Tranexamic acid (TNA) reduces postoperative blood loss in general and obstetrical surgery but there is limited orthopaedic literature regarding its use in the topical setting. To study the effect of topical TNA after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), 101 patients were randomized to topical administration of 2.0g TNA in 75mL of normal saline (50 patients) or placebo (51 patients). Operative technique, drug administration, and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis were standardized. All patients underwent screening ultrasound of the operative extremity. Total blood loss was lower in the TNA group (940.2±327.1mL) than the placebo group (1293.1±532.7mL)(P<0.001), and four patients in the placebo group and none in the TNA group received postoperative transfusion (P=0.118). We recommend administration of topical TNA in primary TKA in healthy patients to decrease perioperative blood loss.

  7. Effect of various eicosanoid products of arachidonic acid on the acyl CoA: Cholesterol acyl transferase activity in three different mammalian cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Malo, P.El.

    1988-01-01

    Acylcoenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes cholesterol ester synthesis intracellularly and has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. An in vitro assay has been adapted for determining ACAT activity from rat FU5AH hepatoma, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and rat thoracic aortic smooth muscle (RSM) cells. Formation of {sup 14}C-labelled cholesteryl oleate at 0 to 60 min {plus minus} cholesterol was determined; in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, ACAT activity was approximately linear and surpassed the plateau observed in ACAT activity without cholesterol. Increasing exogenous cholesterol concentration, the amount of oleoyl CoA or the amount of microsomal protein produced a corresponding increase in ACAT activity, while ester formation was slightly increased by decreasing the ratio of Triton WR-1339 to cholesterol. Both the thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) mimic, U-44069, and the inflammatory lipoxygenase product, LTB{sub 4}, decreased optimal in vitro microsomal ACAT activity from RSM, but not form FU5AH, while CHO ACAT activity was suppressed by LTB{sub r} only. PGI{sub 2}, PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2{alpha}} had minimal effects for each cell type.

  8. Blood Sparing Efficacy of Oral Tranexamic Acid in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Qunn Jid; Ching, Wai Yee; Wong, Yiu Chung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in reducing blood loss in primary total knee replacement. Almost all studies used an intravenous form or a topical form. The aim of this study was to assess the blood sparing efficacy and the safety of oral TXA. Materials and Methods All patients with primary total knee replacement performed in our institute from January 2015 to October 2015 were eligible. Oral TXA group was given 1 g oral TXA 2 hours before induction of anesthesia and 6 hours and 12 hours postoperatively. The control group was not given TXA. Results There were 94 cases in the oral TXA group and 95 cases in the control group. There was no difference in the baseline characteristics. The oral TXA group had a significantly lower hemoglobin drop (1.7 g/dL vs. 2.5 g/dL), lower drain output (154 mL vs. 203 mL), lower hidden blood loss (244 mL vs. 423 mL) and lower total blood loss (398 mL vs. 626 mL). There was no difference in transfusion rate (1.1% vs. 3.2%) and thromboembolic complication. There was no infection or mortality in both groups. Conclusions Oral TXA is effective in reducing blood loss in primary total knee replacement. It is a safe alternative to the intravenous or topical form. PMID:28231650

  9. Increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk in chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently elevated serum total bile acid: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoliang; Shang, Xiaoyun; Wan, Xing; Xiang, Xiaomei; Mao, Qing; Deng, Guohong; Wu, Yuzhang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between long-term changes of serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients, we did a retrospective cohort study of 2262 chronic hepatitis B patients with regular antiviral treatment using data from the Hepatitis Biobank at Southwest Hospital Program from 2004 to 2014. Patients in the study were classified into 3 groups according to persistence of elevated serum total bile acid during follow-up: none-low, medium, and high persistence of elevated serum total bile acid. The association between persistence of elevated serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier analysis including information about patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics. There were 62 hepatocellular carcinoma cases during a total follow-up of 14756.5 person-years in the retrospective study. Compared to patients with none-low persistence of elevated total bile acid, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.37 (1.16–4.84), and 2.57 (1.28–5.16) for patients with medium, and high persistence of elevated total bile acid. Our findings identified persistence of elevated serum total bile acid as an independent risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:27905528

  10. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  11. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  12. Cholesterol testing and results

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  13. Cholesterol and Statins

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from cells and back to the liver. saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat can ... care professionals advise a program of reduced dietary saturated fat and cholesterol, together with physical activity and weight ...

  14. Simultaneous determination of amino acid nitrogen and total acid in soy sauce using near infrared spectroscopy combined with characteristic variables selection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiewen; Ouyang, Qin; Chen, Quansheng; Lin, Hao

    2013-08-01

    Amino acid nitrogen and total acid are two most important quality indices to assess the quality of soy sauce in China. This work employed near infrared spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least square and genetic algorithm to detect amino acid nitrogen and total acid content in soy sauce. First, synergy interval partial least square was used to select efficient spectral regions from the full spectrum region; and then, genetic algorithm was used to selected variables from the efficient spectral regions, to build partial least square model. The optimal genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square models were obtained as follows: Rc  = 0.9988 and Rp = 0.9988 for amino acid nitrogen content model using 64 variables; Rc = 0.9917 and Rp = 0.9902 for total acid content model using 81 variables. Genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square models showed superiority over the partial least square and synergy interval partial least square models. The results indicated that amino acid nitrogen and total acid content in soy sauce could be rapidly determined by near infrared spectroscopy technique. Also, the results indicated that genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square can improve the performance in measurement of amino acid nitrogen and total acid content by near infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Enantiomeric deoxycholic acid: total synthesis, characterization, and preliminary toxicity toward colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Katona, Bryson W; Rath, Nigam P; Anant, Shrikant; Stenson, William F; Covey, Douglas F

    2007-11-23

    Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is an endogenous secondary bile acid implicated in numerous pathological conditions including colon cancer formation and progression and cholestatic liver disease. DCA involvement in these disease processes results partly from its ability to modulate signaling cascades within the cell, presumably through both direct receptor activation and general detergent mediated membrane changes. To further explore DCA induced changes in cell signaling, we completed a total synthesis of enantiomeric deoxycholic acid (ent-DCA) from achiral 2-methyl-1,3-cyclopentanedione. Using a modified method of the synthesis of ent-testosterone that proceeds through the (R)-(-)-Hajos-Parrish ketone, we have completed the successful synthesis of ent-DCA in 25 steps with a yield of 0.3% with all stereochemical assignments of the product confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Our studies toward this synthesis also uncovered the methodology for the development of a novel A,B-cis steroidal skeleton system containing a C3-C9 single bond as well as conditions to selectively ketalize the typically less reactive 12-carbonyl in poly-keto A,B-cis androgens. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of ent-DCA, determined by a dye solubilization method, was identical to the cmc of natural DCA. Toxicity studies toward HT-29 and HCT-116 human colon cancer cell lines demonstrated that ent-DCA had similar effects on proliferation, yet showed a markedly decreased ability to induce apoptosis as compared to natural DCA.

  16. All about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 6 All About Cholesterol Managing your cholesterol and other blood fats (also called blood lipids) can help you prevent health problems. ... it’s likely that your cholesterol may be off. All of these are risk factors for diabetes, heart ...

  17. Cholesterol and Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    There is a widespread belief among the public and even among chemist that plants do not contain cholesterol. This wrong belief is the result of the fact that plants generally contain only small quantities of cholesterol and that analytical methods for the detection of cholesterol in this range were not developed until recently.

  18. Salivary total sialic acid levels increase in breast cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Leyla Koç; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Kaşikci, Emel; Demir, Gokhan; Yarat, Aysen

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women living in the Western world, even though it occurs worldwide. Cancer and cancer therapy induce multiple oral complications including dental and periodontal disease. Saliva is a complex and dynamic biologic fluid, which reflects both oral and systemic changes. While saliva is easily accessible body fluid, there has been little effort to study its value in cancer diagnosis. Sialic acids (SA), the end moieties of the carbohydrate chains, are biologically important and essential for functions of glycoconjugates that are reported to be altered in both blood and saliva of various cancer patients. Increased sialylation has been shown to be a characteristic feature in cancer tissue and blood in breast cancer patients. However, there is no data about salivary SA in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary total sialic acid (TSA) levels in breast cancer patients who were under chemotheraphy. The study included 15 breast cancer patients in different stages and 10 healthy individuals as age-matched controls. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected. Salivary total protein and SA levels were determined. Flow rate was calculated from salivary volume by the time of secretion. Salivary SA was significantly higher and total protein was lower in breast cancer patients compared to controls. It is concluded that sialylation may be increased in saliva of patients with breast cancer as the same way for cancer tissue and for blood . Increased salivary SA may therefore be useful as a non-invasive predictive marker for breast cancer patients and for the prevention and management of oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy to improve oral function and quality-of-life. The effects of different types of chemotherapies and different stages of the disease on salivary SA levels and salivary sialo-glycomic are worthy of being further investigated in breast cancer patients.

  19. Seasonal and spatial changes of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Bi, Xinhui; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations and compositions of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles from typical urban, suburban and forest park sites of Guangzhou were determined in this study. The free form of organic acids (solvent extractable) in aerosols in Guangzhou varied with site and season. The suburban samples contained the highest contents of alkanoic, alkenoic and dicarboxylic acids. These findings were consistent with a higher supply of hydrocarbons and NOx in the suburban area. However, concentrations of aromatic acids were similar in the urban, suburban and forest park sites. Generally, winter season samples of the acids from anthropogenic sources contained more organic acids than summer season samples due to stronger removal by wet deposition in the summer. For the acids from botanic sources, the summer season samples were higher. In addition to the free acids, bound acids (solvent non-extractable) mainly formed by esterification of free acids were also found in the samples. In general, bound acids were higher than free acids. Esterification is mainly controlled by the pKa of organic acids and the atmospheric pH value. This explains why aromatic and dicarboxylic acids occur mainly as bound forms and why the samples from urban sites contained high levels of bound acids as the pH of rain water can reach 4.53. Concentrations of alkanoic and alkenoic acids in the aerosols of Guangzhou were much higher than those in the other areas studied.

  20. 16-Dehydropregnenolone lowers serum cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1 in hyperlipidemic male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Kumar, Durgesh; Bhateria, Manisha; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2017-04-01

    16-Dehydropregnenolone (DHP) has been developed and patented as a promising antihyperlipidemic agent by CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), India. Although DHP is implicated in controlling cholesterol homeostasis, the mechanism underlying its pharmacological effect in hyperlipidemic disease models is poorly understood. In the present study, we postulated that DHP lowers serum lipids through regulating the key hepatic genes accountable for cholesterol metabolism. The hypothesis was tested on golden Syrian hamsters fed with high-fat diet (HFD) following oral administration of DHP at a dose of 72mg/kg body weight for a period of one week. The serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total bile acids (TBA) in feces were measured. Real time comparative gene expression studies were performed for CYP7A1, LXRα and PPARα level in liver tissue of hamsters. The results revealed that the DHP profoundly decreased the levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index (AI), whilst elevated the HDL-C/TC ratio. Besides, DHP exhibited an anti-hyperlipidemic effect in the HFD induced hyperlipidemic hamsters by means of: (1) up-regulating the gene expression of CYP7A1 encoded cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, that promotes the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid; (2) inducing the gene expression of transcription factors LXRα and PPARα; (3) increasing the TBA excretion through feces. Collectively, the findings presented confer the hypolipidemic activity of DHP via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 pathway that promotes cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and bile acid excretion.

  1. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence of the adverse effects of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) on risk of cardiovascular disease is consistent and well documented in the scientific literature; however, the cardiovascular effects of naturally-occurring TFA synthesized in ruminant animals (rTFA), such as vaccenic ...

  2. Implementation of a Pilot School-site Cholesterol Reduction Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnicow, Ken; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A school-based cholesterol-reduction intervention for primary grade students in New York City public schools offered a workshop to teach those with high total serum cholesterol values to identify negative health consequences of high-fat diets. Results indicate that school-site cholesterol reduction interventions for high-risk individuals are…

  3. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  4. Dietary cholesterol and the origin of cholesterol in the brain of developing rats.

    PubMed

    Edmond, J; Korsak, R A; Morrow, J W; Torok-Both, G; Catlin, D H

    1991-09-01

    Milk substitutes containing cholesterol at concentrations lower, equal to or greater than the concentrations found in natural rat milk were fed to artificially reared rat pups from 5 d until 15 or 16 d after birth. Pups reared by their mother served as controls. In one experiment, D7-cholesterol was fed in the milk at four different concentrations. The purpose of the study was to determine whether cholesterol in milk influenced growth and the sterol composition of brain over the period of its most rapid accumulation in this organ. We found that body and brain weights were not different, irrespective of the concentration of cholesterol in the milk substitutes. High concentrations of cholesterol in milk caused a significant increase in cholesterol in liver and plasma, whereas the concentration of cholesterol in brain was not different from the concentration in the brain of controls. The amounts of D7-cholesterol in lung and liver, and in plasma and RBC that pass the brain, were consistent with the concentration fed in the milk and approached 70% of the total content of cholesterol in these organs at the highest concentration fed. Brain, by contrast, contained very small amounts of D7-cholesterol, which could readily be attributed to D7-cholesterol associated with the vascular system of the blood-brain barrier. We found that the sterol composition of brain is not influenced by the concentration of cholesterol in milk and that cholesterol exogenous to brain, even in a hypercholesterolemic condition, does not gain entry to the brain. We conclude that the brain biosynthesizes de novo all the cholesterol it requires.

  5. Would raising the total cholesterol diagnostic cut-off from 7.5 mmol/L to 9.3 mmol/L improve detection rate of patients with monogenic familial hypercholesterolaemia?

    PubMed Central

    Futema, M.; Kumari, M.; Boustred, C.; Kivimaki, M.; Humphries, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    A previous report suggested that 88% of individuals in the general population with total cholesterol (TC) > 9.3 mmol/L have familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of 4896 UK civil servants, mean (SD) age 44 (±6) years, using next generation sequencing to achieve a comprehensive genetic diagnosis. 25 (0.5%) participants (mean age 49.2 years) had baseline TC > 9.3 mmol/L, and overall we found an FH-causing mutation in the LDLR gene in seven (28%) subjects. The detection rate increased to 39% by excluding eight participants with triglyceride levels over 2.3 mmol/L, and reached 75% in those with TC > 10.4 mmol/L. By extrapolation, the detection rate would be ∼25% by including all participants with TC > 8.6 mmol/L (2.5 standard deviations from the mean). Based on the 1/500 FH frequency, 30% of all FH-cases in this cohort would be missed using the 9.3 mmol/L cut-off. Given that an overall detection rate of 25% is considered economically acceptable, these data suggest that a diagnostic TC cut-off of 8.6 mmol/L, rather than 9.3 mmol/L would be clinically useful for FH in the general population. PMID:25682026

  6. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 on plasma cholesterol levels in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Park, S; Lee, H; Min, B; Jung, S; Park, S; Kim, E; Oh, S

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1, such as acid resistance, bile tolerance, adherence to HT-29 cells, and cholesterol assimilation activity. In an animal study, 7-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 (ca. 1.0×10(8) cfu/mL) for 10 wk. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly lower in mice fed an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 than in those fed an HFD only, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar between these 2 groups. To understand the mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of L. acidophilus NS1 on the HFD-mediated increase in plasma cholesterol levels, we determined mRNA levels of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (Srebp2) and LDL receptor (Ldlr) in the liver was dramatically reduced in mice fed a HFD compared with those fed a normal diet. When L. acidophilus NS1 was administered orally to HFD-fed mice, an HFD-induced suppression of Srebp2 and Ldlr expression in the liver was abolished. These results suggest that the oral administration of L. acidophilus NS1 to mice fed an HFD increased the expression of Srebp2 and Ldlr in the liver, which was inhibited by high fat intake, thus leading to a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels. Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 could be a useful probiotic microorganism for cholesterol-lowering dairy products and the improvement of hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  7. The effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Kedi; Zhang, Xingen; Bi, Qing; Zhao, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) for the treatment of blood loss after a bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: Patients prepared for bilateral TKA and intervention including TXA versus placebo were comprehensively retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science from the time of the establishment of these databases to January 2016. The outcomes were all calculated by Stata 12.0 software. The continuous endpoints (total blood loss and blood loss in drainage) were calculated as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Binary variables (the need for transfusion, and the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis [DVT]) were calculated as relative risk (RR) with 95% CIs. Results: Pooled results revealed that treatment with TXA associated with less need for transfusion (P = 0.000) and the value of Hb drop postoperatively (P = 0.290) after bilateral TKA. The results also indicated that TXA can decrease the total blood loss and blood loss in drainage after bilateral TKA (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, TXA can decrease the blood units transfused per patient by 1.23 U (P = 0.001). There is no statistically significant difference in terms of the occurrence of DVT between the 2 groups (P = 0.461). Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, TXA can decrease the need for transfusion and the total blood loss without increasing the occurrence of DVT, and its administration is recommended routinely in bilateral TKA. PMID:27684841

  8. Persimmon fruit tannin-rich fiber reduces cholesterol levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Gato, Nobuki; Kadowaki, Akio; Hashimoto, Natsumi; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid-binding agents are known to lower blood cholesterol levels and have been clinically used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. We previously showed that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruits had bile acid-binding properties. In this study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of tannin-rich fiber in humans. The subjects (n = 40, plasma total cholesterol levels 180-259 mg/dl) were divided into 3 groups and ingested cookie bars containing 0 g (placebo group, n = 14), 3 g (low-dose group, n = 13), or 5 g (high-dose group, n = 13) of tannin-rich fiber 3 times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the low-dose (12 weeks, p < 0.005) and high-dose (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001) groups. In addition, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the high-dose group (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001). These improvements were not accompanied by changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. Our findings indicate that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon fruits is a useful food material for treating hypercholesterolemia.

  9. Relationship between nine haloacetic acids with total organic halogens in different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Pourmoghadas, Hossein; Kinman, Riley N

    2013-04-03

    The effects of pH and bromide ion concentration on the formation of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogens (TOX) in chlorinated drinking water have been evaluated. In an extensive study, the relationships of nine HAAs with TOX have been investigated. Honesty Significant Differences test (HSD) and ANOVA tests were used for the statistical analyses. The study determined the concentration range of nine HAAs as of a percentage of TOX at varying experimental conditions. Statistical analyses showed that the parameters pH and Br had significant effects on the formation of nine HAAs and TOX. This study also showed that brominated and mixed species of HAAs would be dominant in the presence of high bromide ion concentration which contributes a high percentage of the TOX. The results of this study could be used to set up a maximum contaminant level of TOX as a water quality standard for chlorination by-products.

  10. Can tranexamic acid change preoperative anemia management during total joint arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Duy L; Rinehart, Joseph B; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the postoperative transfusion and complication rates of anemic and nonanemic total joint arthroplasty patients given tranexamic acid (TXA). METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted of primary hip and knee arthroplasty cases performed from 11/2012 to 6/2014. Exclusion criteria included revision arthroplasty, bilateral arthroplasty, acute arthroplasty after fracture, and contraindication to TXA. Patients were screened prior to surgery, with anemia was defined as hemoglobin of less than 12 g/dL for females and of less than 13 g/dL for males. Patients were divided into four different groups, based on the type of arthroplasty (total hip or total knee) and hemoglobin status (anemic or nonanemic). Intraoperatively, all patients received 2 g of intravenous TXA during surgery. Postoperatively, allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) was directed by both clinical symptoms and relative hemoglobin change. Complications were recorded within the first two weeks after surgery and included thromboembolism, infection, and wound breakdown. The differences in transfusion and complication rates, as well as the relative hemoglobin change, were compared between anemic and nonanemic groups. RESULTS: A total of 232 patients undergoing primary joint arthroplasty were included in the study. For the total hip arthroplasty cohort, 21% (18/84) of patients presented with preoperative anemia. Two patients in the anemic group and two patients in the nonanemic group needed ABTs; this was not significantly different (P = 0.20). One patient in the anemic group presented with a deep venous thromboembolism while no patients in the nonanemic group had an acute complication; this was not significantly different (P = 0.21). For nonanemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 2.73 ± 1.17 g/dL. For anemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 2.28 ± 0.96 g/dL. Between the two groups, the hemoglobin difference of 0.45 g/dL was not significant (P = 0

  11. Fermentation characteristics and lactic Acid bacteria succession of total mixed ration silages formulated with peach pomace.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaodong; Hao, Wei; Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  12. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaodong; Hao, Wei; Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages. PMID:25656205

  13. Cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma as a predictive tool for quality semen evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beer-Ljubić, B; Aladrović, J; Marenjak, T S; Laskaj, R; Majić-Balić, I; Milinković-Tur, S

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid composition of bovine serum and seminal plasma, seasonality, and semen quality. The experiment was carried out in two groups of Simmental breeding bulls: Group I (ages 2 to 4 yr) and Group II (ages 5 to 10 yr). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, and bovine semen was sampled with an artificial vagina once per season. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerols, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and lipoprotein electrophoretic patterns were determined. Seminal plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were assayed. Serum concentration of triacylglycerols in young bulls was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn, whereas serum NEFA concentration was significantly higher in autumn compared with that in other seasons. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL lipoproteins in older bulls was significantly higher in winter than in spring. Seminal plasma concentration of total cholesterol in young bulls was significantly higher in spring compared with that in summer, whereas in older bulls it was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn samples. Sperm volume of both groups was significantly higher in summer compared with that in autumn and winter. Sperm motility in young bulls was lowest in summer and differed significantly from the values recorded in other seasons. The changes observed in seminal plasma cholesterol concentration were associated with extracellular lipid use and appeared to be applicable as a biochemical marker of sperm quality.

  14. Dietary chitosan enhances hepatic CYP7A1 activity and reduces plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Moon, Min-Sun; Lee, Mak-Soon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Yangha

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the hypocholesterolemic action of chitosan on the diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were fed with chitosan-free diet (Control), diets containing 2% or 5% chitosan for 4 weeks. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by adding 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid to all diets. Body weight gain and food intake of rats did not differ among the groups. The chitosan treated groups showed significant improvement in the plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the control group (p<0.05). Also, the chitosan treated groups decreased the liver concentration of total lipid and total cholesterol compared to the control group (p<0.05). The activity of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was increased by 123% and 165% for the 2% or 5% chitosan diets, respectively. These findings suggest that enhancement of hepatic CYP7A1 activity may be a mechanism, which can partially account for the hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary chitosan in cholesterol metabolism.

  15. Association between Hyaluronic Acid Injections and Time-to-Total Knee Replacement Surgery.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy; Fredericson, Michael; Bhattacharyya, Samir K; Bisson, Brad; Abbott, Thomas; Yadalam, Sashidhar; Kim, Myoung

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the association between hyaluronic acid (HA) injections and time-to-total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients 18 to 64 years of age who had TKR surgery between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011 were identified from the MarketScan Commercial claims database. All patients had 6 years or more of continuous enrollment prior to TKR surgery. There were two cohorts (1) patients with HA injections prior to TKR surgery and (2) patients who did not have HA injections prior to TKR surgery. Time-to-TKR was defined as the total days from the date of diagnosis of knee OA on the patient's first visit to an orthopedic surgeon to the date of TKR surgery. Results included 22,555 patients who had TKR surgery: 14,132 in the non-HA and 8,423 in the HA cohort. In this retrospective analysis of patients undergoing TKR, the median Time-to-TKR surgery was 326 days for the non-HA and 908 days for the HA cohort, a difference of 582 days. Those receiving HA injections had a median 1.6-year longer Time-to-TKR surgery versus those who did not receive HA injections. These results have both clinical and economic implications.

  16. Total protein quantitation using the bicinchoninic acid assay and gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Jason G; Munson, Matthew S; Ross, David

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the ability of gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) to assay total protein concentration using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reaction. We chose this format because GEMBE-C(4) D behaves as a concentration dependent detection system, unlike optical methods that also rely on pathlength (due to Beer's law). This system tolerates proteins well compared with other capillary electrophoretic methods, allowing the capillary to be reused without coatings or additional hydroxide wash steps. The typical reaction protocol was modified by reducing the pH slightly from 11.25 to 9.4, which enabled elimination of tartrate from the reagents. We estimated that copper (I) could be detected at approximately 3.0 μmol/L, which agrees with similar GEMBE and CZE systems utilizing C(4) D. Under conditions similar to the BCA "micro method" assay, we determined the LOD for three common proteins (insulin, BSA, and bovine gamma globulin) and found that they agree well with the existing spectroscopic detection methods. Further, we investigated how long reaction times impact the LOD and found that the conversion was proportional to log(time). This indicated that little sensitivity is gained by extending the reaction past 1 h. Hence, GEMBE provides an alternative platform for total protein assays while maintaining the excellent sensitivity of the optical-based methods.

  17. EFFECT OF TRANEXAMIC ACID ON BLEEDING CONTROL IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    SADIGURSKY, DAVID; ANDION, DANIEL; BOUREAU, PÉRICLES; FERREIRA, MARIA CORDULINA; CARNEIRO, ROGÉRIO JAMIL FERNANDES; COLAVOLPE, PAULO OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To analyze the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Method: The population sample was composed of patients with a diagnosis of primary knee osteoarthritis. The patients undergoing TKA were divided in two groups. Group A: comprised patients who used IV TA and B group, formed by patients who did not use TA in the intra or post-operative period. For descriptive analysis, quantitative variables were represented by mean and standard deviations when their distribution was normal and interquartile ranges and medians for non-normal variables. Results: The mean age of patients was 68 years old, most of them were female and with involvement of the left knee. Postoperatively patients who had used IV TA showed less bleeding rate and less hemoglobin rate reduction. Conclusion: The use of IV TA in TKA reduces blood loss in peri- and postoperative periods. Regarding total blood loss reduction, hemoglobin rate and need for blood transfusions, IV TA should be used routinely during TKA since it has been shown to be safe with no increase in side effects as thromboembolic events. Level of Evidence III. Retrospective Comparative Study. PMID:27217813

  18. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic a