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Sample records for acid total phenol

  1. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  2. Quantitative analysis of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in thirty Hypericum taxa.

    PubMed

    Pilepić, Kroata Hazler; Males, Zeljan; Crkvencić, Maja

    2013-03-01

    The content of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in the aerial parts of thirty Hypericum taxa collected over two consecutive seasons was investigated by spectrophotometric methods. All taxa examined contained flavonoids and phenolic acids in different quantities, although the differences between species and year's harvest were not found to be significant. The quantity of total flavonoids ranged from 0.1 to 1.6%. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the samples of H. japonicum (1.6%) and H. perforatum (1.5%), while the samples of H. androsaemum and H. balearicum comprised the lowest flavonoid amount (0.13%). The content of total phenolic acids in the investigated samples was found to be between 1.1-10.4%. The samples of H. perforatum were found to contain the highest quantity of phenolic acids (10.4% and 10.2%), whereas the sample ofH. linarifolium showed the lowest amount of phenolic acids (1.1%).

  3. Total phenolics, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins and antioxidant properties of yellow and black soybeans as affected by thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-08-27

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the phenolic components and antioxidant activities of whole yellow (with yellow seed coat and yellow cotyledon) and black (with black seed coat and green cotyledon) soybeans were investigated. As compared to the raw soybeans, all processing methods caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) in black soybeans. Pressure steaming caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in TPC, CTC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC in yellow soybeans. The steaming resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC values in both yellow and black soybeans as compared to the boiling treatments. To further investigate the effect of processing on phenolic compounds and elucidate the contribution of these compounds to changes of antioxidant activities, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The pressure steaming treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in gallic acid and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, whereas all treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in two predominant phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid), and total phenolic acids for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in aglucones and beta-glucosides of isoflavones, but caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in malonylglucosides of isoflavones for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases of cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside in black soybeans. Significant correlations existed between selected phenolic compositions, isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, and antioxidant properties of cooked soybeans.

  4. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.

  5. Major phenolic acids and total antioxidant activity in mamaki leaves, Pipturus albidus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three phenolic acids, (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin, were identified and quantified in mamaki leaves (Pipturus albidus) using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique. Concentrations of (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin varied from 1.1 mg to 5.0 mg per gram of mamaki...

  6. Total and individual carotenoids and phenolic acids content in fresh, refrigerated and processed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Bunea, Andrea; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Socaciu, Carmen; Bobis, Otilia; Neacsu, Madalina; Verhé, Roland; Camp, John Van

    2008-05-15

    The carotenoid and phenolic acid contents in fresh, stored and processed (blanched, frozen and boiled) spinach were comparatively determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses. The major carotenoids identified after HPLC analysis in saponified samples were lutein (37-53μg/kg), β-carotene (18-31μg/kg), violaxanthin (9-23μg/kg) and neoxanthin (10-22μg/kg). These carotenoids were all affected by storage and/or heating. The content of carotenoids was best preserved after storage for one day at 4°C. The total phenolic content in the fresh spinach was 2088mg GAE/kg FW. After LC-MS analysis three phenolic acids were identified and quantified. These being ortho-coumaric acid (28-60mg/kg FW), ferulic acid (10-35mg/kg) and para-coumaric acid (1-30mg/kg) depending on the sample type. After storage of spinach at different temperatures (4°C or -18°C) the amount of total phenolic compounds decreased by around 20%, while the amount of individual phenolic acids increased by four times on average.

  7. Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) Fruits: Comparision of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoids profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) fruit and to compare various techniques for the analysis of total phenolic acids. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, querceti...

  8. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  9. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G

    2016-09-01

    Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  10. Impact of Altitudes and Habitats on Valerenic Acid, Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannins, and Antioxidant Activity of Valeriana jatamansi.

    PubMed

    Jugran, Arun K; Bahukhandi, Amit; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Nandi, Shyamal K

    2016-07-01

    The changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity were assessed in 25 populations of Valeriana jatamansi sampled from 1200 to 2775 m asl and four habitat types of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. Significant (p < 0.05) variations in total phenolics, flavonoids, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity in aerial and root portions and across the populations were observed. Antioxidant activity measured by three in vitro antioxidant assays, i.e., 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picryylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across the populations. However, no clear pattern was found in phytochemicals across the altitudinal range. Among habitat types, (pine, oak, mixed forest, and grassy land), variation in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity were observed. Equal class ranking, neighbor-joining cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified Talwari, Jaberkhet, Manjkhali, and Khirshu populations as promising sources with higher phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The results recommended that the identified populations with higher value of phytochemicals and antioxidants can be utilized for mass multiplication and breeding program to meet the domestic as well as commercial demand.

  11. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  12. Levels of b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total phenols in the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, total phenol, and ascorbic acid levels of the fruit pulp. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minim...

  13. Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta

    2006-09-20

    The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate.

  14. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Manthey, John A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope

    2009-11-25

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit grown worldwide with excellent nutritional value and widely attributed health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peels, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxidants of mango fruit pulp. Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over 1 year to compare the beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the fruit pulp and to compare the phenolic profiles of the individual varieties. To minimize ripeness variability, only soft fruit (0.5-1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements. Ascorbic acid ranged from 11 to 134 mg/100 g of pulp puree, and beta-carotene varied from 5 to 30 mg/kg among the five varieties. Total phenolic content ranged from 19.5 to 166.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of puree. The varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden had similar total phenolic contents, averaging 31.2+/-7.8 mg GAE/100 g of puree, whereas the variety Ataulfo contained substantially higher values. Similar trends were observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activities among the five varieties. In contrast, the country of origin and harvest dates had far less influence on these parameters. Ataulfo mangoes contained significantly higher amounts of mangiferin and ellagic acid than the other four varieties. Large fruit-to-fruit variations in the concentrations of these compounds occurred within sets of mangoes of the same cultivar with the same harvest location and date.

  15. Fruit antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total phenol, quercetin, and carotene of Irwin mango fruits stored at low temperature after high electric field pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo

    2004-03-10

    Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes.

  16. Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2011-06-22

    Fruit pulp and seeds from the jujube plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties. The bioactive components have been shown to vary both with cultivar and with growing conditions. Most studies report the components of varieties from China. We measured free amino acid, individual phenolic, and total phenolic content, and antioxidative activities in three jujube fruit pulp extracts from Boeun-deachu, Mechu, and Sanzoin cultivars and two seed extracts (Mechu and Sanzoin) from plants grown in Korea. In g/100 g dry weight, total free amino acid content measured by ion-exchange chromatography ranged from 5.2 to 9.8 in the pulp and from 4.0 to 5.3 in the seed. Total phenolic content measured by Folin-Ciocalteu ranged from 1.1 to 2.4 in the pulp and from 3.6 to 4.6 in the seed. Flavonoids were measured by HPLC and ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 in the pulp and from 3.2 to 4.0 in the seed. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC elution position and UV/vis and mass spectra. Fruits contained the following flavonoids: procyanidin B2, epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q-3-R), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-G), kaempferol-glucosyl-rhamnoside (K-G-R), and two unidentified compounds. Seeds contained the following flavonoids: saponarin, spinosin, vitexin, swertish, 6'''-hydroxybenzoylspinosin (6'''-HBS), 6'''-feruloylspinosin (6'''-FS), and one unidentified substance. Dimensions and weights of the fresh fruit samples affected phenolic content. The distribution of the individual flavonoids among the different samples varied widely. Data determined by the FRAP antioxidative assay were well correlated with total phenolic content. In a departure from other studies, data from the DPPH free radical assay were not correlated with FRAP or with any of the measured compositional parameters. Because individual jujube flavonoids are reported to exhibit different health-promoting effects, knowledge of the composition and concentration of bioactive compounds of jujube products can benefit

  17. Simultaneous estimation of phenolic acids in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) using RP-HPLC with DAD.

    PubMed

    Arimboor, Ranjith; Kumar, K Sarin; Arumughan, C

    2008-05-12

    A RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of nine phenolic acids including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, caffiec acid and ferulic acid in sea buckthorn (SB) (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries and leaves. The method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD, precision, accuracy and recovery and found to be satisfactory. Phenolic acid derivatives in anatomical parts of SB berries and leaves were separated into free phenolic acids, phenolic acids bound as esters and phenolic acids bound as glycosides and profiled in HPLC. Berry pulp contained a total of 1068 mg/kg phenolic acids, of which 58.8% was derived from phenolic glycosides. Free phenolic acids and phenolic acid esters constituted 20.0% and 21.2%, respectively, of total phenolic acids in SB berry pulp. The total phenolic acid content in seed kernel (5741 mg/kg) was higher than that in berry pulp and seed coat (Table 2). Phenolic acids liberated from soluble esters constituted the major fraction of phenolic acids (57.3% of total phenolic acids) in seed kernel. 8.4% and 34.3% of total phenolic acids in seed kernel were, respectively contributed by free and phenolic acids liberated from glycosidic bonds. The total soluble phenolic acids content in seed coat (448 mg/kg) was lower than that in seed kernel and pulp (Table 2). Proportion of free phenolic acids in total phenolic acids in seed coat was higher than that in seed kernel and pulp. Phenolic acids bound as esters and glycosides, respectively contributed 49.1% and 20.3% of total phenolic acids in seed coat. The major fraction (approximately 70%) of phenolic acids in SB berries was found to be concentrated in the seeds. Gallic acid was the predominant phenolic acid both in free and bound forms in SB berry parts and leaves.

  18. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Polish Apple Ciders

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, A.; Ruszkiewicz, M.; Biskup, I.

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated. PMID:26798183

  19. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Polish Apple Ciders.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, A; Ruszkiewicz, M; Biskup, I

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated.

  20. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).

    PubMed

    Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc

    2010-11-24

    The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective.

  1. Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoids, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Scrophularia Striata Boiss Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Boland Nazar, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrophularia striata (Scrophulariaceae family) is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used for treatment of microbial infections. Objectives Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of different extracts (methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous and ethyl acetate) from S. striata aerial parts was evaluated. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial activity of different extracts from S. striata was evaluated against a large number of bacteria and fungi by micro broth dilution. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and their antioxidant activities evaluated by DPPH assay and beta carotene linoleic acid test. Results Antimicrobial screening exhibited the positive relation between the total phenolic content and its antimicrobial activity but their antioxidant activity had a negative relation. Conclusions Further studies are recommended against clinical isolate of sensitive bacteria and deep investigation on flavonoid and phenolic compounds of S. striata and detecting the antioxidant portion in aqueous extract. PMID:24624181

  2. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  3. Assessment of total (free and bound) phenolic compounds in spent coffee extracts.

    PubMed

    Monente, Carmen; Ludwig, Iziar A; Irigoyen, Angel; De Peña, María-Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2015-05-06

    Spent coffee is the main byproduct of the brewing process and a potential source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic acids easily extracted with water. Free and bound caffeoylquinic (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA), dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, 4,5-diCQA), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured by HPLC, after the application of three treatments (alkaline, acid, saline) to spent coffee extracts. Around 2-fold higher content of total phenolics has been estimated in comparison to free compounds. Phenolic compounds with one or more caffeic acid molecules were approximately 54% linked to macromolecules such as melanoidins, mainly by noncovalent interactions (up to 81% of bound phenolic compounds). The rest of the quantitated phenolic acids were mainly attached to other structures by covalent bonds (62-97% of total bound compounds). Alkaline hydrolysis and saline treatment were suitable to estimate total bound and ionically bound phenolic acids, respectively, whereas acid hydrolysis is an inadequate method to quantitate coffee phenolic acids.

  4. Effects of environment and genotype on phenolic acids in wheat in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Orozco, Rebeca; Li, Li; Harflett, Claudia; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L

    2010-09-08

    Phenolic acid content and composition have been determined in 26 wheat genotypes grown in Hungary over three consecutive years and at three additional locations (France, United Kingdom, and Poland) during the third year. Fractions comprising free, soluble conjugated, and bound phenolic acids were analyzed using HPLC with measurements being made for individual phenolic acids in each fraction. Statistically significant differences in phenolic acid content occurred across the different growing locations with the average total phenolic acid content being highest in the genotypes grown in Hungary. The growth year in Hungary also had a large impact, especially on the free and conjugated phenolic acid contents. Certain genotypes were more resistant to environmental impacts than others. Of the genotypes with high levels of total phenolic acids, Lynx, Riband, Tommi, and Cadenza were most stable with respect to their total contents, whereas Valoris, Herzog, and Malacca, also high in phenolic acid content, were least stable. Of the three fractions analyzed, the free and conjugated phenolic acids were most variable and were also susceptible to the effect of environment, whereas bound phenolic acids, which comprised the greatest proportion of the total phenolic acids, were the most stable.

  5. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  6. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05) effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  7. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  8. Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; de las Rivas, Blanca; López de Felipe, Félix; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Mancheño, José Miguel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2009-06-30

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of food products of plant origin. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavour, astringency, and colour. In addition, the presence of phenolic compounds on the diet is beneficial to health due to their chemopreventive activities against carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, mainly due to their antioxidant activities. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are autochthonous microbiota of raw vegetables. To get desirable properties on fermented plant-derived food products, LAB has to be adapted to the characteristics of the plant raw materials where phenolic compounds are abundant. Lactobacillus plantarum is the commercial starter most frequently used in the fermentation of food products of plant origin. However, scarce information is still available on the influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and viability of L. plantarum and other LAB species. Moreover, metabolic pathways of biosynthesis or degradation of phenolic compounds in LAB have not been completely described. Results obtained in L. plantarum showed that L. plantarum was able to degrade some food phenolic compounds giving compounds influencing food aroma as well as compounds presenting increased antioxidant activity. Recently, several L. plantarum proteins involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds have been genetically and biochemically characterized. The aim of this review is to give a complete and updated overview of the current knowledge among LAB and food phenolics interaction, which could facilitate the possible application of selected bacteria or their enzymes in the elaboration of food products with improved characteristics.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  10. Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

  11. Effect of maturity on phenolics (phenolic acids and flavonoids) profile of strawberry cultivars and mulberry species from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5-53.3%, 491-1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83-327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9-54.0%, 201-2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110-1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

  12. Phenolic acid esterases, coding sequences and methods

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David L.; Kataeva, Irina; Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2002-01-01

    Described herein are four phenolic acid esterases, three of which correspond to domains of previously unknown function within bacterial xylanases, from XynY and XynZ of Clostridium thermocellum and from a xylanase of Ruminococcus. The fourth specifically exemplified xylanase is a protein encoded within the genome of Orpinomyces PC-2. The amino acids of these polypeptides and nucleotide sequences encoding them are provided. Recombinant host cells, expression vectors and methods for the recombinant production of phenolic acid esterases are also provided.

  13. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  14. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activities in husk of different Thai rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Butsat, S; Siriamornpun, S

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the free and bound phenolic acids as well as their antioxidant activities in husk of 12 Thai rice varieties consisting of pigmented rice and normal rice. The pigmented rice husk gave higher free total phenolic contents than normal rice husk. However, there was no significant difference in bound total phenolic contents between pigmented rice and normal rice husks. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the major phenolic acids in the free fraction of pigmented rice husks, whereas vanillic acid was the dominant phenolic acid in the free fraction of normal rice husks. On the other hand, p-coumaric acid was highly found in bound form of both pigmented and normal rice husks. The antioxidant activity of husk extracts was positively correlated with the total free phenolics content and individual of phenolic acids especially ferulic acid. On the basis of this study, it is suggested that the rice husk could be a potential phenolic acid source and may therefore offer an effective source of natural antioxidant. Our findings provide valuable information on phenolic acids composition and antioxidant activity of husk for further food application.

  15. Toward a facile method to remove ascorbate interference in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay of "total phenolic content"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-established Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices this interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Approaches to eliminating the AsA interference are brie...

  16. Improved removal of ascorbate interference in the folin-ciocalteu assay of “total phenolic content”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The venerable Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can substantially exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been a promising approach to ...

  17. Improved Folin-Ciocalteu assay of “total phenolic content” by removal of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The venerable and operationally simple Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been...

  18. Improved removal of ascorbate interference in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay of “total phenolic content"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The venerable Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been a promising approach to ...

  19. Effect of vegetables on human phenolsulfotransferases in relation to their antioxidant activity and total phenolics.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2005-08-01

    Epidemiology studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Induction of cellular phase II detoxifying enzymes is associated with cancer preventive potential. Phenolsulfotransferases (PSTs) are traditionally known as phase II drug-metabolizing or detoxifying enzymes that facilitate the removal of drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. Phenolic acids are known to increase the activities of PSTs. In the present study, human HepG2 cells were used as model to investigate the influence of twenty vegetables on human PST activity and to evaluate the relationships to their antioxidant activity and total phenolics content. The result showed that PST-P activity was significantly (p < 0.01) induced by asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, celery and eggplant, whereas PST-M activity was induced by asparagus, broccoli, carrot, eggplant and potato at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The vegetable extracts that induced both forms of PSTs activities were found to have higher antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The major polyphenols in broccoli, the most potential inducer in both forms of PSTs activities, was antioxidant phenolic acids. HPLC retention times and standard spiked indicated the presence of gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, gentisic acid and ferulic acid in broccoli. The overall effect of vegetables tested on the activity of PST-P was well correlated to their ORAC value and total phenolics content (r= 0.82, p < 0.05 and r = 0.78, p < 0.05). These results imply that vegetables have a capability of inducing PST activity, and the PST induction may be possibly ascribed to antioxidant phenolic acids in vegetable extracts.

  20. A UPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Free and Total Forms of a Phenolic Acid and Two Flavonoids in Rat Plasma and Its Application to Comparative Pharmacokinetic Studies of Polygonum capitatum Extract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Sun, Hui-Yuan; Qin, Xiao-Li; Li, Yong-Jun; Liao, Shang-Gao; Gong, Zi-Peng; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Yong-Lin; Wang, Ai-Min; Lan, Yan-Yu; Zheng, Lin

    2017-02-25

    The principal active constituents of Polygonum capitatum are phenolic acids and flavonoids, such as gallic acid, quercitrin, and quercetin. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method to determine the three constituents and the corresponding conjugated metabolites of Polygonum capitatum in vivo and to conduct pharmacokinetic studies on the herb, a well-known Miao medicinal plant in China. Gallic acid, quercitrin, and quercetin were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Protein precipitation in plasma samples was performed using methanol. For the determination of total forms of analytes, an additional process of hydrolysis was conducted using β-glucuronidase and sulphatase. The analytes were separated on a BEH C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm; i.d., 1.7 μm) and quantified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The linear regression showed high linearity over a 729-fold dynamic range for the three analytes. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day measurements were less than 9.5%, and the method was accurate to within -11.1% to 12.5%. The extraction recoveries for gallic acid, quercitrin, and quercetin were 94.3%-98.8%, 88.9%-98.8%, and 95.7%-98.5%, respectively. All samples were stable under short- and long-term storage conditions. The validated method was successfully applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of gallic acid, quercitrin, and quercetin in their free and total forms in rat plasma. The study revealed significantly higher exposure of the constituents in total forms for gallic acid and quercetin, while quercitrin was detected mainly in its corresponding free form in vivo. The established method was rapid and sensitive for the simultaneous quantification of free and total forms of multiple constituents of Polygonum capitatum extract in plasma.

  1. Unravelling the total antioxidant capacity of pinotage wines: contribution of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Marais, Johann; Manley, Marena

    2006-04-19

    The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and phenolic composition of 139 Pinotage wines (2002 and 2003 vintages) were determined using the 2,2'-azino-di(3-ethylbenzo-thialozine-sulfonic acid) scavenging assay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The contribution of individually quantified phenolic compounds to the wine TAC was calculated using their concentrations and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values. The TEAC values of quercetin-3-galactoside, isorhamnetin, and peonidin-3-glucoside are reported for the first time. Between 11 and 24% of the measured TAC of Pinotage wines was explained by the sum of the calculated contributions of their quantified phenolic compounds comprising monomeric phenolic compounds and procyanidin B1. Ultrafiltration was carried out to attempt separation of monomeric and polymeric phenolic compounds. Analysis of ultrafiltration permeates and retentates enabled estimation of the TAC contribution of large molecular weight (MW) unknown compounds (46%) (>50 kDa), including oligomeric and polymeric phenolic compounds and small MW unknown compounds (34%) (<50 kDa). Three mixtures, containing 12 phenolic compounds in typical concentrations expected in Pinotage wines, exhibited 16-23% synergistic antioxidant activity. This suggests that synergy between phenolic compounds does play a role in the wine TAC but that it does not explain the large discrepancy between measured and calculated TAC values.

  2. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2015-01-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs. PMID:27006902

  3. Major phenolics in apple and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Chang Yong

    2003-10-22

    The contribution of each phytochemical to the total antioxidant capacity of apples was determined. Major phenolic phytochemicals of six apple cultivars were identified and quantified, and their contributions to total antioxidant activity of apples were determined using a 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). Average concentrations of major phenolics and vitamin C in six apple cultivars were as follows (mg/100 g of fresh weight of apples): quercetin glycosides, 13.20; procyanidin B(2), 9.35; chlorogenic acid, 9.02; epicatechin, 8.65; phloretin glycosides, 5.59; vitamin C, 12.80. A highly linear relationship (r (2) > 0.97) was attained between concentrations and total antioxidant capacity of phenolics and vitamin C. Relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the order quercetin (3.06) > epicatechin (2.67) > procyanidin B(2) (2.36) > phloretin (1.63) > vitamin C (1.00) > chlorogenic acid (0.97). Therefore, the estimated contribution of major phenolics and vitamin C to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh apples is as follows: quercetin (40.39 VCEAC) > epicatechin (23.10) > procyanidin B(2) (22.07) > vitamin C (12.80) > phloretin (9.11) > chlorogenic acid (8.75). These results indicate that flavonoids such as quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B(2) rather than vitamin C contribute significantly to the total antioxidant activity of apples.

  4. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  5. Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents increase with gamma irradiation in two types of Malaysian honey.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd; Makpol, Suzana; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2011-07-27

    Two types of monofloral Malaysian honey (Gelam and Nenas) were analyzed to determine their antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, with and without gamma irradiation. Our results showed that both types of honey can scavenge free radicals and exhibit high antioxidant-reducing power; however, Gelam honey exhibited higher antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Nenas honey, which is in good correlation (r = 0.9899) with its phenolic contents. Interestingly, we also noted that both irradiated honeys have higher antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to nonirradiated honeys by Folin-Ciocalteu and UV-spectrophotometry methods, respectively. However, HPLC analysis for phenolic compounds showed insignificant increase between irradiated and nonirradiated honeys. The phenolic compounds such as: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, p- coumaric acid, quercetin and hesperetin as indicated by HPLC method were found to be higher in Gelam honey versus Nenas honey. In conclusion, irradiation of honey causes enhanced antioxidant activities and flavonoid compounds.

  6. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.

  7. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  8. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of myrtle (Myrtus communis) extracts.

    PubMed

    Amensour, Mahassine; Sendra, Esther; Abrini, Jamal; Bouhdid, Samira; Pérez-Alvarez, José Angel; Fernández-López, Juana

    2009-06-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of myrtle (Myrtus communis) leaves and berries were measured to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, the reducing antioxidant power assay and beta-carotene linoleic acid assay. The total phenol content of myrtle extracts ranged between 9.0 and 35.6 mg GAE per g extract. For each solvent, leaf extracts contained significantly higher amount of total phenolic compounds than berry extracts. All of the extracts presented antioxidant capacity assessed by the three methods, but at different levels depending on the concentration, the extraction solvent and the part of the plant used. Generally, leaf extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than berry extracts, while the overall antioxidant strength was in the order methanol > water > ethanol in leaf extracts and methanol > ethanol > water in berry extracts. The phenolic content exhibited a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity: DPPH assay showed the highest correlation (r = 0.949), followed by the reducing power assay (r = 0.914) and the lowest for the beta-carotene linoleic acid assay (r = 0.722).

  9. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  10. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements.

  11. Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanins, Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activity of Some Red Fruits Teas.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Bianca; Hosu, Anamaria; David, Luminita; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Fruits represent one of the main dietary sources of bioactive compounds. Due to their remarkable health benefits, many functional foods of fruit origin, including fruit teas, are present on the market and there is an increased interest regarding the investigation of their nutritional parameters and quality. The aims of our study were: 1) to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), antioxidant activity (AA), the scavenging capacity (IC50), the pro-oxidant activity (Pro-ox) and Pro-Antidex of 12 commercially available red fruit teas, 2) to classify the analysed teas and 3) to evaluate the similarities between samples. The TPC was between 12.5 and 29.3 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g tea, the TAC varied between 2.6 and 5.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu)/g tea and AA was in the range of 10.9-19.1 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g tea. The Pro-ox activity varied between 3.9 and 10.0 mg/mL tea extract and Pro-Antidex was between 3.3 and 7.3.

  12. Changes in antioxidant activity and phenolic acid composition of tarhana with steel-cut oats.

    PubMed

    Kilci, A; Gocmen, D

    2014-02-15

    Steel-cut oats (SCO) was used to replace wheat flour in the tarhana formulation (control) at the levels of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% (w/w). Control sample included no SCO. Substitution of wheat flour in tarhana formulation with SCO affected the mineral contents positively. SCO additions also increased phenolic acid contents of tarhana samples. The most abundant phenolic acids were ferulic and vanillic acids, followed by syringic acid in the samples with SCO. Tarhana samples with SCO also showed higher antioxidant activities than the control. Compared with the control, the total phenolic content increased when the level of SCO addition was increased. SCO addition did not have a deteriorative effect on sensory properties of tarhana samples and resulted in acceptable soup properties in terms of overall acceptability. SCO addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of tarhana by causing increases in antioxidant activity, phenolic content and phenolic acids.

  13. Phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Manfred; Weber, Markus

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century, phenol was recovered primarily from coal tar. With the commercialization of the phenolic resins, the demand for phenol grew significantly. Currently, the cumene-to-phenol process is the predominant synthetic route for the production of phenol. It is accompanied by acetone as a co-product. Cumene is oxidized with oxygen to form cumene hydroperoxide. The peroxide is subsequently decomposed to phenol and acetone, using a strong mineral acid as catalyst. The products are purified in a series of distillation columns. The cumene-to-phenol process is described in more detail in this chapter. An overview is given about synthetic routes via direct oxidation of benzene. None of these alternative routes has been commercialized. The chapter also gives an overview of global supply and use of phenol in 2008. Finally, the main natural sources and synthetic routes for cresols, xylenols, resorcinol, and bisphenol-A are described. These components are used as comonomers for special phenolic resins.

  14. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  15. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  16. Metabolism of berry anthocyanins to phenolic acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Heinonen, Marina; Nurmi, Anna; Hiltunen, Raimo; Voutilainen, Sari

    2009-03-25

    We studied the metabolism of berry anthocyanins to phenolic acids in six human subjects by giving them bilberry-lingonberry puree with and without oat cereals. Puree + cereals contained 1435 micromol of anthocyanins and 339 micromol of phenolic acids. The urinary excretion of measured 18 phenolic acids increased 241 micromol during the 48 h follow-up after the puree + cereals supplementation. The excretion peak of dietary phenolic acids was observed at 4-6 h after the puree + cereals supplementation and 2 h earlier after the supplementation of the puree alone. Homovanillic and vanillic acids were the most abundant metabolites, and they were partly produced from anthocyanins. No gallic acid, a fragmentation product of delphinidin glycosides, was detected, and only a very low amount of malvidin glycosides was possibly metabolized to syringic acid. Although anthocyanins were partly fragmented to phenolic acids, still a large part of metabolites remained unknown.

  17. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Piper auritum and Porophyllum ruderale.

    PubMed

    Conde-Hernández, Lilia A; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Á

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from fresh and dried samples of Mexican pepperleaf (Piper auritum Kunth) and "papalo" (Porophyllum ruderale) were obtained using a stirring or an ultrasound extraction system with five types of solvents (water, 50:50% v/v ethanol:water, 70:30% v/v ethanol:water, 85:15% v/v ethanol:1.5N HCl, and ethanol). Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated with the phenol Folin Ciocalteu reagent and the ABTS method, respectively. Total phenolic compounds (PC), trolox (T), and ascorbic acid (AA), in the two herbs, were in the range of 6.79-68.03mg of galic acid (GA)/g dry solids (d.s.), 4.88-64.99mg of T/gd.s., and 5.31-49.84mgAA/gd.s., respectively. Extracts from fresh "papalo", using ultrasound as the extraction system, had the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The fresh pepperleaf extract, obtained using ultrasound as the extraction method contained the highest amount of antioxidant activity.

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Zhao, Yong-Ming; Tian, Ya-Ting; Yan, Chun-Lin; Guo, Chun-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from Inula helenium was studied. Effects of ethanol concentration, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio, and number of extractions were investigated. An orthogonal array was constructed to optimize UAE process. The optimized extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 30%; solid-liquid ratio, 1 : 20; number of extractions, 2 times; extraction time, 30 min. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid was 6.13 ± 0.58 and 1.32 ± 0.17 mg/g, respectively. The results showed that high amounts of phenolic compounds can be extracted from I. helenium by ultrasound-assisted extraction technology. PMID:24089600

  19. Comparison of phenolic acids profile and antioxidant potential of six varieties of spelt (Triticum spelta L.).

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz

    2012-05-09

    Phenolic acids profile and antioxidant activity of six diverse varieties of spelt are reported. Antioxidant activity was assessed using eight methods based on different mechanism of action. Phenolic acids composition of spelt differed significantly between varieties and ranged from 506.6 to 1257.4 μg/g DW. Ferulic and sinapinic acids were the predominant phenolic acids found in spelt. Total ferulic acid content ranged from 144.2 to 691.5 μg/g DW. All analyzed spelt varieties possessed high antioxidant potential. In spite of the fact that bound phenolic acids possessed higher antioxidant activities, analysis of antioxidant potential and their relationship with phenolic acid content showed that free phenolics were more effective. Eight antioxidant methods were integrated to obtain a total antioxidant capacity index that may be used for comparison of total antioxidant capacity of spelt varieties. Total antioxidant potential of spelt cultivars were ordered as follows: Ceralio > Spelt INZ ≈ Ostro > Oberkulmer Rotkorn > Schwabenspelz > Schwabenkorn.

  20. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols.

  1. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (p<0.05) were observed in both peel and pulp. The levels of total phenolic acids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms.

  2. Dietary intakes and food sources of phenolic acids in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rothwell, Joseph A; Scalbert, Augustin; Knaze, Viktoria; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Touillaud, Marina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Menéndez, Virginia; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Palli, Domenico; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sieri, Sabina; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Grote, Verena; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine; Peeters, Petra H M; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Ericson, Ulrika; Wallström, Peter; Johansson, Ingegerd; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Wark, Petra; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2013-10-01

    Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36,037 subjects aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265·5 and 980·7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213·2 and 158·6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84·6-95·3% of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4·6-14·4%, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0·1-0·8% and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids ≤ 0·1% for all regions. An increasing south-north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55·3-80·7% of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.

  3. Antioxidant ability and total phenolic content of aqueous leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bert.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Mehta, Pradeep; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, we carried out a systematic research on relative antioxidant activity of aqueous leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana. The DPPH activity of aqueous leaf extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 40.00-72.37% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26-82.58%. The IC(50) values of aqueous extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 83.45 and 26.75 μg/ml, respectively. Measurement of total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract of S. rebaudiana was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 56.73 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly potent when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The aqueous extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 100.86, 98.73 and 100.86 μg/ml, respectively. The greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effects as shown by the aqueous leaf extract of S. rebaudiana.

  4. Content Variation of Catechin Markers, Total Phenolics and Caffeine in Green Tea Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Abourashed, Ehab A; Roberson, Cindy Leslie A; Elsharkawy, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) preparations are among the top selling products in the United States dietary supplements market. Numerous manufacturers claim different levels of specific catechin markers in their products while many others use total phenolic concentration instead, or not at all. Limited quality control results have been published for green tea dietary supplements over the past seven years. Thus, the goal of this work was to correlate determined levels of phenolics, catechins, and caffeine with manufacturer label claims for selected dietary supplement products (26 total) purchased in the United States. The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method was used to determine the total phenolic content while reversed-phase (RP) HPLC was used to quantify the major catechins: epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The developed HPLC method was validated for accuracy and precision. It utilized a C8 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile in 0.1% aqueous formic acid over 11 min total run time. Peak detection was performed at 280 nm. Caffeine was also included in the HPLC method as another non-phenolic alkaloid marker commonly found in green tea. Both methods showed a good correlation between the content of catechins and polyphenolic compounds in the selected products. The ranges of total catechins and polyphenol concentrations were 3.8-70.2% and 3.6-95.8%, respectively, while that of caffeine was 0.8-11.2%. The selected products displayed a wide range of marker levels. A lack of conformity in disclosing the actual levels of marker compounds was also noticed in the labeling of many products.

  5. Altered nucleic acid partitioning during phenol extraction or silica adsorption by guanidinium and potassium salts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Lv, Jun; Ling, Liefeng; Wang, Peng; Song, Ping; Su, Ruirui; Zhu, Guoping

    2011-12-15

    Nucleic acids were found to partition into the phenol phase during phenol extraction in the presence of guanidinium at certain concentrations under acidic conditions. The guanidinium-concentration-dependent nucleic acid partitioning patterns were analogous to those of the nucleic acid adsorption/partitioning onto silica mediated by guanidinium, which implied that phenol and silica interact with nucleic acids through similar mechanisms. A competition effect was observed in which the nucleic acids that had partitioned into the phenol phase or onto the silica solid phase could be recovered to the aqueous phases by potassium in a molecular weight-salt concentration-dependent manner (the higher molecular weight nucleic acids needed higher concentrations of potassium to be recovered, and vice versa). Methods were developed based on these findings to isolate total RNA from Escherichia coli. By controlling the concentrations of guanidinium and potassium salts used before phenol extraction or silica adsorption, we can selectively recover total RNA but not the high molecular weight genomic DNA in the aqueous phases. Genomic DNA-free total RNA obtained by our methods is suitable for RT-PCR or other purposes. The methods can also be adapted to isolate small RNAs or RNA in certain molecular weight ranges by changing the salt concentrations used.

  6. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  7. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    PubMed

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Dietary Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Saibabu, Venkata; Fatima, Zeeshan; Khan, Luqman Ahmad; Hameed, Saif

    2015-01-01

    Although modern lifestyle has eased the quality of human life, this lifestyle's related patterns have imparted negative effects on health to acquire multiple diseases. Many synthetic drugs are invented during the last millennium but most if not all of them possess several side effects and proved to be costly. Convincing evidences have established the premise that the phytotherapeutic potential of natural compounds and need of search for novel drugs from natural sources are of high priority. Phenolic acids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites spread throughout the plant kingdom and generally involved in plethora of cellular processes involved in plant growth and reproduction and also produced as defense mechanism to sustain various environmental stresses. Extensive research on PAs strongly suggests that consumption of these compounds hold promise to offer protection against various ailments in humans. This paper focuses on the naturally derived PAs and summarizes the action mechanisms of these compounds during disease conditions. Based on the available information in the literature, it is suggested that use of PAs as drugs is very promising; however more research and clinical trials are necessary before these bioactive molecules can be made for treatment. Finally this review provides greater awareness of the promise that natural PAs hold for use in the disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26442119

  9. Phenolic compounds extracted by acidic aqueous ethanol from berries and leaves of different berry plants.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Liimatainen, Jaana; Alanne, Aino-Liisa; Lindstedt, Anni; Liu, Pengzhan; Sinkkonen, Jari; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2017-04-01

    Phenolic compounds of berries and leaves of thirteen various plant species were extracted with aqueous ethanol and analyzed with UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, HPLC-DAD, and NMR. The total content of phenolics was consistently higher in leaves than in berries (25-7856 vs. 28-711mg/100g fresh weight). Sea buckthorn leaves were richest in phenolic compounds (7856mg/100g f.w.) with ellagitannins as the dominant compound class. Sea buckthorn berries contained mostly isorhamnetin glycosides, whereas quercetin glycosides were typically abundant in most samples investigated. Anthocyanins formed the dominating group of phenolics in most dark-colored berries but phenolic acid derivatives were equally abundant in saskatoon and chokeberry berries. Caffeoylquinic acids constituted 80% of the total phenolic content (1664mg/100g f.w.) in bilberry leaves. B-type procyanidins and caffeoylquinic acids were the major phenolic compounds in hawthorn and rowanberry, respectively. Use of leaves of some species with prunasin, tyramine and β-p-arbutin, may be limited in food applications.

  10. Assessment of Antioxidant Potential, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids of Different Solvent Fractions of Monotheca Buxifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Rashid, Umbreen; Bokhari, Jasia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) of fruits of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) Dc., a locally used fruit in Pakistan. Methods Dried powder of the fruit of M. buxifolia was extracted with methanol and the resultant was fractionated with solvents having escalating polarity; n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the residual soluble aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated for the methanol and various fractions. These fractions were also subjected to various in vitro assays to estimate the scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and reductive ability for ferric ions and phosphomolybdate assay. Results The n-butanol, aqueous and methanol fractions possessed high amount of phenolics and flavonoids compared with other fractions, and subsequently showed a pronounced scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals and had a potent reductive ability on ferric ion and phosphomolybdate assay. There was a found significant correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and EC50 of DPPH, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radical and phosphomolybdate assays, whereas a nonsignificant correlation was found with the hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical assay. Conclusion M. buxifolia fruit can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent damage associated with free radicals. PMID:24298440

  11. In vitro antimutagenic, antioxidant activities and total phenolics of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Aslam, Maryam; Ijaz, Sidra

    2014-07-01

    The present work explores antimutagenic and antioxidant potential as well as total phenolics of aqueous and acidified methanol extractable components from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) seed. The magnitude of antimutagenic activity of clove seed extracts (CSE) against two mutant bacterial strains: S. typhimurium TA98 and S. typhimurium TA100 (Ames bacterial test) ranged from 34.11-79.74%. Antioxidant activity in terms of measurement of DPPH radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation was noted to be 71.16-94.58% and 54.96-86.89%, respectively. CSE also exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics with contribution between 22.80 and 115.33 GAE mg/100g. A strong correlation between total phenolics and tested biological activities were recorded. The results of this study advocate that clove seed can be explored as a viable source of bioactives for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer in addition to acting as nutraceutical and functional food ingredient.

  12. Antineurodegenerative effect of phenolic extracts and caffeic acid derivatives in romaine lettuce on neuron-like PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Im, Sung-Eun; Yoon, Hyungeun; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Heo, Ho Jin; Lee, Chang Yong; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2010-08-01

    In recent decades, romaine lettuce has been one of the fastest growing vegetables with respect to its consumption and production. An understanding is needed of the effect of major phenolic phytochemicals from romaine lettuce on biological protection for neuron-like PC-12 cells. Phenolics in fresh romaine lettuce were extracted, and then its total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. Neuroprotective effects of phenolic extract of romaine lettuce and its pure caffeic acid derivatives (caffeic, chicoric, chlorogenic, and isochlorogenic acids) in PC-12 cells were evaluated using two different in vitro methods: lactate dehydrogenase release and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays. Total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh romaine lettuce averaged 22.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents and 31.0 mg of vitamin C equivalents, respectively. The phenolic extract of romaine lettuce protected PC-12 cells against oxidative stress caused by H(2)O(2) in a dose-dependent manner. Isochlorogenic acid, one of the phenolics in romaine lettuce, showed stronger neuroprotection than the other three caffeic acid derivatives also found in the lettuce. Although romaine lettuce had lower levels of phenolics and antioxidant capacity compared to other common vegetables, its contribution to total antioxidant capacity and antineurodegenerative effect in human diets would be higher because of higher amounts of its daily per capita consumption compared to other common vegetables.

  13. Comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii from Langkawi and Semporna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Norhidayu; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii obtained from Langkawi, Kedah and Semporna, Sabah were evaluated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts were determined according to the Folin Ciocalteau method and results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by three methods namely Free Radical Scavenging Activity (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC). Both of the TPC and FRAP assays showed that seaweed from Semporna, Sabah significantly (p<0.05) had higher antioxidant activities compared to Langkawi, Kedah one (Semporna's seaweed: 73.25 mg GAE/100g and 16.94 µmol TE/100g, Langkawi's seaweed: 54.35 mg GAE/100g and 10.01 µmol TE/100 g). However, the seaweed from Langkawi (60.93 µmol TE/100g) show higher TEAC value compared to seaweed from Semporna (36.36 µmol TE/100g) but for DPPH assay there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the samples. Pearson coefficient correlation test, showed that there was a positive correlation (p<0.01) between TPC and antioxidant activity (FRAP assay) (r=0.980) and thus it can be concluded that the phenolic compounds was a contributor of the antioxidant activity in Kappaphycus alvarezii.

  14. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  15. Assessment of phenolic acid content and in vitro antiradical characteristics of hawthorn.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Nilgün; Tunçel, Muzaffer

    2011-06-01

    The infusions and extracts obtained from leaves with flowers, fruit peel, and seed from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Family Rosaceae) were subjected to evaluation as potential sources of antioxidant phytochemicals on the basis of their total content of phenolics, levels of phenolic acids, and in vitro antiradical activity. Total phenolic content of extracts was determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant activity was determined for phenolic extracts by a method involving the use of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Phenolic acids containing extracts and infusions from hawthorn leaves, fruit peel, and seeds were obtained using different polarity solvents and separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which enabled improved separation by the use of a C(18) column, an acidic mobile phase, and gradient elusion. The highest total phenolic content (343.54 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g) and the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity as the inhibition percentage (60.36%) were obtained in ethyl acetate extract from hawthorn leaves with flower. Also, the highest phenolic acid content was measured in the extracts of hawthorn leaves with flowers: protocathechuic (108-128 mg/100 g), p-hydroxy benzoic (141-468 mg/100 g), caffeic (137-3,580 mg/100 g), chlorogenic (925-4,637 mg/100 g), ferulic (3,363-3,462 mg/100 g), vanillic (214 mg/100 g), and syringic (126 mg/100 g) acids. The results indicate that hawthorn is a promising plant because of its high antioxidant activity.

  16. Two-season study of the influence of regulated deficit irrigation and reflective mulch on individual and total phenolic compounds of nectarines at harvest and during storage.

    PubMed

    Pliakoni, Eleni D; Nanos, George D; Gil, Maria I

    2010-11-24

    The influence of deficit irrigation (Deficit) and reflective mulch (Reflective) of Caldesi 2000 nectarines on the content of individual phenolic compounds was studied at harvest and during storage for 2, 4, and 6 weeks at 2 °C during two consecutive years (2007 and 2008). Individual phenolic groups in the edible fruit part consisted mainly of proanthocyanidins (200 mg/100 g fw), lower content of phenolic acids (17 mg/100 g fw), and minor content of flavonols (5 mg/100 g fw) and anthocyanins (1.2 mg/100 g fw). Deficit irrigation increased the content of total phenolics, including proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids, reaching similar amounts in both years. Sun-exposed fruit (upper part of canopy) showed higher content than shaded fruit (lower part of canopy). However, Reflective significantly increased the content of total phenolics, particularly phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins, of fruit located in the lower part of the canopy. During storage, Deficit and Reflective did not affect the content of phenolic acids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins when compared to the content at harvest. Optimizing cultural practices can be a way to increase the phenolic content of nectarines.

  17. Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jing; Villani, Thomas S; Guo, Yue; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous separation, and determination of natural compounds including phenolic acids and flavonoids in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. By analyzing the UV and MS data, and comparison with authenticated standards, 10 polyphenols including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were identified together with 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. Major constituents in the leaves of 25 different populations from worldwide accessions were quantified and compared with each other. The total phenolic content of each accession was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, ranging from 18.98 ± 2.7 to 29.9 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, varying from 17.5 to 152.5 ± 18.8 μmol Trolox/g. After the treatment of H. sabdariffa leaf extract, the reduction of LPS-induced NO production dose-dependently in RAW 264.7 cell indicates the extract's potential anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bert.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Bajpai, Vivek K; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 36.93-68.76% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26-82.58%. The IC(50) values of ethanolic extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 93.46 and 26.75 microg/ml, respectively. The ethanolic extract was also found to scavenge the superoxide generated by EDTA/NBT system. Measurement of total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract of S. rebaudiana was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 61.50 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly higher when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The ethanolic extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 93.46, 132.05 and 81.08 microg/ml, respectively. However, the IC(50) values for the standard ascorbic acid were noted to be 26.75, 66.01 and 71.41 microg/ml respectively. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that S. rebaudiana has a significant potential to use as a natural antioxidant agent.

  19. An organic solvent-tolerant phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus licheniformis for the efficient bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongfei; Li, Lulu; Ding, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    A new phenolic acid decarboxylase gene (blpad) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The full-length blpad encodes a 166-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 19,521 Da and 5.02, respectively. The recombinant BLPAD displayed maximum activity at 37 °C and pH 6.0. This enzyme possesses a broad substrate specificity and is able to decarboxylate p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids at the relative ratios of specific activities 100:74.59:34.41:0.29. Kinetic constant K m values toward p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids were 1.64, 1.55, 1.93, and 2.45 mM, and V max values were 268.43, 216.80, 119.07, and 0.78 U mg(-1), respectively. In comparison with other phenolic acid decarboxylases, BLPAD exhibited remarkable organic solvent tolerance and good thermal stability. BLPAD showed excellent catalytic performance in biphasic organic/aqueous systems and efficiently converted p-coumaric and ferulic acids into 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol. At 500 mM of p-coumaric and ferulic acids, the recombinant BLPAD produced a total 60.63 g l(-1) 4-vinylphenol and 58.30 g l(-1) 4-vinylguaiacol with the conversion yields 97.02 and 70.96 %, respectively. The low yield and product concentration are the crucial drawbacks to the practical bioproduction of vinyl phenol derivatives using phenolic acid decarboxylases. These unusual properties make BLPAD a desirable biocatalyst for commercial use in the bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives via enzymatic decarboxylation in a biphasic organic/aqueous reaction system.

  20. Electron transfer reactions of osmium(II) complexes with phenols and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Velayudham, Murugesan; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-07-01

    Three [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes (NN = polypyridine) with ligands of varying hydrophobicity were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectral techniques. The geometry of the molecules are optimized by DFT calculations. The interaction between [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes and phenolate ion in ground state is confirmed by absorption spectral study and the binding constant values are in the range of 3-740 M-1. The photoinduced electron transfer reaction of these [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes with phenols and phenolic acids at pH 12.5 leads to the formation of phenoxyl radical confirmed through transient absorption spectral study. Binding constants and electron transfer rate constants within the [Os(NN)3]2+-phenolate ion adduct account for the change for the overall quenching constant with the change of structure of reactants.

  1. Effect of thermal processing on free and total phenolics in nine varieties of common beans.

    PubMed

    Redan, Benjamin W; Vinson, Joe A; Coco, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Though much attention has been devoted to phenolics in beans, to our knowledge no studies have been done to determine the effect commercial canning has on these compounds. Free and total phenolic concentration in 18 cultivars of raw beans and 9 cultivars of commercial canned beans was determined. Alkaline hydrolysis was used on samples prior to analysis by Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent (FCR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). A correction for non-phenolic antioxidants, interferences, was then made. There is a significant difference between the free phenolics of canned and raw beans using FCR (P = 0.006) but not FRAP. There is also a significant difference in the total phenolics of canned and raw beans using FRAP (P = 0.006) but not FCR. When considered on a single serving basis, the amount of phenolics in canned beans is comparable to that provided by raw fruits and vegetables.

  2. Phenolic acids of the two major blueberry species in the US Market and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Thakali, Keshari M; Jensen, Gitte S; Wu, Xianli

    2015-03-01

    Highbush (cultivated) and lowbush (wild) are the two major blueberry species in the US market. Eight phenolic acids were detected and quantified from these two species by HPLC-MS. Chlorogenic acid was found to be the predominant phenolic acid in both species, with 0.44 mg/g fresh weight in lowbush blueberries and 0.13 mg/g fresh weight in highbush blueberries. Total phenolic content in lowbush blueberries is over three times higher than that of highbush blueberries. The phenolic acid mixtures representing those in the two species were prepared by using authentic standards to assess their contribution to total antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the whole berries. Neither lowbush nor highbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture contributed significantly to the total antioxidant capacity of their relevant whole berries measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Both phenolic acid mixtures were able to enter the cell and showed in cell antioxidant activities from the cell based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay. Lowbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture was found to show anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) at the high dose.

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonoids, Tannins and Phenolic Compounds in Psychotria Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Formagio, Anelise Samara Nazari; Volobuff, Carla Roberta Ferreira; Santiago, Matheus; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Zefa Valdevina

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Psychotria carthagenensis, P. leiocarpa, P. capillacea and P. deflexa (Rubiaceae) extracts were investigated, and the concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and flavonols were determined. The chemical compositions of the extracts were investigated using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PAD) method. We used 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), β-Carotene bleaching and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cations to determine antioxidant activity. The ability to scavenge radical was measured in these experiments by the discoloration of the solution. Concentrations of constituents were measured spectrophotometrically. P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, in the DPPH test, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS system. The highest phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin and flavonol concentration was found in P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea extracts. HPLC-PDA analysis of P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea revealed hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid). This is the first report on the antioxidant properties and constituent analysis of these Psychotria extracts. PMID:26785238

  4. Effect of esterification condensation on the Folin-Ciocalteu method for the quantitative measurement of total phenols.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Cheng, Chien-Wei; Liang, Ji-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    The Folin-Ciocalteu method is widely applied for the determination of the total phenolic contents in natural products. This method is significantly affected by the addition of sodium carbonate. The currently applied Folin-Ciocalteu methods may have been modified without any validation in the quantitative standards and the order of processes. In this study, serial experiments were performed to investigate the effect of phenolic calibrations based on the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method. Esterification condensations were observed in the assays with prior basification for gallic acid and catechin used as quantitative standards. The phenolic contents obtained in the samples differed depending on when basification occurred compared with the gallic acid calibration. The bias of the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method derived from cross-linkage of molecules was first defined in this study. The performance of the Folin-Ciocalteu method is optimised and validated again.

  5. Effect of total phenolics from Laggera alata on acute and chronic inflammation models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yihang; Zhou, Changxin; Song, Liyan; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Shuyun; Mo, Jianxia; Chen, Haiyong; Bai, Hua; Wu, Xiumei; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Rongping; Hao, Xiaojiang; Sun, Handong; Zhao, Yu

    2006-11-24

    The anti-inflammatory effect of total phenolics from Laggera alata (TPLA) was evaluated with various in vivo models of both acute and chronic inflammations. In the acute inflammation tests, TPLA inhibited significantly xylene-induced mouse ear oedema, carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability. In the carrageenan-induced rat pleurisy model, TPLA significantly suppressed inflammatory exudate and leukocyte migration, reduced the serum levels of lysozyme (LZM) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased the serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and also decreased the contents of total protein, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the pleural exudates. In the chronic inflammation experiment, TPLA inhibited significantly cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma. These results indicated that TPLA possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity on acute and chronic inflammation models. Its anti-inflammatory mechanisms are probably associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin formation, the influence on the antioxidant systems, and the suppression of LZM release. Furthermore, the total phenolic content of Laggera alata and its main component type was quantified, and its principle components were isolated and authenticated. Acute toxicity studies revealed that TPLA up to an oral dose of 8.5 g/kg body weight was almost nontoxic in mice.

  6. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Some Malvaceae Family Species

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Adriana Maria Fernandes; Pinheiro, Lilian Sousa; Pereira, Charlane Kelly Souto; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Gomes, Roosevelt Albuquerque; Chaves, Otemberg Souza; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Assis, Temilce Simões

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of four species of the Malvaceae family (Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl, Sida rhombifolia (L.) E. H. L and Herissantia crispa L. (Brizicky)) were studied using the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract, phases and two isolated flavonoids, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (lespedin) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) glucopyranoside (tiliroside) was determined. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of the crude extract of Sidastrum micranthum and Wissadula periplocifolia; however, this was not observed between Sida rhombifolia and Herissantia crispa. The ethyl acetate (EaF) phase showed the best antioxidant effect in the total phenolics, DPPH and TEAC assays, followed by the chloroform (CfF) phase, in most species tested. Lespedin, isolated from the EaF phase of W. periplocifolia and H. crispa may not be responsible for the antioxidant activity due to its low antioxidant activity (IC50: DPPH: 1,019.92 ± 68.99 mg/mL; TEAC: 52.70 ± 0.47 mg/mL); whereas tiliroside, isolated from W. periplocifolia, H. crispa and S. micrantum presented a low IC50 value (1.63 ± 0.86 mg/mL) compared to ascorbic acid in the TEAC assay. PMID:26787614

  7. Total phenol, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dhan; Suri, Samiksha; Upadhyay, Garima; Singh, Brahma N

    2007-02-01

    Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources, extracts of some plants were studied for their total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA) by different methods at multiple concentrations followed by specific phenolic composition. The amount of TPC varied from 2.8 mg/g (Withania somnifera, roots) to 107.8 mg/g (Cassia fistula, fruits) and the AOA from 24.2% (Curcuma zeoderia, leaves) to 96.9% (Trewia nudiflora, leaves). Bark of Azadirachta indica, fruits of C. fistula, and leaves and fruits of T. nudiflora were found to have high TPC (89.8- 107.8 mg/g) and high AOA (84.8-96.9%). Promising plant parts were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP), where the bark of A. indica, Casuarina equisetifolia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum, flowers of Indigofera tinctoria, fruits of Lawsonia inermis, and fruits and leaves of T. nudiflora showed a very low inhibitory concentration value ranging from 0.14 to 0.26 mg/ml, efficiency concentration value from 6.1 to 11.6 mg/mg DPPH and reducing power value from 0.6 to 2.8 ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE/ml), and reasonably high values (8.5 -16.2) of anti-radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA. They also showed better inhibition of hydroxyl radical induced deoxyribose degradation than that of reference standard. Fruits of C. fistula with high phenols (107.8 mg/g) showed poor reducing power (5.9 ASE/ml) and ARP (4.7); in contrast, the bark of C. equisetifolia and fruits of L. inermis were with comparatively lower phenols (72.1 and 75.8 mg/g) but exhibited good ARP (16.2 and 14.4) and reducing power (0.7 and 0.6 ASE/ ml, respectively). Some of the plants were also found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton's reaction. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through

  8. Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

  9. Forest Gaps Alter the Total Phenol Dynamics in Decomposing Litter in an Alpine Fir Forest

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year. PMID:26849120

  10. Forest Gaps Alter the Total Phenol Dynamics in Decomposing Litter in an Alpine Fir Forest.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year.

  11. Antioxidant activities, metal contents, total phenolics and flavonoids of seven Morchella species.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Nevcihan; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Cengiz, Mustafa; Solak, M Halil

    2009-09-01

    Seven Morchella species were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, chelating effect and scavenging effect (%) on the stable ABTS*(+), in addition to their heavy metals, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid system, the most active mushrooms were M. esculenta var. umbrina and M.angusticeps. In the case of DPPH, methanol extract of M. conica showed high antioxidant activity. The reducing power of the methanol extracts of mushrooms increased with concentration. Chelating capacity of the extracts was also increased with the concentration. On the other hand, in 40 microg ml(-1) concentration, methanol extract of M. conica, exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (78.66+/-2.07%) when reacted with the ABTS*(+) radical. Amounts of seven elements (Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg) and five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Al) were also determined in all species. M. conica was found to have the highest phenolic content among the samples. Flavonoid content of M. rotunda was also found superior (0.59+/-0.01 microg QEs/mg extract).

  12. Phenol biosynthesis in higher plants. Gallic acid

    PubMed Central

    Dewick, P. M.; Haslam, E.

    1969-01-01

    The biosynthesis of gallic acid in a number of higher plants was investigated by using l-[U-14C]phenylalanine, (−)-[G-14C]shikimic acid, d-[1-14C]glucose and d-[6-14C]glucose as tracers. The results are compared with those obtained similarly for caffeic acid and are interpreted in terms of the dehydrogenation of 5-dehydroshikimic acid as a normal route of metabolism for gallic acid. PMID:5807212

  13. Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

  14. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz; Zagal, José Heraclito

    2010-01-01

    A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III) followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III) reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample), and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. PMID:21461407

  15. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigations of phenolic acids in white wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Castet, Frédéric; Fritsch, Alain; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Jourdes, Michael; Guillaume, François

    2017-04-15

    Model solutions of white wines containing phenolic acids have been investigated by means of UV-vis, laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In order to interpret the spectra, density functional theory calculations of phenolic acids have been performed. This work demonstrates that only hydroxynamic acids are in resonance with a laser excitation line with 325nm wavelength and are therefore at the origin of the strong enhancement of the Raman light scattering. Real white wines also display such resonance Raman scattering so that their content in hydroxycinnamic acids may be quite precisely determined. The analysis of the Raman spectrum of a real dry white wine reveals qualitatively the preponderance in its composition of p-coumaric and caftaric acids.

  16. Development of an automated method for Folin-Ciocalteu total phenolic assay in artichoke extracts.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Leskovar, Daniel; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-12-01

    We developed a system to run the Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) total phenolic assay, in artichoke extract samples, which is fully automatic, consistent, and fast. The system uses 2 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pumps, an autosampler, a column heater, a UV/Vis detector, and a data collection system. To test the system, a pump delivered 10-fold diluted F-C reagent solution at a rate of 0.7 mL/min, and 0.4 g/mL sodium carbonate at a rate of 2.1 mL/min. The autosampler injected 10 μL per 1.2 min, which was mixed with the F-C reagent and heated to 65 °C while it passed through the column heater. The heated reactant was mixed with sodium carbonate and color intensity was measured by the detector at 600 nm. The data collection system recorded the color intensity, and peak area of each sample was calculated as the concentration of the total phenolic content, expressed in μg/mL as either chlorogenic acid or gallic acid. This new method had superb repeatability (0.7% CV) and a high correlation with both the manual method (r(2) = 0.93) and the HPLC method (r(2) = 0.78). Ascorbic acid and quercetin showed variable antioxidant activity, but sugars did not. This method can be efficiently applied to research that needs to test many numbers of antioxidant capacity samples with speed and accuracy.

  17. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Selected Chinese Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feng-Lin; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Yuan; Xiao, Qin; Kuang, Lei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP value suggested that the antioxidants in these plants possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content implied that phenolic compounds are a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these plants. The results showed that Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20640157

  18. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity.

  19. New multifunctional surfactants from natural phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Centini, Marisanna; Rossato, Maria Sole; Sega, Alessandro; Buonocore, Anna; Stefanoni, Sara; Anselmi, Cecilia

    2012-01-11

    Several new multifunctional molecules derived from natural sources such as amino acids and hydroxycinnamic acids were synthesized. They exhibit various activities such as emulsifying, UV-protecting, and radical scavenging, thereby conforming to the latest requirements for cosmetic ingredients. The synthesis comprises only a few steps: (i) the amino acid, the acid groups of which are protected by esterification, is coupled with ferulic or caffeic acid; (ii) the p-hydroxyl group of the cinnamic derivative reacts with dodecyl bromide in the presence of potassium carbonate (the resulting compounds are highly lipophilic and tested as water/oil (W/O) emulsifiers); (iii) these molecules, by deprotonating the acid groups of the amino acids, with successive salification, are more hydrophilic, with stronger O/W emulsifying properties. The new multifunctional surfactants might prove useful for the treatment of multiple skin conditions, including loss of cellular antioxidants, damage from free radicals, damage from UV, and others.

  20. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and ascorbate content as a function of the genetic diversity of leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum).

    PubMed

    Bernaert, Nathalie; De Paepe, Domien; Bouten, Charlotte; De Clercq, Hervé; Stewart, Derek; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2012-09-15

    Extracts of the white shaft and green leaves of 30 leek cultivars were investigated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic (TP) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) content. The measured antioxidant properties included free radical scavenging activities against peroxyl (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) and their Fe(3+) reducing capacity (FRAP). The results from this study suggest that the green leek leaves generally have significantly stronger antioxidant properties than the white shaft. Correlation analysis between the TP and the AA content and the antioxidant activity showed that phenolics and ascorbic acid contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity of leek. The three antioxidant activity assays were all correlated for the extracts of the white shaft of the 30 leek cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) elucidated the influence of part and type of cultivar on the antioxidant capacity, TP, and l-ascorbic acid content, whilst the breeding strategy and seed company had no influence.

  1. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

  2. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  7. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  8. HPLC method for comparative study on tissue distribution in rat after oral administration of salvianolic acid B and phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man; Fu, Gang; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, Hui; Liu, Ai-Hua; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Guo, De-An

    2007-10-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to determine the prototype of salvianolic acid B and the metabolites of phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and ferulic acid) in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids and salvianolic acid B extracted from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, respectively. The tissue samples were treated with a simple liquid-liquid extraction prior to HPLC. Analysis of the extract was performed on a reverse-phase C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.05% trifluoracetic acid. The calibration curves for the four phenolic acids were linear in the given concentration ranges. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations in the measurement of quality control samples were less than 10% and the accuracies were in the range of 88-115%. The average recoveries of all the tissues ranged from 78.0 to 111.8%. This method was successfully applied to evaluate the distribution of the four phenolic acids in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids of Salvia miltiorrhiza or salvianolic acid B and the possible metabolic pathway was illustrated.

  9. Performance of structured lipids incorporating selected phenolic and ascorbic acids.

    PubMed

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Przybylski, Roman; Aladedunye, Felix

    2015-04-15

    Conditions applied during frying require antioxidant which is stable at these conditions and provides protection for frying oil and fried food. Novel structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants were formed by enzymatic transesterification, exploring canola oil and naturally occurring antioxidants such as ascorbic and selected phenolic acids as substrates. Lipozyme RM IM lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was used as biocatalyst. Frying performance and oxidative stability of the final transesterification products were evaluated. The novel lipids showed significantly improved frying performance compared to canola oil. Oxidative stability assessment of the structured lipids showed significant improvement in resistance to oxidative deterioration compared to original canola oil. Interestingly, the presence of ascorbic acid in an acylglycerol structure protected α-tocopherol against thermal degradation, which was not observed for the phenolic acids. Developed structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants may directly affect nutritional properties of lipids also offering nutraceutical ingredients for food formulation.

  10. Evaluation of the Antiradical Properties of Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Koroleva, Olga; Torkova, Anna; Nikolaev, Ilya; Khrameeva, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Tatyana; Tsentalovich, Mikhail; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant capacity (AOC) against peroxyl radical and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation was measured for a series of p-hydroxybenzoic (HB) and p-hydroxycinnamic (HC) acids at different pH. Quantum-chemical computation was performed using Gaussian 3.0 software package to calculate the geometry and energy parameters of the same compounds. Significant correlations were revealed between AOC and a number of calculated parameters. The most significant AOC descriptors for the studied compounds against peroxyl radical were found to be HOMO energy, rigidity (η) and Mulliken charge on the carbon atom in m-position to the phenolic hydroxyl. The most significant descriptor of the antioxidant properties against the ABTS radical cation at pH 7.40 is electron transfer enthalpy from the phenolate ion. The mechanism of AOC realization has been proposed for HB and HC acids against both radicals. PMID:25229820

  11. Evaluation of the antiradical properties of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Koroleva, Olga; Torkova, Anna; Nikolaev, Ilya; Khrameeva, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Tatyana; Tsentalovich, Mikhail; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2014-09-16

    Antioxidant capacity (AOC) against peroxyl radical and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation was measured for a series of p-hydroxybenzoic (HB) and p-hydroxycinnamic (HC) acids at different pH. Quantum-chemical computation was performed using Gaussian 3.0 software package to calculate the geometry and energy parameters of the same compounds. Significant correlations were revealed between AOC and a number of calculated parameters. The most significant AOC descriptors for the studied compounds against peroxyl radical were found to be HOMO energy, rigidity (η) and Mulliken charge on the carbon atom in m-position to the phenolic hydroxyl. The most significant descriptor of the antioxidant properties against the ABTS radical cation at рН 7.40 is electron transfer enthalpy from the phenolate ion. The mechanism of AOC realization has been proposed for HB and HC acids against both radicals.

  12. [Total synthesis of nordihydroguaiaretic acid].

    PubMed

    Wu, A X; Zhao, Y R; Chen, N; Pan, X F

    1997-04-01

    beta-Keto ester(5) was obtained from vanilin through etherification, oxidation and condensation with acetoacetic ester, (5) on oxidative coupling reaction by NaOEt/I2 produced dimer (6) in high yield. Acid catalyzed cyclodehydration of (6) gave the furan derivative(7), and by a series of selective hydrogenation nordihydroguaiaretic acid, furoguaiacin dimethyl ether and dihydroguaiaretic acid dimethyl ether were synthesized.

  13. Comparative analyses of total phenols, antioxidant activity, and flavonol glycoside profile of cladode flours from different varieties of Opuntia spp.

    PubMed

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Gutierrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2011-07-13

    The phenolic, flavonoid, and antioxidant contents of methanol extracts of nine samples of Mexican cactus ( Opuntia spp.) cladodes processed into flours were studied. Opuntia undulata contained the highest amount of phenols [905.08 ± 64.51 μg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g]. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the cladode flour extracts indicated that Opuntia robusta var. Gavia [738.8 ± 89.9 μmol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g] contained the highest antioxidant capacity. ORAC values significantly correlated to total phenols but not to flavonoid contents and were comparable to cranberries and blackberries. Glycosidic forms of isorhamnetin and kaempferol were identified via high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS), with isorhamnetin being the most abundant flavonol in all samples, except for Opuntia lindheimeri . The effectiveness of acid hydrolysis varied among species because of the different flavonol profiles. For some varieties, the triglycosidic forms were partially acid-hydrolyzed, giving an increase in the content of diglycosides. Optimization of hydrolysis for each species is required to estimate the total amount of each flavonol.

  14. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

    2012-09-15

    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid.

  15. Photocatalysis of phenol and salicyclic acid by nanostructured titania powders

    SciTech Connect

    Fotou, G.P.; Pratsinis, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    The photocatalytic destruction of phenol and salicylic acid was studied in aqueous suspensions of titania powders made in flame reactors. These powders were made in six hydrocarbon diffusion flames by hydrolysis and oxidation of TiCl{sub 4} that resulted in powders of high specific surface area and high anatase content. The photoactivity of the flame-made titania powders was compared with that of commercially available powders. Doping the titania with SiO{sub 2} was detrimental to the photoactivity of the powders in aerated solutions in contrast to non-aerated solutions. Titania powders in the range of 20-40 nm containing small amounts of rutile were more active than pure anatase powders. The phenol degradation reaction followed a first-order law while the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was found to most accurately represent the photodegradation of salicylic acid.

  16. Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

    2014-03-26

    Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively.

  17. Salicylic acid-induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Backor, Martin; Strnad, Miroslav; Repcák, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) doses of 50 and 250 microM, for a period of up to 7 days, on selected physiological aspects and the phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants was studied. SA exhibited both growth-promoting (50 microM) and growth-inhibiting (250 microM) properties, the latter being correlated with decrease of chlorophylls, water content and soluble proteins. In terms of phenolic metabolism, it seems that the higher SA dose has a toxic effect, based on the sharp increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity (24 h after application), which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics, lignin accumulation and the majority of the 11 detected phenolic acids. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity was elevated throughout the experiment in 250 microM SA-treated plants. In turn, some responses can be explained by mechanisms associated with oxidative stress tolerance; these mitigate acute SA stress (which is indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde content). However, PAL activity decreased with prolonged exposure to SA, indicating its inhibition. Accumulation of coumarin-related compounds (umbelliferone and herniarin) was not affected by SA treatments, while (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acids increased in the 250 microM SA-treated rosettes. Free SA content in the rosettes increased significantly only in the 250 microM SA treatment, with levels tending to decrease towards the end of the experiment and the opposite trend was observed in the roots.

  18. Antioxidant activities of cold-nature Tibetan herbs are signifcantly greater than hot-nature ones and are associated with their levels of total phenolic components.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan-Fang; Li, Ji-Yu; Zheng, Li-Fang; Li, Hong-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Tibetan medicinal plants have been used for more than 2 000 years. In order to find their differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids between "hot-nature" and "cold-nature" herbs, we investigated the antioxidant activities of 40 Tibetan herbs from Qinghai plateau, with 20 herbs in cold-nature and 20 herbs in hot-nature. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by the following methods: scavenging ABTS•(+) (2, 2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), scavenging O2•(-), and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The effects on inhibition of mitochondrion lipid peroxidation were determined by measuring the formation of TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates). Total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH colorimetric methods. Interestingly, the cold-nature herbs displayed higher antioxidant activities than the hot-nature ones, corresponding to nearly three-fold higher total phenolic contents in the cold-nature herbs. Moreover, the antioxidant activities correlated linearly with the levels of total phenolics for both cold-nature and hot-nature herbs, but only with the levels of total flavonoids for the hot-nature herbs. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds, but not the flavonoids, play the major role in antioxidant capacities of the cold-nature herbs. These findings could shed new lights on the study the theory of Tibetan medicine.

  19. Effects of seasonal variation on sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Marisa L; Kendall, Patricia A; Stone, Martha B; Stonaker, Frank H; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2010-04-01

    Butterhead, crisphead, green leaf, red leaf, and romaine types of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are all commonly available in U.S. markets. Sensory properties of lettuce may vary in response to environmental factors that often fluctuate widely throughout the growing season. Bitterness is generally thought to increase in lettuce grown at higher temperatures and may be related to phenolic content. This study evaluated sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars harvested early, midway, and late in the growing season and investigated possible correlations with environmental temperature and light intensity indexes. Thirty panelists rated bitterness, appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of "Crisp and Green" (green leaf), "Crispino" (crisphead), "Green Forest" (romaine), "Lochness" (butterhead), and "Vulcan" (red leaf) lettuce. There was considerable variation in sensory ratings among the 5 cultivars (P < 0.005) but few differences within cultivars across the growing season. The crisphead cultivar, Crispino, received higher scores (P < 0.01) for flavor, texture, and overall acceptability and was rated less bitter (P < 0.05) than other cultivars. Total phenolic content varied significantly (P < 0.001) among cultivars with the red leaf cultivar, Vulcan, exhibiting the highest levels. There was no correlation between bitterness and total phenolic content or environmental factors. Differences among lettuce cultivars appear to have a larger impact on sensory and phenolic profiles than environmental variation during the growing season.

  20. Effect of aluminium uptake on physiology, phenols and amino acids in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef

    2010-06-15

    Chamomile is a widely used medicinal plant and, as observed in our previous studies, also accumulates some metals in its above-ground biomass. We therefore tested selected metabolic responses after treatments with 60 and 120 microM Al for 7 days. Shoot Al content was not elevated in comparison with control (12.3-14.1 microg g(-1) DW) while total root Al increased strongly, reaching 2680 and 4400 microg g(-1) DW in 60 and 120 microM treatments, respectively. "Intra-root" Al represented 83.6 (60 microM treatment) and 75.8% (120 microM treatment) of total root Al. Soluble proteins were not significantly affected. Free amino acids were almost unaffected in shoots while in roots the highest content was found in 60 microM Al. Ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase activities were the highest in 60 microM Al-exposed roots. On the other hand, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, total soluble phenols, flavonoids, a sum of 13 phenolic acids and partially two flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) increased in the shoots. Present study has shown lower Al toxicity and unaltered shoot Al content seems to be the most positive outcome in comparison with previously tested metals (Cd, Ni and Cu). Our results indicate that phenols in shoots and free amino acids in roots are influenced by Al excess in chamomile plants. Possible mechanisms in the context of available literature are suggested and discussed.

  1. Chemoattraction of anaerobic ruminal fungi zoospores to selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Wubah, D A; Kim, D S

    1996-08-01

    Three phenolic acids, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and syringic acid, were evaluated as chemoattractants for zoospores of two monocentric and two polycentric isolates of anaerobic, zoosporic ruminal fungi. Attraction of fungal zoospores to the acids was determined by a modification of the Palleroni method and fungal thallus forming units were counted after incubating capillary tubes in a chemotaxis chamber. Chemotactic response was expressed as relative taxis response (RTR), which is the ratio of accumulation of zoospores in test capillaries to that in control capillaries. Monocentric isolates had greater RTR values then did the polycentric isolates. The order of chemoattraction for the uniflagellate isolates was p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > syringic acid. The order of attraction was different between the two isolates with multiflagellate zoospores. Ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were better chemoattractants than syringic acid. Peak response for the monocentric isolates was 1.0 mumol l-1 while that for the polycentric isolates was 0.1 mmol l-1.

  2. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and nutritional content in selected ethiopian staple food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Forsido, Sirawdink Fikreyesus; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Astatkie, Tess

    2013-12-01

    The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content (TPC) and nutritional content of five types of enset (Enset ventricosum) flour in comparison with four staples (teff [Eragrostis tef], wheat, corn and tapioca) were evaluated. Teff, corn and "amicho" (corm of enset) had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP and TPC of teff (1.8 mmol Trolox equivalence/100 g dry matter (DM) and 123.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DM, respectively) were over 4-fold larger than the lowest obtained from "bulla" (dehydrated juice of pseudostem of enset). Corn had the lowest IC(50) value of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (10.27 mg DM mL(-1)). Teff had the highest crude fat content (3.71%) and some mineral profile (P, Mg, Mn and Cu). Enset products had higher fiber, Ca, K, Mg and Mn content as compared to wheat and corn. Ethiopian staple teff has a potential for developing value-added food products with nutritional and health benefits.

  3. Simultaneous ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Among the several chemical processes conducted for the removal of organic matter present in wastewaters coming from some agro-industrial plants (wine distilleries, olive oil mills, etc), the oxidation by ozone has shown a great effectiveness in the destruction of specially refractory pollutants: it is demonstrated that the biodegradability of those wastewaters increases aflcer an ozonation pretreatment. Their great pollutant character is imputed to the presence of some organic compounds, like phenols and polyphenols, which are toxic and inhibit the latter biological treatments. In this research, a competitive kinetic procedure reported by Clurol and Nekouinaini is applied to determine the degradation rate constants by ozone of several phenolic acids which are present in the wastewaters from the olive oil obtaining process. The resulting kinetic expressions for the ozonation reactions are useful for the successful design and operation of ozone reactors in water and wastewaters treatment plants.

  4. New enzymatic method for the determination of total phenolic content in tea and wine.

    PubMed

    Stevanato, Roberto; Fabris, Sabrina; Momo, Federico

    2004-10-06

    A new spectrophotometric enzymatic method for the determination of total phenol content in tea and wine has been developed. The method is based on the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation, by hydrogen peroxide, of phenols to phenoxyl radicals, which can react with aromatic substrates to form intensely colored adducts. In comparison with the widely used Folin-Ciocalteu method, this method appears to be more specific and more rapid and as a whole is not affected by the common interfering substances such as ascorbate, citrate, and sulfite. Numerous samples of teas and wines were analyzed by using the new method, and the results compared with those obtained by using the Folin and scavenging of DPPH methods. The differences of the total phenols content found by applying the three methods are discussed in terms of the different specificities of the analytical basis.

  5. Biological effects, total phenolic content and flavonoid concentrations of fragrant yellow onion (Allium flavum L.).

    PubMed

    Curcic, Milena G; Stankovic, Milan S; Radojevic, Ivana D; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Comic, Ljiljana R; Topuzovic, Marina D; Djacic, Dragana S; Markovic, Snezana D

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities, total phenolic content and concentrations of flavonoids of A. flavum extracts were determined. The total phenolic content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 42.29 to 80.92 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in various extracts of A. flavum was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and obtained results varied from 64.07 to 95.71 mg RU/g. The antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically and expressed in terms of IC50 (μg/ml), and its values ranged from 64.34 to 243.34 μg/ml. The highest phenolic content and capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals were found in acetone extract. Antibacterial efficacy was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations using microdilution method. Significant antibacterial activity, especially for ethyl acetate extract, was observed. The best activity was showed against G+ bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis, while Escherichia coli was one of the least sensitive bacteria. Antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extract on HCT- 116 cell line was determined by MTT assay. Results showed that A. flavum has good antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 28.29 for 24 h and 35.09 for 72 h. Based on these results, A. flavum is a potential source of phenols as natural antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer substance of high value. Phenolic content of extracts depend on the solvents used for extraction.

  6. Direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil using a pH-based flow-injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mesa, José A; Mateos, Raquel

    2007-05-16

    Flavor and taste are sensorial attributes of virgin olive oil (VOO) highly appreciated by consumers. Among the organoleptic properties of VOO, bitterness is related to the natural phenolic compounds present in the oil. Sensorial analysis is the official method to evaluate VOO flavor and bitterness, which requires highly specialized experts. Alternatively, methods based on physicochemical determinations could be useful for the industry. The present work presents a flow-injection analysis system for the direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in VOO without prior isolation, based on the spectral shift undergone by phenolic compounds upon pH variation. This system enables a complete automation of the process, including dilution of the sample and its sequential injection into buffer solutions of acidic and alkaline pH. The variation of the absorbance at 274 nm showed a high correlation with bitterness and the total phenolic content of VOO, due to the close relationship between these two parameters. Thus, the proposed method determines the bitterness and phenolic compounds, with results similar to those from reference methods (relative errors ranging from 1% to 8% for bitterness and from 2% and 7% for phenolic compounds). The precision evaluated at two levels of both parameters ranged between 0.6% and 1.5% for bitterness and between 0.7% and 2.6% for phenolic compounds.

  7. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaonan; Ross, Carolyn F; Powers, Joseph R; Aston, D Eric; Rasco, Barbara A

    2011-05-25

    The total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of garlics from California, Oregon, Washington, and New York were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The total phenolic content was quantified [Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC)] and three antioxidant activity assays, 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were employed for reference measurements. Four independent partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed with spectra from 25 extracts and their corresponding FC, DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP with values for 20 additional extracts predicted (R > 0.95). The standard errors of calibration and standard error of cross-validation were <1.45 (TEAC), 0.36 (FRAP), and 0.33 μmol Trolox/g FW (DPPH) and 0.55 mg gallic acid/g FW (FC). Cluster and dendrogram analyses could segregate garlic grown at different locations. Hydroxyl and phenolic functional groups most closely correlated with garlic antioxidant activity.

  8. Flavonoids and phenolic acids of Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Becker) Balb. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Modnicki, Daniel; Tokar, Magdalena; Klimek, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide as well as free aglycones luteolin and apigenin have been isolated from lemon catnip herb (Nepeta cataria L. var citriodora). Luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside is probably a new compound, for the first time described. Two minor constituents of flavonoid fraction have been identified as apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside by means of HPLC method. The percentage of total flavonoids determined by use of spectrophotometric method was in the range from 0.30 to 0.46% of dry mass. In phenolic acid fraction, caffeic, rosmarinic and p-coumaric acids have been identified. Total amount of phenolic acids determined by spectrophotometric method was in the range of 0.75% to 1.4 % and the content of rosmarinic acid quantified by HPLC method fluctuated in the wide range from 0.06% to 0.15% depending on the sample. The results of the investigations showed that the composition of flavonoid compounds and phenolic acids in lemon catnip are similar to those in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). The amount of flavonoids are similar in both plants, and the percentage of rosmarinic acid is about ten times lower in lemon catnip than in lemon balm. The presence of luteolin, apigenin and their glycosides, caffeic acid as well as the previously described terpenoids (ursolic acid, citral, nerol. geraniol) suggests the possibility of the use of lemon catnip herb as a constituent of phytopharmaceutical preparations with mild sedative, antispasmodic, antioxidative and antiinflammatory action.

  9. AOAC SMPR 2015.009: Estimation of total phenolic content using Folin-C Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for estimation of total soluble phenolic content in dietary supplement raw materials and finished products using the Folin-C assay for comparison within same matrices. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to b...

  10. Nondairy creamer, but not milk, delays the appearance of coffee phenolic acid equivalents in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Mathieu; Marmet, Cynthia; Guy, Philippe; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Longet, Karin; Moulin, Julie; Enslen, Marc; Barron, Denis; Cavin, Christophe; Dionisi, Fabiola; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary

    2010-02-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are antioxidants found in coffee. They are becoming of interest for their health-promoting effects, but bioavailability in humans is not well understood. We hypothesized that adding whole milk or sugar and nondairy creamer to instant coffee might modulate the bioavailability of coffee phenolics. Nine healthy participants were asked to randomly drink, in a crossover design, instant coffee (Coffee); instant coffee and 10% whole milk (Milk); or instant coffee, sugar, and nondairy creamer already premixed (Sugar/NDC). All 3 treatments provided the same amount of total CGA (332 mg). Blood was collected for 12 h after ingestion and plasma samples treated using a liquid-liquid extraction method that included a full enzymatic cleavage to hydrolyze all CGA and conjugates into phenolic acid equivalents. Hence, we focused our liquid chromatography-Electrospray ionization-tandem MS detection and quantification on caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and isoferulic acid (iFA) equivalents. Compared with a regular black instant coffee, the addition of milk did not significantly alter the area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), or the time needed to reach C(max) (T(max)). The C(max) of CA and iFA were significantly lower and the T(max) of FA and iFA significantly longer for the Sugar/NDC group than for the Coffee group. However, the AUC did not significantly differ. As a conclusion, adding whole milk did not alter the overall bioavailability of coffee phenolic acids, whereas sugar and nondairy creamer affected the T(max) and C(max) but not the appearance of coffee phenolics in plasma.

  11. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Zampariello, Carly A; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults ⩾50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2μg/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8μg/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults.

  12. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes.

  13. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  15. Phenols and ascorbic acid in black currants (Ribes nigrum L.): variation due to genotype, location, and year.

    PubMed

    Vagiri, Michael; Ekholm, Anders; Öberg, Elisabeth; Johansson, Eva; Andersson, Staffan C; Rumpunen, Kimmo

    2013-10-02

    Black currant berries contain many biochemical compounds with proven or potential human health benefits. We studied the content of total and single polyphenols, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and titratable acidity for two advanced selections and three cultivars of black currant at two distant locations in Sweden (south: 56°06'N; north: 65°21'N) over a 3 year period. Regression analyses revealed the effect of genotype to be considerably larger than that of location and year. However, significant effects of location, year, and interactions were also revealed. A principal component analysis nevertheless separated the genotypes. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols, total anthocyanins, and soluble sugars was highest in berries from the south, whereas the content of phenolic acids and titratable acidity was highest in berries from the north. The results show that selection of cultivars and production sites are important for cultivation of high-quality black currant raw material for health-promoting products.

  16. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Evaluation and Estimation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoidal Content of Mimosa pudica L

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. Results: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group. Conclusion: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. SUMMARY Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in

  17. [Inhibition of Denitrification by Total Phenol Load of Coal Gasification Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-ying; Chen, Xiu-rong; Wang, Lu; Li, Jia-hui; Xu, Yan; Zhuang, You-jun; Yu, Ze-ya

    2016-03-15

    High loaded phenolic pollutants, refractory and high toxic, which existed in coal gasification wastewater, could cause the inhibition of sludge activity. In biological denitrification process of activated sludge treatment system, people tend to focus on the phenol inhibition on the efficiency and activity of nitrifying bacteria while there are few researches on the denitrification process. In order to investigate the inhibition of phenolic compounds from coal gasification wastewater on the denitrification and sludge activity, we used anoxic denitrification system to indentify the influence of different phenol load on denitrification efficiency (removal efficiency of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N) as well as the stress and degradation activity of sludge. The results showed that when the concentration of total phenol was changed from 50 mg · L⁻¹ to 200 mg · L⁻¹, the removal rates of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N were changed from 55% and 25% to 83% and 83% respectively. In the process of sludge domestication, the characteristics of denitrifying sludge were influenced to a certain degree.

  18. Phenolic acids in the flowers and leaves of Grindelia robusta Nutt. and Grindelia squarrosa Dun. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Nowak, Sławomira; Rychlińska, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    2D-TLC and RP-HPLC methods were applied to qualitatively determinate free phenolic acids and those liberated by acid and alkaline hydrolysis in the flowers and leaves of G. robusta and G. squarrosa. The presence of eleven phenolic acids, namely: caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic salicylic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and ellagic acids was determined. Quantitative estimate of phenolic acids, expressed as caffeic acid, has been analyzed by the method described in the Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII. The content of phenolic acids in G. robusta reached 7.33 mg/g and 6.23 mg/g for flowers and leaves, respectively. The flowers and leaves of G. squarrosa were characterized by similar level of phenolic acids, namely 6.81 mg/g and 6.59 mg/g, respectively.

  19. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids against commensal, probiotic and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Bills, Gerald; Vicente, M Francisca; Basilio, Angela; Rivas, Concepción López; Requena, Teresa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2010-06-01

    Phenolic acids (benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids) are the most abundant phenolic structures found in fecal water. As an approach towards the exploration of their action in the gut, this paper reports the antimicrobial activity of thirteen phenolic acids towards Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The growth of E. coli ATCC 25922 was inhibited by only four of the phenolic acids tested at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL, whereas pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) was susceptible to ten of them. The genetically manipulated E. coli lpxC/tolC strain was highly susceptible to phenolic acids. The growth of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus paraplantarum LCH7, Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17, Lactobacillus fermentum LPH1, L. fermentum CECT 5716, Lactobacillus brevis LCH23, and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT 5711) and pathogens (S. aureus EP167 and C. albicans MY1055) was also inhibited by phenolic acids, but to varying extents. Only P. aeruginosa PAO1 was not susceptible to any of the phenolic compounds tested. Structure-activity relationships of phenolic acids and some of their diet precursors [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] were established, based on multivariate analysis of microbial activities. The antimicrobial properties of phenolic acids reported in this paper might be relevant in vivo.

  1. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Inbaraj, B Stephen; Lu, H; Kao, T H; Chen, B H

    2010-02-05

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method with electrospray ionization mode (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus, a widely used traditional Chinese herb possessing vital biological activity. Both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol and purified using a polymeric solid phase extraction cartridge followed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis. By employing a Vydac C18 column, a total of 52 phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated within 70min using a gradient mobile phase of 0.5% (v/v) formic acid in water and acetonitrile-water (94:6, v/v) with flow rate at 1mL/min, column temperature at 30 degrees C and detection wavelength at 280nm. Of 52 compounds, 15 phenolic acids and flavonoids were positively identified based on both absorption and mass spectra, with the remaining 37 tentatively identified by comparison of absorption spectra with reported values in the literature. Internal standards 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and hesperidin were used for quantitation of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. Among the 15 positively identified compounds, quercetin-rhamno-di-hexoside was present in largest mass fraction (438.6microg/g), followed by quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (281.3microg/g), dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers (250.1microg/g), chlorogenic acid (237.0microg/g), quercetin-di-(rhamnohexoside) (117.5microg/g), quercetin-di-(rhamno)-hexoside (116.8mug/g), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (97.7microg/g), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (72.1microg/g), p-coumaric acid (64.0microg/g), caffeic acid (23.7microg/g) and vanillic acid (22.8microg/g).

  2. Seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic compounds and phenolic acids in the roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Maria O; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Grevsen, Kai

    2012-12-12

    Roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida cultivated for 4 years in a North European climate were analyzed for seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic constituents (alkamides, ketoalkenes, and ketoalkynes) and phenolic acids by harvesting five times during 1 year to establish the optimal time for harvest. A total of 16 alkamides, three ketoalkenes, two ketoalkynes, and four phenolic acids (echinacoside, cichoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic acid) were identified in aqueous ethanolic (70%) extracts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The major alkamides in the roots of E. purpurea were at their lowest concentration in the middle of autumn and early winter, and the total concentration of lipophilic compounds in E. pallida showed the same pattern. Moreover, all of the major phenolic acids in E. purpurea were at their highest concentrations in spring. The optimal harvest time in spring is in contrast to normal growing guidelines; hence, this specific information of seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic and phenolic compounds in E. purpurea and E. pallida is valuable for research, farmers, and producers of medicinal preparations.

  3. Phenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 02 / 006 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF Phenol ( CAS No . 108 - 95 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2002 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington D.C . DISCLAIMER Mention of trade names or commercial products does n

  4. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  5. Total phenolics content and antioxidant capacities of microencapsulated blueberry anthocyanins during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Flores, Floirendo P; Singh, Rakesh K; Kerr, William L; Pegg, Ronald B; Kong, Fanbin

    2014-06-15

    The goal of this research was to investigate the change in phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of microencapsulated anthocyanins (ACNs) digested in vitro. Blueberry ACN microcapsules were prepared from two wall materials (whey protein isolate and gum arabic) and ACN powder, previously extracted with three solvent systems (acetonic, ethanolic, methanolic); this was then spray-dried. The physicochemical properties and release characteristics of the microcapsules were evaluated. Rehydrated gum arabic microcapsules retained more total ACNs but less ferric reducing power than did whey protein microcapsules. Ethanolic extracts retained most of the total ACNs while methanolic extracts possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. During in vitro digestion, gum arabic microcapsules had high release rates of phenolics with high antioxidant activity during the gastric phase. Whey protein microcapsules had comparably lower release rates but high antioxidant activity throughout digestion.

  6. Antioxidant capacity, total phenols and color profile during the storage of selected plants used for infusion.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-05-15

    Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet.

  7. Total Phenolic Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Different Lithuanian Propolis Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Inkėnienė, Asta Marija; Petrikaitė, Vilma; Briedis, Vitalis

    2013-01-01

    The manufacture of ethanol-free propolis solutions offers a broader application. A few trials with Lithuanian propolis have been conducted. The aims of the study are to manufacture propolis water and water-free solutions and evaluate the quality and antimicrobial activity of these solutions. The studied solutions containing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% propolis are prepared. As solvents, purified water, 70% v/v ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, propylene glycol, and their systems were used. Determination of total levels of phenolic compounds (FAE mg/g) is based on colour oxidation-reduction reaction using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent under alkaline conditions and performed at 765 nm wavelength using UV spectrophotometer. The highest content of phenolic compounds was determined in solutions containing 10% propolis extracts, and the lowest amounts in 2.5% propolis extracts. The water extracted the lowest amount of phenolic compounds from crude propolis, ethanol extracted the highest amount, and propylene glycol ranked the middle position. It is determined that technological parameters (stirring, temperature) contribute to content of phenolic compounds. During microbiological study, MICs were determined. The studies showed that water extracted propolis solutions and solvents mixture did not inhibit the growth of the studied microorganisms, and propolis solutions in propylene glycol were found to have antimicrobial activity. PMID:23573156

  8. Total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity of different lithuanian propolis solutions.

    PubMed

    Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Inkėnienė, Asta Marija; Petrikaitė, Vilma; Briedis, Vitalis

    2013-01-01

    The manufacture of ethanol-free propolis solutions offers a broader application. A few trials with Lithuanian propolis have been conducted. The aims of the study are to manufacture propolis water and water-free solutions and evaluate the quality and antimicrobial activity of these solutions. The studied solutions containing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% propolis are prepared. As solvents, purified water, 70% v/v ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, propylene glycol, and their systems were used. Determination of total levels of phenolic compounds (FAE mg/g) is based on colour oxidation-reduction reaction using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent under alkaline conditions and performed at 765 nm wavelength using UV spectrophotometer. The highest content of phenolic compounds was determined in solutions containing 10% propolis extracts, and the lowest amounts in 2.5% propolis extracts. The water extracted the lowest amount of phenolic compounds from crude propolis, ethanol extracted the highest amount, and propylene glycol ranked the middle position. It is determined that technological parameters (stirring, temperature) contribute to content of phenolic compounds. During microbiological study, MICs were determined. The studies showed that water extracted propolis solutions and solvents mixture did not inhibit the growth of the studied microorganisms, and propolis solutions in propylene glycol were found to have antimicrobial activity.

  9. Analysis of phenolic acids of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) responding to salt-stress by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fujia; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW) were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu). Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW) than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals.

  10. Analysis of Phenolic Acids of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Responding to Salt-Stress by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW) were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu). Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW) than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals. PMID:25302328

  11. Protodeboronation of ortho- and para-phenol boronic acids and application to ortho and meta functionalization of phenols using boronic acids as blocking and directing groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Young; Ahn, Su-Jin; Cheon, Cheol-Hong

    2013-12-06

    The first metal-free thermal protodeboronation of ortho- and para-phenol boronic acids in DMSO was developed. The protodeboronation was successfully applied to the synthesis of ortho- and meta-functionalized phenols using the boronic acid moiety as a blocking group and a directing group, respectively. Mechanistic studies suggested that this protodeboronation proceeds through the coordination of water to the boron atom followed by σ-bond metathesis.

  12. Effects of thermal processing by nanofluids on vitamin C, total phenolics and total soluble solids of tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A

    2017-03-01

    In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.

  13. Inhibition of Fusarium Growth and Mycotoxin Production in Culture Medium and in Maize Kernels by Natural Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Ferruz, Elena; Loran, Susana; Herrera, Marta; Gimenez, Isabel; Bervis, Noemi; Barcena, Carmen; Carramiñana, Juan Jose; Juan, Teresa; Herrera, Antonio; Ariño, Agustin

    2016-10-01

    The possible role of natural phenolic compounds in inhibiting fungal growth and toxin production has been of recent interest as an alternative strategy to the use of chemical fungicides for the maintenance of food safety. Fusarium is a worldwide fungal genus mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of four natural phenolic acids (caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic) for the control of mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by six toxigenic species of Fusarium . The addition of phenolic acids to corn meal agar had a marked inhibitory effect on the radial growth of all Fusarium species at levels of 2.5 to 10 mM in a dose-response pattern, causing total inhibition (100%) in all species except F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae . However, the effects of phenolic acids on mycotoxin production in maize kernels were less evident than the effects on growth. The fungal species differed in their responses to the phenolic acid treatments, and significant reductions in toxin concentrations were observed only for T-2 and HT-2 (90% reduction) and zearalenone (48 to 77% reduction). These results provide data that could be used for developing pre- and postharvest strategies for controlling Fusarium infection and subsequent toxin production in cereal grains.

  14. Application of artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) to predict the changes of anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, Total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity during storage of red bayberry juice based on fractal analysis and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Jiang, Lingling; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Kong, Xuecheng; Lu, Hongfei

    2011-01-26

    Artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were developed to predict the changes of anthocyanin (AC), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenols (TP), total flavonoid (TF), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (SA) in bayberry juice during storage based on fractal analysis (FA) and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values. The results show the root mean squared error (RMSE) of ANN-FA decreased 2.44 and 12.45% for AC (RMSE = 18.673 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.939) and AA (RMSE = 8.694 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.935) compared with PLSR-RGB, respectively. In addition, PLSR-FA (RMSE = 5.966%, R(2) = 0.958) showed a 12.01% decrease in the RMSE compared with PLSR-RGB for predicting SA. For the prediction of TP and TF, however, both models showed poor performances based on FA and RGB. Therefore, ANN and PLSR combined with FA may be a potential method for quality evaluation of bayberry juice during processing, storage, and distribution, but the selection of the most adequate model is of great importance to predict different nutritional components.

  15. Phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition of organic and conventional grown pecan kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, differences in contents of phenolic compounds and fatty acids in pecan kernels of organically versus conventionally grown pecan cultivars (‘Desirable’, ‘Cheyenne’, and ‘Wichita’) were evaluated. Although we were able to identify nine phenolic compounds (gallic acid, catechol, catechin...

  16. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  17. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.

  18. Concentrating phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cunyu; Ma, Yun; Li, Hongyang; Peng, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Response surface analysis methodology was used to optimize the concentrate process of phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technique. On the basis of the influences of pressure, temperature and circulating volume, the retention rate of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid were selected as index, molecular weight cut-off of nanofiltration membrane, concentration and pH were selected as influencing factors during concentrate process. The experiment mathematical model was arranged according to Box-Behnken central composite experiment design. The optimal concentrate conditions were as following: nanofiltration molecular weight cut-off, 150 Da; solutes concentration, 18.34 µg/mL; pH, 4.26. The predicted value of retention rate was 97.99% under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value was 98.03±0.24%, which was in accordance with the predicted value. These results demonstrate that the combination of Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the concentrate process of Lonicera japonica water-extraction by nanofiltration, and the results provide the basis for nanofiltration concentrate for heat-sensitive traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Influence of technological processes on phenolic compounds, organic acids, furanic derivatives, and antioxidant activity of whole-lemon powder.

    PubMed

    García-Salas, Patricia; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; García-Villanova, Belén; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-11-15

    The healthy properties of citrus fruits have been attributed to ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, mainly to flavonoids. Flavonoids are important phytonutrients because they have a wide range of biological effects that provide health-related properties. In this context, this study seeks to characterise the phenolic compounds in lemon and their stability in different drying processes (freeze-drying and vacuum-drying) and storage conditions (-18 and 50°C for 1 and 3months). A powerful high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) method has been applied for the separation, identification, and quantification of 19 phenolic compounds and 4 organic acids. To our knowledge, two hydroxycinnamic acids have been identified for the first time in lemon. Folin-Ciocalteu was applied to determine total phenolic compounds and TEAC, FRAP, and ORAC were applied to determine the antioxidant capacity of lemon. Total phenolic content significantly differed in the samples analysed, vacuum-dried lemon showing the highest phenolic content, followed by freeze-dried lemon and, finally, vacuum-dried lemon stored at 50°C for 1 and 3months. The content in furanic compounds was determined to evaluate the heat damage in lemon and it was showed an increase with the thermal treatment because of the triggering of Maillard reaction. As exception of ORAC, antioxidant-capacity assays were not correlated to phenolic content by HPLC due to the formation of antioxidant compounds during Maillard reaction.

  20. Antioxidant, total phenolic contents and antinociceptive potential of Teucrium stocksianum methanolic extract in different animal models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress and analgesia are connected with different pathological conditions. The drug candidates from synthetic sources are associated with various side effects; therefore, researchers are giving priority to find novel, effective and safe phytomedicines. Teucrium species possesses antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. The essential oils of Teucrium stocksianum have shown strong antinociceptive potential. Our current study is designed to embark total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant and antinociceptive potential of the methanolic extract of Teucrium stocksianum (METS). Method Phytochemical composition was determined by using standard methods. Free radical scavenging potential and TPC of METS were assessed by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent (FCR) respectively. Antinociceptive potential was determined by acetic acid induced abdominal writhing, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion tests. Different test dose 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of METS were administered intra peritonealy (i.p) to various groups of mice for the evaluation of analgesic potential. Results Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthraquinone, steroid, phlobatannin, terpenoid, glycoside and reducing sugars. METS was found safe at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight. A concentration dependent free radical scavenging effect was observed with methanolic aerial parts extract of Teucrium stocksianum (MAPETS) and methanolic roots extracts of Teucrium stocksianum (MRETS). MAPETS and MRETS have shown highest antioxidant activity 91.72% and 86.19% respectively at 100 μg/ml. MAPETS was found more rich (115.32 mg of GAE/g of dry material) in TPC as compared to MAPETS (105.41 mg of GAE/g). METS demonstrated a dose dependent antinociceptive potential in different pain models, like in acetic acid, formalin and tail immersion showing 83.103%, 80.872% and 67

  1. Photocatalytic ozonation of phenolic wastewaters: Syringic acid, tyrosol and gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Olga; Fernandez, Lidia A; Carbajo, Maria; Beltran, Fernando; Rivas, Javier

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic ozonation of a mixture of 3 phenols (gallic acid, tyrosol and syringic acid) has been conducted under different operating conditions. The individual adsorption of the phenol type compounds onto titanium dioxide (photocatalyst) has been first evaluated. Equilibrium conditions are attained in less than an hour while the isotherm curves reveal that adsorption intensity increases in order: syringic acid < tyrosol < gallic acid. When the photocatalytic ozonation is applied, an optimum in titanium dioxide concentration is experienced (1.5 g L(-1)). Direct comparison of the photocatalytic ozonation to other less sophisticated oxidation systems (i.e., single ozonation, catalytic ozonation, photo-ozonation, etc.) indicates a higher efficiency of the former in terms of ozone uptake.

  2. Factors affecting phenolic acid liberation from rice grains in the sake brewing process.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Nakayama, Airi; Ito, Masaya; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2014-12-01

    Phenolic acid (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) liberation from rice grains was examined using rice samples containing phenolic acid at different levels, using two sake mash simulated digestion tests to elucidate influencing factors. Phenolic acid levels in a digest made from steamed rice using dialyzed rice koji enzymes were smaller than levels in a rice koji self-digest. Differences in phenolic acid levels among rice samples in the rice koji self-digest were larger than levels in a digest of steamed rice. In the rice koji self-digest, phenolic acid levels in the ingredient rice grains or in the formed digest related to feruloylesterase (FE) activity in the rice koji. Addition of exogenous FE to rice koji self-digestion increased phenolic acid levels, while addition of xylanase (Xyl) showed weak effects. A concerted effect of FE and Xyl was not clearly observed. Addition of ferulic acid to koji made from α-rice grains raised FE activity, but it did not increase the activity of other enzymes. A similar phenomenon was observed in an agar plate culture of koji mold. These results indicated that ferulic acid levels in ingredient rice grains correlate with FE activities of koji, as a resulut, they affect the phenolic acid levels in sake mash.

  3. Phenolic acid induced growth of gold nanoshells precursor composites and their application in antioxidant capacity assay.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyuan; Qian, Weiping

    2010-11-15

    In the present work, the gold nanoshells (GNSs) precursor composites were preadsorbed onto the surface of ITO substrates. With the treatment of modified electrodes immersed in the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) growth solution containing different phenolic acids, the GNSs precursor composites were enlarged to varying degrees. Phenolic acids with one or more phenolic hydroxyl groups served as reductants for the growth of GNPs. The enlargement conditions varied with the different reducing capacity of phenolic acids, exhibiting specific morphologies differ from the complete GNSs. Consequently, the UV-vis-NIR spectra and cyclic voltammetry curves for the phenolic acid-treated ITO electrode were gradually changed. Results showed that the higher reducing capacity for phenolic acid to reduce AuCl(4)(-) to Au(0) resulted in the intensified localized surface plasmon resonance features and reduced cathodic currents. The spectral wavelength peaks red shifted hundreds of nanometers across the visible region. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids correlates well with their reducing activity, both of which reflect their tendency to donate electrons. Thus, the optical and electrochemical results could be used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids by utilizing GNSs precursor composites as nanoprobes. The method is simple, rapid and could be used in visual analysis to a certain extent.

  4. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on

  5. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes.

  6. Total phenol analysis of weakly supported water using a laccase-based microband biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sekretaryova, Alina N; Volkov, Anton V; Zozoulenko, Igor V; Turner, Anthony P F; Vagin, Mikhail Yu; Eriksson, Mats

    2016-02-11

    The monitoring of phenolic compounds in wastewaters in a simple manner is of great importance for environmental control. Here, a novel screen printed laccase-based microband array for in situ, total phenol estimation in wastewaters and for water quality monitoring without additional sample pre-treatment is presented. Numerical simulations using the finite element method were utilized for the characterization of micro-scale graphite electrodes. Anodization followed by covalent modification was used for the electrode functionalization with laccase. The functionalization efficiency and the electrochemical performance in direct and catechol-mediated oxygen reduction were studied at the microband laccase electrodes and compared with macro-scale electrode structures. The reduction of the dimensions of the enzyme biosensor, when used under optimized conditions, led to a significant improvement in its analytical characteristics. The elaborated microsensor showed fast responses towards catechol additions to tap water - a weakly supported medium - characterized by a linear range from 0.2 to 10 μM, a sensitivity of 1.35 ± 0.4 A M(-1) cm(-2) and a dynamic range up to 43 μM. This enhanced laccase-based microsensor was used for water quality monitoring and its performance for total phenol analysis of wastewater samples from different stages of the cleaning process was compared to a standard method.

  7. Sulfated phenolic acids from Dasycladales siphonous green algae.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Caroline; Welling, Matthew; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Sulfated aromatic acids play a central role as mediators of chemical interactions and physiological processes in marine algae and seagrass. Among others, Dasycladus vermicularis (Scopoli) Krasser 1898 uses a sulfated hydroxylated coumarin derivative as storage metabolite for a protein cross linker that can be activated upon mechanical disruption of the alga. We introduce a comprehensive monitoring technique for sulfated metabolites based on fragmentation patterns in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and applied it to Dasycladales. This allowed the identification of two new aromatic sulfate esters 4-(sulfooxy)phenylacetic acid and 4-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid. The two metabolites were synthesized to prove the mass spectrometry-based structure elucidation in co-injections. We show that both metabolites are transformed to the corresponding desulfated phenols by sulfatases of bacteria. In biofouling experiments with Escherichia coli and Vibrio natriegens the desulfated forms were more active than the sulfated ones. Sulfatation might thus represent a measure of detoxification that enables the algae to store inactive forms of metabolites that are activated by settling organisms and then act as defense.

  8. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  9. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  10. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Boerhavia elegans (choisy) grown in Baluchestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Zahra; Valizadeh, Jafar; Azyzian Shermeh, Omid; Akaberi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Boerhaavia elegans L. (Nyctaginaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of kidney disorders, urinary tract disorders and blood purification in Baluch tribe. The aim of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant property of B. elegans species for the first time. Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem and fruit) of the plant were extracted by using various solvents (water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Results: Antioxidant results were expressed as IC50. The antioxidant power in DPPH and FRAP assay were evaluated as shown in decreasing order: Methanolic extract > Aqueous extract > Ethyl acetate extract > Chloroform extract, for all parts of the plant. In both methods of antioxidant assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, methanolic extract of leaf exhibited the highest activity and the most phenolic content IC50= 6.85 ppm and 16.41 mg GA/g d w respectively. Total phenolic content had a positive relationship with antioxidant capacity in extracts and there was a high correlation (r=1.00, p<0.01) between antioxidant activities as determined by both antioxidant assays for various parts. Conclusion: The results of the experiments showed that B. elegans extract had significant antioxidant effects. This high antioxidant activity may be linked to phenolic contents of the plant but complementary investigations are suggested in order to determine active elements. PMID:25767751

  11. HPLC Quantification of Phenolic Acids from Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash and Its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prajna, Jha; Richa, Jindal; Dipjyoti, Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Extraction procedure was standardized and for the soluble, glycoside, and wall-bound fractions of phenolic acids from Vetiveria zizanioides. The water soluble alkaline extract which represents the cell wall-bound fraction contained the highest amount of phenolic acids (2.62 ± 1.2 μM/g fwt GA equivalents). Increased phenolic content in the cell wall indicates more lignin deposition which has an important role in plant defense and stress mitigation. Antioxidant property expressed as percentage TEAC value obtained by ABTS assay was correlated with the amount of phenolic acids and showed a Pearson's coefficient 0.988 (significant at 0.01 level). The compounds p-coumaric acid, p-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid were detected in the acidic extracts by HPLC analysis. The plant extracts exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:26555971

  12. Toxic effects of microbial phenolic acids on the functions of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Fedotcheva, N I; Kazakov, R E; Kondrashova, M N; Beloborodova, N V

    2008-08-28

    Low-molecular-weight phenolic acids (PhAs) phenylacetate, phenyllactate, phenylpropionate, p-hydroxyphenyllactate, and p-hydroxyphenylacetate are essentially the products of the degradation of aromatic amino acids and polyphenols by the intestinal microflora. In sepsis, the concentrations of some of these acids in the blood increase tens of times. Assuming that these compounds can cause the mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis, we examined their effects on respiration, the induction of pore opening, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria. It was found that phenylpropionate and phenylacetate produce a more toxic effect on mitochondria than the other phenolic acids. At concentrations 0.01-0.1 mM they decreased the rate of oxidation of NAD-dependent substrates and activated the Ca2+- and menadione-induced opening of the cyclosporin A-sensitive pore and the production of ROS. The disturbances caused by these PhAs are similar to those observed in mitochondria in sepsis, and hence the rise in their level may be one of the causes of mitochondrial dysfunctions. Phenyllactate, p-hydroxyphenyllactate, and p-hydroxyphenylacetate inhibited the production of ROS and pore opening, acting as antioxidants. Thus, the ability of PhAs to affect the mitochondrial functions, as well as an increase in their concentrations in sepsis (the total concentration of these PhAs in the blood is close to 0.1 mM), suggests that PhAs can be directly involved in the development of mitochondrial failure.

  13. In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Monika A

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of 70% methanolic extracts from the inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz was evaluated using three in vitro test systems: the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) and the ABTS [2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] free radical scavenging assays, and the AAPH [2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride]-induced [corrected] linoleic acid (LA) peroxidation test. The results were compared with the activity of the extracts obtained from the model antioxidant Sorbus species (Sorbus aucuparia L.), and also with the activity of phenolic standards such as quercetin, Trolox [(+/-)-6-hydroxy-2,2,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid], BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and TBHQ (tert-butylhydroquinone). The radical scavenging capacities of the S. torminalis extracts towards the DPPH radical were in the range of 62.0-244.1 micromolar Trolox equivalents/g d.w. of plant material. They were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the results of the ABTS test (r = 0.8535), and with the chain-breaking activities determined in the LA-peroxidation test (r = 0.9831). In comparison with the synthetic standards, the free radical scavenging capacity of the Sorbus extracts was remarkably higher than their chain-breaking activity. Both kinds of antioxidant effects of the extracts were significantly (R2 > 0.8097, p < 0.05) influenced by the total phenolic content (TPC) as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The plant tissues derived from S. torminalis exhibited lower antioxidant potentials than those of S. aucuparia by a factor of 1.5-3.2, partially due to the lower TPC levels (multiplicity factors of 1.2-1.9). After the original antioxidant capacities of the extracts were recalculated according to the TPC levels, the resulting antioxidant capacities of the phenolic fractions in the S. torminalis extracts were lower than those from S. aucuparia by a factor of 1

  14. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents Enhancement with Acute Gamma Irradiation in Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. PMID:25056545

  15. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae. PMID:27081460

  16. Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract.

    PubMed

    Mena, Pedro; Cirlini, Martina; Tassotti, Michele; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-19

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (poly)phenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (poly)phenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified, 14 of these being detected in rosemary extract for the first time. The rosemary extract contained 24 flavonoids (mainly flavones, although flavonols and flavanones were also detected), 5 phenolic acids, 24 diterpenoids (carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol derivatives), 1 triterpenoid (betulinic acid), and 3 lignans (medioresinol derivatives). Carnosic acid was the predominant phenolic compound. The volatile profile of the rosemary extract was evaluated by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) linked to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty-three volatile molecules (mainly terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones) were identified. This characterization extends the current knowledge on the phytochemistry of Rosmarinus officinalis and is, to our knowledge, the broadest profiling of its secondary metabolites to date. It can assist in the authentication of rosemary extracts or rosemary-containing products or in testing its bioactivity. Moreover, this methodological approach could be applied to the study of other plant-based food ingredients.

  17. Assessment of total phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of Passiflora species.

    PubMed

    Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses.

  18. Assessment of Total Phenolic, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Passiflora Species

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses. PMID:25028673

  19. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains at four stages of development after flowering.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yafang; Xu, Feifei; Sun, Xiao; Bao, Jinsong; Beta, Trust

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated differences in total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and phenolic acids in free, conjugated and bound fractions of white (unpolished), red and black rice at 1-, 2-, and 3-weeks of grain development after flowering and at maturity. Unlike the TPC (mg/100g) of white rice (14.6-33.4) and red rice (66.8-422.2) which was significantly higher at 1-week than at later stages, the TPC of black rice (56.5-82.0) was highest at maturity. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC methods generally followed a similar trend as TPC. Only black rice had detectable anthocyanins (26.5-174.7mg/100g). Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) were the main anthocyanins in black rice showing significantly higher levels at 2- and 3-weeks than at 1-week development and at maturity. At all stages, the phenolic acids existed mainly in the bound form as detected by HPLC and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Black rice (20.1-31.7mg/100g) had higher total bound phenolic acids than white rice and red rice (7.0-11.8mg/100g). Protocatechuic acid was detected in red rice and black rice with relatively high levels at 1-week development (1.41mg/100g) and at maturity (4.48mg/100g), respectively. Vanillic acid (2.4-5.4mg/100g) was detected only in black rice where it peaked at maturity. p-Coumaric acid (<3.5mg/100g) did not differ significantly at most stages with somewhat high levels at 1-week for red and black rice. Ferulic acid (4.0-17.9mg/100g), the most abundant bound phenolic acid, had an inconsistent trend with higher levels being observed in black rice where it peaked at maturity. Isoferulic acid levels (0.8-1.6mg/100g) were generally low with slightly elevated values being observed at maturity. Overall black rice had higher total bound phenolic acids than white and red rice while white rice at all stages of development after flowering.

  20. Formation of chloroacetic acids from soil, humic acid and phenolic moieties.

    PubMed

    Fahimi, I J; Keppler, F; Schöler, H F

    2003-07-01

    The mechanism of formation of chloroacetates, which are important toxic environmental substances, has been controversial. Whereas the anthropogenic production has been well established, a natural formation has also been suggested. In this study the natural formation of chloroacetic acids from soil, as well as from humic material which is present in soil and from phenolic model substances has been investigated. It is shown that chloroacetates are formed from humic material with a linear relationship between the amount of humic acid used and chloroacetates found. More dichloroacetate (DCA) than trichloroacetate (TCA) is produced. The addition of Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) leads to an increased yield. NaCl was added as a source of chloride. We further examined the relationship between the structure and reactivity of phenolic substances, which can be considered as monomeric units of humic acids. Ethoxyphenol with built-in ethyl groups forms large amounts of DCA and TCA. The experiments with phenoxyacetic acid yielded large amounts of monochloroacetate (MCA). With other phenolic substances a ring cleavage was observed. Our investigations indicate that chloroacetates are formed abiotically from humic material and soils in addition to their known biotic mode of formation.

  1. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Toledo, T. C. F.; Canniatti-Brazaca, S. G.; Arthur, V.; Piedade, S. M. S.

    2007-10-01

    The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too.

  3. Total phenolic content, radical scavenging properties, and essential oil composition of Origanum species from different populations.

    PubMed

    Dambolena, José S; Zunino, María P; Lucini, Enrique I; Olmedo, Rubén; Banchio, Erika; Bima, Paula J; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2010-01-27

    The aim of this work was to compare the antiradical activity, total phenol content (TPC), and essential oil composition of Origanum vulgare spp. virens, Origanum x applii, Origanum x majoricum, and O. vulgare spp. vulgare cultivated in Argentina in different localities. The experiment was conducted in the research station of La Consulta (INTA-Mendoza), the research station of Santa Lucia (INTA-San Juan), and Agronomy Faculty of National University of La Pampa, from 2007 to 2008. The composition of the essential oils of oregano populations was independent of cultivation conditions. In total, 39 compounds were identified in essential oils of oregano from Argentina by means of GC-MS. Thymol and trans-sabinene hydrate were the most prominent compounds, followed by gamma-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpinene. O. vulgare vulgare is the only Origanum studied which is rich in gamma-terpinene. Among tested oregano, O. x majoricum showed the highest essential oil content, 3.9 mg g(-1) dry matter. The plant extract of O. x majoricum had greater total phenol content values, 19.36 mg/g dry weight, than the rest of oregano studied. To find relationships among TPC, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and climate variables, canonical correlations were calculated. The results obtained allow us to conclude that 70% of the TPC and FRSA variability can be explained by the climate variables (R(2) = 0.70; p = 8.3 x 10(-6)), the temperature being the most important climatic variable.

  4. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  9. Phenolic acid metabolites derived from coffee consumption are unlikely to cross the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Lardeau, A; Poquet, L

    2013-03-25

    Coffee drinking is well known for its stimulating effects on the brain and on cognition. In addition to the most active component, caffeine, coffee contains phenolic acids, which may also have some activity. Dihydrocaffeoyl-3-O-sulfate, caffeoyl-3-O-sulfate, dihydroferuloyl-4-O-sulfate, as well as dihydroferulic, dihydrocaffeic, 5-O-feruloylquinic and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, the major phenolic acid metabolites circulating in human plasma after coffee ingestion, were tested for their potential to enter the brain using a validated in vitro model of the blood brain barrier made of endothelial cells from bovine brain capillaries. As expected, caffeine showed a high rate of permeation across this barrier, but the phenolic acid metabolites exhibited a very low rate of permeation. The data suggest that none of these phenolic acid metabolites can be considered as potential candidate to enter the brain in vivo and so are unlikely to affect cognitive processes directly as proposed for caffeine.

  10. Phenolic acid-based poly(anhydride-esters) as antioxidant biomaterialsa

    PubMed Central

    Prudencio, Almudena; Faig, Jonathan J.; Song, MinJung

    2015-01-01

    Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised of naturally occurring, non-toxic phenolic acids, namely syringic and vanillic acid, with antioxidant properties were prepared via solution polymerization methods. Polymer and polymer precursor physiochemical properties were characterized, including polymer molecular weight and thermal properties. In vitro release studies illustrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was influenced by relative hydrophobicity and degree of methoxy substitution of the phenolic acids. Further, the released phenolic acids were found to maintain antioxidant potency relative to free phenolic acid controls as determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Polymer cytotoxicity was assessed with L929 fibroblasts in polymer-containing media; appropriate cell morphology and high fibroblast proliferation were obtained for the polymers at the lower concentrations. These polymers deliver non-cytotoxic levels of naturally occurring antioxidants, which could be efficacious in topical delivery of antioxidant therapies. PMID:26425923

  11. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  12. The relationship between metal composition, phenolic acid and flavonoid content in Imleria badia from non-polluted and polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Gąsecka, Monika; Rzymski, Piotr; Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Budzyńska, Sylwia; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2017-03-04

    The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition, phenolic content and composition and antioxidant properties of Imleria badia (Fr.) Vizzini (former names Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr., and Xerocomus badius (Fr.) E.-J. Gilbert) fruiting bodies collected from sites with different levels of pollution. Imleria badia was relatively tolerant to soil contamination with toxic elements and was able to grow in As, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations exceeding 15, 2.9, 0.4 and 77 mg kg(-1), respectively. The concentration of elements in soil was reflected in the element content in I. badia. The fruiting bodies from polluted sites exhibited significantly higher content of all the analyzed elements. Among 21 individual phenolic compounds only protocatechiuc and caffeic acids, and quercetin were determined in fruiting bodies of I. badia. The differences between the concentration of the quantified phenolic compounds and the total flavonoid content in fruiting bodies of I. badia from unpolluted and polluted sites were not significant. However, the greatest total phenolic content was found in fruiting bodies from the polluted areas. The antioxidative capacity of mushrooms collected from heavily polluted sites was lower than those growing in unpolluted areas. The concentrations of some metals in soil and fruiting soil were positively correlated with phenolic content and IC50.

  13. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon.

  14. Enzymatic production of bioactive docosahexaenoic acid phenolic ester.

    PubMed

    Roby, Mohamed H; Allouche, Ahmad; Dahdou, Layal; De Castro, Vanessa C; da Silva, Paulo H Alves; Targino, Brenda N; Huguet, Marion; Paris, Cédric; Chrétien, Françoise; Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Desobry, Stéphane; Oster, Thierry; Humeau, Catherine

    2015-03-15

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is increasingly considered for its health benefits. However, its use as functional food ingredient is still limited by its instability. In this work, we developed an efficient and solvent-free bioprocess for the synthesis of a phenolic ester of DHA. A fed-batch process catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B was optimised, leading to the production of 440 g/L vanillyl ester (DHA-VE). Structural characterisation of the purified product indicated acylation of the primary OH group of vanillyl alcohol. DHA-VE exhibited a high radical scavenging activity in acellular systems. In vivo experiments showed increased DHA levels in erythrocytes and brain tissues of mice fed DHA-VE-supplemented diet. Moreover, in vitro neuroprotective properties of DHA-VE were demonstrated in rat primary neurons exposed to amyloid-β oligomers. In conclusion, DHA-VE synergized the main beneficial effects of two common natural biomolecules and therefore appears a promising functional ingredient for food applications.

  15. [Comparison of total phenol of magnolia solid dispersion prepared by different methods].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Di, Liu-qing; Li, Jun-song; Kang, An; Qian, Jing; Wang, Deng-jie

    2015-11-01

    To compare the difference of total phenol of magnolia solid dispersion prepared by different methods. Hot melt extrusion, solvent evaporation method, and fusion-cooling method were used to prepare total phenol of Magnolia accessory solid dispersion, Plastone S-630 and HPC. The drug dispersion state in the prepared solid dispersion was evaluated with DSC and X-ray diffraction; FT-IR method was used to analyze the possible connections between drug and accessories. Finally, accelerated stability-in vivo dissolution test was use to compare the stability differences between these three processes. The results of DSC and X-ray diffraction showed that all of the drug in solid dispersion processed by three processes can exist in amorphous form; FT-IR results also could not distinguish the difference between the three processes; accelerated stability-in vivo dissolution test showed the stability of solid dispersion prepared by HPC was better than Plastone S-630, and the same kinds of materials solid dispersion prepared by hot melt extrusion showed a better stability than the other two processes.

  16. Total phenols, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, Letícia; Pereira, José Alberto

    2008-07-01

    The total phenols content and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were studied in walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks aqueous extracts of five different cultivars (Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne). Total phenols content was determined by colorimetric assay and their amount ranged from 32.61 mg/g of GAE (cv. Mellanaise) to 74.08 mg/g of GAE t (cv. Franquette). The antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts was assessed through reducing power assay, scavenging effects on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. A concentration-dependent antioxidative capacity was verified in reducing power and DPPH assays, with EC50 values lower than 1 mg/mL for all the tested extracts. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. All the extracts inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being Staphylococcus aureus the most susceptible one with MIC of 0.1 mg/mL for all the extracts. The results obtained indicate that walnut green husks may become important in the obtainment of a noticeable source of compounds with health protective potential and antimicrobial activity.

  17. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    PubMed

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans-caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans-caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  18. Phenolic acids act as signaling molecules in plant-microbe symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Santi M; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic acids are the main polyphenols made by plants. These compounds have diverse functions and are immensely important in plant-microbe interactions/symbiosis. Phenolic compounds act as signaling molecules in the initiation of legumerhizobia symbioses, establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and can act as agents in plant defense. Flavonoids are a diverse class of polyphenolic compounds that have received considerable attention as signaling molecules involved in plant-microbe interactions compared to the more widely distributed, simple phenolic acids; hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, which are both derived from the general phenylpropanoid pathway. This review describes the well-known roles attributed to phenolic compounds as nod gene inducers of legume-rhizobia symbioses, their roles in induction of the GmGin1 gene in fungus for establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, their roles in inducing vir gene expression in Agrobacterium, and their roles as defense molecules operating against soil borne pathogens that could have great implications for rhizospheric microbial ecology. Amongst plant phenolics we have a lack of knowledge concerning the roles of phenolic acids as signaling molecules beyond the relatively well-defined roles of flavonoids. This may be addressed through the use of plant mutants defective in phenolic acids biosynthesis or knock down target genes in future investigations. PMID:20400851

  19. Universal sample preparation method integrating trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation with phenol extraction for crop proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Erhui; Wang, Wei; Scali, Monica; Cresti, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Crop plants contain large amounts of secondary compounds that interfere with protein extraction and gel-based proteomic analysis. Thus, a protein extraction protocol that can be easily applied to various crop materials with minimal optimization is essential. Here we describe a universal protocol for total protein extraction involving trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation followed by SDS and phenol extraction. Through SDS extraction, the proteins precipitated by the TCA/acetone treatment can be fully resolubilized and then further purified by phenol extraction. This protocol combines TCA/acetone precipitation, which aggressively removes nonprotein compounds, and phenol extraction, which selectively dissolves proteins, resulting in effective purification of proteins from crop tissues. This protocol can also produce high-quality protein preparations from various recalcitrant tissues, and therefore it has a wide range of applications in crop proteomic analysis. Designed to run on a small scale, this protocol can be completed within 5 h.

  20. Comparison of total phenolic content, scavenging activity and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS profiles of both young and mature leaves and stems of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan; Yap, Ken Choy; Jaganath, Indu Bala

    2013-12-01

    The total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of Andrographis paniculata has been investigated to estimate the amount of phenolic compounds and diterpene lactones, respectively in the plant extracts. The stem extracts exhibited higher total phenolic content and scavenging activity than those of the leaf extracts from both young and mature plants. A range of 19.6-47.8 mg extract of A. paniculata from different parts of the plant is equivalent to the scavenging activity exhibited by one mg of standard Trolox. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was also used to identify simultaneously the phytochemicals from the leaves and stems of both young and mature plant samples. Of the identified compounds, seven of the sixteen diterpene lactones, three of the six flavonoids, five of the six phenolic acids and two cyclic acids are reported here for the first time for this species. Multivariate statistical approaches such as Hierarchiral Component Analysis (HCA) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) have clustered the plant extracts into the leaf and stem groups, regardless of plant age. Further classification based on the phytochemical profiles revealed that mostly phenolic acids and flavonoids were from the young leaf extracts, and diterpenoids and their glycosides from the mature leaf extracts. However, the phytochemical profiles for the stems of both young and mature plants were not significantly different as presented in the dendrogram of HCA and the score plot of PCA. The marker for mature plants might be the m/z 557 ion (dihydroxyl dimethyl 19-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-19-oxo-ent-labda-8(17),13-dien-16,15-olide), whereas the m/z 521 ion (propyl neoandrographolide) could be the marker for leaf extracts.

  1. Factors Affecting the Extraction of Intact Ribonucleic Acid from Plant Tissues Containing Interfering Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, H. John; Possingham, John V.

    1977-01-01

    Using conventional methods it is impossible to extract RNA as uncomplexed intact molecules from the leaves of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) and from a number of woody perennial species that contain high levels of reactive phenolic compounds. A procedure involving the use of high concentrations of the chaotropic agent sodium perchlorate prevents the binding of phenolic compounds to RNA during extraction. Analyses of the phenolics present in plant tissues used in these experiments indicate that there is a poor correlation between the total phenolic content and the complexing of RNA. However, qualitative analyses suggest that proanthocyanidins are involved in the tanning of RNA during conventional extractions. PMID:16660134

  2. Antioxidant potential, cytotoxic activity and total phenolic content of Alpinia pahangensis rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia pahangensis, a wild ginger distributed in the lowlands of Pahang, Malaysia, is used by the locals to treat flatulence. In this study, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the crude aqueous methanol and fractionated extracts of Alpinia pahangensis against five different cancer and one normal cell lines were investigated. The total phenolic content of each extract and its fractions were also quantified. This is the first report on the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Alpinia pahangensis extract. Methods In the current study, the crude methanol and fractionated extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis were investigated for their antioxidant activity using four different assays namely, the DPPH scavenging activity, superoxide anion scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays whilst their phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method. In vitro neutral red cytotoxicity assay was employed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity against five different cancer cell lines, colon cancer (HCT 116 and HT-29), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), breast cancer (MCF7) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines, and one normal cell line (MRC-5). The extract that showed high cytotoxic activity was further investigated for its chemical constituents by GC-MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis. Results The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging (0.35 ± 0.094 mg/ml) and SOD activities (51.77 ± 4.9%) whilst the methanol extract showed the highest reducing power and also the strongest antioxidant activity in the β-carotene bleaching assays in comparison to other fractions. The highest phenolic content was found in the ethyl acetate fraction, followed by the crude methanol extract, hexane and water fractions. The results showed a positive correlation between total phenolic content with DPPH radical scavenging capacities and SOD activities. The hexane fraction showed potent cytotoxic

  3. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  4. Induction of phenolsulfotransferase expression by phenolic acids in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huang, Shang-Ming; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2005-06-15

    Phenolic acids are antioxidant phenolic compounds, widespread in plant foods, which contribute significant biological and pharmacological properties; some have demonstrated a remarkable ability to alter sulfate conjugation. However, the modulation mechanisms of antioxidant phenolic acids on phenolsulfotransferase activity have not yet been described. In the present study, the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was used as a model to investigate the effect of antioxidant phenolic acids on enzymatic activity and expression of one of the major phase II sulfate conjugation enzymes, P-form phenolsulfotransferase (PST-P). The results showed that gallic acid, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid increased PST-P activity, in a dose-dependent manner. A maximum of 4- and 5-fold induction of PST-P activity was observed for both gallic acid and gentisic acid; however, they showed an adverse effect on cell growth at higher concentrations. A 2- or 2.5-fold increase of PST-P activity was found with either p-coumaric or p-hydroxybenzoic acid treatment, whereas no significant effect was found for ferulic acid treatment. PST-P induction, by gallic acid, was further confirmed, using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting techniques to measure mRNA expression and protein translation. A significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.01) between the expressions of PST-P mRNA and the corresponding PST-P activity was observed. Thus, gallic acid increased PST-P protein expression in HepG2 cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results demonstrated that certain antioxidant phenolic acids could induce PST-P activity in HepG2 cells, by promoting PST-P mRNA and protein expression, suggesting a novel mechanism by which phenolic acids may be implicated in phase II sulfate conjugation.

  5. Electron Transfer Studies of Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Biologically Important Phenolic Acids and Tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-03-01

    The ruthenium(II) complexes having 2,2'-bipyridine and phenanthroline derivatives are synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of these complexes at pH 12.5 are studied. The electron transfer reaction of biologically important phenolic acids and tyrosine are studied using absorption, emission and transient absorption spectral techniques. Semiclassical theory is applied to calculate the rate of electron transfer between ruthenium(II) complexes and biologically important phenolic acids.

  6. Poly(N-vinylimidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Schemeth, Dieter; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Jakschitz, Thomas; Rainer, Matthias; Tessadri, Richard; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-07-23

    In this study we report the novel polymeric resin poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids. The monomer to crosslinker ratio and the porogen composition were optimized for isolating phenolic acids diluted in acetonitrile at normal phase chromatography conditions, first. Acetonitrile serves as polar, aprotic solvent, dissolving phenolic acids but not interrupting interactions with the stationary phase due to the approved Hansen solubility parameters. The optimized resin demonstrated high loading capacities and adsorption abilities particularly for phenolic acids in both, acetonitrile and aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior of aqueous standards can be attributed to ion exchange effects due to electrostatic interactions between protonated imidazole residues and deprotonated phenolic acids. Furthermore, adsorption experiments and subsequent curve fittings provide information of maximum loading capacities of single standards according to the Langmuir adsorption model. Recovery studies of the optimized polymer in the normal-phase and ion-exchange mode illustrate the powerful isolation properties for phenolic acids and are comparable or even better than typical, commercially available solid phase extraction materials. In order to prove the applicability, a highly complex extract of rosemary leaves was purified by poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and the isolated compounds were identified using UHPLC-qTOF-MS.

  7. Phenolic compounds and fatty acids from acorns (Quercus spp.), the main dietary constituent of free-ranged Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos; López-Bote, Clemente; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Ordóñez, Juan A; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-10-08

    The aim of the present work was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and fatty acids in acorns from Quercus ilex, Quercus rotundifolia, and Quercus suber. The concentration of oleic acid was >63% of total fatty acids in all cases, followed by palmitic and linoleic acids at similar concentrations (12-20%). The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in Q. rotundifolia, Q. ilex, and Q. suber were 19, 31, and 38 mg/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively, whereas the concentrations of gamma-tocopherol were 113, 66, and 74 mg/kg of DM, respectively. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were distinguished. All of them were gallic acid derivatives, in the form of either galloyl esters of glucose, combinations of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of glucose, tergallic O- or C-glucosides, or ellagic acid derivatives. Several tergallic acid C-glucosides were also present in the extracts obtained from Q. suber. Acorns from Q. ilex and Q. rotundifolia showed similar polyphenol patterns mainly with gallic acid-like spectra. Chromatograms of Q. suber showed mainly polyphenols with ellagic acid-like spectra. Valoneic acid dilactone was especially abundant in Q. suber skin. The contribution of skin to the total phenolics of the acorn was relatively small in Q. rotundifolia and Q. ilex but relatively high in Q. suber. Skin extracts from Q. suber, Q. rotundifolia, and Q. ilex showed 1.3, 1.4, and 1.0 antioxidant efficiencies, respectively (compared to that of butylhydroxyanisole). Endosperm extracts showed lower capacity to prevent lipid peroxidation than skin extracts.

  8. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf and the antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Wiwik Susanah; Swantara, I. Made Dira; Asih, I. A. Raka Astiti; Sinarsih, Ni Ketut; Suteja, I. Kadek Pater

    2016-03-01

    Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in some natural products was suspected of having a positive correlation to its activity in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity towards Escherechia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of compounds was done by ethanol 96%, followed by fractionation into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Determination of total flavonoid and phenolic contents was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer using standard of quersetin and galic acid respectively. In addition, antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Extraction of 1000 g of Samanea saman leaf was obtained 80 g of ethanol extracts, fractionation of the extract was obtained 8.02 g of n-hexane extracts, 7.11 g of ethyl acetate extracts, 13.5 g of n-butanol extracts, and 14.16 g of aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening of the n-butanol extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were successively 43.5798 mg QE/100g and 34.0180 mg GAE/100g. The butanol extracts inhibited the growth of S.aureus higher than the growth of E.coli. At the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 % (b/v), and positive control (meropenem μg/disc), inhibition zone towards S. aureus was successively 5.67, 9.33, 10.33, 12.00, and 32.33 mm, while the inhibition zone towards E. coli was1.33, 3.33, 4.33, 5.43, and 34.00 mm.

  9. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-07-15

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, p<0.05 level). Purine alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and indole alkaloids: harmine, harmane, harmol, yohimbine, brucine and strychnine were detected in the studied samples by different chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS). The total alkaloids content in APs-roots and APs-leaves varies from 50.71±0.36mg/g d.m. to 78.71±0.48mg/g d.m., respectively, whereas for dietary supplements (Pn and DK) TAC was found between 19.52±0.15mg/g and 22.18±0.15mg/g d.m.. The highest concentration of andrographolides was found in A. paniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed.

  10. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Various Solvent Extracts from In Vivo and In Vitro Grown Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Taha, Rosna; Banisalam, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract. PMID:26064936

  11. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H.

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp = 200…600 μm, porosity ε = 0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol) = 0 after t = 6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  12. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe.

    PubMed

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp=200...600 μm, porosity ε=0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol)=0 after t=6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  13. Interaction between Wine Phenolic Acids and Salivary Proteins by Saturation-Transfer Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (STD-NMR) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Brás, Natércia F; Vale, Nuno; Gomes, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2017-03-10

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is highly related to the astringency perception. Recently, it has been proven the existence of synergisms on the perceived astringency when phenolic acids were tested as mixtures in comparison to individual compounds, maintaining constant the total amount of the stimulus. The interactions between wine phenolic acids and the peptide fragment IB712 have been studied by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. This technique provided the dissociation constants and the percentage of interaction between both individual and mixtures of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and the model peptide. It is noteworthy that hydroxybenzoic acids showed higher affinity for the peptide than hydroxycinnamic acids. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of interaction, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. Results obtained not only showed the ability of these compounds to interact with salivary proteins but also may justify the synergistic effect observed in previous sensory studies.

  14. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency.

  15. Carotenoids and total phenolic contents in plant foods commonly consumed in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Gun-Ae; Cho, Yoon-Suk; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Tang, Guangwen; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Russell, Robert M.; Yoon, Sun; Lee-Kim, Yang Cha

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemicals are reported to provide various biological functions leading to the promotion of health as well as the reduced risk of chronic diseases. Fat-soluble plant pigments, carotenoids, are extensively studied micronutrient phytochemicals for their potential health benefits. It is noteworthy that specific carotenoids may be responsible for different protective effects against certain diseases. In addition, each carotenoid can be obtained from different types of plant foods. Considering the fact that the phytochemical content in foods can vary according to, but not limited to, the varieties and culture conditions, it is important to establish a database of phytochemicals in locally produced plant foods. Currently, information on individual carotenoid content in plant foods commonly consumed in Korea is lacking. As the first step to support the production and consumption of sustainable local plant foods, carotenoids and total phenolic contents of plant foods commonly consumed in Korea are presented and their potential biological functions are discussed in this review. PMID:23346297

  16. Control of product selectivity using solid acids for the catalytic addition of phenol to hydroxy fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid catalyzed reactions of hydroxy fatty acids, such as ricinoleic and lesquerolic, in the presence of phenolics can lead to four products or product groups. These include simple dehydration to dienoic acids, cyclization to epoxides, Friedel-Crafts alkylations of the double bonds, or ether for...

  17. Effects of natural phenolic acids on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Zych, Maria; Burczyk, Jan; Trzeciak, Hanna; Trzeciak, Henryk I

    2009-12-01

    Recent reports indicate the possibility of antiresorptive and/or bone formation increasing activity of natural phenolic acids, commonly present in plants which are normally consumed in the diet. The effects of 4 natural phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic, P-coumaric or chlorogenic, 10 mg/kg P. O. daily for 4 weeks) on the skeletal system of ovariectomized (estrogen-deficient) rats were investigated. Bone mass, mineral and calcium content, macrometric and histomorphometric parameters, and mechanical properties were examined. Phenolic acids differentially affected the skeletal system of rats with osteoporotic changes induced by the ovariectomy. Caffeic acid decreased bone mass, whereas P-coumaric acid increased the bone mass/body mass ratio and bone mineral mass/body mass ratio in the long bones, in comparison with the ovariectomized control rats. The phenolic acids improved some bone histomorphometric parameters, impaired by estrogen deficiency. However, they did not increase the ratio of bone mineral mass to bone mass, decreased by estrogen deficiency, and did not significantly affect bone mechanical properties. In conclusion, different natural phenolic acids exert differential effects on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats, both favourable and deleterious.

  18. The effect of pro-ecological procedures and insect foraging on the total content of phenol compounds in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Lamparski, Robert; Balcerek, Maciej; Modnicki, Daniel; Kotwica, Karol; Wawrzyniak, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In laboratory conditions, the effect of pro-ecological procedures (application of effective microorganisms and Asahi SL biostimulator) and foraging by insects [cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopa L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)] on the total content of phenolic compounds in winter wheat, was studied. Correlations between the total content of phenolic compounds (determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method) expressed as the amount of pyrogallol in wheat plants: undamaged, damaged by O. melanopa, damaged by R. padi, the length of feeding scar left by cereal leaf beetle and the number of pricks made by actively feeding insects of bird cherry-oat aphid were analysed. The wheat was treated by EM inoculant and a biostimulator. The mode of application of the preparations used had a significant effect on level the total phenolic compounds in the undamaged wheat and the wheat exposed to foraging by the above-mentioned insects. The plants not exposed to insects foraging contained greater amounts of phenolic compounds than those exposed to the insects. The correlation between the total content of phenols in the wheat damaged by the insects in the 'no-choice' conditions, proved insignificant.

  19. Structural characterization of aquatic humic material. 2. Phenolic content and its relationship to chlorination mechanism in an isolated aquatic fulvi acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norwood, D.L.; Christman, R.F.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The complementary techniques of solid-state 13G nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical degradation were utilized to examine the lignin/phenolic substructure of an isolated aquatic fulvic acid capable of producing upon aqueous chlorination a number of organohalides typically found in municipal drinking water. Results indicate that while phenolic moieties are present in the fulvic acid, they account for only a minor fraction of the total carbon. A sequential chemical degradation experiment utilizing aqueous chlorine and CuO demonstrated that the lignin/phenolic substructure was attacked by the chlorine. It is concluded that while phenolic ring rupture mechanisms appear to be important in organohalide generation, other aqueous chlorination mechanisms involving aliphatic and other types of aromatic structures should also be considered. ?? 1987 American Chemical Society.

  20. Plant secondary metabolites and gut health: the case for phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2011-08-01

    Plant-based diets contain a plethora of secondary metabolites that may impact on health and disease prevention. Much attention has been focused on the potential bioactivity and nutritional relevance of several classes of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, carotenoids, phyto-oestrogens and glucosinolates. Less attention has been paid to simple phenolic acids that are widely found in fruit, vegetables, herbs, spices and beverages. Daily intakes may exceed 100 mg. In addition, bacteria in the gut can perform reactions that transform more complex plant phenolics such as anthocyanins, procyanidins, flavanones, flavonols, tannins and isoflavones into simple phenolic metabolites. The colon is thus a rich source of potentially active phenolic acids that may impact both locally and systemically on gut health. Both the small and large intestine (colon) contain absorption sites for phenolic acids but low post-prandial concentrations in plasma indicate minimal absorption early in the gastrointestinal tract and/or rapid hepatic metabolism and excretion. Therefore, any bioactivity that contributes to gut health may predominantly occur in the colon. Several phenolic acids affect the expression and activity of enzymes involved in the production of inflammatory mediators of pathways thought to be important in the development of gut disorders including colon cancer. However, at present, we remain largely ignorant as to which of these compounds are beneficial to gut health. Until we can elucidate which pro-inflammatory and potentially carcinogenetic changes in gene expression can be moderated by simple phenolic acids, it is not possible to recommend specific plant-based foods rich in particular phenolics to optimise gut health.

  1. Total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, crude fibre and digestibility in non-traditional wheat flakes and muesli.

    PubMed

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Bubelova, Zuzana; Sneyd, Jan; Erb-Weber, Susanne; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The five different types of muesli composed of non-traditional wheat flakes were prepared and analysed. Dickkopf wheat, red wheat, kamut and spelt were compared with commercial wheat flakes. Wheat flakes and muesli were assessed for basic analyses (dry matter, ash, protein, starch and fat content), total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH assays), crude fibre content and in vitro digestibility. Furthermore, sensory evaluation of muesli involving scale and ranking preference tests was provided. Flakes and muesli made from Dickkopf wheat and red wheat showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content and, consequently, the highest antioxidant activity. Moreover, these cereals were high in crude fibre and thus were less digestible. On the other hand, the lowest total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity were determined in commercial flakes and muesli produced from these flakes. The flakes made from non-traditional wheat were sensorially comparable to commercial products.

  2. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  3. Mimicking the hierarchical functions of dentin collagen cross-links with plant derived phenols and phenolic acids

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Cristina M. P.; Leme, Ariene A.; Aguiar, Thaiane R.; Phansalkar, Rasika; Nam, Joo-Won; Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.; Bedran-Russo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are secondary plant metabolites that mediate non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking and enhance the properties of collagen based tissue, such as dentin. The extent and nature of cross-linking is influenced by the composition and specific chemical structure of the bioactive compounds present in certain PAC-rich extracts. This study investigated the effect of the molecular weight and stereochemistry of polyphenol compounds on two important properties of dentin, biomechanics and biostability. For that, purified phenols, a phenolic acid and some of its derivatives were selected: PACs dimers (A1, A2, B1 and B2) and a trimer (C1), gallic acid (Ga), its esters methyl gallate (MGa) and propyl gallate (PGa), and a pentagalloyl ester of glucose (PGG). Synergism was assessed by combination of the most active PAC and gallic acid derivative. Mechanical properties of dentin organic matrix were determined by the modulus of elasticity obtained in a flexural test. Biostability was evaluated by resistance to collagenase degradation. PACs significantly enhanced dentin mechanical properties and decreased collagen digestion. Among the gallic acid derivatives, only PGG had a significant enhancing effect. The lack of observed C1:PGG synergy indicates that both compounds have similar mechanisms of interaction with the dentin matrix. These findings reveal that the molecular weight of polyphenols have a determinant effect on their interaction with type I collagen and modulate the mechanism of cross-linking at the molecular, inter-molecular, and inter-micro-fibrillar levels. PMID:25379878

  4. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  8. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of phthalic acid esters and phenols in surface sediment from urban rivers in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Liu, Ruixia; Gao, Hongjie; Tan, Ruijie; Zeng, Ping; Song, Yonghui

    2016-12-01

    Concentration and spatial distribution of six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and eight phenols in sediments of urban rivers, namely the Xi River (XR) and Pu River (PR) in Shenyang city, Northeast China were investigated and the ecological risk of these target pollutants was assessed based on the risk quotient (RQ) approach. Target PAEs and phenols were detected in most of sediment samples collected from the XR and PR. The concentrations of total PAEs in sediments varied from 22.4 to 369 μg/g dw in the XR and 3.71-46.9 μg/g dw in the PR. The levels of phenols ranged from 2.72 to 106 μg/g dw in the XR and 0.811-25.0 μg/g dw in the PR, respectively. The dominant pollutants in both XR and PR were DEHP, phenol and 4-methylphnol. The sampling locations XR1-3 in the XR suffered severe contamination from PAEs and phenols. The sites PR1 and PR6 were heavily polluted by phenols and PAEs, respectively. Almost all target PAEs and phenolic compounds in sediment of the XR exhibited medium or high ecological risk to organisms and the ecological risk in the PR mainly originated from PEAs, phenol and 4-methylphenol. These results would provide guidance for individual pollutant control and indicate that it is imperative to take some effective measures to reduce the pollution of those contaminants.

  9. Synchronous determination with double-wavelength by RP-HPLC-UV and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic acids from Caragana species using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi; Ji, Zhongyin; Hu, Na; Chen, Shasha; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui

    2017-03-14

    The utilization of Caragana korshinskii Kom. (CK) is currently concentrated on its ecological and fuel functions. Little attention has been devoted to the analysis of their phenolic acid (PA) components. To obtain more data for further utilization of CK, a new analysis protocol was tested to determine PAs synchronously by RP-HPLC-UV with double-wavelength (280nm and 320nm) detection. Specifically, separation of PA components was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 reverse phase column with gradient elution. A four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was implemented for optimization of PA extraction. The results demonstrated that CK were rich primarily in chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. The total content of PAs in CK leaves was the highest compared with its other parts. The distribution of total flavonoid content of CK was leaves>flowers>bark, while that of the total phenolic content of CK was flowers>leaves>bark.

  10. The impact of catechin and epicatechin, total phenols and PPO activity on the Mal d 1 content in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Kiewning, Daniela; Wollseifen, Rainer; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela

    2013-09-01

    The most important apple allergen in Central Europe and North America is Mal d 1. Apples are a very important source of secondary plant metabolites like polyphenols in human nutrition. It is known that oxidised phenols can bind proteins. These irreversible bindings can lead to a reduced allergenicity. The most important phenols in apple are epicatechin, catechin and their polymeric structures, which have been identified as substrates of the polyphenoloxidase (PPO). The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of naturally occurring catechin and epicatechin contents in apple on the allergenicity of apple fruits. Fruits of the cultivars 'Elstar', 'Diwa' and 'Boskoop' were harvested and stored for 8 and 12 weeks in a cold-chamber at 2 °C. Mal d 1-, catechin-, epicatechin- and total phenol content as well as the activity of PPO were determined. Correlation analysis showed that naturally occurring catechin as well as epicatechin has no impact on the Mal d 1 content of the tested cultivars: correlation coefficient ranged from -0.203 to 0.501 for the correlation between Mal d 1 and catechin. The results further indicated that the activity of PPO is more important than the content of total phenols to reduce the Mal d 1 level. If there is a high PPO activity, Mal d 1 could be reduced even if the total phenol concentration is low.

  11. Gas chromatographic determination of urinary phenol conjugates after acid hydrolysis/extractive acetylation.

    PubMed

    Weber, L

    1992-02-14

    Phenolic metabolites of inhaled aromatic solvent vapours were liberated by acid hydrolysis of their urinary conjugates. Steam distillation enhanced by salting-out with MgSO4 gave good recoveries. After extractive acetylation, the derivatives of all cresols and xylenols were completely separated on a Se-54 capillary column. The overall recoveries of urinary phenols relative to the internal standard, 3-chlorophenol, were in the range 92-99%.

  12. Molecular complexes of alprazolam with carboxylic acids, boric acid, boronic acids, and phenols. Evaluation of supramolecular heterosynthons mediated by a triazole ring.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Sunil; Azim, Yasser; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2010-09-01

    A series of molecular complexes, both co-crystals and salts, of a triazole drug-alprazolam-with carboxylic acids, boric acid, boronic acids, and phenols have been analyzed with respect to heterosynthons present in the crystal structures. In all cases, the triazole ring behaves as an efficient hydrogen bond acceptor with the acidic coformers. The hydrogen bond patterns exhibited with aromatic carboxylic acids were found to depend on the nature and position of the substituents. Being a strong acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid forms a salt with alprazolam. With aliphatic dicarboxylic acids alprazolam forms hydrates and the water molecules play a central role in synthon formation and crystal packing. The triazole ring makes two distinct heterosynthons in the molecular complex with boric acid. Boronic acids and phenols form consistent hydrogen bond patterns, and these are seemingly independent of the substitutional effects. Boronic acids form noncentrosymmetric cyclic synthons, while phenols form O--H...N hydrogen bonds with the triazole ring.

  13. Asymmetric Total Syntheses of Megacerotonic Acid and Shimobashiric Acid A

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Scott W.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric total syntheses of the α-benzylidene-γ-butyrolactone natural products megacerotonic acid and shimobashiric acid A have been accomplished in nine and 11 steps, respectively, from simple, commercially available starting materials. The key step for each synthesis is the (arene)RuCl(monosulfonamide)-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution-asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (DKR-ATH) of racemic α,δ-diketo-β-aryl esters to establish the absolute stereochemistry. Intramolecular diastereoselective Dieckmann cyclization forms the lactone core, and ketone reduction/alcohol elimination installs the α-arylidene. PMID:25699999

  14. Ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    A kinetic study of the degradation by ozone of eight phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills has been performed by using a competition kinetic method. The selected phenolic acids are: caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vanillic, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic, veratric, p-hydroxy-benzoic, and protocatechuic. The influence of the operating variables (temperature, pH, and ozone partial pressure in the gas stream) is established, and the stoichiometric ratios for the individual direct reactions between ozone and each acid are determined. Once the reaction rate constants are evaluated, they are correlated as a function of temperature and pH into kinetic expressions which are provided for every phenolic acid. The global process occurs in the fast and pseudo-first-order kinetic regime of absorption, a condition required by the competition model to be used.

  15. Quenching of fluorescence of phenolic compounds and modified humic acids by cadmium ions.

    PubMed

    Tchaikovskaya, O N; Nechaev, L V; Yudina, N V; Mal'tseva, E V

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of a number of phenolic compounds, being 'model fragments' of humic acids, with cadmium ions was investigated. The fluorescence quenching method was used to determine the complexation constants of these compounds with cadmium ions. It was established that bonding of phenolic compounds by cadmium ions at рН 7 is weak and reaches a maximum value of 15% for interaction with resorcinol. It was demonstrated that modification of humic acids by the mechanoactivation method increases by three times bonding of cadmium ions, which is caused by strengthening the acid properties of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups at the aromatic ring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  17. Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L.

    PubMed

    Colaric, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Solar, Anita; Hudina, Metka; Stampar, Franci

    2005-08-10

    Phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, ellagic, and syringic acid) as well as syringaldehyde and juglone were identified in ripe fruits of 10 walnut cultivars: Adams, Cisco, Chandler, Franquette, Lara, Fernor, Fernette, Alsoszentivani 117 (A-117), Rasna, and Elit. Analyses were done using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector. Significant differences in the contents of identified phenolics were observed among cultivars. Phenolics were determined separately in the kernel and in the thin skin of the walnut, termed the pellicle. Not only in the kernel but also in the pellicle did syringic acid, juglone, and ellagic acid predominate (average values of 33.83, 11.75, and 5.90 mg/100 g of kernel; and 1003.24, 317.90, and 128.98 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively), and the contents of ferulic and sinapic acid (average values of 0.06 and 0.05 mg/100 g of kernel and 2.93 and 2.17 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively) were the lowest in all cultivars. The highest differences in the sum of all identified phenolics were observed between Rasna and Fernette fruits; in Rasna there were >2-fold higher contents of identified phenolics in both kernel and pellicle. It was found that the walnut pellicle is the most important source of walnut phenolics. The ratio between the contents in pellicle and kernel varied by at least 14.8-fold for caffeic acid (cv. Adams) and by up to 752.0-fold for p-coumaric acid (cv. Elit).

  18. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals.

  19. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  20. Cytoprotective effects of phenolic acids on methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis in Neuro-2A cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shang-Ming; Chuang, Hong-Chih; Wu, Chi-Hao; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-08-01

    In the process of glycation, methylglyoxal is a reactive dicarbonyl compound physiologically generated as an intermediate of glycolysis, and is found in high levels in blood or tissue of diabetic models. Biological glycation has been commonly implicated in the development of diabetic microvascular complications of neuropathy. Increasing evidence suggests that neuronal cell cycle regulatory failure followed by apoptosis is an important mechanism in the development of diabetic neuropathy complication. Naturally occurring antioxidants, especially phenolic acids have been recommended as the major bioactive compounds to prevent chronic diseases and promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory abilities of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, syringic acid and vanillic acid) on methylglyoxal-induced mouse Neuro-2A neuroblastoma (Neuro-2A) cell apoptosis in the progression of diabetic neuropathy. The data indicated that methylglyoxal induced mouse Neuro-2A neuroblastoma (Neuro-2A) cell apoptosis via alternation of mitochondria membrane potential and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathways (JNK and p38) participated in the methylglyoxal-induced Neuro-2A cell apoptosis process. Treatment of Neuro-2A cells with phenolic acids markedly suppresses cell apoptosis induced by methylglyoxal, suggesting that phenolic acids possess cytoprotective ability in the prevention of diabetic neuropathy complication.

  1. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals. PMID:22312251

  2. Total phenol content of guava fruit and development of an in vitro regeneration protocol amenable to genetic improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total soluble phenolics in two white (‘Allahabad Safeda’ and ‘Lucknow-49’), two pink (‘Beaumont’ and ‘Gushiken Sweet’), and three red fleshed (‘Ka Hua Kola’, ‘Ruby Supreme’ and ‘Red Fleshed’) guava (Psidium guajava. L.) fruits were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. ‘Allahabad Safeda’ and...

  3. Effect of UV-B light on total soluble phenolic contents of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic contents (TSP) of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colo...

  4. Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in mulberry (Morus nigra) pulp.

    PubMed

    Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Carrera, Ceferino; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G; Barbero, Gerardo F

    2017-03-15

    New ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the determination of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds present in mulberries have been developed. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (50-100%), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasound amplitude (30-70%), cycle (0.2-0.7s), solvent pH (3-7) and solvent-solid ratio (10:1.5-20:1.5) were optimized. A Box-Behnken design in conjunction with a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the conditions for the maximum response based on 54 different experiments. Two response variables were considered: total anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds. Extraction temperature and solvent composition were found to be the most influential parameters for anthocyanins (48°C and 76%) and phenolic compounds (64°C and 61%). The developed methods showed high reproducibility and repeatability (RSD<5%). Finally, the new methods were successfully applied to real samples in order to investigate the presence of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in several mulberry jams.

  5. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  6. Total Phenolic Content and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants of Labiatae against Four Foodborne and Some Other Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Babaeian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus caramanicus, Zataria multiflora, Ziziphora clinopodioides and Ziziphora tenuior against four foodborne and four other bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, MRSA and Pseudomona aeruginosa and measuring the amount of total phenolics of the plants. The extracts were prepared by maceration method. Pre-evaluation of the antimicrobial effect was utilized by cup-plate technique and then Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was determined by agar dilution method according to NCCLS. The total phenolics as a possible cause of antibacterial effect, was measured by Folin-Ciocalteucolorimetry. The results showed that T. caramanicus and Z. multiflora were the most effective ones with MIC values between 0.78-3.125 mg/mL against all of the Bactria and Z. tenuior and Z. clinopodioides had the minimum antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic contents of these five plants were different and followed the general pattern of the antimicrobial effect. The antibacterial effects and the total phenolic content of T. caramanicus and Z. multiflora were remarkable and should be investigated more in future studies. PMID:25237351

  7. Comparative RNA-Sequence Transcriptome Analysis of Phenolic Acid Metabolism in Salvia miltiorrhiza, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Model Plant

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenqiao; Guo, Linlin; Liu, Tian; Lin, Caicai; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this study, two S. miltiorrhiza genotypes (BH18 and ZH23) with different phenolic acid concentrations were used for de novo RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 170,787 transcripts and 56,216 unigenes were obtained. There were 670 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified between BH18 and ZH23, 250 of which were upregulated in ZH23, with genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway being the most upregulated genes. Nine genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated in BH18 and thus result in higher lignin content in BH18. However, expression profiles of most genes involved in the core common upstream phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were higher in ZH23 than that in BH18. These results indicated that genes involved in the core common upstream phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway might play an important role in downstream secondary metabolism and demonstrated that lignin biosynthesis was a putative partially competing pathway with phenolic acid biosynthesis. The results of this study expanded our understanding of the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:28194403

  8. Phenolics, phytic acid, and phytase in Canadian-grown low-tannin faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Luc, Geneviéve; Leprelle, Claire; Drover, John C G; Harrison, Judith E; Olson, Mark

    2011-04-27

    Thirteen low-tannin faba bean genotypes grown at two locations in north central Alberta in 2009 were evaluated to investigate the variation in seed characteristics, phenolic and phytate contents, and phytase and antioxidant activities and to elucidate the relationship of these components as a breeding strategy. Seed characteristics including color were predominantly genotype dependent. The faba bean genotypes with total phenolic content ranging from 5.5 to 41.8 mg of catechin equiv/g of sample was linearly related to tannin content and the best predictor of antioxidant activity. Phytic acid content and phytase activity varied significantly among genotypes and between locations, ranging from 5.9 to 15.1 g/kg and from 1606 to 2154 FTU/kg sample, respectively. Multivariate data analysis performed on 19 components analyzed in this study using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis demonstrate that differences in seed characteristics, phenolic components, phytic acid, and phytase are major factors in segregating faba bean genotypes. The relatively low phytic acid content and high phytase activity of these low-tannin faba bean genotypes are beneficial/essential traits for their use in human and animal nutrition.

  9. [Changes in phenolic acids during maturation and lignification of Scots pine xylem].

    PubMed

    Antonova, G F; Varaksina, T N; Zheleznichenko, T V; Stasova, V V

    2012-01-01

    The content and fractional composition of alcohol soluble phenolic acids (PhA) in cells with different degree maturation and lignification in the course of early and late timber formation in the pine (Pinus sylvestris) during vegetation were studied. Phenolic compounds (PhC), extracted by 80% ethanol, were divided into free and bound fractions of PhA. In turn, the esters and ethers were isolated from bound PhA. The contents of all substances were calculated per dry weight and per cell. Considerable differences have been found to exist in both the contents and the composition of the fractions PhA on successive stages oftracheid maturation of early and late xylem. Early timber tracheids at all secondary wall thickening steps contained PhC less and free PhA more than late timber tracheids. Throughout early timber tracheid maturation, the pool of free PhA per cell declined at the beginning oflignification and then increased gradually while that of bound PhA decreased. The maturation of late timber trecheids were accompanied by the rise of free PhA pool and the diminution of bound PhA pool. In the composition of bound PhA, the ethers were always dominant, and the amount of that in early timber cells was less than in late timber cells. The cells of early xylem at all steps of maturation contained more of ester. The sum total of free hydroxycinnamic acids, precursors of monolignols, gradually decreased during early xylem lignification as the result of the reduction of the pools of p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and synapic acids, while that of their ester rised. In the course of late xylem lignification, the pools of free p-coumaric, ferulic and, especially, synapic acids increased. Simultaneously, the amount of ferulic acid ester and synapic acid ether increased too. According to the data, lignin biosynthesis in early xylem and late xylem occurs with different dynamics and the structure of lignins of two xylem types might be different too.

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Berry Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Mihalev, Kiril; Bečić, Ivana; Polović, Ivana; Georgieva, Mariya; Djaković, Senka; Kurtanjek, Želimir

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study evaluates the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and environmentally friendly technique for validation and prediction of the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) indices (as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, inhibition time (IT) of the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC)) of berry fruit extracts. The analysed berry samples originated from Croatia (blackberries, wild blueberries, raspberries, red currants and strawberries) and Bulgaria (wild blueberries, raspberries and strawberries). Principal component analysis and partial least squares (PLS) regression were used from the set of chemometric tools in distinguishing and validating the measured berry fruit extract. ANOVA and PCA showed no significant impact of the origin and freshness of the samples. PLS models were developed to validate the relationship of NIR spectra with TPC and AOA of berry fruits. Representativeness of the models was expressed with the R2 and the ratio of performance to deviation. Calculated R2 values were above 0.84 and the ratio of performance to deviation was between 1.8 and 3.1, indicating adequacy of the PLS models. PMID:27904414

  11. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  12. Cold water fish gelatin modification by a natural phenolic cross-linker (ferulic acid and caffeic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Araghi, Maryam; Moslehi, Zeinab; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Mostahsan, Amir; Salamat, Nima; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays use of edible films and coatings is increasing due to their biodegradability and environment friendly properties. Fish gelatin obtained from fish skin wastage can be used as an appropriate protein compound for replacing pork gelatin to produce edible film. In this study films were prepared by combination of fish gelatin and different concentration (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) of two phenolic compounds (caffeic acid and ferulic acid). The film was prepared at pH > 10 and temperature of 60˚c under continuous injection of O2 and addition of the plasticizer sorbitol/glycerol. Results showed that solubility, oxygen permeability, and water vapor permeability were decreased for caffeic acid and the highest effect was observed at concentration of 5%. Solubility had a linear relationship with concentration of phenolic compound in film containing ferulic acid, however, no significant change was observed in vapor and O2 permeability. A comparison between two phenolic compounds showed that caffeic acid had the highest effect in decreasing solubility, water vapor permeability, and oxygen permeability. Caffeic acid is more effective phenolic compound compared with Ferulic acid that can increase safety of biodegradable packaging by improving their barrier and physicochemical properties. PMID:26405523

  13. Total Phenol Content and In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser-A Less-explored Indian Mango Mistletoe

    PubMed Central

    Sunil Kumar, Koppala Narayana; Saraswathy, Ariyamuthu; Amerjothy, Swaminathan; Susan, Thomas; Ravishankar, Basaviah

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are an important source of antioxidant molecules like tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, etc., Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (Loranthaceae) is one such plant belonging to the category of mistletoe, and grows commonly on the mango trees in India. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the antioxidant properties of the plant. Ethanol extract of H. elastica growing on mango tree was studied using different in vitro models. Shade-dried whole plant material was extracted with ethanol by cold percolation. Fifty milligrams of the alcohol extract of H. elastica was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of methanol. The resultant 5 mg/ml solution was suitably diluted to obtain different concentrations. Total phenol content, reducing power assay, and scavenging of free radicals like nitric oxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were studied by standardized in vitro chemical methods using ascorbic acid as the standard. The total phenol content of the plant was found to be 1.89% w/w. The extract showed good reducing power as well as scavenging of free radicals (nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 μg/ml. The study revealed the antioxidant potential of H. elastica. PMID:25379473

  14. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    PubMed

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-01-24

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE00) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  15. Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids content in two varieties of Malaysia young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-06-14

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.

  16. Determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaxi; Pan, Zhi Jie; Liao, Wen; Li, Jiaqi; Gruget, Pierre; Kitts, David D; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate, containing different amounts of cacao (35-100%), were determined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (4000-550cm(-1)). Antioxidant capacities were first characterized using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assays. Phenolic contents, including total phenol and procyanidins monomers, were quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD), respectively. Five partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed and cross-validated using FT-IR spectra from 18 types of chocolate and corresponding reference values determined using DPPH, ORAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, and HPLC assays. The models were validated using seven unknown samples of chocolate. PLSR models showed good prediction capability for DPPH [R(2)-P (prediction)=0.88, RMSEP (root mean squares error of prediction)=12.62μmol Trolox/g DFW], ORAC (R(2)-P=0.90, RMSEP=37.92), Folin-Ciocalteu (R(2)-P=0.88, RMSEP=5.08), and (+)-catechin (R(2)-P=0.86, RMSEP=0.10), but lacked accuracy in the prediction of (-)-epicatechin (R(2)-P=0.72, RMSEP=0.57). ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for rapid prediction of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and (+)-catechin in chocolate.

  17. The effect of ultraviolet treatment on enzymatic activity and total phenolic content of minimally processed potato slices.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Li Shing; Lasekan, Ola; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-07-01

    In this work, potato slices were exposed to different doses of UV-C irradiation (i.e. 2.28, 6.84, 11.41, and 13.68 kJ m(-2)) with or without pretreatment [i.e. ascorbic acid and calcium chloride (AACCl) dip] and stored at 4 ± 1 °C. Changes in enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), as well as total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated after 0, 3, 7 and 10 days of storage. Results showed that untreated and UV-C treated potato slices at 13.68 kJ m(-2) dosage level showed significantly higher PPO, POD and PAL activities. Conversely, untreated potato slices showed the lowest TPC during storage period. Potato slices subjected to AACCl dip plus UV-C at 6.84 kJ m(-2) produced lower PPO, POD and PAL activities, as well as maintained a high TPC during storage.

  18. Increasing the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents by optimizing the germination conditions of amaranth seeds.

    PubMed

    Perales-Sánchez, Janitzio X K; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Gómez-Favela, Mario A; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the germination conditions of amaranth seeds that would maximize the antioxidant activity (AoxA), total phenolic (TPC), and flavonoid (TFC) contents. To optimize the germination bioprocess, response surface methodology was applied over three response variables (AoxA, TPC, TFC). A central composite rotable experimental design with two factors [germination temperature (GT), 20-45 ºC; germination time (Gt), 14-120 h] in five levels was used; 13 treatments were generated. The amaranth seeds were soaked in distilled water (25 °C/6 h) before germination. The sprouts from each treatment were dried (50 °C/8 h), cooled, and ground to obtain germinated amaranth flours (GAF). The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized GAF with the highest AoxA [21.56 mmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g sample, dw], TPC [247.63 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g sample, dw], and TFC [81.39 mg catechin equivalent (CAE)/100 g sample, dw] was GT = 30 ºC/Gt = 78 h. The germination bioprocess increased AoxA, TPC, and TFC in 300-470, 829, and 213%, respectively. The germination is an effective strategy to increase the TPC and TFC of amaranth seeds for enhancing functionality with improved antioxidant activity.

  19. [The content of phenolic acids in the edible parts of selected varieties of apples].

    PubMed

    Malik, Agnieszka; Kiczorowska, Bozena; Zdyb, Justyna

    2009-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are essential sources of many nutritive substances which are necessary for normal function of the organism. One of the mostly consumed fruits in many European countries, including Poland is apples. The prohealthy properties of apples are associated with the contents of polyphenolic compounds, thus including in parts phenolic acids which have antioxidant properties. The concentration of these compounds depends on many factors such as variety climate and soil conditions, maturity as well as agro technical operations. The aim of this investigation was to compare the concentrations of phenolic acids and epicatechin in the varieties of apple Champion and Jonica, which were collected from different orchards around Lublin. The phenolic compounds were assayed using a Symmetry column carrier RP-C18 (Waters) integrated with a high pressure liquid chromatography apparatus. The dominant phenolic acids found in the Champion variety was chlorogenic acid, whereas in the Jonica variety, chlorogenic and homovanilic acids were the dominate once. The highest concentrations of chlorogenic acid was detected in the pulp of an apple (Jonica variety) collected from the orchards around the cities of Puławy and Lublin, whereas homovanilic acid was the highest in the other samples collected from the orchards in the vicinity of Stryjno and Góry Markuszowskie. Among the Jonica and Champion varieties of apples collected from various orchards in the vicinity of Lublin, the highest content of epicatechin (13,12 mg/kg) was found in the pulps of Champions variety collected in Puławy. In general, the Champion variety was the best source of phenolic acids and epicatechin compared to the Jonica variety independent of the harvest zone.

  20. Enzymatic Kolbe-Schmitt reaction to form salicylic acid from phenol: enzymatic characterization and gene identification of a novel enzyme, Trichosporon moniliiforme salicylic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kirimura, Kohtaro; Gunji, Hiroaki; Wakayama, Rumiko; Hattori, Takasumi; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2010-04-02

    Salicylic acid decarboxylase (Sdc) can produce salicylic acid from phenol; it was found in the yeast Trichosporon moniliiforme WU-0401 and was for the first time enzymatically characterized, with the sdc gene heterologously expressed. Sdc catalyzed both reactions: decarboxylation of salicylic acid to phenol and the carboxylation of phenol to form salicylic acid without any byproducts. Both reactions were detected without the addition of any cofactors and occurred even in the presence of oxygen, suggesting that this Sdc is reversible, nonoxidative, and oxygen insensitive. Therefore, it is readily applicable in the selective production of salicylic acid from phenol, the enzymatic Kolbe-Schmitt reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene, sdc, encoding Sdc comprises 350 amino acid residues corresponding to a 40-kDa protein. The recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expressing sdc converted phenol to salicylic acid with a 27% (mol/mol) yield at 30 degrees C for 9h.

  1. Investigation of phenolic acids in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves and tubers.

    PubMed

    Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Andrensek, Samo; Valentová, Katerina; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2003-10-17

    Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) screening of crude extracts of dried leaves and tubers of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) and products of acid hydrolysis of tubers on the silica gel HPTLC plates using the developing solvents ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (85:10:15, v/v/v) and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-formic acid (20:19:1, v/v/v) proved the presence of chlorogenic, caffeic and ferulic acid. These phenolic acids were isolated from the crude extract of yacon leaves by preparative TLC, and identified after elution by HPLC/MS, as well as by direct injection of the crude extract into the HPLC/MS system. Acid hydrolysis of tubers released the increased amount of phenolic acids (e.g. caffeic acid and ferulic acid), flavonoid quercetin and an unidentified flavonoid, which was detected by TLC analysis. Ferulic acid, isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid and still an unidentified derivative of chlorogenic acid (Mr = 562) as constituents of yacon leaves and ferulic acid as constituent of yacon tubers are reported here for the first time. These acids gave significant contribution to the radical scavenging activity detected directly on the TLC plate sprayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

  2. Potential Use of Phenolic Acids as Anti-Candida Agents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, Guilherme R.; Ellepola, Kassapa; Seneviratne, Chaminda J.; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a sharp rise in the occurrence of Candida infections and associated mortality over the last few years, due to the growing body of immunocompromised population. Limited number of currently available antifungal agents, undesirable side effects and toxicity, as well as emergence of resistant strains pose a considerable clinical challenge for the treatment of candidiasis. Therefore, molecules that derived from natural sources exhibiting considerable antifungal properties are a promising source for the development of novel anti-candidal therapy. Phenolic compounds isolated from natural sources possess antifungal properties of interest. Particularly, phenolic acids have shown promising in vitro and in vivo activity against Candida species. However, studies on their mechanism of action alone or in synergism with known antifungals are still scarce. This review attempts to discuss the potential use, proposed mechanisms of action and limitations of the phenolic acids in anti-candidal therapy. PMID:26733965

  3. Myrtus communis berry color morphs: a comparative analysis of essential oils, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Extracts of mature dark blue and white berries from two Tunisian Myrtus communis morphs growing at the same site were assessed for their essential-oil and fatty-acid compositions, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils allowed the identification of 33 constituents. The oils from the dark blue fruits showed high percentages of α-pinene (11.1%), linalool (11.6%), α-terpineol (15.7%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and geraniol (3.7%). Myrtenyl acetate (20.3%) was found to be the major compound in the oils from white berries. GC Analysis of the pericarp and seed fatty acids showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted the major fraction (54.3-78.1%). The highest percentages of linoleic acid (78.0%) and oleic acid (20.0%) were observed in the seeds and the pericarps of the white fruits, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents and the concentration of the eight anthocyanins, identified by HPLC analysis, were significantly higher in the dark blue fruits. All extracts showed a substantial antioxidant activity, assessed by the free radical-scavenging activity and the ferric reducing power, with the dark blue fruit extracts being more effective.

  4. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-13

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  5. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers. PMID:26771635

  6. Salicylic Acid and Calcium Treatments Improves Wheat Vigor, Lipids and Phenolics Under High Salinity.

    PubMed

    Yücel Candan, Nilgün; Heybet Elif, Haklı

    2016-12-01

    Seed vigor is a complex physiological trait required to ensure the rapid and uniform emergence of plants in the field under different environmental conditions. Therefore, salicylic acid (SA, 0.5 mM) and calcium (Ca2+, 50 mM) priming were used as exogenous growth enhancers to stimulate wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Yelken) seed vigor under high salinity. The main aim was to address whether priming of wheat with SA, Ca2+ and SA+Ca (SA, 0.5 mM + Ca2+, 50 mM; their combination) could bring about supplementary agronomic benefits particularly under stressful environments such as salinity. Exogenous application of SA or Ca2+ alone improved plant behavior in the presence of salinity stress. Nevertheless, the best results in terms of growth, seed vigor and total phenolic - flavonoids, chlorophyll - carotenoids contents and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), ascorbic acide oxidase (AAO) activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) were obtained in response to the combined SA+Ca treatment.

  7. Protective Effect of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhao, Y M; Zhang, B; Guo, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Inula helenium has been reported to contain a large amount of phenolic compounds, which have shown promise in scavenging free radicals and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total phenolic compounds from I. helenium on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y cells. Antioxidant capacity of total phenolic compounds was determined by radical scavenging activity, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase activity. The cytotoxicity of total phenolic compounds was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The effect of total phenolic compounds on cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin-V/PI staining using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated using the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by JC-1 dye and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. It was shown that hydrogen peroxide significantly induced the loss of cell viability, increment of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate production. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds dose-dependently reversed these effects. This study suggests that total phenolic compounds exert neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage via blocking reactive oxygen species production and improving mitochondrial function. The potential of total phenolic compounds and its neuroprotective mechanisms in attenuating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is worth further exploration.

  8. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  9. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  10. Diet derived phenolic acids regulate osteoblast and adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation in young mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A blueberry (BB) supplemented diet previously has been shown to significantly stimulate bone formation in rapidly growing male and female rodents. Phenolic acids (PAs) are metabolites derived from polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables as a result of the actions of gut bacteria, and they were fo...

  11. Phenolic acids are in vivo atheroprotective compounds appearing in serum of rats after blueberry consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberries (BB) have recently been shown to have cardio-protective effects and prevention of atherosclerosis in rodent models. However, the bioactive compounds in BB responsible for these effects have not yet been characterized. Seven phenolic acids were identified as metabolites in serum of rats ...

  12. Dynamics of phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in metal-treated Matricaria chamomilla roots.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj

    2008-03-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, 11 phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in Matricaria chamomilla roots exposed to low (3 microM) and high (60 and 120 microM) levels of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) for 7 days were investigated. Five derivatives of cinnamic acid (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) and six derivatives of benzoic acid (protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic acids and protocatechuic aldehyde) were detected. Accumulation of glycoside-bound phenolics (revealed by acid hydrolysis) was enhanced mainly towards the end of the experiment, being more expressive in Cu-treated roots. Interestingly, chlorogenic acid was extremely elevated by the highest Cu dose (21-fold higher than control) suggesting its involvement in antioxidative protection. All compounds, with the exception of chlorogenic acid, were detected in the cell wall bound fraction, but only benzoic acids were found in the ester-bound fraction (revealed by alkaline hydrolysis). Soluble phenolics were present in substantially higher amounts in Cu-treated roots and more Cu was retained there in comparison to Cd. Cu strongly elevated PAL activity (by 5.4- and 12.1-fold in 60 and 120 microM treatment, respectively) and lignin content (by 71 and 148%, respectively) after one day of treatment, indicating formation of a barrier against metal entrance. Cd had slighter effects, supporting its non-redox active properties. Taken together, different forms of phenolic metabolites play an important role in chamomile tolerance to metal excess and participate in active antioxidative protection.

  13. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and lipid fractions from berry pomaces obtained by solid-state fermentation of two Sambucus species with Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana

    2015-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.

  14. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-ting; Hebert, Vincent R.; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P.; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer as well as its complex side chain structures, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) inclduing 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPCs yields obtained were 18% and 22% based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47%. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  15. Comparative analysis of phenolic acids in mistletoe plants from various hosts.

    PubMed

    Luczkiewicz, M; Cisowski, W; Kaiser, P; Ochocka, R; Piotrowski, A

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic acids present in mistletoe plants collected from various hosts were analysed with the use of HPLC. The following numbers of compounds were found in the mistletoe plant material gathered from respective hosts: Sorbus aucuparia- 12 compounds; Acer plantanoides--14 compounds: Malus domestica, Pyrus communis and Populus nigra--13 compounds each; Quercus robur--15 compounds. Altogether 21 phenolic acids were chromatographically identified in the tested material. The compounds were either free or combined as esters or glycosides. Comparative chromatography revealed qualitative differences in the investigated compounds between the various plant materials. For example o-coumaric acid was only found in mistletoe hosted by Quercus robur. Digallic acid was only found in the plant material hosted by Acer plantanoides. Qualitative and quantitative composition of mistletoes hosted by Malus domestica and Pyrus communis showed considerable similarities as far as phenolic acids were concerned. Moreover. vanillic acid. absent in all other batches of plant material, seemed to be characteristic of the above mistletoes. Quantitative HPLC analysis demonstrated a considerable content of salicylic acid (39.55 mg%) in mistletoe hosted by Sorbus aucuparia. Apart from the above material, this compound was only present in small quantities in plants hosted by Populus nigra (15.63 mg%) and Quercus robur (2.63 mg%).

  16. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-ting; Hebert, Vincent R.; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P.; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  17. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  18. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos Caudatus.

    PubMed

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-05-07

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.

  19. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos caudatus

    PubMed Central

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained. PMID:26784876

  20. Alkylation of phenol with polybutenes in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, P.S.; Gulyaev, I.A.; Korenev, K.D.; Yakovlev, V.B.; Zakupra, V.A.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to test benzenesulfonic acid (BSA) as a catalyst in the alkylation of phenol with polyisobutylene (PIB). This material is used as a catalyst in the production of technical C/sub 5/-C/sub 12/ tert-alkylphenol. Finds that the optimal compromise between acceleration of the reaction and the alkylate viscosity increase that limits the reaction rate is achieved at a temperature of about 105 C and a BSA/PIB mole ratio of 0.15. Recommends BSA as an effective replacement for boron fluoride, boron fluoride complexes, and other highly corrosive catalysts used in the alkylation of phenol with polybutenes.

  1. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-07-22

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.

  2. Cloning and characterization of a new laccase from Bacillus licheniformis catalyzing dimerization of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Koschorreck, Katja; Richter, Sven M; Ene, Augusta B; Roduner, Emil; Schmid, Rolf D; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2008-05-01

    A new laccase gene (cotA) was cloned from Bacillus licheniformis and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein CotA was purified and showed spectroscopic properties, typical for blue multi-copper oxidases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 65 kDa and demonstrates activity towards canonical laccase substrates 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), syringaldazine (SGZ) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP). Kinetic constants KM and kcat for ABTS were of 6.5+/-0.2 microM and 83 s(-1), for SGZ of 4.3+/-0.2 microM and 100 s(-1), and for 2,6-DMP of 56.7+/-1.0 microM and 28 s(-1). Highest oxidizing activity towards ABTS was obtained at 85 degrees C. However, after 1 h incubation of CotA at 70 degrees C and 80 degrees C, a residual activity of 43% and 8%, respectively, was measured. Furthermore, oxidation of several phenolic acids and one non-phenolic acid by CotA was investigated. CotA failed to oxidize coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, and vanillic acid, while syringic acid was oxidized to 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone. Additionally, dimerization of sinapic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by CotA was observed, and highest activity of CotA was found towards sinapic acid.

  3. Prey-induced changes in the accumulation of amino acids and phenolic metabolites in the leaves of Drosera capensis L.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Effect of prey feeding (ants Formica fusca) on the quantitative changes in the accumulation of free amino acids, soluble proteins, phenolic metabolites and mineral nutrients in the leaves of carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was studied. Arginine was the most abundant compound in Drosera leaves, while proline was abundant in ants. The amount of the majority of amino acids and their sum were elevated in the fed leaves after 3 and 21 days, and the same, but with further enhancement after 21 days, was observed in ants. Accumulation of amino acids also increased in young non-fed leaves of fed plants. Soluble proteins decreased in ants, but were not enhanced in fed leaves. This confirms the effectiveness of sundew's enzymatic machinery in digestion of prey and suggests that amino acids are not in situ deposited, but rather are allocated within the plant. The content of total soluble phenols, flavonoids and two selected flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) was not affected by feeding in Drosera leaves, indicating that their high basal level was sufficient for the plant's metabolism and prey-induced changes were mainly N based. The prey also showed to be an important source of other nutrients besides N, and a stimulation of root uptake of some mineral nutrients is assumed (Mg, Cu, Zn). Accumulation of Ca and Na was not affected by feeding.

  4. Application of microchip-CE electrophoresis to follow the degradation of phenolic acids by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongsheng; Garcia, Carlos D

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the separation and detection of six phenolic acids using an electrophoretic microchip with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). The selected phenolic acids are particularly important because of their biological activity. The analysis of these compounds is typically performed by chromatography or standard CE coupled with a wide variety of detection modes. However, these methods are slow, labor intensive, involve a multistep solvent extraction, require skilled personnel, or use bulky and expensive instrumentation. In contrast, microchip CE offers the possibility of performing simpler, less expensive, and faster analysis. In addition, integrated devices can be custom-fabricated and incorporated with portable computers to perform on-site analysis. In the present report, the effect of the separation potential, buffer pH and composition, injection time and PAD parameters were studied in an effort to optimize both the separation and detection of these phenolic acids. Using the optimized conditions, the analysis can be performed in less than 3 min, with detection limits ranging from 0.73 microM (0.10 microg/mL) for 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 2.12 microM (0.29 microg/mL) for salicylic acid. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the device, the degradation of a mixture of these acids by two aquatic plants was followed using the optimized conditions.

  5. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, C.; Moreira, C. F. F.; Lavinas, F. C.; Lopes, M. L. M.; Fialho, E.; Valente-Mesquita, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or 400 MPa for 3, 5 and 7 min did not change pH, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid or hydrolysable polyphenol contents. However, juice pressurized for 3 and 5 min showed higher soluble polyphenol contents. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was not altered by HPP, but when treated at 250 MPa for 3 min, it resulted in an increased value when 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used. These data demonstrate that HPP can be used in the food industry for the generation of products with higher nutritional quality.

  6. Simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and carbon tetrachloride mediated by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Claudia M; Alvarez, Luis H; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2012-09-01

    The capacity of an anaerobic sediment to achieve the simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was evaluated, using humic acids (HA) as redox mediator. The presence of HA in sediment incubations increased the rate of biodegradation of phenol and the rate of dehalogenation (2.5-fold) of CT compared to controls lacking HA. Further experiments revealed that the electron-accepting capacity of HA derived from different organic-rich environments was not associated with their reducing capacity to achieve CT dechlorination. The collected kinetic data suggest that the reduction of CT by reduced HA was the rate-limiting step during the simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and CT. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first demonstration of the simultaneous biodegradation of two priority pollutants mediated by HA.

  7. The roasting process does not influence the extent of conjugation of coffee chlorogenic and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bridge, Belén; Renouf, Mathieu; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Actis-Goretta, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the bioavailability and metabolism of coffee compounds will contribute to identify the unknown biological mechanism(s) linked to their beneficial effects. The influence of the roasting process on the metabolism of coffee chlorogenic acids in humans was evaluated. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers consumed four instant coffees namely, high roasted coffee (HRC), low roasted coffee (LRC), unroasted coffee (URC), and in vitro hydrolyzed unroasted coffee (HURC). The sum of areas under the curve (AUC) ranged from 8.65-17.6 to 30.9-126 µM/h (P < 0.05) for HRC, LRC, URC, and HURC, respectively. The AUC of HRC, LRC, and URC was correlated with the initial level of phenolic acids in the coffee drinks. Despite different absorption rates, the extent of conjugation was comparable between HRC, LRC, and URC coffees but different for HURC. The most abundant circulating metabolites during the first 5 H were dihydroferulic acid (DHFA), caffeic acid-3'-O-sulfate (CA3S) and isoferulic-3'-O-glucuronide (iFA3G). DHFA and 5-4-dihydro-m-coumaric acid (mDHCoA) were the main metabolites in the period of 5-24 H. The phenolic compounds after consumption of HURC were most rapidly absorbed (Tmax 1 H) compared with the other coffees (Tmax between 9 and 11 H). Using coffees with different degrees of roasting we highlighted that in spite of different absorption rates the extent of conjugation of phenolic acids was comparable. In addition, by using a hydrolyzed unroasted coffee we demonstrated an increased absorption of phenolic acids in the small intestine. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(3):259-267, 2016.

  8. Kinetics of phenolic and phthalic acid esters biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The kinetic of phenolic and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate was investigated. Laboratory-scale MBR was fed with mixture of fresh and stabilized landfill leachate containing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 10, 6, 3 and operated under different solid retention time (SRT) of 90, 15 and 5 d. Batch experiments using MBR sludge obtained from each steady-state operating condition revealed highest biodegradation rate constant (k) of 0.059-0.092 h(-1) of the phenolic and PAEs compounds at C/N of 6. Heterotrophic bacteria were the major group responsible for biodegradation of compounds whereas the presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) helped accelerating their removals. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria found under high ammonia condition had an important role in enhancing the biodegradation of phenols and PAEs by releasing phenol hydroxylase (PH), esterase (EST) and phthalate dioxygenase (PDO) enzymes and the presence of AOB helped improving biodegradation of phenolic and PAEs compounds through their co-metabolism.

  9. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for the Phenolic Acid Contents and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Tibetan Wild Barley.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Han, Zhigang; Huang, Yuqing; Hu, Hongliang; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-03

    Phenolic acids have been of considerable interest in human nutrition because of their strong antioxidative properties. However, even in a widely grown crop, such as barley, their genetic architecture is still unclear. In this study, genetic control of two main phenolic acids, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), and their associations with agronomic traits were investigated among 134 Tibetan wild barley accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three DArT markers (bpb-2723, bpb-7199, and bpb-7273) associated with p-CA content and one marker (bpb-3653) associated with FA content in 2 consecutive years. The contents of the two phenolic acids were positively correlated with some agronomic traits, such as the first internode length, plant height, and some grain color parameters, and negatively correlated with the thousand-grain weight (TGW). This study provides DNA markers for barley breeding programs to improve the contents of phenolic acids.

  10. Sorghum bran in the diet dose dependently increased the excretion of catechins and microbial-derived phenolic acids in female rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liwei; House, Suzanne E; Rooney, Lloyd; Prior, Ronald L

    2007-06-27

    Sorghum bran is concentrated with procyanidins (predominately polymers), which may be beneficial for health in humans; however, the bioavailability of procyanidins is not well-understood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN93G diet containing 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40% Hi-tannin sorghum bran (n = 5-7 for each group) for 50 days. Sorghum bran contained 23.3 mg/g of procyanidins. The urinary excretions of catechin, epicatechin, methylated catechins, and phenolic acids were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sorghum bran dose dependently increased the urinary excretion of catechin (0-2.2 nmol/day) and 3'-O-methylcatechin (0-9.5 nmol/day). Their serum concentrations also increased with dose (range of 0-14 nM for 3'-O-methylcatechin). Among the 14 phenolic acids analyzed, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid dominated in the serum (1.8-8 micromol/L). In the urine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid dominated and their excretion increased significantly with the level of sorghum bran in the diet. The summed phenolic acid excretion was 0.8 micromol/day in the control group and increased to 23 micromol/day for 40% sorghum bran group. The hippuric acid excretion ranged from 2.2 to 16.2 micromol/day and peaked in the 10% sorghum bran group. On the basis of chromic oxide, a nonabsorbable marker, total procyanidins and polymers disappeared progressively, and significant degradation occurred in the cecum and colon. Catechins and procyanidins in sorghum were bioavailable; however, bacteria-derived phenolic acids were the predominant metabolites of procyanidins. Procyanidins degraded in the gastrointestinal tract. Depolymerization was not observed.

  11. Changes of phenolic-acids and vitamin E profiles on germinated rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) treated by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Li, Meishan; Lee, Youn Ri; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2017-02-15

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the phenolic acid and vitamin E profiles of germinated rough rice following high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT). Rough rice was germinated at 37°C for two days and subjected to 0.1, 10, 30, 50, and 100MPa pressures for 24h. The total phenolic acid content increased from 85.37μg/g at 0.1MPa to 183.52μg/g at 100MPa. The highest gallic acid (4.29μg/g), catechin (9.55μg/g), p-coumaric acid (8.36μg/g), ferulic acid (14.99μg/g), salicylic acid (14.88μg/g), naringin (6.18μg/g), trans-cinnamic acid (45.23μg/g), and kaempferol (40.95μg/g) contents occurred in the sample treated at 100MPa after germination. The maximum vitamin E content of about 2.56 (BG) and 4.34mg/100g (AG) were achieved at 30MPa. These result suggest that a combination of HPT and germination are efficient method for enhancement of functionality in rough rice, and clarify the influence of HPT conditions on the vitamin E and phenolic acid in germination rough rice.

  12. Kinetics of the reaction between ozone and phenolic acids present in agro-industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Beltran-Heredia, J; Torregrosa, J; Dominguez, J R; Peres, J A

    2001-03-01

    The kinetics of the ozonation of three phenolic acids is investigated from ozone absorption experiments in a semi-continuous reactor. After the evaluation of stoichiometric ratios for the individual reactions between ozone and each phenolic acid, the oxidation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid by ozone is performed in a first stage. The influence of the operating variables on the degradation process is established, and the application of a mass transfer with chemical reaction model based on the film theory leads to the determination of the reaction orders and kinetic rate constants. The experimental absorption rates obtained agree well with those calculated theoretically. In the second stage, a mixture of ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), beta-resorcylic acid (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid is ozonated under different experimental conditions. The kinetic study is performed by means of a competitive method that takes p-hydroxybenzoic acid as reference compound. The application of this model allows to determine the kinetic rate constants for each compound, which are correlated as a function of pH and temperature. The results obtained support that the kinetic regime of absorption is fast and pseudo-first order with respect to ozone, a condition required by the competitive method used.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity, color, and free phenolic acid profile of malt.

    PubMed

    Inns, Elizabeth L; Buggey, Lesley A; Booer, Christopher; Nursten, Harry E; Ames, Jennifer M

    2007-08-08

    Green malt was kilned at 95 degrees C following two regimens: a standard regimen (SKR) and a rapid regimen (RKR). Both resulting malts were treated further in a tray dryer heated to 120 degrees C, as was green malt previously dried to 65 degrees C (TDR). Each regimen was monitored by determining the color, antioxidant activity (by both ABTS(.+) and FRAP methods), and polyphenolic profile. SKR and RKR malts exhibited decreased L* and increased b* values above approximately 80 degrees C. TDR malts changed significantly less, and color did not develop until 110 degrees C, implying that different chemical reactions lead to color in those malts. Antioxidant activity increased progressively with each regimen, although with TDR malts this became significant only at 110-120 degrees C. The RKR malt ABTS(.+) values were higher than those of the SKR malt. The main phenolics, that is, ferulic, p-coumaric, and vanillic acids, were monitored throughout heating. Ferulic acid levels increased upon heating to 80 degrees C for SKR and to 70 degrees C for RKR, with subsequent decreases. However, the levels for TDR malts did not increase significantly. The increase in free phenolics early in kilning could be due to enzymatic release of bound phenolics and/or easier extractability due to changes in the matrix. The differences between the kilning regimens used suggest that further modification of the regimens could lead to greater release of bound phenolics with consequent beneficial effects on flavor stability in beer and, more generally, on human health.

  14. Changes in the flavonoid and phenolic acid contents and antioxidant activity of red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) due to cultivation under plastic films varying in ultraviolet transparency.

    PubMed

    García-Macías, Paulina; Ordidge, Matthew; Vysini, Eleni; Waroonphan, Saran; Battey, Nicholas H; Gordon, Michael H; Hadley, Paul; John, Philip; Lovegrove, Julie A; Wagstaffe, Alexandra

    2007-12-12

    Red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) was grown under three types of plastic films that varied in transparency to UV radiation (designated as UV block, UV low, and UV window). Flavonoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Exposure to increased levels of UV radiation during cultivation caused the leaves to redden and increased concentrations of total phenols and the main flavonoids, quercetin and cyanidin glycosides, as well as luteolin conjugates and phenolic acids. The total phenol content increased from 1.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight (FW) for lettuce grown under UV block film to 2.9 and 3.5 mg of GAE/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV low and UV window films. The antioxidant activity was also higher in lettuce exposed to higher levels of UV radiation with ORAC values of 25.4 and 55.1 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV block and UV window films, respectively. The content of phenolic acids, quantified as caffeic acid, was also different, ranging from 6.2 to 11.1 micromol/g of FW for lettuce cultivated under the lowest and highest UV exposure plastic films, respectively. Higher concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides were observed with increased exposure to UV radiation, as demonstrated by the concentrations of aglycones after hydrolysis, which were cyanidin (ranging from 165 to 793 microg/g), quercetin (ranging from 196 to 880 microg/g), and luteolin (ranging from 19 to 152 microg/g). The results demonstrate the potential of the use of UV-transparent plastic as a means of increasing beneficial flavonoid content of red leaf lettuce when the crop is grown in polytunnels.

  15. Development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations in highly acidic and phenolic apple musts.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Gloria; Berregi, Iñaki; Santos, José Ignacio; Dueñas, Maite; Irastorza, Ana

    2008-05-01

    This work reports the influence of the high acidity and high phenolic content in apple musts on the development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and on the final chemical and microbiological composition of the ciders. Four different musts were obtained by pressing several varieties and proportions of cider apples from the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Specially acidic and phenolic varieties were selected. Three musts were obtained in experimental stations and the fourth one, in a cider factory following usual procedures. The evolution of these musts was monitored during five months by measuring 18 parameters throughout eight samplings. In the most acidic of the three experimental musts, yeasts were added to complete the alcoholic fermentation. In the rest of the musts, alcoholic and malolactic fermentations took place spontaneously due to natural microflora and no chemical was added to control these processes. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) finished before alcoholic fermentation in the three tanks obtained in experimental stations, even in the most acidic and phenolic one (pH 3.18, 1.78 g tannic acid/l). After four months, these ciders maintained low levels of lactic acid bacteria (10(4)CFU/ml) and low content of acetic acid (<0.60 g/l). Both fermentations began simultaneously in the must obtained in the cider factory, but MLF finished 10 days after alcoholic fermentation. Subsequently, this must maintained a high population of lactic acid bacteria (>10(6)CFU/ml), causing a higher production of acetic acid (>1.00 g/l) than in the other ciders. These results show the possible advantages of MLF finishing before alcoholic fermentation.

  16. Effects of Increasing Doses of UV-B on Main Phenolic Acids Content, Antioxidant Activity and Estimated Biomass in Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia).

    PubMed

    Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Panjai, Lachinee

    2015-07-01

    Lavandin is a well-known aromatic plant cultivated mainly for its valuable essential oil. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid so far to the quantification of other natural products such as polyphenols. Accordingly, we examined the effect of increasing doses of UV-B radiation on the main phenolic content, antioxidant activity and estimated biomass of one year old lavandin pots compared with pots grown outdoors. Significantly higher total phenolic content and concentration of main polyphenols have been found in outdoor plants. Rosmarinic acid has been described as the major phenolic compound in methanolic extracts (max. 25.9 ± 9.7 mg/g(-1) DW). Furthermore, we found that increasing doses of UV-B promote the plant growth of this species as well as the accumulation of phenolic compounds although with less antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals. On the other hand, our results showed a remarkable variability among individual plants regarding the content of major phenolic acids. The application of UV-B doses during plant growth could be a method to promote biomass in this species along with the promotion of higher content of valuable secondary metabolites.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan

    2015-04-01

    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.

  18. Inactivation of Gram-Positive Bacteria by Novel Phenolic Branched-Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Wagner, Karen; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Ngo, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Novel phenolic branched-chain fatty acids (PBC-FAs) were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against both gram-positive ( Listeria innocua , Bacillus subtilis , Enterococcus faecium ) and gram-negative ( Escherichia coli , Salmonella Typhimurium, and Pseudomonas tolaasii ) bacteria. In addition, PBC-FA derivatives, such as PBC-FA methyl ester mixture, methyl-branched fatty acid mixtures, and trimethylsilyl-PBC-FA methyl esters, were synthesized to study the structure activity relationship. Results showed that PBC-FAs were a potent antimicrobial against gram-positive bacteria with MICs of 1.8 to 3.6 μg/ml. The compounds were less effective against gram-negative bacteria. Derivatives of PBC-FAs and an equimolar mixture of oleic acid and phenol all had MICs above 233 μg/ml against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of the PBC-FAs with those of the derivatives suggests that the carboxylic group in the fatty acid moiety and the hydroxyl group on the phenol moiety were responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy. Growth curves of L. innocua revealed that PBC-FAs prevented bacterial growth, while MBC-FAs only delayed the onset of rapid growth of L. innocua . Our results demonstrated that the novel PBC-FAs have potential for use as antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria.

  19. Sulfonic acid resin-catalyzed addition of phenols, carboxylic acids, and water to olefins: Model reactions for catalytic upgrading of bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qing-Wen; Yang, Xu-Lai; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Pittman, Charles U

    2010-05-01

    Acid-catalyzed 1-octene reactions with phenol and mixtures of phenol with water, acetic acid and 1-butanol were studied as partial bio-oil upgrading models. Bio-oil from fast biomass pyrolysis has poor fuel properties due to the presence of substantial amounts of water, carboxylic acid, phenolic derivatives and other hydroxyl-containing compounds. Additions across olefins offer a route to simultaneously lower water content and acidity while increasing hydrophobicity, stability and heating value. Amberlyst15, Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 effectively catalyzed phenol O- and C-alkylation from 65 to 120 degrees C, giving high O-alkylation selectivities in the presence of water, acetic acid and 1-butanol. Octanols and dioctyl ethers were formed from water and octyl acetates and phenol acetates from acetic acid. Phenol alkylation slowed in the presence of water. Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 were more stable in the presence of water than Amberlyst15 and were successfully recycled. Adding 1-butanol to phenol/water/1-octene, gave emulsion-like mixtures which improved phenol conversion and olefin hydration.

  20. Involvement of p38 MAPK and Nrf2 in phenolic acid-induced P-form phenol sulfotransferase expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2006-05-01

    Phenolic acids have significant biological and pharmacological properties and some have demonstrated remarkable ability to alter sulfate conjugation. However, the modulation mechanisms of phenolic acids on phenol sulfotransferase expression have not been described. In the present study, we investigated the effects of phenolic acids on the expression of the Phase II P-form of phenol sulfotransferase (PST-P) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. RT-PCR and western blot data revealed that gallic acid induced increase in PST-P expression at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. This induction was also marked by an increase in PST-P activity. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide inhibited gallic acid-responsive PST-P mRNA expression, indicating that gallic acid is a requirement for transcription and de novo protein synthesis. Transient transfection of HepG2 cells with a reporter plasmid of the upstream region of the human PST gene caused a significant increase in reporter gene activity after gallic acid exposure. Moreover, gallic acid increased the nuclear levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor governing antioxidant response element (ARE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed increased binding of nuclear proteins to ARE consensus sequence after treatment with gallic acid. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for PST-P induction, we observed that gallic acid activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, abolished gallic acid-induced PST-P protein expression. Similarly, gallic acid also caused an accumulation of Nrf2. Moreover, the protective effects of gallic acid on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced toxicity was partially blocked by p38 MAPK and PST-P inhibitors, further demonstrating that gallic acid attenuates oxidative stress through a pathway that involves p38 MAPK and PST-P. These results indicate that gallic acid is a potent inducer of PST-P and that PST-P induction is responsible

  1. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction Conditions for Improving Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities In Vitro from Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. Residues.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Mao, Yi-Dan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Raza, Aun; Qiu, Li-Peng; Xu, Xiu-Quan

    2017-03-06

    Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration (X₁: 1.5%-2.5%), extraction time (X₂: 20-30 min) and extraction temperature (X₃: 40-60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO₄ equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve extraction yield

  2. Selective phenol hydrogenation to cyclohexanone over a dual supported Pd-Lewis acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huizhen; Jiang, Tao; Han, Buxing; Liang, Shuguang; Zhou, Yinxi

    2009-11-27

    Cyclohexanone is an industrially important intermediate in the synthesis of materials such as nylon, but preparing it efficiently through direct hydrogenation of phenol is hindered by over-reduction to cyclohexanol. Here we report that a previously unappreciated combination of two common commercial catalysts-nanoparticulate palladium (supported on carbon, alumina, or NaY zeolite) and a Lewis acid such as AlCl3-synergistically promotes this reaction. Conversion exceeding 99.9% was achieved with >99.9% selectivity within 7 hours at 1.0-megapascal hydrogen pressure and 50 degrees C. The reaction was accelerated at higher temperature or in a compressed CO(2) solvent medium. Preliminary kinetic and spectroscopic studies suggest that the Lewis acid sequentially enhances the hydrogenation of phenol to cyclohexanone and then inhibits further hydrogenation of the ketone.

  3. Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of phenols and arylboronic acids through an in situ phenol activation mediated by PyBroP.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Jun; Huang, Jie; Gao, Lian-Xun; Han, Fu-She

    2011-03-28

    A new method for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of phenols and arylboronic acids through in situ phenol activation mediated by PyBroP is presented. The reaction proceeds efficiently by using cost-effective, markedly stable [NiCl(2)(dppp)] (dppp=1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) as the catalyst in only 5 mol % loading, as well as in the absence of extra ligands. The method exhibits broad applicability and high efficiency towards a wide range of both phenols and boronic acids, including activated, nonactivated, deactivated, and heteroaromatic coupling partners. In addition, various functional groups, such as ether, amino, cyano, ester, and ketone groups, are compatible with this transformation. Notably, arylboronic acids containing an unprotected NH(2) group and 2-heterocyclic boronic acids, which are generally problematic for coupling under conventional conditions, are also viable substrates, although moderate yields were obtained for sterically hindered substrates. Consequently, the in situ cross-coupling methodology coupled with the use of an inexpensive and stable nickel catalyst provides a rapid and efficient pathway for the assembly of biaryls and heterobiaryls with structural diversity from readily available phenol compounds.

  4. Influence of oxalic acid formed on the degradation of phenol by Fenton reagent.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Emi

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the influence of oxalic acid formed on the degradation of phenol by Fenton reagent. Oxalic acid formed at initial stage within 30 min significantly suppresses the reduction of ferric ion, thus terminating degradation reaction. The yield of oxalic acid is dependent on the amount of ferrous ion dosed since the minimal amount of oxalic acid is formed after the degradation reaction terminates. Mineralization of phenol by Fenton reagent stagnates after 120 min under the conditions used in this study. The reason why the mineralization stagnated can be assumed to be following two mechanisms other than the depletion of H(2)O(2). In the case where a small amount of ferrous ions is dosed, the reduction of ferric ions is minimal by oxalic acid formed. In the case where a large amount of ferrous ions is dosed, the amount of degradable organic compounds is insufficient owing to preferential conversion to oxalic acid. The mineralization can be enhanced by the intermittent dosing of ferrous ions, which facilitates the suppression of oxalic acid formation during the degradation by Fenton reagent.

  5. Application of FTIR-ATR to Moscatel dessert wines for prediction of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sandra D; Feliciano, Rodrigo P; Boas, Luís V; Bronze, Maria R

    2014-05-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) was applied for the determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP assays) in Moscatel dessert wines (n=56). Prediction models were developed for the referred parameters using Partial Least Squares (PLS) considering the spectral region 1800-900cm(-1). The determination coefficients (r(2)) values in the calibration models ranged from 0.670 to 0.870. Cross validation (leave-one-out technique) was applied to the data. Root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) and cross validation (RMSECV) as well as the relative errors of prediction (REP) were calculated. Minimum errors of prediction were obtained for total flavonoid content (0.2%) and maximum values (22%) for antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP. The proposed method may be used for rapid screening of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in Moscatel dessert wines. The implemented methodologies may also be used to get rough estimates for DPPH and FRAP antioxidant capacities.

  6. Antagonism between lipid-derived reactive carbonyls and phenolic compounds in the Strecker degradation of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    The Strecker-type degradation of phenylalanine in the presence of 2-pentanal and phenolic compounds was studied to investigate possible interactions that either promote or inhibit the formation of Strecker aldehydes in food products. Phenylacetaldehyde formation was promoted by 2-pentenal and also by o- and p-diphenols, but not by m-diphenols. This is consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to be converted into reactive carbonyls and produce the Strecker degradation of the amino acid. When 2-pentenal and phenolic compounds were simultaneously present, an antagonism among them was observed. This antagonism is suggested to be a consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to either react with both 2-pentenal and phenylacetaldehyde, or compete with other carbonyl compounds for the amino acids, a function that is determined by their structure. All these results suggest that carbonyl-phenol reactions may be used to modulate flavor formation produced in food products by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls.

  7. Comparison between ATR-IR, Raman, concatenated ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy for the determination of total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Chinese rice wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Pan, Xiaowei; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-03-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and combination of ATR-IR and RS for measurements of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of Chinese rice wine (CRW) were investigated in this study. Synergy interval partial least-squares (SiPLS), support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to process the merged data from two individual instruments. It was observed that the performances of models based on the RS spectra were better than those based on the ATR-IR spectra. In addition, SVM models based on the efficient information extracted from ATR-IR and RS spectra were superior to PLS models based on the same information and PLS models based on ATR-IR or RS spectra. The overall results demonstrated that integrating ATR-IR and RS was possible and could improve the prediction accuracy of TAC and TPC in CRWs.

  8. Weakening of salmonella with selected microbial metabolites of berry-derived phenolic compounds and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Aura, Anna-Marja; Helander, Ilkka M; Nohynek, Liisa; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Saarela, Maria

    2007-05-16

    Gram-negative bacteria are important food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Their unique outer membrane (OM) provides them with a hydrophilic surface structure, which makes them inherently resistant to many antimicrobial agents, thus hindering their control. However, with permeabilizers, compounds that disintegrate and weaken the OM, Gram-negative cells can be sensitized to several external agents. Although antimicrobial activity of plant-derived phenolic compounds has been widely reported, their mechanisms of action have not yet been well demonstrated. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of selected colonic microbial metabolites of berry-derived phenolic compounds in the weakening of the Gram-negative OM. The effect of the agents on the OM permeability of Salmonella was studied utilizing a fluorescence probe uptake assay, sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release. Our results show that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (3,4-diHPP), 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid efficiently destabilized the OM of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis as indicated by an increase in the uptake of the fluorescent probe 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). The OM-destabilizing activity of the compounds was partially abolished by MgCl2 addition, indicating that part of their activity is based on removal of OM-stabilizing divalent cations. Furthermore, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3,4-diHPP increased the susceptibility of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains for novobiocin. In addition, organic acids present in berries, such as malic acid, sorbic acid, and benzoic acid, were shown to be efficient permeabilizers of Salmonella as shown by an increase in the NPN uptake assay and by LPS release.

  9. Phenolic acids, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Naviglio® extracts from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Iannarelli, Romilde; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Lupidi, Giulio; Venditti, Alessandro; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Schizogyne sericea, well-known as 'salado', is a halophytic shrub widespread on coastal rocks of Tenerife (Canary Islands). This plant is used traditionally as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory and vulnerary agent. In the present work, we have analysed the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. sericea for the content of phenolic acids by HPLC-DAD. The dynamic solid-liquid Naviglio® extractor was used to extract the flowering aerial parts. Aqueous extracts showed higher levels of phenolics than ethanolic extracts. S. sericea extracts were rich in chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. The Naviglio® extracts obtained were assayed for in vitro biological activities, namely antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity on tumour cells by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, agar disc-diffusion and MTT methods, respectively. Results showed that aqueous extracts, being richer in phenolic acids, are endowed with relevant radical scavenging activity (TEAC values in the range 208-960 μmol TE/g) while ethanolic extracts exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative effects on tumour cells.

  10. Simultaneous isocratic separation of phenolic acids and flavonoids using micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nazari, S Saman S J

    2013-12-01

    The simultaneous isocratic separation of a mixture of five phenolic acids and four flavonoids (two important groups of natural polyphenolic compounds with very different polarities) was investigated in three different RPLC modes using a hydro-organic mobile phase, and mobile phases containing SDS at concentrations below and above the critical micellar concentration (submicellar LC and micellar LC (MLC), respectively). In the hydro-organic mode, methanol and acetonitrile; in the submicellar mode methanol; and in the micellar mode, methanol and 1-propanol were examined individually as organic modifiers. Regarding the other modes, MLC provided more appropriate resolutions and analysis time and was preferred for the separation of the selected compounds. Optimization of separation in MLC was performed using an interpretative approach for each alcohol. In this way, the retention of phenolic acids and flavonoids were modeled using the retention factors obtained from five different mobile phases, then the Pareto optimality method was applied to find the best compatibility between analysis time and quality of separation. The results of this study showed some promising advantages of MLC for the simultaneous separation of phenolic acids and flavonoids, including low consumption of organic solvent, good resolution, short analysis time, and no requirement of gradient elution.

  11. Formulation of Propolis Phenolic Acids Containing Microemulsions and Their Biopharmaceutical Characterization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Microemulsions (MEs) were formulated using PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides and ethanolic propolis extracts. Characterization of MEs was performed by determining mean droplet size, polydispersity index, stability under varying external factors, and formulation effect on delivery of phenolic compounds into the skin ex vivo. Essential oils were included into the formulations of MEs and their influence on physical characteristics of the nanostructured systems as well as penetration into epidermis and dermis were evaluated. The droplet size, their distribution, and stability of the formulated MEs were not affected. Presence of essential oils in the formulation increased penetration of phenolic compounds in general, but only the amount of ferulic acid increased significantly. Mean droplet size increased with increase of oily phase amount, suggesting that phenolic compounds and components of essential oils were not modifying the formation of the interphase film composition and/or structure. Phenolic compounds were predominantly located in the lipid phase of the MEs thus minimizing their availability at the surface of the skin. PMID:27885330

  12. Pharmacokinetics of wood creosote: glucuronic acid and sulfate conjugation of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ogata, N; Matsushima, N; Shibata, T

    1995-09-01

    Wood creosote, principally a mixture of non-, alkyl- and/or alkoxy-substituted phenolic compounds, was orally administered to adult male volunteers to determine its metabolites and pharmacokinetic parameters. After a 133-mg single dose, its major constituents (i.e. phenol 15 mg, guaiacol 32 mg, p-cresol 18 mg and creosol 24 mg) were found in peripheral venous blood and urine, mostly as glucuronic acid and, except for creosol, as sulfate conjugates. Low concentrations of unconjugated phenols were also detected. The metabolites in the serum started to increase 15 min after the dose, and they reached their maximum concentrations 30 min after administration. The maximum concentrations of glucuronides were 0.18 +/- 0.07, 0.91 +/- 0.38, 0.33 +/- 0.18 and 0.47 +/- 0.23 mg/l; those of sulfates were 0.16 +/- 0.06, 0.22 +/- 0.09, 0.17 +/- 0.07 and < 0.04 mg/l for phenol, guaiacol, p-cresol and creosol, respectively. The 24-hour urinary recoveries of the sum of each compound and its metabolites were 75 +/- 35, 45 +/- 36, 103 +/- 51 and 74 +/- 36%, in the above order. The presence of guaiacol glucuronide in blood and urine was directly verified by its isolation and structure analyses.

  13. Characterization of total antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of differently pigmented rice varieties and their changes during domestic cooking.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Maria; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-11-15

    In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. "risotto" and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The content of (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC decreased after cooking in all three varieties, but to a lesser extent after the risotto method. As a consequence, the risotto cooking, which allows a complete absorption of water, would be a good cooking method to retain (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC in pigmented and non-pigmented whole-meal rice.

  14. The metabolism of phenolic acids in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, S.; Ramasarma, T.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the enzyme systems in the formation of p-hydroxybenzoate from tyrosine have been studied in the rat liver in vitro. The conversion of p-hydroxycinnamate into p-hydroxybenzoate, which was found in rat liver mitochondria showed a number of differences when compared with the β-oxidation of fatty acids. Studies with p-hydroxy[U-14C]cinnamate indicated that 14CO2 was released during the formation of p-hydroxybenzoate. The formation of p-hydroxycinnamate from tyrosine of p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate could not be demonstrated in vitro. The interconversion of p-hydroxycinnamate and p-hydroxyphenylpropionate was demonstrated in rat liver mitochondria. PMID:4447627

  15. RP-HPLC analysis of phenolic acids of selected Central European Carex L. (Cyperaceae) species and its implication for taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Janyszek, Magdalena; Janyszek, Sławomir; Cieśla, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    Eighteen species belonging to the Carex genus were checked for the presence and the amount of eight phenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, protocatechuic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and ferulic) by means of HPLC. Both the free and bonded phenolic acids were analyzed. The majority of the analyzed acids occurred in the studied species in relatively high amounts. The highest concentrations found were caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, for which the detected levels were negatively correlated. A very interesting feature was the occurrence of sinapic acid, a compound very rarely detected in plant tissues. Its distribution across the analyzed set of species can be hypothetically connected with the humidity of plants' habitats. Several attempted tests of aggregative cluster analysis showed no similarity to the real taxonomical structure of the genus Carex. Thus, the phenolic acids' composition cannot be considered as the major taxonomical feature for the genus Carex.

  16. Influence of natural humic acids and synthetic phenolic polymers on fibrinolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöcking, Hans-Peter

    The influence of synthetic and natural phenolic polymers on the release of plasminogen activator was studied in an isolated, perfused, vascular preparation (pig ear). Of the tested synthetic phenolic polymers, the oxidation products of caffeic acid (KOP) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPOP), at a concentration of 50 µg/ml perfusate, were able to increase the plasminogen activator activity by 70%. The oxidation products of chlorogenic acid (CHOP), hydrocaffeic acid (HYKOP), pyrogallol (PYROP) and gallic acid (GALOP), at the same concentration, exerted no influence on the release of plasminogen activator. Of the naturally occurring humic acids, the influence of sodium humate was within the same order of magnitude as KOP and 3,4-DHPOP. Ammonium humate was able to increase the plasminogen activator release only at a concentration of 100 µg/ml perfusate. In rats, the t-PA activity increased after i.v. application of 10 mg/kg of KOP, Na-HS or NH4-HS.

  17. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  18. Hypotheses on the effects of enological tannins and total red wine phenolic compounds on Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Déléris-Bou, Magali; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline

    2015-12-01

    Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines.

  19. Appraisal of Total Phenol, Flavonoid Contents, and Antioxidant Potential of Folkloric Lannea coromandelica Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tekeshwar; Jain, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impending antioxidant properties of different extracts of crude methanolic extract (CME) of leaves of Lannea coromandelica (L. coromandelica) and its two ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AqF) subfractions by employing various established in vitro systems and estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The results showed that extract and fractions possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro and among them, EAF had the strongest antioxidant activity. EAF was confirmed for its highest phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, and total antioxidant capacity. The EAF was found to show remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 63.9 ± 0.64 µg/mL), superoxide radical (EC50 8.2 ± 0.12 mg/mL), and Fe2+ chelating activity (EC50 6.2 ± 0.09 mg/mL). Based on our in vitro results, EAF was investigated for in vivo antioxidant assay. Intragastric administration of the EAF can significantly increase levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels, and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver and kidney of CCl4-intoxicated rats. These new evidences show that L. coromandelica bared antioxidant activity. PMID:26457224

  20. RNA extraction from various recalcitrant plant tissues with a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuji; Mae, Tadahiko; Makino, Amane

    2008-07-01

    High-quality total RNA was extracted using a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment from recalcitrant plant tissues such as tree leaves (pine, Norway spruce, ginkgo, Japanese cedar, rose), flowers (rose, Lotus japonicus) and storage tissues (seeds of Lotus japonicus and rice, sweet potato tuber, banana fruit). This protocol greatly reduced the time required for RNA extraction.

  1. Aphyllin, the first isoferulic acid glycoside and other phenolics from Tamarix aphylla flowers.

    PubMed

    Nawwar, M A M; Hussein, S A M; Ayoub, N A; Hofmann, K; Linscheid, M; Harms, M; Wende, K; Lindequist, U

    2009-05-01

    The first glycosylated isoferulic acid, isoferulic acid 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, together with the new phenolics, tamarixetin 3,3'-di-sodium sulphate and dehydrodigallic acid dimetyl ester have been characterized from a flower extract of Tamarix aphylla. The structures were established on the basis of spectral data. The extract exhibited a distinct radical scavenging effect and to improve the viability of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Also, the known isoferulic acid and ferulic acid which have been determined to be the major components of the investigated extract by HPLC/ESI mass spectrometric screening have been separated, characterized and evaluated as active antioxidants and as cell activity stimulating agents as well.

  2. Hypoglycemic effects of a phenolic acid fraction of rice bran and ferulic acid in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Hee; Kim, Sung Ran; Hwang, In Kyeong; Ha, Tae Youl

    2007-11-28

    Rice bran contains many phenolic acids, the most abundant of which is the antioxidant, ferulic acid (FA). We evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of a phenolic acid fraction (the ethyl acetate fraction, EAE) of rice bran and of FA in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice. Type 2 diabetic mice were allocated to a control group, an EAE group, or an FA group. Animals were fed a modified AIN-76 diet, and EAE or FA was administered orally for 17 days. There was no significant difference in body weight gain between groups. Administration of EAE and FA significantly decreased blood glucose levels and increased plasma insulin levels. EAE or FA groups had significantly elevated hepatic glycogen synthesis and glucokinase activity compared with the control group. Plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased by EAE and FA administration. These findings suggest that EAE and FA may be beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes because they regulate blood glucose levels by elevating glucokinase activity and production of glycogen in the liver.

  3. Protective Effect of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Zhang, B.; Guo, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inula helenium has been reported to contain a large amount of phenolic compounds, which have shown promise in scavenging free radicals and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total phenolic compounds from I. helenium on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y cells. Antioxidant capacity of total phenolic compounds was determined by radical scavenging activity, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase activity. The cytotoxicity of total phenolic compounds was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The effect of total phenolic compounds on cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin-V/PI staining using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated using the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by JC-1 dye and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. It was shown that hydrogen peroxide significantly induced the loss of cell viability, increment of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate production. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds dose-dependently reversed these effects. This study suggests that total phenolic compounds exert neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage via blocking reactive oxygen species production and improving mitochondrial function. The potential of total phenolic compounds and its neuroprotective mechanisms in attenuating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is worth further exploration. PMID:26009648

  4. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  5. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  6. In vitro and in vivo studies on adlay-derived seed extracts: phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, serum uric acid suppression, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mouming; Zhu, Dashuai; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Xiao; Dong, Yi

    2014-08-06

    This study aimed to explore the potential of polished adlay, brown adlay, adlay bran, and adlay hull to prevent and treat hyperuricemia. Brown adlay extract effectively decreased the serum uric acid levels of oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Free and bound phenolic extracts from these materials contained significant amounts of phenolics, with free phenolics dominated by chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid while bound phenolics dominated by p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Free and bound phenolics of adlay bran exhibited significant xanthine oxidase inhibition activities, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, oxygen radical absorbance capacities, and superoxide radical scavenging activities. Adlay bran phenolics could be effective xanthine oxidase inhibitors and radical scavengers. p-Coumaric acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with strong superoxide radical scavenging activity. However, ferulic acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with weak superoxide radical scavenging activity. Chlorogenic acid is a superoxide radical scavenger with weak xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

  7. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peel.

    PubMed

    Dranca, Florina; Oroian, Mircea

    2016-07-01

    The present study describes the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant peel using ultrasonic treatments and methanol and 2-propanol as extraction solvents. The extraction yields were optimized by varying the solvent concentration, ultrasonic frequency, temperature and time of ultrasonic treatment. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results showed that for TPC extraction the optimal condition were obtained with a methanol concentration of 76.6%, 33.88 kHz ultrasonic frequency, a temperature of 69.4 °C and 57.5 min extraction time. For TMA the optimal condition were the following: 54.4% methanol concentration, 37 kHz, 55.1 °C and process time of 44.85 min.

  8. Radiation- and photo-induced formation of salicylic acid from phenol and CO{sub 2} in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Krapfenbauer, K.; Getoff, N.

    1996-12-31

    The concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is steady increasing because of the combustion of fossil fuels and the industrial pollution. As a result, global warming has occurred. In the present study the formation of the salicylic acid and other products, originating from the carboxylation of phenol is investigated. It has been found that the formation of salicylic acid strongly depend on several experimental conditions: pH of the solution, concentration of phenol and CO{sub 2}, and absorbed dose. The formation of salicylic acid was also studied in the presence of catalysts. Photo-induced carboxylation of phenol to salicylic acid will be also reported. Probable reaction mechanisms for the salicylic acid formation are suggested. Finally, a comparison is made between the well known industrial Kolbe-Schmitt process for salicylic acid production and the aspects of the present new method for CO{sub 2} utilization.

  9. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of phenolic acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis RM84.

    PubMed

    Landete, José María; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; de las Rivas, Blanca; Mancheño, José Miguel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) catalyzes the synthesis of vinyl phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids. The gene encoding PAD from Lactobacillus brevis was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant PAD enzyme is a heat-labile enzyme that functions optimally at 22 degrees C and pH 6.0. The purified enzyme did not show thermostability at temperatures above 22 degrees C. L. brevis PAD is able to decarboxylate exclusively the hydroxycinnamic acids, such as p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids, with K (m) values of 0.98, 0.96, and 0.78 mM, respectively. The substrate specificity exhibited by L. brevis PAD is similar to the PAD isolated from Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus, but different from that of L. plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus. As the C-terminal region may be involved in determining PAD substrate specificity and catalytic capacity, amino acid differences among these proteins could explain the differences observed. The substrate specificity shown by L. brevis PAD shows promise for the synthesis of high-added value products from plant wastes.

  10. Phenolic Acid Composition and Anti-Parasitic Effects of Four Peucedanum Species on Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites

    PubMed Central

    DEGERLI, Serpil; TEPE, Bektas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine phenolic acid composition and anti-parasitic effects of Peucedanum caucasicum, P. palimbioides, P. longibracteolatum and P. chryseum on Entamoeba histolytica. Methods: Methanol extracts of the plant species were prepared by soxhlet extraction. Phenolic acid compositions were determined by HPLC. Anti-proliferative effect of extracts on trophozoites was determined by using trypan blue dye exclusion test. For counting the cells, approximately a hundred of E. histolytica trophozoites were examined in each time. The data were presented as mean values with standard deviations and analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA followed by Tukey test for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. The P-value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: All of the extracts showed a time and dose dependent amoebicidal action on trophozoites. Among the extracts tested, P. longibracteolatum showed the strongest amoebicidal effect on the trophozoites. As expected, this plant species also exhibited time and dose dependent activity on the trophozoites. At 4.0 mg/ml extract concentration, all of the trophozoites were killed by the extract in 72nd hour. Gallic (11.144 mg/g), P-hydroxybenzoic (17.646 mg/g), and o-coumaric acids (14.442 mg/g) were determined as the major phenolic acids of P. longibracteolatum. Gallic and P-hydroxybenzoic acids found in P. longibracteolatum could not be determined in other extracts. Therefore, high activity potential of this plant could probably be attributed to the presence of these phytochemicals. Conclusion: P. longibracteolatum can be further evaluated as potential therapeutic drugs for the treatment of Entamoeba infections. PMID:26622297

  11. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  14. Separation and determination of organic acids and phenolic compounds in fruit juices and drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shui, Guanghou; Leong, Lai Peng

    2002-11-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation method with photo-diode array detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of organic acids and phenolic compounds in juices and drinks. The chromatographic analysis of organic acids and phenolic compounds was carried out after their elution with sulphuric acid solution (pH 2.5) and methanol from C18 stationary phase. The mobile phase employed was sulphuric acid solution working at a flow-rate of 0.35 ml min(-1) for the whole run, while methanol was linearly increased to 0.45 ml min(-1) from 15 to 75 min followed by a 5-min isocratic elution. Ten organic acid acids were eluted in 30 min and 21 phenolic compounds, which include phenolic acids and flavonoids, were eluted in the following 50 min. Target compounds were detected at 215 nm. The repeatability (n=3) and between day precision of peak area (n=3) were all within 5.0% RSD. The within-day repeatability (n=3) and between-day precision (n=10) of retention times were within 0.3 and 1.6% relative standard deviation (RSD), respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with an average recovery ranging between 85 and 106%. The method was successfully used to measure a variety of organic acids and phenolic compounds in juices and beverages. This method could also be used to evaluate the authenticity, spoilage or micronutrient contents of juices.

  15. P-cadherin expression in skin peeled with phenol or trichloroacetic acid (TCA).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Uede, Koji; Ohtani, Toshio; Wakita, Hisashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2003-12-01

    P-cadherin expression patterns were studied in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or phenol treated skin. The expression was absent or very weak on the basal cell surfaces by day 2. Seven days after peeling, P-cadherin was clearly distributed in a continuous granular pattern over the cell surface of the entire epidermis of the 40% TCA treated skin, in a weak granular pattern on a few suprabasal cells and basal cells of the phenol treated skin, and very weakly expressed on the lateral surfaces and in the cytoplasm of basal cells of the 60% TCA treated skin. Based on the present results and previous reports, it is likely that there are distinct patterns of P cadherin expression. Furthermore, a specific type of P cadherin expression might be involved in wound healing in general, which could provide new insights into tissue repair mechanisms after chemical peeling.

  16. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant.

    PubMed

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials.

  17. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  18. Effect of soaking, boiling, and steaming on total phenolic contentand antioxidant activities of cool season food legumes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-09-01

    The effects of soaking, boiling and steaming processes on the total phenolic components and antioxidant activity in commonly consumed cool season food legumes (CSFL's), including green pea, yellow pea, chickpea and lentil were investigated. As compared to original unprocessed legumes, all processing steps caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) in all tested CSFL's. All soaking and atmospheric boiling treatments caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). However, pressure boiling and pressure steaming caused significant (p<0.05) increases in ORAC values. Steaming treatments resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, and ORAC values in all tested CSFL's as compared to boiling treatments. To obtain cooked legumes with similar palatability and firmness, pressure boiling shortened processing time as compared to atmospheric boiling, resulted in insignificant differences in TPC, DPPH for green and yellow pea. However, TPC and DPPH in cooked lentils differed significantly between atmospheric and pressure boiling. As compared to atmospheric processes, pressure processes significantly increased ORAC values in both boiled and steamed CSFL's. Greater TPC, DPPH and ORAC values were detected in boiling water than that in soaking and steaming water. Boiling also caused more solid loss than steaming. Steam processing exhibited several advantages in retaining the integrity of the legume appearance and texture of the cooked product, shortening process time, and greater retention of antioxidant components and activities.

  19. Extraction, identification, and quantification of flavonoids and phenolic acids in electron beam-irradiated almond skin powder.

    PubMed

    Teets, A S; Minardi, C S; Sundararaman, M; Hughey, C A; Were, L M

    2009-04-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation doses from 0 to 30 kGy on extraction yield and phenolic compounds was evaluated in almond skin phenolic extracts (ASPE). Total soluble phenols and distribution of phenolic compounds from acidified methanol ASPE and 52% methanol ASPE were quantified using Folin-Ciocalteau method, liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection, and negative ion electrospray-mass spectrometry. Electron beam irradiation increased extraction yield by as much as 23%, with the greatest increase observed in the acidified methanol ASPE. Irradiated samples extracted with acidified methanol also exhibited an increase in extractable phenols (Folin-Ciocalteau) and total HPLC-resolved phenolics at all irradiation doses. Samples extracted with 52% methanol exhibited an increase at 10 and 20 kGy, but a 31% decrease at 30 kGy. An increase in aglycones respective to their glycosides was not observed with irradiation. Therefore, the increase in phenolics was attributed to release of phenolics from their cellular matrix.

  20. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  1. Mixed Phenolic Acids Mediated Proliferation of Pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in Continuously Monocultured Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Jiahui; Zheng, Cailiang; Chen, Jun; Qin, Xianjin; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274) and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465), and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence. PMID:27014250

  2. The interaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III) in the presence of citrate as studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Senpei; Bai, Guangling; Chen, Lingli; Shen, Qun; Diao, Xianmin; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-08-15

    Under physiological conditions, exogenous chelators such as polyphenols might interact with non-protein bound ferric complexes, such as Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, Fe(III) and citrate are widely distributed in various fruits and vegetables which are also rich in phenolic acids. In this study, we focus on the interaction between phenolic acids (gallic acid, methyl gallate and protocatechuic acid) and Fe(III) in the presence of excessive citrate by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for thermodynamic studies, and stopped-flow absorption spectrometry for fast kinetic studies. Results reveal that all of these three phenolic acids can bind to the Fe(III) with the same stoichiometry (3:1). Moreover, the binding constants of these three compounds with Fe(III) are greatly dependent on ligand structure, and are much higher than that of Fe(III)-citrate. Based on their stoichiometry and superhigh binding constants, it is most likely that these three phenolic acids can displace the citrate to bind with one iron(III) ion to form a stable octahedral geometric structure, albeit at different rates. These findings shed light on the interaction between phenolic acids and Fe(III) in the presence of citrate under either physiological conditions or in a food system.

  3. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  4. Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Abokitse, Kofi; Lau, Peter C.K.

    2012-04-30

    The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavoring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a -barrel structure and two -helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the -barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.

  5. Essential oil composition, total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of Thymus species collected from different regions of Iran.

    PubMed

    Tohidi, Behnaz; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Arzani, Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the essential oil (EO) composition, flavonoid and phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of fourteen Thymus accessions belonging to ten species were evaluated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 38 compounds with the major constituents including thymol (12.4-79.74%), carvacrol (4.37-42.14%), geraniol (0.3-22.44%), and p-cymene (0.8-12.86%). Cluster analysis identified three groups of high thymol, geraniol/linalool, and high carvacrol. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in T. daenensis-1 (70.6mg tannic acid equivalents (TAE) g(-1) DW) and T. vulgaris (8.55mg quercetin equivalents (QE) g(-1) DW), respectively. The antioxidant activities of the samples were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay. The results demonstrated that T. daenensis-3 (IC50=273.36), T. vulgaris (IC50=289.3), and T. fedtschenkoi-3 (IC50=339.22) possessed higher antioxidant activities than the others. Finally, the Thymus species with high bioactive compounds may be recommended for further food applications.

  6. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  7. Simplified quantitative determination of total fecal bile acids.

    PubMed

    de Wael, J; Raaymakers, C E; Endeman, H J

    1977-09-01

    To determine total fecal bile acids, these are extracted with diethyl ether after boiling with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanediol. After evaporating the ether and dissolving the residue in methanol, the bile acids are directly determined with 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Values for 9 normals are given.

  8. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Alberto, María R.; de Nadra, María C. Manca; Arena, Mario E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic acids (between 10 and 13%, respectively). ADI enzyme activities varied in presence of phenolic compounds. Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37–40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme between 53 and 100%, respectively. Ornithine transcarbamylase activity was not modified at all concentrations of phenolic compounds. As gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme that produces citrulline, precursor of EC, these results are important considering the formation of toxic compounds. PMID:24031815

  9. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium.

    PubMed

    Alberto, María R; de Nadra, María C Manca; Arena, Mario E

    2012-01-01

    The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic acids (between 10 and 13%, respectively). ADI enzyme activities varied in presence of phenolic compounds. Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37-40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme between 53 and 100%, respectively. Ornithine transcarbamylase activity was not modified at all concentrations of phenolic compounds. As gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme that produces citrulline, precursor of EC, these results are important considering the formation of toxic compounds.

  10. Metabolism of fructophilic lactic acid bacteria isolated from Apis mellifera L. bee-gut: a focus on the phenolic acids as external electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Addante, Rocco; Pontonio, Erica; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-16

    Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are strongly associated to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Apis mellifera L. worker bees due to the consumption of fructose as a major carbohydrate. Seventy-seven presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from GIT of healthy A. mellifera L. adults, which were collected from 5 different geographical locations of Apulia region (Italy). Almost all the isolates showed fructophilic tendencies, which were identified as Lactobacillus kunkeei (69%) or Fructobacillus fructosus (31%). A high-throughput phenotypic microarray, targeting 190 carbon sources, was used to determine that 83 compounds were differentially consumed. Phenotyping grouped the strains into two clusters, reflecting growth performance. The utilization of phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric, caffeic, syringic or gallic acids, as electron acceptors was investigated in fructose based medium. Almost all FLAB strains showed tolerance to high phenolic acid concentrations. p-Coumaric acid and caffeic acid were consumed by all FLAB strains through reductases or decarboxylases. Syringic and gallic acids were partially metabolized. The data collected suggest that FLAB require external electron acceptors to regenerate NADH. The use of phenolic acids as external electron acceptors by 4 FLAB, showing the highest phenolic acid reductase activity, was investigated in glucose based medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid. Metabolic responses observed through phenotypic microarray suggested that FLAB may use p-coumaric acid as external electron acceptor, enhancing glucose dissimilation but less efficiently than other external acceptors such as fructose or pyruvic acid.

  11. Temporary reduction of radiation does not permanently reduce flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in red lettuce.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Applying transparent daytime screens in greenhouses in cool seasons reduces the amount of energy needed for heating, but also the solar radiation available for crops. This can reduce yield and product quality of leafy vegetables because of constrained photosynthesis and altered biosynthesis. To study this, we cultivated five-week old red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for four weeks in growth chambers under a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 225 and 410 μmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Some plants were exchanged between radiation intensities after two weeks. We investigated the concentration of five flavonoid glycosides, three caffeic acid derivatives, reducing sugars as well as plant growth. Remarkably, no significant influence of radiation intensity on the concentration of phenolic acids or anthocyanin glycosides was observed. In contrast, quercetin and luteolin glycoside concentration was between 14 and 34% lower in plants growing under lower compared to higher PPFD. Already after two weeks of cultivation, plants grown under lower PPFD contained less quercetin and luteolin glycosides but they completely compensated if subsequently transferred to higher PPFD until harvest. Hence, marketable lettuce heads which experienced temporary shading followed by an unshaded phase did not contain lower concentrations of flavonoid glycosides or phenolic acids. Also, there was no reduction of head mass in this variant. Our results suggest that saving energy in early growth stages is feasible without losses in yield or health promoting phenolic substances. In addition, there was a close correlation between the concentration of reducing sugars and some flavonoid glycosides, indicating a close metabolic connection between their biosynthesis and the availability of carbohydrates.

  12. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p<0.05), whereas asparagine, was poorly correlated (p>0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend.

  13. Physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, total phenol and mineral profile of seeds of seven different date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Ghafoor, Kashif; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2012-02-01

    The physical and chemical properties of the date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seeds from seven date samples (Soukari, Soulag, Barhi, Khulas, Rozaiz, Soughi and Monaif) were evaluated. Energy values of dried and ground seeds were found between 4340 kcal/kg (Barhi cv) and 4795 kcal/kg (Rozaiz cv). Also, while crude oil content of seeds were established between 4.68% (Khulas cv) and 7.96% (Monaif cv), crude protein contents were found at the levels between 3.71% (Soulag cv) and 5.47% (Barhi cv). The antioxidant activity of seeds obtained from different date fruits changed between 78.03 (mg/ml) (Monaif cv) and 79.94 (mg/ml) (Barhi cv). In addition, the total phenol contents of seeds were found between 1.98 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g (Barhi cv) and 4.65 mg GAE/100 g (Soughi cv). The most abundant fatty acids of the date seed oils were oleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. Ca, Mg, K and P contents of date seeds were found at the high concentrations.

  14. Phenolic composition of champagnes from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vintages.

    PubMed

    Chamkha, Mohamed; Cathala, Bernard; Cheynier, Véronique; Douillard, Roger

    2003-05-07

    Nineteen phenolic compounds including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, phenolic alcohols, and phenolic aldehydes have been identified and quantified in two monovarietal champagnes, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, by using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled with diode array detection. The identification of four hydroxycinnamic tartaric esters (caftaric, coutaric, fertaric, and 2-S-glutathionylcaftaric acids), two flavanonols (astilbin and engeletin), and some other compounds was confirmed by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry. Caftaric acid and tyrosol were the major phenols. Hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonoids were present at low concentrations. The phenolic compositions of 2000 and 2001 Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vary quantitatively according to the year and the variety, but the chemical natures of the molecules are the same. The total phenolic content determined by colorimetric measurement ranges from 176 to 195 mg/L of gallic acid equivalent and is similar to that described in white wines.

  15. Biodiversity of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, and Juice Quality in Apple Cider Taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples are known to contain antioxidants that may play an important role in human health by providing protection against reactive free radicals affecting a wide range of biological molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While fresh apple juice is a main product of processed apples,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride triesters. 721.9400 Section 721.9400... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... esters and oils, and glyceride triesters (PMNs P-91-1231, -1232, -1233, -1234, and -1235) are subject...

  17. Total Synthesis of (±)- and (−)-Actinophyllic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Connor L.; Overman, Larry E.; Rohde, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of efficient sequences for the total syntheses of (±)-actinophyllic acid (rac-1) and (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) are described. The central step in these syntheses is the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction, which constructs the previously unknown hexacyclic ring system of actinophyllic acid in one step from much simpler tetracyclic precursors. The tetracyclic hexahydro-1,5-methano-1H-azocino[4,3-b]indole ketone rac-37 is assembled from o-nitrophenylacetic acid in four steps, with oxidative cyclization of a dienolate derivative of tricyclic precursor rac-35 being the central step. In the first-generation synthesis, this intermediate is transformed in two steps to homoallyl amine rac-43, whose formaldiminium derivative undergoes efficient aza-Cope/Mannich reaction to give pentacyclic ketone rac-44. In four additional steps, this intermediate is advanced to (±)-actinophyllic acid. The synthesis is streamlined by elaborating ketone rac-37 to β-hydroxyester intermediate rac-53, which is directly transformed to (±)-actinophyllic acid upon exposure to HCl and paraformaldehyde. This concise second-generation total synthesis of (±)-actinophyllic acid is realized in 22% overall yield from commercially available di-tert-butylmalonate and o-nitrophenylacetic acid by a sequence that proceeds by way of only six isolated intermediates. The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) is accomplished by this direct sequence from tricyclic keto malonate (S)-35. Catalytic enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketone 66 is the key step in the preparation of intermediate (S)-35 from the commercially available Boc-amino acid 65. Discussed also is the possibility that the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction might be involved in the biosynthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid. PMID:20218696

  18. Effect of Roasting Process on Total Phenolic Compounds and γ-tocopherol Contents of Iranian Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum).

    PubMed

    Jannat, Behrooz; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Nahavandi, Bahman; Tehrani, Shirin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Oveisi, Morvarid

    2013-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed and oil have long been used widely as healthy foods to supply energy and prevent aging. Some of the main active anti-oxidative constituents in sesame seeds are γ-tocopherol and phenols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between roasting temperature and time with γ-tocopherol and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of sesame seeds when roasted in a domestic electric oven. Eight cultivars of sesame seeds in this study were Darab, Dezful, Karaj, Moghan, Naz- Branching, Naz-NonBranching, Siah and Varamin. Each cultivar was divided into ten group based on the roasting time (10, 15 and 20 min) and temperatures (180, 200 and 220 °C)andunroasted one. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometeric methods were used for γ-tocopherol (n = 80) and TPC (n = 80) analysis, respectively. The γ-tocopherol content ranged from 329 ± 5 mg/L in Naz-Branching sesame oil to 1114±7 mg/L in Siah sesame oil and 169±6 to 577±1 mg/kg in sesame seed respectively. γ-tocopherol content of six cultivars increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the roasting temperature and time; until 200 °C for 10 min, but they were decreased by roasting at 220 °C in longer time. Also TPC increased significantly as the roasting temperature. The amount of TPC varied in different sesame cultivars from 20.109 ± 3.967 μM to 129.300±3.493 in Varamin and Naz- Branching sesame seed cultivars, respectively, also TPC increased from 70.953 ± 5.863 μM in unroasted Naz-Branching sesame seed to 129.300 ± 3.493 μM after roasting in 200 °C for 20 min. The present study showed that Iranian sesame seed can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant specially after roasting. The optimum temperature and time roasting to obtain the most γ-tocopherol and total phenolic content was 200 °C for 10 and 20 min, respectively.

  19. [Effect of drying methods on monoterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Mentha haplocalyx].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shao-qing; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Yu-yang; Lu, Xue-jun; Sha, Xiu-xiu; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-12-01

    To provide a scientific basis for the selection of the appropriate drying method for Mentha Haplocalyx Herba (MHH), determine 2 monoterpenes, 4 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids in MHH by GC-MS and UPLC-TQ-MS methods, and investigate the effects of the drying methods on the changes in contents of these analytes. The qualities of products obtained with different drying methods were evaluated by the multivariate statistical method of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Results showed that the drying methods had the greatest impact on menthol, caffeic acid, and rosemary acid, which were followed by chlorogenic acid and diosmetin-7-O-glucoside. The contents in these analytes processed with hot-air-drying method were higher than those with microwave-drying and infrared-drying methods at the same temperatures. The contents in these analytes processed under low temperature (40-45 °C) were higher than those under higher temperature (60-70 °C). Above all, the contents in phenolic acids processed with microwave fixation (exposed under microwave at 100 °C for several minutes) were obviously higher than those of not being processed, showing an inhibition of some enzymes in samples after fixation. The TOPSIS evaluation showed that the variable temperature drying method of 'Hot-Air 45-60 °C' was the most suitable approach for the primary drying processing of MHH. The results could provide the scientific basis for the selection of appropriate drying method for MHH, and helpful reference for the primary drying proces of herbs containing volatile chemical components.

  20. In vitro cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine)--a potential biotechnological rich source of therapeutically important phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Halina

    2012-04-01

    The contents of free phenolic acids and cinnamic acid were determined using an HPLC method in methanolic extracts from biomass of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) at different stages of organogenesis, cultured in vitro on a few variants of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing different concentrations of plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/l) and in extracts from overground parts of plants growing in vivo. Six of 12 analysed compounds were detected in all extracts: chlorogenic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, salicylic and syringic acids. Total contents of the examined metabolites in biomass of shoot-differentiating callus culture cultivated on six MS medium variants were dependent on concentrations of growth regulators in the media and ranged from 14.90 to 60.05 mg/100 g d.w. Total contents of the compounds in biomass extracts from undifferentiating callus culture maintained only on two of six MS medium variants were higher and amounted to 74.54 and 78.24 mg/100 g d.w. Maximum total contents of phenolic acids in both types of in vitro cultures were greater than in fruits (55.73 mg/100 g d.w.) and leaves (4.55 mg/100 g d.w.) of plants gowning in vivo. Chlorogenic acid and salicylic acid were the main compounds identified in biomass extracts of shoot-differentiating callus cultures (max 22.60 and 21.17 mg/100 g d.w., respectively), while chlorogenic acid (max 38.43 mg/100 g d.w.) and protocatechuic acid (max 20.95 mg/100 g d.w.) prevailed in the extracts from undifferentiating callus cultures. Other compounds dominated in fruits, namely p-coumaric acid (23.36 mg/100 g d.w.) and syringic acid (14.96 mg/100 g d.w.). This is the first report on biochemical potential of cells from S. chinensis in vitro cultures to produce the biologically active phenolic acids. These are the first results on the analysis of this group of metabolites in overground parts of

  1. Benzyl 2-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzoate, a new phenolic acid glycoside from Sarcandra glabra.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haifeng; Hu, Xiaoru; Zhang, Xiaopo; Chen, Shilin; Yang, Junshan; Xu, Xudong

    2012-05-04

    From the whole plant of Sarcandra glabra, a new phenolic acid glycoside, benzyl 2-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzoate (1), together with seven known compounds including eleutheroside B₁ (2), 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (3), (-)-(7S, 8R)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (4), (-)-(7S, 8R)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-, 9′- and 4-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (5-7), and (-)-(7S, 8R)-5-methoxydihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8) was isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Compound 2 was found to exhibit potent cytotoxic activity against BGC-823 and A2780 cancer cell lines using MTT method with IC₅₀ value of 2.53 and 1.85 μM, respectively.

  2. Optimization of Reflux Conditions for Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Extraction and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan. PMID:25147852

  3. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  4. Changes in free amino acid, protein, flavonoids, and phenolic content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely consumed Korean Boeun-deachu variety of jujube (Ziziphus jujube) was analyzed by HPLC, MS, and MS-MS for changes in the content of crude protein, free amino acids, and individual flavonoids at eight stages (S1-S8) of ripeness. They were also analyzed by colorimetry for total phenolics, to...

  5. Complex enzyme hydrolysis releases antioxidative phenolics from rice bran.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Deng, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of rice bran were analyzed following successive treatment by gelatinization, liquefaction and complex enzyme hydrolysis. Compared with gelatinization alone, liquefaction slightly increased the total amount of phenolics and antioxidant activity as measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Complex enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the total phenolics, flavonoids, FRAP and ORAC by 46.24%, 79.13%, 159.14% and 41.98%, respectively, compared to gelatinization alone. Furthermore, ten individual phenolics present in free or soluble conjugate forms were also analyzed following enzymatic processing. Ferulic acid experienced the largest release, followed by protocatechuic acid and then quercetin. Interestingly, a major proportion of phenolics existed as soluble conjugates, rather than free form. Overall, complex enzyme hydrolysis releases phenolics, thus increasing the antioxidant activity of rice bran extract. This study provides useful information for processing rice bran into functional beverage rich in phenolics.

  6. The colonic metabolites dihydrocaffeic acid and dihydroferulic acid are more effective inhibitors of in vitro platelet activation than their phenolic precursors.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Gema; Bachmair, Eva-Maria; Wood, Sharon; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; de Roos, Baukje

    2017-03-22

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The consumption of a healthy diet rich in polyphenols has been inversely associated with the development of CVD. This study evaluated the effects of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) and yerba mate phenolic extract (YMPE), the main phenolic and methylxanthine constituents (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeine, and theobromine), and their main metabolites (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) and dihydroferulic acid (DHFA)) on platelet activation in vitro. Upon incubation with different doses (0.01-100 μg mL(-1) or μM) of each compound, adenosine 5'-diphosphate-induced P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding were determined using whole blood flow cytometry. Platelet P-selectin expression was significantly decreased by YMPE and all phenolic and methylxanthine constituents at physiological concentrations, compared with control, whereas fibrinogen binding on platelets was significantly increased. The colonic metabolites (DHCA and DHFA) had stronger inhibitory effects on P-selectin expression than their phenolic precursors, suggesting an increase in the efficacy to modulate platelet activation with the metabolism of the phenolic compounds.

  7. Quantification of phenolic acids and their methylates, glucuronides, sulfates and lactones metabolites in human plasma by LC-MS/MS after oral ingestion of soluble coffee.

    PubMed

    Marmet, Cynthia; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Renouf, Mathieu; Giuffrida, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids and derivatives like phenolic acids are potentially bioactive phenolics, which are commonly found in many foods. Once absorbed, chlorogenic and phenolic acids are highly metabolized by the intestine and the liver, producing glucuronidated and/or sulphated compounds. These metabolites were analyzed in human plasma using a validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method. After protein precipitation, phenolic acids and their metabolites were extracted by using ethanol and chromatographic separation was achieved by reversed-phase using an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column combined with a gradient elution system using 1% acetic acid aqueous solution and 1% acetic acid with 100% acetonitrile. The method was able to quantify 56 different compounds including 24 phenolic acids, 4 lactones, 15 sulfates and 13 glucuronides metabolites between 5 and 1000nM in plasma for most of them, except for m-dihydrocoumaric acid, 5-ferulloylquinic-glucuronide, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (25 to 1000nM) and p-dihydrocoumaric acid (50-1000nM). Values of repeatability and intermediate reproducibility were below 15% of deviation in general, and maximum 20% for the lowest concentrations. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify phenolic acids and their metabolites in plasma obtained after oral ingestion of soluble coffee. In conclusion, the developed and validated method is proved to be very sensitive, accurate and precise for the quantification of these possible dietary phenols.

  8. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of Artemisia absinthium essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, A.; Sani, T. Ahmadzadeh; Ameri, A. A.; Imani, M.; Golmakani, E.; Kamali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae) family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering) from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene). Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC50. Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium. PMID:26692746

  9. In vitro xanthine oxidase and albumin denaturation inhibition assay of Barringtonia racemosa L. and total phenolic content analysis for potential anti-inflammatory use in gouty arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Nurul Izzati; Sidik, Norrizah Jaafar; Awal, Asmah; Adam, Nurul Athirah Mohamad; Rezali, Nur Inani

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of methanolic extracts of infloresence axes, endosperms, leaves, and pericarps of Barringtonia racemosa L. Methods: The anti-inflammatory study was conducted by assessing the potential through xanthine oxidase (XO) and albumin denaturation inhibition assays. Meanwhile, the TPC in the extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Results: In the XO inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract was found to exert the highest inhibition capacity at 0.1% (w/v) with 59.54 ± 0.001% inhibition followed by leaves (58.82 ± 0.001%), pericarps (57.99 ± 0.003%), and endosperms (57.20 ± 0.003%) extracts. Similarly in the albumin denaturation inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract had shown the greatest inhibition capacity with 70.58 ± 0.004% inhibition followed by endosperms (66.80 ± 0.024%), leaves (65.29 ± 0.006%), and pericarps extracts (43.33 ± 0.002%). Meanwhile, for TPC analysis, leaves extract was found to have the highest phenolic content (53.94 ± 0.000 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g DW) followed by infloresence axes (31.54 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW), endosperms (22.63 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW), and the least was found in pericarps (15.54 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW). Conclusion: The results indeed verified the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of B. racemosa and supported its potential to be used in alleviating gouty arthritis and XO-related diseases. PMID:27757263

  10. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ashkani, Sadegh; Baghdadi, Ali; Pazoki, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-09-09

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV

  11. Effect of domestic cooking on carotenoids, tocopherols, fatty acids, phenolics, and antioxidant activities of lentils (Lens culinaris).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

    2014-12-31

    The phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in lipophilic and hydrophilic (extractable and bound) fractions of lentils before and after domestic cooking were investigated. The hydrophilic fractions in lentils contributed much more to the antioxidant activity than the lipophilic fraction. The phenolic content of lentils was mainly composed of extractable compounds. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in carotenoid, tocopherol, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents of both extractable and bound phenolics fractions, as well as in antioxidant activities, were found in lentils before and after cooking. More specifically, cooking was found to favor the release of carotenoids and tocopherols and flavonols (kaempferol glycosides), but led to losses of flavanols (monomeric and condensed tannin). Whereas reduced flavanols and other phenolic compounds may have negatively affected the antioxidant activity, other components, especially the lipophilic antioxidants, were increased. The present study suggests that incorporation of cooked lentils into the diet will not cause significant loss to the phytochemical antioxidants and thus will retain the potential health benefits.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of novel structured phosphatidylcholines with phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Marrapu; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Karuna, Mallampalli S L; Sarada, Sripada; Kumar, C Ganesh; Prasad, R B N

    2017-04-15

    Novel phenoylated phosphatidylcholines were synthesized from 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine/egg 1,2-diacyl phosphatidylcholine and phenolic acids such as ferulic, sinapic, vanillic and syringic acids. The structures of phenoylated phosphatidylcholines were confirmed by spectral analysis. 2-acyl-1-lyso phosphatidylcholine was synthesized from phosphatidylcholine via regioselective enzymatic hydrolysis and was reacted with hydroxyl protected phenolic acids to produce corresponding phenoylated phosphatidylcholines in 48-56% yields. Deprotection of protected phenoylated phosphatidylcholines resulted in phenoylated phosphatidylcholines in 87-94% yields. The prepared compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Among the active derivatives, compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy) cinnamoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 16.43μg/mL. Compounds 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) cinnamoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy) cinnamoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 36.05 and 33.35μg/mL respectively. Compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) cinnamoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antibacterial activity against Klebsiella planticola with MIC of 15.6μg/mL and compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) benzoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida albicans with MIC of 15.6μg/mL.

  13. An enhanced cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence system using guest-host interactions in a lab-on-a-chip platform for estimating the total phenolic content in food samples.

    PubMed

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2016-04-01

    Two chemiluminescence-microfluidic (CL-MF) systems, e.g., Ce(IV)-rhodamine B (RB) and Ce(IV)-rhodamine 6G (R6G), for the determination of the total phenolic content in teas and some sweeteners were evaluated. The results indicated that the Ce(IV)-R6G system was more sensitive in comparison to the Ce(IV)-RB CL system. Therefore, a simple (CL-MF) method based on the CL of Ce(IV)-R6G was developed, and the sensitivity, selectivity and stability of this system were evaluated. Selected phenolic compounds (PCs), such as quercetin (QRC), catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and syringic acid (SA), produced analytically useful chemiluminescence signals with low detection limits ranging from 0.35 nmol L(-1) for QRC to 11.31 nmol L(-1) for SA. The mixing sequence and the chip design were crucial, as the sensitivity and reproducibility could be substantially affected by these two factors. In addition, the anionic surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) can significantly enhance the CL signal intensity by as much as 300% for the QRC solution. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the enhancement was due to a strong guest-host interaction between the cationic R6G molecules and the anionic amphiphilic environment. Other parameters that could affect the CL intensities of the PCs were carefully optimized. Finally, the method was successfully applied to tea and sweetener samples. Six different tea samples exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 7.32 to 13.5 g per 100g of sample with respect to GA. Four different sweetener samples were also analyzed and exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 500.9 to 3422.9 mg kg(-1) with respect to GA. The method was selective, rapid and sensitive when used to estimate the total phenolic/antioxidant level, and the results were in good agreement with those reported for honey and tea samples.

  14. Acid-induced structural modifications of unsaturated Fatty acids and phenolic olive oil constituents by nitrite ions: a chemical assessment.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Alessandra; Panzella, Lucia; Savarese, Maria; Sacchi, Raffaele; Giudicianni, Italo; Paolillo, Livio; d'Ischia, Marco

    2004-10-01

    The structural modifications of the unsaturated fatty acid components of triglycerides in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) following exposure to nitrite ions in acidic media were determined by two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy, aided by (15)N labeling and GC analysis, allowing investigation of the matrix without fractionation steps. In the presence of excess nitrite ions in a 1% sulfuric acid/oil biphasic system, extensive double bond isomerization of the oleic/linoleic acid components of triglycerides was observed associated with nitration/oxidation processes. Structurally modified species were identified as E/Z-nitroalkene, 1,2-nitrohydroxy, and 3-nitro-1-alkene(1,5-diene) derivatives based on (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N 2D NMR analysis in comparison with model compounds. Minor constituents of EVOO, including phenolic compounds and tocopherols, were also substantially modified by nitrite-derived nitrating species, even under milder reaction conditions relevant to those occurring in the gastric compartments. Novel nitrated derivatives of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein (6-8) were identified by LC/MS analysis of the polar fraction of EVOO and by comparison with synthetic samples. Overall, these results provide the first systematic description at the chemical level of the consequences of exposing EVOO to nitrite ions at acidic pH and offer an improved basis for further investigations in the field of toxic nitrosation/nitration reactions and dietary antinitrosating agents.

  15. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL.) hull and shell from different genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi Dolatabadi, Khadijeh Sadat; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Siavash; Jahanban Esfahlan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus) hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years) on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC) and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power) of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell. PMID:25767754

  16. Effect of Processing on phenolic acid composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of three wheat varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated the effect of bread-making on the assay of phenolic acids of whole and refined wheat from three wheat varieties, comparing refined (RF) and whole wheat (WW) flour, dough, and bread fractions. The efficacy of two common base hydrolysis methods for phenolic acid analysis...

  17. Genetic diversity in morphological characters and phenolic acids content resulting from an interspecific cross between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild ancestor (S. incanum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum incanum, the wild ancestor of eggplant (S. melongena) has been considered as a source of variation for high phenolic acids content in breeding programs aimed at improving the functional quality of eggplant. We have evaluated the morphological and phenolic acids content in an interspecific fa...

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant and antifungal activities of novel ricinoleate-based lipoconjugates of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kunduru Konda; Ravinder, Thumu; Kanjilal, Sanjit

    2012-10-15

    Syntheses of four castor oil fatty acid-based novel lipoconjugates of phenolic acids were carried out following Mitsunobu methodology. The lipid part consists of methyl ricinoleate and its saturated analogue, methyl-12-hydroxystearate and the phenolic moieties are ferulic and vanillic acid. Synthesised compounds are evaluated for antioxidant activity using three in vitro assays (DPPH radical scavenging assay, DSC studies for oxidative induction temperature of linoleic acid and autoxidation of linoleic acid in Tween 20 micellar medium) and compared with three widely used antioxidants in the food industry, BHT, α-tocopherol, and dodecyl gallate. Synthesised compounds are found to exhibit good antiradical activity. These compounds also exhibited very good antifungal activity against studied fungal strains. All these results suggested the applicability of the synthesised compounds as potent lipophilic antioxidants for combating oxidative stress.

  19. Soluble phenolic compounds in different cultivars of red clover and alfalfa, and their implication for protection against proteolysis and ammonia production in ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover contains phenolic compounds with roles in inhibiting proteolysis and loss of amino acids as ammonia. Alfalfa has been found to have lower concentrations of phenolic compounds, but few alfalfa and red clover cultivars have been compared for phenolic content. Total soluble phenolic compou...

  20. Free and bound total phenolics, procyanidin and anthocyanin profiles and their antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.) of different bran colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the polyphenols in whole grain rice varying in bran color, total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant capacities of the solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall bound (Bound) fractions and the profiles of procyanidins and anthocyanins were determined. Red and purple bran rices had signific...

  1. Pepper plants growth, yield, photosynthetic pigments, and total phenols as affected by foliar application of potassium under different salinity irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation with high salinity water influences plant growth, production of photosynthetic pigments and total phenols, leading to reduction in crop yield and quality. Foliar application of macro- and/or micro-nutrients can, to some extent, mitigate negative effects of high salinity irrigation water o...

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activities of novel 10-undecenoic acid methyl ester based lipoconjugates of phenolic acids

    PubMed Central

    Narra, Naganna; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Misra, Sunil; Dhevendar, Koude; Kontham, Venkateshwarlu

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of five novel methyl 10-undecenoate-based lipoconjugates of phenolic acids from undecenoic acid was carried out. Undecenoic acid was methylated to methyl 10-undecenoate which was subjected to a thiol–ene reaction with cysteamine hydrochloride. Further amidation of the amine was carried out with different phenolic acids such as caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, coumaric and cinnamic acid. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized and their structures were confirmed by spectral data. The anti-oxidant activity of the synthesized lipoconjugates of phenolic acids was studied by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and also by the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in micellar medium by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The prepared compounds were also screened for their cytotoxic activity against five cell lines. It was observed that the lipoconjugates of caffeic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid displayed anticancer and anti-oxidant properties. The anticancer properties of these derivatives have been assessed by their IC50 inhibitory values in the proliferation of MDA-MB231, SKOV3, MCF7, DU 145 and HepG2 cancer cell lines. PMID:28179945

  3. Polyphenols and phenolic acids from strawberry and apple decrease glucose uptake and transport by human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Williamson, Gary

    2010-12-01

    The effect of polyphenols, phenolic acids and tannins (PPTs) from strawberry and apple on uptake and apical to basolateral transport of glucose was investigated using Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayers. Substantial inhibition on both uptake and transport was observed by extracts from both strawberry and apple. Using sodium-containing (glucose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 both active) and sodium-free (only GLUT2 active) conditions, we show that the inhibition of GLUT2 was greater than that of SGLT1. The extracts were analyzed and some of the constituent PPTs were also tested. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (IC₅₀ =31 μM), phloridzin (IC₅₀=146 μM), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (IC₅₀=2570 μM) contributed 26, 52 and 12%, respectively, to the inhibitory activity of the apple extract, whereas pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (IC₅₀=802 μM) contributed 26% to the total inhibition by the strawberry extract. For the strawberry extract, the inhibition of transport was non-competitive based on kinetic analysis, whereas the inhibition of cellular uptake was a mixed-type inhibition, with changes in both V(max) and apparent K(m) . The results in this assay show that some PPTs inhibit glucose transport from the intestinal lumen into cells and also the GLUT2-facilitated exit on the basolateral side.

  4. Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling Reaction between N-Aryl α-Amino Acid Esters and Phenols or Phenol Derivative for Synthesis of α-Aryl α-Amino Acid Esters.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    A novel dehydrogenative cross-coupling (DCC) reaction between N-arylglycine esters and phenols or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene was developed by copper catalysis using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) as an oxidant. Under optimized conditions, a range of N-arylglycine esters 1 underwent the DCC reaction smoothly with various phenols 2 or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene 4 to give desired α-aryl α -amino acid esters 3 or 5, respectively, with high ortho regioselectivities in a moderate to excellent yield. A possible mechanism involving aromatic electrophilic substitution is proposed.

  5. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Melon (Cucumis Melo L.) Seeds from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Alam

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic composition of different extracts of honeydew melon seeds and their antioxidant activity was determined for the first time. Phenolic compounds were identified using a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method. Results showed the identification of five phenolic compounds in water extract namely gallic acid and its derivative, hydroxybenzoic acid and catechin derivatives and caffeic acid. There were nine phenolic compounds identified in methanol–water extract, which are caffeic acid, two vanillic acid derivatives, ellagitanins, quercetin-3-rutinoside, derivatives of syringic acid and ellagic acid. The amounts of gallic acid, caffeic acid and catechin were higher among all phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity were higher in water and methanol–water extract than their corresponding methanol extracts. In conclusion, melon seeds are a good source of natural antioxidants with significant biological functions and may serve as food ingredients and as fortifying material for maintaining shelf life. PMID:28231162

  6. Comparison of phenolic acid profiles and anti-inflammatory effects of two major species of blueberries in the US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberries (BB) contain high levels of polyphenols. Among them, phenolic acids (PAs) have been recently suggested as a group of important bioactive compounds. Highbush BB (Vaccinium corymbosum) and lowbush “wild" BB (Vaccinium angustifolium) are two predominant species in North America. The first o...

  7. Integrated phospholipidomics and transcriptomics analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced tolerance to a mixture of acetic acid, furfural, and phenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of acetic acid, furfural and phenol (AFP), three representative lignocellulose derived inhibitors, significantly inhibited the growth and bioethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to uncover mechanisms behind the enhanced tolerance of an inhibitor-tolerant S.cerevisiae s...

  8. Content of Total Phenolics, Flavan-3-Ols and Proanthocyanidins, Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolate During Storage

    PubMed Central

    Komes, Draženka; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Pezo, Lato; Pastor, Ferenc; Ostojić, Sanja; Popov-Raljić, Jovanka; Sužnjević, Desanka

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antioxidant (AO) capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75% cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC) polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II) complex (HPMC) in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical). Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay) and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay). During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time). In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types. PMID:27904388

  9. Content of Total Phenolics, Flavan-3-Ols and Proanthocyanidins, Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolate During Storage.

    PubMed

    Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka; Komes, Draženka; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Pezo, Lato; Pastor, Ferenc; Ostojić, Sanja; Popov-Raljić, Jovanka; Sužnjević, Desanka

    2016-03-01

    Antioxidant (AO) capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75% cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC) polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II) complex (HPMC) in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical). Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay) and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay). During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time). In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types.

  10. Technological properties, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of pigmented chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Heiras-Palazuelos, Mar J; Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna I; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; López-Valenzuela, José A; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Garzón-Tiznado, José A; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2013-02-01

    Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.

  11. Label-free potentiometric biosensor based on solid-contact for determination of total phenols in honey and propolis.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Patrícia Ferrante; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Bastos

    2017-03-01

    We developed a label-free potentiometric biosensor using tyrosinase extracted from Musa acuminata and immobilized by covalent bond on a surface of a solid-contact transducer. The transducer was manufactured containing two layers. The first layer contained a blend of poly(vinyl) chloride carboxylated (PVC-COOH), graphite and potassium permanganate. On this layer, we deposited a second layer containing just a mixture of poly(vinyl chloride) carboxylated and graphite. On the last layer of the transducer, we immobilized the tyrosinase enzyme by reaction with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. The solid-contact potentiometric biosensor presented at low detection limit of 7.3×10(-7)M and a linear range to catechol concentration between 9.3×10(-7)M and 8.3×10(-2)M. This biosensor was applied to determine the amount of total phenols in different samples of honey and propolis. The results agreed with the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  12. Ferulic acid, a dietary phenolic acid, modulates radiation effects in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Karthikeyan, Arumugam; Bandugula, Venkata Reddy; Rajendra Prasad, Nagarajan

    2012-09-15

    The radioprotective efficacy of Ferulic acid (FA) against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. To study the radiation protection, mice were administered with ferulic acid intraperitoneally (i.p) (50 mg/kg body weight.), once daily for five consecutive days. One hour after the last administration of ferulic acid on the sixth day, animals were whole body exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiations. Effect of ferulic acid pretreatment on radiation-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation status in spleen, liver and intestine was analyzed. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzymatic status and decreased lipid peroxidation marker levels were observed in ferulic acid pretreated group, when compared to the irradiated animals. Our study also shows increased % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice blood lymphocytes. Ferulic acid (50 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment significantly decreased the % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice lymphocytes. The histological observations indicated a decline in the villus height and crypt number with an increase in goblet and dead cell population in the irradiated group, which was normalized by ferulic acid pretreatment. In conclusion, present study indicated ferulic acid treatment prevents radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and restored antioxidant status and histopathological changes in experimental animals.

  13. Involvement of NADPH oxidase in high-dose phenolic acid-induced pro-oxidant activity on rat mesenteric venules.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Yuan; Xiao, Ying; Yao, Jian-Jing; Hao, Zhe; Zhao, Yu-Bin

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential role of phenolic acids in initiating oxidative damage to microvascular endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism mediating the pro-oxidant action. Male Wistar rats received high doses of phenolic acid [caffeic acid (CA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), chlorogenic acid (ChA) or ferulic acid (FA)]. The creation of reactive oxygen species in mesenteric microcirculation endothelial cells and adherent leukocytes along with venules were assessed using intravital microscopy. The expression levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox4 and p22(phox)) in terminal ileum tissues were determined by western blot analysis. Intravenous injection of high-dose ChA or CA (7 mg/kg) markedly increased the peroxide production in the venular walls and upregulated the protein expression levels of Nox4 and p22(phox) in the ileum tissues, while the same dose of CA and SAB made no difference within the observation period. No changes were observed in the number of leukocytes adhering to the venular walls. High-dose ChA and FA led to an imbalance between the oxidant and antioxidant mechanism by boosting the expression levels of NADPH oxidase. Thus, we clarified the rationale behind the adverse effects of a herbal injection containing high levels of phenolic acid compounds.

  14. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    PubMed

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer.

  15. A New Structural Family of Gas-Sorbing Coordination Polymers Derived from Phenolic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    White, Keith F; Abrahams, Brendan F; Babarao, Ravichandar; Dharma, A David; Hudson, Timothy A; Maynard-Casely, Helen E; Robson, Richard

    2015-12-07

    The structure of Li(inox)⋅2/3 DMF (inox(-) =the N-oxide of the isonicotinate anion) consists of a 3D framework with solvent-filled, square cross-section channels of approximate dimensions 5.5×5.5 Å. Unfortunately, the Li(inox) framework is unstable upon removal of DMF from the channels. When the structurally related 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (H2 hba) was used in place of Hinox, and Zn(2+) in place of the Li(+) , a structurally similar but more robust network, Zn(hba), was obtained; the isostructural compound, Co(hba), may also be prepared. Longer ligands with phenolate and carboxylate functional groups at opposite ends, such as the dianions of 4-coumaric acid (H2 cma) and 4'-hydroxy-4-biphenylcarboxylic acid (H2 hbpc), in combination with Zn(2+) yield Zn(cma) and Zn(hbpc) frameworks, respectively, with the same PtS topology but with larger channels. The coordination polymers remain intact after desolvation and exhibit microporosity, showing the ability to sorb significant quantities of CO2 , CH4 , and H2 .

  16. Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Acids by Infants and Children: A Randomised Double-Blind Clinical Assay

    PubMed Central

    Uberos, J.; Fernández-Puentes, V.; Molina-Oya, M.; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R.; Ruíz-López, A.; Tortosa-Pinto, P.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study, which is part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay, is aimed at determining the effects of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim treatment for UTI. Methods: This Phase III randomised clinical trial was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain) with a study population of 192 patients, aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI, associated or otherwise with vesico-ureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with urinary infection. Each child was randomly given 0.2 mL/Kg/day of either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim (8 mg/mL). The primary and secondary objectives, respectively, were to determine the risk of UTI and the levels of phenolic acids in urine associated with each intervention. Results: With respect to UTI, the cranberry treatment was non-inferior to trimethoprim. Increased urinary excretion of ferulic acid was associated with a greater risk of UTI developing in infants aged under 1 year (RR 1.06; CI 95% 1.024–1.1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained show the excretion of ferulic acid is higher in infants aged under 1 year, giving rise to an increased risk of UTI, for both treatment options. PMID:23641168

  17. Phenolic acid contents, essential oil compositions and antioxidant activities of two varieties of Salvia euphratica from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yumrutas, Onder; Sokmen, Atalay; Akpulat, H Askın; Ozturk, Nilgun; Daferera, Dimitra; Sokmen, Munevver; Tepe, Bektas

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of n-hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MeOH) and essential oils (EO) extracts obtained from Salvia euphratica var. euphratica and Salvia euphratica var. leiocalycina and to determine their essential oil and phenolic acid compositions. The samples were screened for their antioxidant activity by using DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Methanol extracts of both varieties exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Our results showed that rosmarinic acid was dominant phenolic acid of MeOH extracts (39.4 and 55.8 µg mg⁻¹, respectively). The chemical compositions of essential oils of two varieties were analysed and their main components were determined as eucalyptol (18.4%) and trans-pinocarvyl acetate (24.9%), respectively. It can be said that these varieties could be used as natural antioxidant.

  18. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.

  19. Syntheses of L-tyrosine-related amino acids by tyrosine phenol-lyase of Citrobacter intermedius.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, T; Utagawa, T; Goto, J; Kim, C J; Tani, Y; Kumagai, H; Yamada, H

    1981-06-01

    Degradation of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate and ammonia by tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter intermedius (formerly named Escherichia intermedia) is readily reversible at high concentrations of pyruvate and ammonia. Spectrophotometric studies indicate that ammonia is the first substrate which interacts with bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Kinetic results show that pyruvate is the second substrate bound, hence phenol must be the third. When an appropriate phenol derivative is substituted for phenol, the corresponding tyrosine analogue can be synthesized. 3-Fluoro-, 2-fluoro-, 3-chloro-, 2-chloro-, 3-bromo-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 3-methyl-, 2-methyl- and 2-methoxy-L-tyrosines have been synthesized by this reaction. By using various phenol derivatives or tyrosine analogues as substrates, the substrate specificity of tyrosine phenol-lyase is investigated and the situation of its active site is discussed.

  20. Changes in the contents and profiles of selected phenolics, soyasapogenols, tocopherols, and amino acids during soybean-rice mixture cooking: Electric rice cooker vs electric pressure rice cooker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Yu, Bo-Ra; Chung, Ill-Min

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the changes in the contents and profiles of 35 phenolics (including 12 isoflavones), four tocopherols, two soyasapogenols and 20 amino acids when soybean and rice were cooked together (soybean-rice mixture) using either an electric rice cooker (ERC) or an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The contents of the 35 selected phenolics in soybean decreased by 12% and 8% upon cooking by ERC and EPRC, respectively, and their profiles were different from that prior to cooking (P<0.05). Total tocopherol content of soybeans decreased by 7% after cooking in an ERC, but increased by 3% in soybeans cooked by EPRC. Total soyasapogenol content in soybeans cooked by ERC and EPRC decreased by 15% and 6%, respectively. Lastly, the total amino acid content of soybeans increased by 41% and 10% after cooking by ERC and EPRC, respectively. This study extends our knowledge about the effects of heat and pressure on the contents and profiles of bioactive compounds during soybean-rice mixture cooking. These results may be useful for improving the quality of bioactive compounds in soybean and rice depending on cooking conditions.

  1. Recovery of Phenolic Acid and Enzyme Production from Corn Silage Biologically Treated by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Šelo, Gordana; Zelić, Bruno; Planinić, Mirela; Tišma, Marina

    2017-03-01

    Corn silage is used as high-energy forage for dairy cows and more recently for biogas production in a process of anaerobic co-digestion with cow manure. In this work, fresh corn silage after the harvest was used as a substrate in solid-state fermentations with T. versicolor with the aim of phenolic acid recovery and enzyme (laccase and manganese peroxidase) production. During 20 days of fermentation, 10.4-, 3.4-, 3.0-, and 1.8-fold increments in extraction yield of syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid, respectively, were reached when compared to biologically untreated corn silage. Maximal laccase activity was gained on the 4th day of fermentation (V.A. = 180.2 U/dm(3)), and manganese peroxidase activity was obtained after the 3rd day of fermentation (V.A. = 30.1 U/dm(3)). The addition of copper(II) sulfate as inducer during solid state fermentation resulted in 8.5- and 7-fold enhancement of laccase and manganese peroxidase activities, respectively. Furthermore, the influence of pH and temperature on enzyme activities was investigated. Maximal activity of laccase was obtained at T = 50 °C and pH = 3.0, while manganese peroxidase is active at temperature range T = 45-70 °C with the maximal activity at pH = 4.5.

  2. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.

  3. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tingshun Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-15

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH{sub 3}-TPD and N{sub 2} physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)–MCM-48 samples, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h{sup −1} and the reaction temperature is 140 °C. - Highlights: • Sulfuric acid functional mesoporous solid acid catalysts were prepared via impregnation method. • The alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol was carried out over these solid acid catalysts. • The catalytic activity of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 catalyst is much higher than that of the others. • A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% was achieved under optimum reaction conditions for SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25.

  4. Distribution, antioxidant and characterisation of phenolic compounds in soybeans, flaxseed and olives.

    PubMed

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Alli, Inteaz

    2013-08-15

    The distribution of free and bound phenolic compounds present in soybean, flaxseed and olive were investigated. The phenolic compounds were fractionated on the basis on their solubility characteristics in water, alcohol, dilute base and dilute acid. Reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for identification of individual components of phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity (AA%) of free and bound phenolic compounds was measured using the linoleic acid/β-carotene assay. The water-soluble phenolic compound fractions represented 68-81%, 50-72% and 46-56% of the total phenolic compounds measured in full-fat soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Methanolic extraction of free phenolic compounds without heat, solubilised 21-56%, 42-62% and 34-51% of the total phenolic compounds measured in soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively; methanol extraction of free phenolic compounds with heat solubilised a further 24-34%, 31-37% and 36-37% of phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Further dilute alkali and dilute acid solubilised the remaining 10-40%, 1-21% and 12-29% of the total phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Results indicated that the full-fat meals of soybean, flaxseed and olive showed higher antioxidant activity compared to defatted meals. RP-HPLC and LC-MS/MS profil1 for soybean, flaxseed and olive indicate two classes of phenolic compounds designated as free and bound phenolic compounds.

  5. Phytochemical changes in phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids associated with sweetpotato storage and impacts on bioactive properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato phytochemical content was evaluated in four genotypes (NCPUR06-020, Covington, Yellow Covington, and NC07-847) at harvest and after curing/storage for 4 or 8 months. Curing and storage for up to 8 months did not significantly affect total phenolic content in Covington, Yellow Covington, ...

  6. Dehalogenation and biodegradation of brominated phenols and benzoic acids under iron-reducing, sulfidogenic, and methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Monserrate, E; Häggblom, M M

    1997-01-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of monobrominated phenols and benzoic acids by microorganisms enriched from marine and estuarine sediments was determined in the presence of different electron acceptors [i.e., Fe(III), SO4(2-), or HCO3-]. Under all conditions tested, the bromophenol isomers were utilized without a lengthy lag period whereas the bromobenzoate isomers were utilized only after a lag period of 23 to 64 days. 2-Bromophenol was debrominated to phenol, with the subsequent utilization of phenol under all three reducing conditions. Debromination of 3-bromophenol and 4-bromophenol was also observed under sulfidogenic and methanogenic conditions but not under iron-reducing conditions. In the bromobenzoate-degrading cultures, no intermediates were observed under any of the conditions tested. Debromination rates were higher under methanogenic conditions than under sulfate-reducing or iron-reducing conditions. The stoichiometric reduction of sulfate or Fe(III) and the utilization of bromophenols and phenol indicated that biodegradation was coupled to sulfate or iron reduction, respectively. The production of phenol as a transient intermediate demonstrates that reductive dehalogenation is the initial step in the biodegradation of bromophenols under iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions. PMID:9480645

  7. Phenolic Acids (Gallic and Tannic Acids) Modulate Antioxidant Status and Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Akomolafe, Seun F; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Anadozie, Scholarstical O

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP), used in the treatment of many solid-tissue cancers, has its chief side-effect in nephrotoxicity. Hence, this study sought to investigate and compare the protective effect of gallic acid (GA) and tannic acid (TA) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The rats were given a prophylactic treatment of GA and TA orally at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days before the administration of a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cisplatin (CP) at 7.5 mg/kg bwt. The protective effects of both GA and TA on CP induced nephrotoxicity were investigated by assaying renal function, oxidative stress biomarkers, and histopathological examination of kidney architecture. A single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg bwt) injected i.p. caused a significant increase in some biomarkers of renal function (creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels), with a marked elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) content accompanied by a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content (103.27%) of kidney tissue as compared to control group. Furthermore, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in kidney antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPx, and GST) activity was observed. However, pretreatment with oral administration of tannic acid and gallic acid at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 7 days prior to cisplatin administration reduced histological renal damage and suppressed the generation of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress in kidney tissues. These results indicate that both gallic and tannic acids could serve as a preventive strategy against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.

  8. Effects of the Fruit Ripening Stage on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Polyphenolic Composition of Crude Palm Oil from Interspecific Hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juanita C; Gómez, Daniela; Pacetti, Deborah; Núñez, Oscar; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale G; Ojeda, Myriam L; Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Lucci, Paolo

    2016-02-03

    In the present study, we assessed for the first time the changes in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and polyphenolic composition of interspecific hybrid palm oil extracted from Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (O × G, Coari × La Mé cultivar) during the fruit ripening process 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis. A progressive decrease (p < 0.05) of phenolic content occurred during fruit development together with marked changes in polyphenol profiles. Significant negative correlations were established between antioxidant activity measured by TEAC (R = -0.954; p < 0.05) and ORAC (R = -0.745; p < 0.05) and the fruit ripening stage, while a positive correlation between total phenolic content was found using either the TEAC assay or the ORAC assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was also obtained with oils extracted at 18 WAA. These results highlight that O × G fruits of early ripeness represent a better source of phenolic compounds and may provide extracts with higher antioxidant activities when hybrid palm oil is aimed to be used as a functional ingredient for the development of food or food products with antioxidant properties.

  9. Uptake and/or utilization of two simple phenolic acids by Cucumis sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Shann, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) from solutions (0.1 to 1.00 mM, pH 4.0 to 7.0), was determined for intact and excised roots of Cucumis sativus. Uptake methods based on high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acid depletion from solution were compared to those radioisotopic methods employing (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA or p-HBA. Although radiotracer methods more accurately reflected actual uptake of the compounds by cucumber seedlings, HPLC solution depletion methods may be useful in the elucidation of trends over very limited periods of time. The uptake of FA was unaffected by the presence of p-HBA. The uptake of p-HBA was reduced by 30% in the presence of FA when compared to the uptake from solutions containing p-HBA alone. Ferulic acid acts both as an allelopathic agent and precursor in the endogenous process of lignification. To evaluate the involvement of exogenous FA in lignin biosynthesis, roots of hydroponically grown cucumber seedlings were exposed to concentrations of FA labeled with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. Radiotracer was distributed throughout the seedling. A quantitative change in lignification occurred in treated seedlings. In roots and stems, the level of lignin increased with the number of exposures and as the concentrations of exogenous FA increased. Radiotracer was found in the residues of lignin isolated from seedling tissue treated with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. This suggested the utilization of the exogenously applied FA in the endogenous process of lignification.

  10. Enhancing the antioxidant characteristics of phenolic acids by their conversion into cholinium salts

    PubMed Central

    Sintra, Tânia E.; Luís, Andreia; Rocha, Samuel N.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I. M. C.; Gonçalves, Fernando; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Neves, Bruno M.; Freire, Mara G.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the close relation between oxidative stress and a plethora of inflammatory diseases, antioxidants have received an increased attention for incorporation into dermatological products. Their use and absorption is however limited by their low solubility in water-rich formulations. Herein, a set of novel cholinium-based salts, namely dicholinium ellagate and cholinium caffeate, syringate, vanillate, gallate and salicylate were synthetized and characterized. Their melting and decomposition temperatures, water solubility, and toxicological, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and pro-/anti-inflammatory activities were addressed. These new salts, exclusively composed of ions derived from natural sources, display a high thermal stability – up to 150 ºC. The synthesized compounds are significantly more soluble in water (in average, 3 orders of magnitude higher) than the corresponding phenolic acids. Furthermore, they present not only similar but even higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as comparable cytotoxicity and lower ecotoxicity profiles than their acidic precursors. Amongst all the investigated salts, dicholinium ellagate is the most promising synthesized salt when considering the respective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Since all the synthesized salts are based on the cholinium cation, they can further be envisaged as essential nutrients to be used in oral drugs. PMID:28255528

  11. Prevention of Alzheimer's disease: Omega-3 fatty acid and phenolic anti-oxidant interventions.

    PubMed

    Cole, Greg M; Lim, Giselle P; Yang, Fusheng; Teter, Bruce; Begum, Aynun; Ma, Qiulan; Harris-White, Marni E; Frautschy, Sally A

    2005-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are syndromes of aging that share analogous lesions and risk factors, involving lipoproteins, oxidative damage and inflammation. Unlike in CVD, in AD, sensitive biomarkers are unknown, and high-risk groups are understudied. To identify potential prevention strategies in AD, we have focused on pre-clinical models (transgenic and amyloid infusion models), testing dietary/lifestyle factors strongly implicated in reducing risk in epidemiological studies. Initially, we reported the impact of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), notably ibuprofen, which reduced amyloid accumulation, but suppressed few inflammatory markers and without reducing oxidative damage. Safety concerns with chronic NSAIDs led to a screen of alternative NSAIDs and identification of the phenolic anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant compound curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric that we found targeted multiple AD pathogenic cascades. The dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), also limited amyloid, oxidative damage and synaptic and cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model. Both DHA and curcumin have favorable safety profiles, epidemiology and efficacy, and may exert general anti-aging benefits (anti-cancer and cardioprotective.).

  12. Fatty acids, essential oil and phenolics composition of Silybum marianum seeds and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Baya; Abbassi, Feten; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Marzouk, Brahim

    2016-05-01

    The presentstudydescribes the biochemical evaluation of Silybum marianum seed. The analysis of essential oil composition of Silybum marianum seed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry GC-MS showed the presence of14 volatile components with the predominance of γ-cadinene (49.8%) and α-pinene (24.5%). Whereas, the analysis of fatty acids composition, showed the predominance of linoleic (50.5%) and oleic (30.2%) acids. Silybum marainum presented also an important polyphenol contents with 29mgGAE/g DW, a good antiradical activity (CI(50)=39μg/ml) but a lower reducing power ability. Flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were about 3.39mg EC/g DW and 1.8mg EC/gDW, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified by RP-HPLC, were silybin A (12.2%), silybin B (17.67%), isosilybin A (21.9%), isosilybin B (12.8%), silychristin (7.9%) andsilydianin (7.5%).

  13. Microwave-assisted extraction of bound phenolic acids in bran and flour fractions from sorghum and maize cultivars varying in hardness.

    PubMed

    Chiremba, Constance; Rooney, Lloyd W; Beta, Trust

    2012-05-09

    To release bound phenolic acids, a microwave-assisted extraction procedure was applied to bran and flour fractions obtained from eight sorghum and eight maize cultivars varying in hardness. The procedure was followed by HPLC analysis, and the identities of phenolic acids were confirmed by MS/MS spectra. The extraction of sorghum and maize bound phenolic acids was done for 90 s in 2 M NaOH to release ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from bran and flour. Two diferulic acids, 8-O-4'- and 8-5'-benzofuran form, were identified and quantitated in sorghum bran, and only the former was found in maize bran. The contents of ferulic acid and diferulic acids in sorghum bran were 416-827 and 25-179 μg/g, respectively, compared to 2193-4779 and 271-819 μg/g in maize. Phenolic acid levels of sorghum were similar between hard and soft cultivars, whereas those of maize differed significantly (p < 0.05) except for ferulic acid in flour. Sorghum phenolic acids were not correlated with grain hardness as measured using a tangential abrasive decortication device. Maize ferulic acid (r = -0.601, p < 0.01), p-coumaric acid (r = -0.668, p < 0.01), and 8-O-4'-diferulic acid (r = -0.629, p < 0.01) were significantly correlated with hardness.

  14. Effects of Phenolic Acids on the Growth and Production of T-2 and HT-2 Toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides.

    PubMed

    Ferruz, Elena; Atanasova-Pénichon, Vessela; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noëlle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Ducos, Christine; Lorán, Susana; Ariño, Agustín; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-04-04

    The effect of natural phenolic acids was tested on the growth and production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides, on Mycotoxin Synthetic medium. Plates treated with 0.5 mM of each phenolic acid (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p-coumaric) and controls without phenolic acid were incubated for 14 days at 25 °C. Fungal biomass of F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides was not reduced by the phenolic acids. However, biosynthesis of T-2 toxin by F. langsethiae was significantly reduced by chlorogenic (23.1%) and ferulic (26.5%) acids. Production of T-2 by F. sporotrichioides also decreased with ferulic acid by 23% (p < 0.05). In contrast, p-coumaric acid significantly stimulated the production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins for both strains. A kinetic study of F. langsethiae with 1 mM ferulic acid showed a significant decrease in fungal biomass, whereas T-2 production increased after 10 days of incubation. The study of gene expression in ferulic supplemented cultures of F. langsethiae revealed a significant inhibition for Tri5, Tri6 and Tri12 genes, while for Tri16 the decrease in gene expression was not statistically significant. Overall, results indicated that phenolic acids had a variable effect on fungal growth and mycotoxin production, depending on the strain and the concentration and type of phenolic acid assayed.

  15. Free radical reaction pathway, thermochemistry of peracetic acid homolysis, and its application for phenol degradation: spectroscopic study and quantum chemistry calculations.

    PubMed

    Rokhina, Ekaterina V; Makarova, Katerina; Golovina, Elena A; Van As, Henk; Virkutyte, Jurate

    2010-09-01

    The homolysis of peracetic acid (PAA) as a relevant source of free radicals (e.g., *OH) was studied in detail. Radicals formed as a result of chain radical reactions were detected with electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance spin trapping techniques and subsequently identified by means of the simulation-based fitting approach. The reaction mechanism, where a hydroxyl radical was a primary product of O-O bond rupture of PAA, was established with a complete assessment of relevant reaction thermochemistry. Total energy analysis of the reaction pathway was performed by electronic structure calculations (ab initio and semiempirical methods) at different levels and basis sets [e.g., HF/6-311G(d), B3LYP/6-31G(d)]. Furthermore, the heterogeneous MnO2/PAA system was tested for the elimination of a model aromatic compound, phenol from aqueous solution. An artificial neural network (ANN) was designed to associate the removal efficiency of phenol with relevant process parameters such as concentrations of both the catalyst and PAA and the reaction time. Results were used to train and test ANN to identify an optimized network structure, which represented the correlations between the operational parameters and removal efficiency of phenol.

  16. An analysis on flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids contents in brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact fermentation techniques of Mao Luang ripe fruits (Antidesma bunius) harvested from Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-07-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS, 0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L(-1)), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L(-l)), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L(-1)), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L(-1)) and reducing sugar (g L(-1)) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L(-1) citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine.

  17. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety.

  18. Determination of carotenoids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of Arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh), an Amazonian fruit.

    PubMed

    Garzón, G Astrid; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kopec, Rachel E; Barry, Andrew M; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2012-05-09

    The fruit of Arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh) native to the Colombian Amazon is considered a potentially economically valuable fruit for the Andean economy due to its novel and unique taste. The fruit has an intense yellow color, but its chemical composition and properties have not been well studied. Here we report the identification and quantitation of carotenoids in the ripe fruit using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detector (PDA) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The qualitative carotenoid profile of the fruit according to maturity stage was also observed. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of the peel and pulp were assessed using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, in addition to chemical indexes and total phenolic content. Multiple carotenoids were identified in the peel and pulp including four xanthophylls (free and esterified as their mono and diesters) and two carotenes. One of the xanthophylls was tentatively identified as zeinoxanthin, while the others were identified as lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenes included α-carotene and β-carotene. The total carotenoid content was significantly higher in the peel (2484 ± 421 μg/100 g FW) than in the pulp (806 ± 348 μg/100 g FW) with lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeinoxanthin as the major carotenoid components. The unique carotenoid composition of this fruit can differentiate it from other carotenoid-rich fruits and perhaps be useful in authentication procedures. Overall, results from this study suggest that Colombian Arazá may be a good edible source of carotenoids important in retinal health as well as carotenoids with provitamin A activity. Therefore, Arazá fruit can be used as a nutraceutical ingredient and in production of functional foods in the Colombian diet.

  19. Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Aasifa; Siddiqui, M B; Bi, Shazia

    2016-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Calotropis procera on growth behavior, ultrastructural changes on Cassia sophera L., and cytological changes on Allium cepa L. was investigated. LAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %) significantly reduced the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of C. sophera. Besides, the ultrastructural changes (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) induced in epidermal cells of 15-day-old seedlings of Cassia leaf were also noticed. The changes induced were shrinking and contraction of epidermal cells along with the formation of major grooves, canals, and cyst-like structures. The treated samples of epidermal cells no longer seem to be smooth as compared to control. LAE at different concentrations induces chromosomal aberrations and variation in shape of the interphase and prophase nucleus in A. cepa root tip cells when compared with control groups. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. The most frequent aberrations were despiralization at prophase with the formation of micronuclei, sticky anaphase with bridges, sticky telophase, C-metaphase, etc. The results also show the induction of ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and cells with heterochromatic nuclei by extract treatment. Upon HPLC analysis, nine phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, catechol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, resorcinol, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified. Thus, the phenolic acids are mainly responsible for the allelopathic behavior of C. procera.

  20. Enhancing the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidants of Lemon Pomace Aqueous Extracts by Applying UV-C Irradiation to the Dried Powder.

    PubMed

    Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Vuong, Quan V; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John B; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J; Stathopoulos, Costas E

    2016-08-23

    Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C) irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m(-2), while untreated powder was used as a control. UV-C irradiation significantly affected the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the lemon pomace dried powder, while it did not affect the vitamin C content. UV-C irradiation of 19 kJ·m(-2) resulted in 19% higher total phenolic content than the control, while UV-C irradiation of 180 kJ·m(-2) resulted in 28% higher total flavonoid content than the control. The antioxidant capacity was reduced when UV-C irradiation more than 4 kJ·m(-2) was applied. The results of this study indicate that UV-C treatment has the potential to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds of dried lemon pomace at relatively high dosages.

  1. Enhancing the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidants of Lemon Pomace Aqueous Extracts by Applying UV-C Irradiation to the Dried Powder

    PubMed Central

    Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Vuong, Quan V.; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John B.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Stathopoulos, Costas E.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C) irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m−2, while untreated powder was used as a control. UV-C irradiation significantly affected the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the lemon pomace dried powder, while it did not affect the vitamin C content. UV-C irradiation of 19 kJ·m−2 resulted in 19% higher total phenolic content than the control, while UV-C irradiation of 180 kJ·m−2 resulted in 28% higher total flavonoid content than the control. The antioxidant capacity was reduced when UV-C irradiation more than 4 kJ·m−2 was applied. The results of this study indicate that UV-C treatment has the potential to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds of dried lemon pomace at relatively high dosages. PMID:28231150

  2. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  3. A simplified 96-well method for the estimation of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity from eggplant pulp extracts using UV spectral scan data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit is ranked amongst the top ten vegetables in terms of oxygen radical absorbance capacity due to its high phenolic acid content. The main objective of this study was to determine if a simple UV spectral analysis method can be used as a screening tool to estimate the amount of phenolic ...

  4. In vitro inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity of subfractions from ethanol extracts of fermented Oats (Avena sativa L.) and synergistic effect of three phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wang, Mengqian; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water) from ethanol extracts of nonfermented and fungi-fermented oats and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity at 1.5 mg/mL compared to the other subfractions, regardless of whether the oats were fermented. Meanwhile, both of the EA subfractions of two fungi-fermented oats demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than that of nonfermented oats. A positive correlation between the total phenolics content and inhibitory activity was found. The inhibitory ability of the EA subfraction from nonfermented or fermented oats also displayed a dose-dependent effect. The standards of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, mainly included in EA subfractions of fermented oats, also displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. Those results indicate that fungi-fermented oats have a more effective inhibitory ability on pancreatic lipase and polyphenols may be the most effective component and could be potentially used for dietary therapy of obesity.

  5. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability.

  6. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, sugars, phenols, and heavy metals in sweet potatoes grown in soil fertilized with municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Dennis, Sam O; Unrine, Jason M; Snyder, John C

    2011-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) used for land farming typically contains heavy metals that might impact crop quality and human health. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (six replicates each) was used to monitor the impact of mixing native soil with MSS or yard waste (YW) mixed with MSS (YW +MSS) on: i) sweet potato yield and quality; ii) concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in sweet potato plant parts (edible roots, leaves, stem, and feeder roots); and iii) concentrations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, free sugars, and β-carotene in sweet potato edible roots at harvest. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for total and extractable metals using two extraction procedures, concentrated nitric acid (to extract total metals from soil) as well as CaCl₂ solution (to extract soluble metals in soil that are available to plants), respectively. Elemental analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, plant available metals were greater in soils amended with MSS compared to control plots. Concentration of Pb was greater in YW than MSS amendments. Total concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were greater in plants grown in MSS+YW treatments compared to control plants. MSS+YW treatments increased sweet potato yield, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and phenols in edible roots by 53, 28, 27, and 48%, respectively compared to plants grown in native soil. B-carotene concentration (157.5 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was greater in the roots of plants grown in MSS compared to roots of plants grown in MSS+YW treatments (99.9 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight). Concentration of heavy metals in MSS-amended soil and in sweet potato roots were below their respective permissible limits.

  7. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905

  8. Fermentation with Aspergillus awamori enhanced contents of amino nitrogen and total phenolics as well as the low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitory activity of black soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fei; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-04-27

    A solid fermentation was performed on black soybeans with Aspergillus awamori. The effects of fermentation on the contents of total phenolics and amino nitrogen and on the inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation of black soybeans were examined. Results revealed that fermentation significantly enhanced the LDL oxidation inhibitory activity and total phenolics and amino nitrogen contents of black soybeans. The increased content of amino nitrogen was closely related to the enhanced LDL oxidation inhibitory activity of fermented black soybeans and its water extract. Fermentation temperature and length affected the LDL oxidation inhibitory effect exerted by the prepared fermented black soybeans. The A. awamori-fermented black soybean prepared at 30 °C for 3 days exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation. The bioactive principles related to the inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation in black soybeans, regardless of fermentation, could be most efficiently extracted with water rather than 80% methanol or 80% ethanol.

  9. Influence of UV Light on Phenolic Acid Content of Broccoli Samples (Brassica oleracea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influence of environmental factors (such as rainfall, pests, soil, irrigation levels, and fertilization) on the phenolic composition of fruits and vegetables is well documented in the literature. We have evaluated the significance of ultraviolet light on the phenolic composition of broccoli samples....

  10. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds.

  11. Gas chromatographic analysis of infant formulas for total fatty acids, including trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Fritsche, Jan; Rader, Jeanne I

    2002-01-01

    Twelve powdered and 13 liquid infant formulas were analyzed by using an extension of AOAC Official Method 996.01 for fat analysis in cereal products. Samples were hydrolyzed with 8 N HCl and extracted with ethyl and petroleum ethers. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by refluxing the mixed ether extracts with methanolic sodium hydroxide in the presence of 14% boron trifluoride in methanol. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. In powdered formulas, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (mean +/- SD; n = 12) was 41.05 +/- 3.94%, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was 36.97 +/- 3.38%, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was 20.07 +/- 3.08%, and total trans fatty acid content was 1.30 +/- 1.27%. In liquid formulas, SFA content (mean +/- SD; n = 13) was 42.29 +/- 2.98%, MUFA content was 36.05 +/- 2.47%, PUFA content was 20.65 +/- 2.40%, and total trans fatty acid content was 0.88 +/- 0.54%. Total fat content in powdered formulas ranged from 4.4 to 5.5 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 868 to 1166 mg/100 kcal. In liquid formulas, total fat content ranged from 4.1 to 5.1 g/100 kcal and linoleic acid content ranged from 820 to 1100 mg/100 kcal. There were no significant differences between powdered and liquid infant formulas in concentrations of total fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or trans fatty acids.

  12. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties.

  13. Hydrogen bonding and proton localization in complexes of carboxybetaines with phenols and carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Zofia; Komasa, Anna; Grundwald-Wyspiańska, Monika; Szafran, Mirosław; Buczak, Grzegorz; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    1997-02-01

    Complexes of betaine (BET) with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and trifluoroacetic, trichloroacetic, dichloroacetic, chloroacetic and maleic acids and of pyridine betaine (PBET) with DCNP in solution and in the solid state were studied by UV and FTIR spectroscopies and X-ray analysis. The crystal of BET·DCNP is triclinic, space group P 1¯, a = 7.1770(10) Å, b = 10.001(2) Å, c = 11.241(2) Å, α = 108.81(3)°, β = 100.06(3)°, γ = 106.82(3)°, Z = 2; the final R value is 0.033 for 1871 observed reflections. Protonated betaine and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenolate are linked by an O(2)Htctdot;O(1) hydrogen bond with an Otctdot;O distance of 2.424(3) Å and the O(2)Htctdot;O(1) angle is 159(3)°. The broad absorption in the solid state FTIR spectra of the investigated complexes varies with Δp Ka, and is typical of complexes with strong hydrogen bonds. The UV spectra of phenol complexes in acetonitrile show a typical absorption for Btctdot;HA and B +Htctdot;A - species. In less polar dichloromethane, only molecular complexes are present. An exception is PBET·DCNP, where B +Htctdot;A - species appear in both solvents. The agreement between the UV and IR data is good.

  14. Simultaneous determination of main phenolic acids and flavonoids in tomato by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Martí, Raúl; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Roselló, Salvador

    2017-04-15

    A methodology for the determination of tomato phenolic acids and flavonoids has been developed combining MEKC and DAD detection. The influence on polyphenol separation of pH and background electrolyte, BGE (borax, acetonitrile, methanol and SDS concentrations), was studied and optimized using response surface methodology and weighted desirability function. Separation of polyphenols was achieved within 20min at 15°C using 11.3mM borax and 11.2mM SDS adjusted to pH 8.5 as BGE. Validation was performed using standards and tomato extracts. Recoveries ranged from 77 to 106%. Acceptable repeatabilities were obtained for peak area (%RSD <3.1% and <3.7%) and migration times (%RSD <0.2% and <1.4%) for intra- and inter-day respectively. Detection limits ranged between 0.8 and 3.8mgkg(-1). Five and seven of these polyphenols were determined in samples of tomato and related species. This methodology will be valuable tool in breeding programs, analyzing a large number of samples.

  15. Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, Vanessa R; Alencar, Severino M; Santos, Francisco A R

    2014-03-01

    Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples.

  16. Enhancement of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of black soybeans by solid state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715.

    PubMed

    Juan, Ming-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a solid state fermentation of black soybeans with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 was performed. The effect of fermentation on the changes of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability exerted by various solvent (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone) extracts of black soybeans was examined. It was found that fermentation enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity of the black soybean extract. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The acetone extract and the methanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, respectively. Analysis of extraction yields showed that the active principle associated with the DPPH radical-scavenging effect was most efficiently extracted from black soybeans using water, regardless of fermentation. Water and methanol effectively extract the Fe(2+)-chelating principles from non-fermented and fermented black soybeans, respectively.

  17. Genetic effects on total phenolics, condensed tannins and non-structural carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental effects on carbon allocation to soluble phenolics and non-structural carbohydrates in needles of widely-planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact productivity, sustainability and biogeochemical cycling in the southeastern U.S. The magnitude of genetic a...

  18. Global Identification of the Full-Length Transcripts and Alternative Splicing Related to Phenolic Acid Biosynthetic Genes in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhichao; Luo, Hongmei; Ji, Aijia; Zhang, Xin; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolic acids are among the main bioactive components in Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. However, previous studies on the biosynthesis of phenolic acids using next-generation sequencing platforms are limited with regard to the assembly of full-length transcripts. Based on hybrid-seq (next-generation and single molecular real-time sequencing) of the S. miltiorrhiza root transcriptome, we experimentally identified 15 full-length transcripts and four alternative splicing events of enzyme-coding genes involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid. Moreover, we herein demonstrate that lithospermic acid B accumulates in the phloem and xylem of roots, in agreement with the expression patterns of the identified key genes related to rosmarinic acid biosynthesis. According to co-expression patterns, we predicted that six candidate cytochrome P450s and five candidate laccases participate in the salvianolic acid pathway. Our results provide a valuable resource for further investigation into the synthetic biology of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26904067

  19. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption.

  20. Structure-Thermodynamics-Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Selected Natural Phenolic Acids and Derivatives: An Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media. PMID:25803685

  1. Structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant activity relationships of selected natural phenolic acids and derivatives: an experimental and theoretical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xiao, Huizhi; Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media.

  2. Reactivity of Cations and Zwitterions Formed in Photochemical and Acid-Catalyzed Reactions from m-Hydroxycycloalkyl-Substituted Phenol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cindro, Nikola; Antol, Ivana; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Halasz, Ivan; Wan, Peter; Basarić, Nikola

    2015-12-18

    Three m-substituted phenol derivatives, each with a labile benzylic alcohol group and bearing either protoadamantyl 4, homoadamantyl 5, or a cyclohexyl group 6, were synthesized and their thermal acid-catalyzed and photochemical solvolytic reactivity studied, using preparative irradiations, fluorescence measurements, nanosecond laser flash photolysis, and quantum chemical calculations. The choice of m-hydroxy-substitution was driven by the potential for these phenolic systems to generate m-quinone methides on photolysis, which could ultimately drive the excited-state pathway, as opposed to forming simple benzylic carbocations in the corresponding thermal route. Indeed, thermal acid-catalyzed reactions gave the corresponding cations, which undergo rearrangement and elimination from 4, only elimination from 5, and substitution and elimination from 6. On the other hand, upon photoexcitation of 4-6 to S1 in a polar protic solvent, proton dissociation from the phenol, coupled with elimination of the benzylic OH (as hydroxide ion) gave zwitterions (formal m-quinone methides). The zwitterions exhibit reactivity different from the corresponding cations due to a difference in charge distribution, as shown by DFT calculations. Thus, protoadamantyl zwitterion has a less nonclassical character than the corresponding cation, so it does not undergo 1,2-shift of the carbon atom, as observed in the acid-catalyzed reaction.

  3. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    PubMed

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries.

  4. Phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels.

    PubMed

    Maranz, Steven; Wiesman, Zeev; Garti, Nissim

    2003-10-08

    Analysis of the phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels by LC-MS revealed eight catechin compounds-gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate-as well as quercetin and trans-cinnamic acid. The mean kernel content of the eight catechin compounds was 4000 ppm (0.4% of kernel dry weight), with a 2100-9500 ppm range. Comparison of the profiles of the six major catechins from 40 Vitellaria provenances from 10 African countries showed that the relative proportions of these compounds varied from region to region. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound, comprising an average of 27% of the measured total phenols and exceeding 70% in some populations. Colorimetric analysis (101 samples) of total polyphenols extracted from shea butter into hexane gave an average of 97 ppm, with the values for different provenances varying between 62 and 135 ppm of total polyphenols.

  5. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE.

  6. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.

  7. The use of TLC-DPPH* test with image processing to study direct antioxidant activity of phenolic acid fractions of selected Lamiaceae family species.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Łukasz; Staszek, Dorota; Kowalska, Teresa; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2013-01-01

    TLC coupled with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl staining was used to analyze phenolic acid fractions of selected Salvia and Thymus species. Documented videoscans were processed by means of an image processing program. This is the first time that free phenolic acids fractions, as well as fractions containing phenolic acids derived from basic and acidic hydrolysis, have been analyzed and compared for selected sage and thyme species. The analyzed samples along with caffeic acid (CA; standard) were chromatographed on silica gel plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (60 + 40 + 1, v/v/v) mobile phase. The extracts were investigated with respect to the activity of CA. It was found that CA was most abundant in the fractions derived from basic hydrolysis. This compound was not detected in any of the fractions obtained after acidic hydrolysis. S. officinalis and S. triloba have similar free radical scavenging activity fingerprints obtained for all the analyzed fractions.

  8. Determination of hydroxycinnamic acids and volatile phenols in wort and beer by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Vanbeneden, Nele; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2006-12-15

    The suitability of a simple and rapid isocratic RP-HPLC method with amperometric electrochemical detection for the simultaneous detection and quantification of hydroxycinnamic acids and their corresponding aroma-active volatile phenols in wort and beer is reported. The technique gives good specificity and sensitivity, and can therefore be used for routine monitoring of hydroxycinnamic acids in wort and the development of volatile phenolic flavour compounds during the beer production process and subsequent conservation.

  9. Total Synthesis of Five Lipoteichoic acids of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Hogendorf, Wouter F J; Gisch, Nicolas; Schwudke, Dominik; Heine, Holger; Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2014-10-13

    The emergence of hypervirulent resistant strains have made Clostridium difficile a notorious nosocomial pathogen and has resulted in a renewed interest in preventive strategies, such as vaccines based on (synthetic) cell wall antigens. Recently, the structure of the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of this species has been elucidated. Additionally, this LTA was found to induce the formation of protective antibodies against C. difficile in rabbits and mice. The LTA from C. difficile is isolated as a microheterogenous mixture, differing in size and composition, impeding any structure-activity relationship studies. To ensure reliable biological results, pure and well-defined synthetic samples are required. In this work the total synthesis of LTAs from C. difficile with defined chain length is described and the initial biological results are presented.

  10. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings. PMID:26649198

  11. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

  12. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  13. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian

    2012-01-11

    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  14. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  15. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of the extracts of Humulus lupulus L. and quantification of bioactive components by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Önder, Ferah Cömert; Ay, Mehmet; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2013-11-06

    In this research, antioxidant activities of various extracts obtained from Humulus lupulus L. were compared by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and CUPRAC assays. The amount of total phenolic components determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was found to be highest for 25% aqueous ethanol (9079 ± 187.83 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) and methanol-1 (directly) (8343 ± 158.39 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) extracts. The n-hexane extract of H. lupulus exhibited the greatest with DPPH (14.95 ± 0.03 μg Trolox equivalent/g sample). The highest phenolic content in the ethanolic extract could be the major contributor to its highest CUPRAC activity (3.15 ± 0.44 mmol Trolox equivalent/g sample). Methanol-2 (n-hexane, acetone, and methanol) and methanol-3 (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, and methanol) extracts, respectively, exhibited the most potent ABTS (7.35 ± 0.03 mM Trolox equivalent) and FRAP (1.56 ± 0.35 mmol Fe(2+)/g sample) activities. Some of the components from the crude extracts were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses. Comparative screening of antioxidant activities of H. lupulus extracts and quantification of some major components by LC-MS/MS, qualitatively analysis of the reported ones which were optimal under negative ion SIM mode and coinjection, are going to be valuable for food and health applications.

  16. Investigations of the reactions of monochloramine and dichloramine with selected phenols: examination of humic acid models and water contaminants.

    PubMed

    Heasley, Victor L; Fisher, Audra M; Herman, Erica E; Jacobsen, Faith E; Miller, Evan W; Ramirez, Ashley M; Royer, Nicole R; Whisenand, Josh M; Zoetewey, David L; Shellhamer, Dale F

    2004-10-01

    Our paper reports on the reactivities and orientations of two common phenols, phenol (2) and m-cresol (3), and some of their chlorinated intermediates with aqueous monochloramine, NH2Cl, and dichloramine, NHCl2. We also examined the further reactivity of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (4) with the chloramines. The phenols are an important area of investigation because they are substituents in the humic acids and are common contaminants in water. m-Cresol (3) was found to be more reactive than phenol (2)with both chlorinating agents. Both NH2Cl and NHCl2were sufficiently reactive to chlorinate all positions ortho and para to the hydroxyl groups. Mono- and dichloramine showed the same orientation with 2 but different orientations in their reactions with the substituent phenols. Indophenol (as its salt) was formed to a minor extent at high pH but not at pH 9. Both NH2Cl and NHCl2 rapidly replaced the parachlorine in 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (4) to give a mixture of 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone-4-(N-chloro) imine (5) and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (18). Similar reactions occurwith 2,4,6-trichloro-m-cresol (17) and 2,4,6-trichloro-3-methoxyphenol (29). The products for 17 were confirmed by mass spectrometry (El and Cl), 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR; the products for 29 were confirmed by mass spectrometry (El and Cl) and IR. An ion radical mechanism is suggested to account for the chlorine replacement by the chloramines. [No side chain oxidation of the methyl group in 17 in H20 or ether occurred, with or without ultraviolet radiation.] Both 5 and 18 underwent further chlorination with NH2Cl or NHCl2. Imine 5 did not function as a chlorinated agent.

  17. Physicochemical Properties and in Vitro Digestibility of Cooked Regular and Nondarkening Cranberry Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Effects on Bioaccessibility, Phenolic Composition, and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter X; Dupuis, John H; Marcone, Massimo F; Pauls, Peter K; Liu, Ronghua; Liu, Qiang; Tang, Yao; Zhang, Bing; Tsao, Rong

    2015-12-09

    Cranberry beans from regular (RR) and nondarkening (CND) genotypes were pressure cooked, and free, conjugated, and bound phenolics were analyzed. Simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was used to assess the bioaccessibility of these phenolic fractions. Total phenolic content decreased after cooking and digestion, whereas individual phenolic compounds were affected differently. Cooking significantly increased the release of bound ferulic and sinapic acids and flavanols, whereas digestion released p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids in both genotypes, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, and catechin in only RR. Bioaccessibility of phenolics in RR and CND was 8.75 and 14.69%, respectively. Difference in total phenolics was smaller after digestion, and enzymes potentially secreted by colonic bacteria released similar amounts of phenolic acids in both varieties. Resistant and slowly digestible starch contents showed no differences between RR and CND. These results suggest that the lower phenolic content in raw CND may not completely negate its impact on gut health.

  18. Fungal biotransformation of chlorogenic and caffeic acids by Fusarium graminearum: New insights in the contribution of phenolic acids to resistance to deoxynivalenol accumulation in cereals.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Léa; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noelle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Ducos, Christine; Richard-Forget, Florence; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela

    2016-03-16

    Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot, mainly caused by the fungi Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, are two of the most devastating diseases of small-grain cereals and maize. In addition to yield loss, these diseases frequently result in contamination of kernels with toxic type B trichothecenes. The potential involvement of chlorogenic acid in cereal resistance to Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot and to trichothecene accumulation was the focus of this study. The effects of chlorogenic acid and one of its hydrolyzed products, caffeic acid, on fungal growth and type B trichothecenes biosynthesis were studied using concentrations close to physiological amounts quantified in kernels and a set of F. graminearum and F. culmorum strains. Both chlorogenic and caffeic acids negatively impact fungal growth and mycotoxin production, with caffeic acid being significantly more toxic. Inhibitory efficiencies of both phenolic acids were strain-dependent. To further investigate the antifungal and anti "mycotoxin" effect of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, the metabolic fate of these two phenolic acids was characterized in supplemented F. graminearum broths. For the first time, our results demonstrated the ability of F. graminearum to degrade chlorogenic acid into caffeic, hydroxychlorogenic and protocatechuic acids and caffeic acid into protocatechuic and hydroxycaffeic acids. Some of these metabolic products can contribute to the inhibitory efficiency of chlorogenic acid that, therefore, can be compared as a "pro-drug". As a whole, our data corroborate the contribution of chlorogenic acid to the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum and its production of mycotoxins.

  19. Hydrolysis of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) and their aerobic transformation into phenol by the resistant Enterobacter cloacae strain EM.

    PubMed

    Valkova, N; Lépine, F; Valeanu, L; Dupont, M; Labrie, L; Bisaillon, J G; Beaudet, R; Shareck, F; Villemur, R

    2001-06-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain EM was isolated from a commercial dietary mineral supplement stabilized by a mixture of methylparaben and propylparaben. It harbored a high-molecular-weight plasmid and was resistant to high concentrations of parabens. Strain EM was able to grow in liquid media containing similar amounts of parabens as found in the mineral supplement (1,700 and 180 mg of methyl and propylparaben, respectively, per liter or 11.2 and 1.0 mM) and in very high concentrations of methylparaben (3,000 mg liter(-1), or 19.7 mM). This strain was able to hydrolyze approximately 500 mg of methyl-, ethyl-, or propylparaben liter(-1) (3 mM) in less than 2 h in liquid culture, and the supernatant of a sonicated culture, after a 30-fold dilution, was able to hydrolyze 1,000 mg of methylparaben liter(-1) (6.6 mM) in 15 min. The first step of paraben degradation was the hydrolysis of the ester bond to produce 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, followed by a decarboxylation step to produce phenol under aerobic conditions. The transformation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid into phenol was stoichiometric. The conversion of approximately 500 mg of parabens liter(-1) (3 mM) to phenol in liquid culture was completed within 5 h without significant hindrance to the growth of strain EM, while higher concentrations of parabens partially inhibited its growth.

  20. Picosecond mass-selective measurements of phenol-(NH3)n acid-base chemistry in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Jhobe; Syage, Jack A.

    1990-04-01

    The rate of proton transfer from the acidic S1 state of phenol to the basis solvent (NH3)n was measured as a function of solvent cluster size n. A distinct reaction threshold was observed for solvent size n=5 for 266 nm picosecond excitation. The proton transfer rate was measured to be ka=(60±10 ps)-1 for n=5-7. A competitive recombination rate of k-a =(350±100 ps)-1 occurs for n=5. Additional solvation stabilizes the product side causing the reaction enthalpy and consequently k-a to decrease. No evidence of proton transfer was observed when phenol was seeded in the less basic solvent clusters (CH3OH)n and (H2O)n.

  1. Silicon-induced changes in antifungal phenolic acids, flavonoids, and key phenylpropanoid pathway genes during the interaction between miniature roses and the biotrophic pathogen Podosphaera pannosa.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Fretté, Xavier; Jensen, Birgit; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Jensen, Jens Due; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Newman, Mari-Anne; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2011-12-01

    Application of 3.6 mm silicon (Si+) to the rose (Rosa hybrida) cultivar Smart increased the concentration of antimicrobial phenolic acids and flavonoids in response to infection by rose powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa). Simultaneously, the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and chalcone synthase) was up-regulated. The increase in phenolic compounds correlated with a 46% reduction in disease severity compared with inoculated leaves without Si application (Si-). Furthermore, Si application without pathogen inoculation induced gene expression and primed the accumulation of several phenolics compared with the uninoculated Si- control. Chlorogenic acid was the phenolic acid detected in the highest concentration, with an increase of more than 80% in Si+ inoculated compared with Si- uninoculated plants. Among the quantified flavonoids, rutin and quercitrin were detected in the highest concentrations, and the rutin concentration increased more than 20-fold in Si+ inoculated compared with Si- uninoculated plants. Both rutin and chlorogenic acid had antimicrobial effects on P. pannosa, evidenced by reduced conidial germination and appressorium formation of the pathogen, both after spray application and infiltration into leaves. The application of rutin and chlorogenic acid reduced powdery mildew severity by 40% to 50%, and observation of an effect after leaf infiltration indicated that these two phenolics can be transported to the epidermal surface. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Si plays an active role in disease reduction in rose by inducing the production of antifungal phenolic metabolites as a response to powdery mildew infection.

  2. Phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to nickel.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Backor, Martin

    2009-09-01

    We examined accumulation of phenolic acids, total soluble phenolics and flavonoids, and activities of phenolic metabolism-related enzymes (shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO)) in Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to 3, 60 and 120 microM of nickel (Ni) for 10 days. Ni showed low toxicity as indicated by unaltered content of total soluble phenolics in the leaf rosettes. In the roots, the effects of Ni were more visible, including increased total phenolics and PAL activity, but a decrease in PPO activity was observed. CAD activity was not affected by any of the Ni concentrations. Cinnamic acid derivatives were affected more than benzoic acid derivatives. Accumulation of chlorogenic acid, an important antioxidant compound, was enhanced by Ni treatment (ca. 4-fold in 120 microM Ni). Accumulation of protocatechuic acid, a phenol with high chelating strength, even decreased in the leaf rosettes. These observations are discussed in connection to antioxidative properties of phenolic metabolites and previously tested metals (cadmium and copper).

  3. Use of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MARRA, FRANCESCO; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BRUZZONE, MATTEO; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; DETTONI, FEDERICO; ROSSI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose different strategies have been developed to reduce blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The efficacy of both systemic and local tranexamic acid (TXA) administration is demonstrated in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of systemic, local and combined (systemic + local) administration of TXA in reducing blood loss after TKA. Methods we enrolled all patients submitted to a primary TKA in our department between November 2014 and August 2015. They were divided into three groups corresponding to the method of TXA administration used: intravenous (IV), intra-articular (IA), and a combination of the two. Demographic data, as well as preoperative hemoglobin and platelet levels, were collected. The primary outcome was the maximum hemoglobin loss, while the secondary outcomes were the amount of blood in the drain (cc/hour) and the rate of transfusions; postoperative pain was also assessed. Student’s t-test or a χ2 test was used to evaluate between-group differences, using p<0.05 as the cut-off for statistically significant differences. Results the sample comprised 34 patients: IV, 10 cases; IA, 15 cases, and combined (IV + IA), 9 cases. The average age of the patients was 71.1±6.4 years. No significant differences in the outcome measures were found between the groups, with the exception of a significantly lower maximum hemoglobin loss in the combined versus the IV group (p=0.02). There were no differences between the groups in the amount of blood in the drain or the rate of transfusions. Conclusions the data from this preliminary study, as well as data from the literature, confirm that TXA administration is safe and effective in reducing total blood loss in TKA, and no administration protocol seems to be superior to the others. Level of evidence Level II, prospective comparative study. PMID:28217656

  4. Enumeration of human colonic bacteria producing phenolic and indolic compounds: effects of pH, carbohydrate availability and retention time on dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Macfarlane, G T

    1996-09-01

    Concentrations of phenolic compounds in human gut contents were more than fourfold higher in the distal colon (6.2 mmol kg-1) compared to the proximal bowel (1.4 mmol kg-1). Tryptophan metabolites were never found in more than trace amounts in large intestinal contents and phenol substituted fatty acids were the major products of aromatic amino acid fermentation that accumulated in the proximal colon, whereas phenol and p-cresol were more important in the distal gut, accounting for 70% of all products of dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism. In vitro incubations of colonic material showed that phenol was produced most rapidly (1.0 mumol g-1 h-1), whereas indole was formed comparatively slowly (0.06 mumol g-1 h-1). Most probable number (MPN) estimations demonstrated that large populations of phenol and indole producing bacteria occur in the large intestine (range log10 9.8-11.5 (g dry wt faeces)-1, mean 10.6, N = 7). With respect to phenolic compounds, phenylacetate and phenylpropionate producers predominated, while indoleacetate-forming bacteria were the major tryptophan-utilizing organisms. Quantitation of products of dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism in MPN tubes showed that phenol and phenylpropionate mainly accumulated at low sample dilutions, whereas phenylacetate, p-cresol, indoleacetate and indolepropionate were formed in greatest amounts at high sample dilutions. The significance of pH and carbohydrate availability with respect to aromatic amino acid metabolism was shown in batch culture fermentation studies, where net production of phenolic compounds by mixed populations of intestinal bacteria was reduced by approximately 33% during growth at pH 5.5 compared to pH 6.8, and by 60% in the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. Experiments with 16 species of intestinal bacteria belonging to six different genera showed that environmental factors such as low pH and high carbohydrate availability markedly reduced dissimilatory aromatic amino

  5. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and triterpenic acids in oregano growing wild in Greece by 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Agiomyrgianaki, Alexia; Dais, Photis

    2012-11-01

    (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to detect and quantify simultaneously a large number of phenolic compounds and the two triterpenic acids, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, extracted from two oregano species Origanum onites and Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum using two different organic solvents ethanol and ethyl acetate. This analytical method is based on the derivatization of the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of these compounds with the phosphorous reagent 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxa phospholane and the identification of the phosphitylated compounds on the basis of the (31)P chemical shifts. Unambiguous assignment of the (31)P NMR chemical shifts of the dihydroxy- and polyhydroxy-phenols in oregano species as well as those of the triterpenic acids was achieved upon comparison with the chemical shifts of model compounds assigned by using two-dimensional NMR techniques. Furthermore, the integration of the appropriate signals of the hydroxyl derivatives in the corresponding (31)P NMR spectra and the use of the phosphitylated cyclohexanol as an internal standard allowed the quantification of these compounds. The validity of this technique for quantitative measurements was thoroughly examined.

  6. Photo-Fenton treatment of water containing natural phenolic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Gernjak, Wolfgang; Krutzler, Thomas; Glaser, Andreas; Malato, Sixto; Caceres, Julia; Bauer, Rupert; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2003-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are known to be present in high concentrations in various types of agro-industrial wastes. As they are highly biorecalcitrant, the possibility of treatment by advanced oxidation processes should be investigated. In this work, six model phenolic compounds (vanillin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and L-tyrosine) were chosen for a demonstration of degradation by photo-Fenton reaction, under artificial light in laboratory experiments in Vienna and under sunlight in pilot-plant experiments at the Plataforma Solar de Almería in Spain. All compounds were completely mineralised. No non-degradable intermediates were produced, either in experiments with single substances or in a more complex matrix of a mixture of phenolic compounds. The expected selectivity of the photo-Fenton reaction for aromatic compounds was proven by comparison of the decrease in total organic carbon with the removal of total phenolic content.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine, propylene glycol diamine and aliphatic polyamine, N... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether,...

  8. Intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid in primary total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Liang, Yuan; Chen, Pengtao; Fang, Yongchao; He, Jinshan; Wang, Jingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: As the prevalence of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasing, it is usually associated with considerable blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been reported to reduce perioperative blood loss in hip joint arthroplasty. But the best route of TXA administration continues to be controversial. So, we conducted a meta-analysis that integrated all data from the 7 included trials to compare the effectiveness and safety of topical and intravenous TXA administration in primary THA. The endpoints assessed in this meta-analysis include the comparisons of total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, the incidence rate of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolisms (PE), and wound infection. Methods: Literature searches of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, the CNKI database, and Wan Fang Data were performed up to August 30, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our meta-analysis if they compared the efficiency and safety of intravenous versus topical administration of TXA in patients who underwent primary THA. The endpoints included the comparisons of total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, the incidence rate of DVT, PE, and wound infection. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and the PRISMA statement. The pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.3, Denmark. Results: Seven RCTs involving 964 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in the 2 groups in terms of total blood loss ([mean difference (MD) = −14.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): −89.21 to 59.74, P = 0.7], transfusion rates [RD = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.05 to 0.02, P = 0.39]; no significant differences were found regarding the incidence of adverse effects such as deep venous thrombosis [DVT] [RD = 0.00, 95% CI: −0

  9. Fatty Acids Profile, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Elicited Callus of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Pérez, Jack; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ludwi; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Luján-Hidalgo, María Celina; Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; González-Mendoza, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was analyze the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) as elicitors on fatty acids profile (FAP), phenolic compounds (PC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) in callus of Thevetia peruviana. Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) medium, supplemented with 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2, 4-D) and 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN) was used for callus induction. The effect of JA (50, 75 and 100 μM) and ABA (10, 55 and 100 μM) on FAP, PC and AC were analyzed using a response surface design. A maximum of 2.8 mg/g of TPC was obtained with 100 plus 10 µM JA and ABA, respectively, whereas AC maximum (2.17 μg/mL) was obtained with 75 plus 100 µM JA and ABA, respectively. The FAP was affected for JA but not for ABA. JA increased cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and decreased dodecanoic acid. Eight fatty acids were identified by GC-MS analysis and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1) was the principal fatty acid reaching 76 % in treatment with 50 μM JA plus 55 μM ABA. In conclusion, JA may be used in T. peruviana callus culture for obtain oil with different fatty acids profile.

  10. Determination of antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavanoid contents in Bougainvillea glabra bracts at various methanol concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markandan, Shalini; Abdullah, Aminah; Musa, Khalid Hamid; Subramaniam, Vimala; Stockham, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The Bougainvillea glabra bract was extracted using three ratios of methanolic solvents at 50%, 70% and 100%. In this study, the methanolic extracts of B. glabra bract were evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolics and flavanoids. Methanol at 100% was the highest extraction efficiency among three other methanolic with yield value of 38%. The content of phenolics and flavonoids of B. glabra bracts in methanol 100% were 63.92±0.90 GAE mg/100g and 249.53±26.20 QE mg/100g respectively. The antioxidant activity was measured using three different bioassays namely, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalent per 100 g where Trolox is a vitamin E analog. Among these methanol extracts, highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the pure methanol concentration. Positive correlation was observed in B. glabra bract between DPPH assay and TPC, r2=1.00. The methanol extract at 100% was rich in polyphenolics, which indicating that the B. glabra bract has the potential to be recommended as a good dietary source of natural antioxidants.

  11. A low-cost and low-tech electrochemical flow system for the evaluation of total phenolic content and antioxidant power of tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Susanna; Scampicchio, Matteo; Giovanelli, Gabriella; Mannino, Saverio

    2008-03-15

    A disposable, small scale and low-cost electrochemical "wall-jet" flow-cell was build up together with a graphite lead mounted onto a pencil holder able to modulate the current response by the control of the surface area of the electrode. The total phenolic content of different types of tea infusions was determined and compared with the conventional Folin-Ciocolteau method. An index of antioxidant power was also proposed and data were compared with those obtained by the DPPH* assay.

  12. Ameliorative effect of p-coumaric acid, a common dietary phenol, on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Pragasam, Samuel Joshua; Murunikkara, Vachana; Sabina, Evan Prince; Rasool, MahaboobKhan

    2013-02-01

    p-Coumaric acid (3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid), a common dietary polyphenol, is widely distributed in cereals, fruits and vegetables with antioxidant property. Numerous studies have enlightened the ability of dietary phenols to be considered as potential therapeutics against arthritis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the ameliorative effect of plant phenolic p-coumaric acid on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The reference drug indomethacin was used for comparison purposes. Arthritis was induced in rats by a single intradermal injection of complete freund's adjuvant (0.1 mL) into the foot pad of right hind paw. p-Coumaric acid (100 mg/kg b wt) and indomethacin (3 mg/kg b wt) were administered intraperitoneally for 8 days from day 11 to 18 after adjuvant injection. An increase in the activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, tissue marker enzymes, glycoproteins and paw thickness was observed in the arthritic rats, on the contrary, the body weight was found to be reduced in arthritic rats when compared to normal control rats. Administration of p-coumaric acid (100 mg/kg b wt) to the arthritic rats reverted back the altered physical and biochemical parameters to near normal levels comparable to indomethacin treatment. Histopathological evaluation of ankle joints in arthritic rats also revealed the anti-inflammatory effect of p-coumaric acid by the reduction in leukocytes infiltration. Thus, the present study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory potential of the p-coumaric acid against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

  13. The hrp pathogenicity island of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is induced by plant phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Seung; Ryu, Hye Ryun; Cha, Ji Young; Baik, Hyung Suk

    2015-10-01

    Plants produce a wide array of antimicrobial compounds, such as phenolic compounds, to combat microbial pathogens. The hrp PAI is one of the major virulence factors in the plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae. A major role of hrp PAI is to disable the plant defense system during bacterial invasion. We examined the influence of phenolic compounds on hrp PAI gene expression at low and high concentrations. There was approximately 2.5 times more hrpA and hrpZ mRNA in PtoDC3000 that was grown in minimal media (MM) supplemented with 10 -M of ortho-coumaric acid than in PtoDC3000 grown in MM alone. On the other hand, a significantly lower amount of hrpA mRNA was observed in bacteria grown in MM supplemented with a high concentration of phenolic compounds. To determine the regulation pathway for hrp PAI gene expression, we performed qRTPCR using gacS, gacA, and hrpS deletion mutants.

  14. Reaction mechanism and metal ion transformation in photocatalytic ozonation of phenol and oxalic acid with Ag(+)/TiO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingying; Xie, Yongbing; Yang, Jun; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Photocatalytic ozonation of phenol and oxalic acid (OA) was conducted with a Ag(+)/TiO2 catalyst and different pathways were found for the degradation of different compounds. Ag(+) greatly promoted the photocatalytic degradation of contaminants due to its role as an electron scavenger. It also accelerated the removal rate of OA in ozonation and the simultaneous process for its complex reaction with oxalate. Phenol could be degraded both in direct ozonation and photolysis, but the TOC removal rates were much higher in the simultaneous processes due to the oxidation of hydroxyl radicals resulting from synergetic effects. The sequence of photo-illumination and ozone exposure in the combined process showed quite different effects in phenol degradation and TOC removal. The synergetic effects in different combined processes were found to be highly related to the properties of the target pollutants. The color change of the solution and TEM result confirmed that Ag(+) was easily reduced and deposited on the surface of TiO2 under photo-illumination, and dissolved again into solution in the presence of ozone. This simple cycle of enrichment and distribution of Ag(+) can greatly benefit the design of advanced oxidation processes, in which the sequences of ozone and photo-illumination can be varied according to the needs for catalyst recycling and the different properties of pollutants.

  15. Analysis of phenolic compounds in six Norwegian plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Slimestad, Rune; Vangdal, Eivind; Brede, Cato

    2009-12-09

    Six European plum cultivars ( Prunus domestica L.) grown in Norway have been studied with respect to phenolic composition. Neochlorogenic acid was found to be the most important phenolic acid in all cultivars. Together with other phenolic acids, this compound varied significantly in amount among the cultivars. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside was found to account for >60% of the total anthocyanin content. Minor amounts of flavonols (rutin and quercetin 3-glucoside) were detected in all cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity varied from 814 to 290 micromol of Trolox 100 g(-1) of fresh weight. Measurement of total phenolic content in terms of Prussian blue complex formation revealed a method failure of magnitude order compared to results obtained by HPLC. Comparison of the response factors of a range of phenolic compounds obtained upon analysis by the Prussian blue and Folin-Ciocalteu assays revealed that the latter method returned higher yields in terms of gallic acid (GAE).

  16. Preharvest treatments with malic, oxalic, and acetylsalicylic acids affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill and parsley.

    PubMed

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Nowicka, Paulina; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-07-01

    The effects of a p