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Sample records for acid total phenolics

  1. Response of total tannins and phenolics in loblolly pine foliage exposed to ozone and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Jordan, D N; Green, T H; Chappelka, A H; Lockaby, B G; Meldahl, R S; Gjerstad, D H

    1991-03-01

    Tannin and total phenolic levels in the foliage of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were examined in order to evaluate the effect of atmospheric pollution on secondary plant metabolism. The trees were exposed to four ozone concentrations and three levels of simulated acid rain. Tannin concentration (quantity per gram) and content (quantity per fascicle) were increased in foliage exposed to high concentrations of ozone in both ozone-sensitive and ozone-tolerant families. No effect of acid rain on tannins was observed. Neither total phenolic concentration nor content was significantly affected by any treatment, indicating that the ozone-related increase in foliar tannins was due to changes in allocation within the phenolic group rather than to increases in total phenolics. The change in allocation of resources in the production of secondary metabolites may have implications in herbivore defense, as well as for the overall energy balance of the plant.

  2. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.

  3. Total Phenolic, Phenolic Acid, Anthocyanin, Flavan-3-ol, and Flavonol Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Pinto and Black Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as Affected by Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2009-06-10

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes at atmospheric and high pressures on the phenolic components and antioxidant properties of pinto and black beans were investigated. In comparison to the original raw beans, all processing methods caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) values in both pinto and black beans. Steaming processing resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC values than the boiling processes in both pinto and black beans. To further investigate how thermal processing affected phenolic compositions and to elucidate the contribution of individual phenolic compounds to antioxidant properties, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All thermal processing significantly (p < 0.05) affected individual phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced total phenolic acid contents in both pinto and black beans and total flavonol contents in pinto beans, and dramatically reduced anthocyanin contents in black beans. Phenolic acids and flavonols may play important roles on the overall antioxidant activities of pinto beans, while anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols may play important roles on the overall antioxidant activities of black beans.

  4. Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) Fruits: Comparision of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoids profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) fruit and to compare various techniques for the analysis of total phenolic acids. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, querceti...

  5. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties. PMID:27070569

  6. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  7. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G

    2016-09-01

    Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product. PMID:27656685

  8. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G

    2016-09-01

    Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  9. Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit and seeds from the jujube plant (Ziziphus jujuba) possess nutritional and medicinal including antimicrobial properties. We measured free amino acid content by ion-exchange chromatography, individual phenolic content by HPLC, UV, and mass spectral methods, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocal...

  10. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  11. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Manthey, John A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope

    2009-11-25

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit grown worldwide with excellent nutritional value and widely attributed health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peels, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxidants of mango fruit pulp. Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over 1 year to compare the beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the fruit pulp and to compare the phenolic profiles of the individual varieties. To minimize ripeness variability, only soft fruit (0.5-1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements. Ascorbic acid ranged from 11 to 134 mg/100 g of pulp puree, and beta-carotene varied from 5 to 30 mg/kg among the five varieties. Total phenolic content ranged from 19.5 to 166.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of puree. The varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden had similar total phenolic contents, averaging 31.2+/-7.8 mg GAE/100 g of puree, whereas the variety Ataulfo contained substantially higher values. Similar trends were observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activities among the five varieties. In contrast, the country of origin and harvest dates had far less influence on these parameters. Ataulfo mangoes contained significantly higher amounts of mangiferin and ellagic acid than the other four varieties. Large fruit-to-fruit variations in the concentrations of these compounds occurred within sets of mangoes of the same cultivar with the same harvest location and date.

  12. Phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Marlena; Matławska, Irena; Szkudlarek, Maurycy

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra has been studied by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. The phenolic acids occurring in these fractions have been identified as ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids. By means of the HPLC methods the contents of major phenolic acids were estimated. From among the phenolic acids analyzed the syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids are dominant. Total content of phenolic acids was determined by the Arnov's method.

  13. Combined effect of starch/montmorillonite coating and passive MAP in antioxidant activity, total phenolics, organic acids and volatile of fresh-cut carrots.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Isabela Costa; dos Reis, Kelen Cristina; Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; Borges, Paulo Rogério Siriano; Rodrigues, Ariel Costa; Leal, Renato; Hernandes, Thais; de Carvalho, Elisângela Helena Nunes; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates fresh-cut carrots (FCC) coated with montmorillonite (MMT) subjected to passive modified atmosphere packaging. Carrots were sanitized, cooled, peeled and sliced. Half of the FCC were coated with MMT nanoparticle film and the other half were not. All FCCs were packed in a polypropylene rigid tray, covered with a polypropylene rigid lid or sealed with polyethylene + propylene film, in four treatments (RL, rigid lid; RLC, rigid lid + coating; ST, sealed tray; STC, sealed tray + coating). FCCs were stored at 4 °C and were analyzed weekly for 4 weeks (total antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl method and the β-carotene/linoleic acid, phenolic compounds, organic acids and volatile compounds). The use of coating film with starch nanoparticles and a modified atmosphere leads to the preservation of the total antioxidant activity, the volatile and organic acids of FCC. PMID:26857136

  14. Combined effect of starch/montmorillonite coating and passive MAP in antioxidant activity, total phenolics, organic acids and volatile of fresh-cut carrots.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Isabela Costa; dos Reis, Kelen Cristina; Menezes, Evandro Galvão Tavares; Borges, Paulo Rogério Siriano; Rodrigues, Ariel Costa; Leal, Renato; Hernandes, Thais; de Carvalho, Elisângela Helena Nunes; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates fresh-cut carrots (FCC) coated with montmorillonite (MMT) subjected to passive modified atmosphere packaging. Carrots were sanitized, cooled, peeled and sliced. Half of the FCC were coated with MMT nanoparticle film and the other half were not. All FCCs were packed in a polypropylene rigid tray, covered with a polypropylene rigid lid or sealed with polyethylene + propylene film, in four treatments (RL, rigid lid; RLC, rigid lid + coating; ST, sealed tray; STC, sealed tray + coating). FCCs were stored at 4 °C and were analyzed weekly for 4 weeks (total antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl method and the β-carotene/linoleic acid, phenolic compounds, organic acids and volatile compounds). The use of coating film with starch nanoparticles and a modified atmosphere leads to the preservation of the total antioxidant activity, the volatile and organic acids of FCC.

  15. Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D M; Hoffman, B; Yang, J; Soleas, G J

    1999-10-01

    The concentrations of 11 phenols and 5 furans were measured in 12 categories of distilled spirits by HPLC methodology, together with the total antioxidant status (TAS) of the same beverages. Ellagic acid was the phenol present in highest concentration in all beverages. Moderate amounts of syringaldehyde, syringic acid, and gallic acid, as well as lesser amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid, were measurable in most samples of whiskey, brandy, and rum but were largely undetectable in gin, vodka, liqueurs, and miscellaneous spirits. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural was the predominant furan in the former three beverages, notably cognac, with 2-furaldehyde the next highest, but these were undetectable in most of the latter beverages. Highest TAS values were given by armagnac, cognac, and bourbon whiskey, all three of which tended toward the highest concentrations of phenols. Negative TAS values were exhibited by rum, vodka, gin, and miscellaneous spirits in line with the low or undetectable phenol concentrations in these beverages. Wood aging is the most likely source of phenols and furans in distilled spirits. Those beverages exposed to this treatment contain significant antioxidant activity, which is between the ranges for white and red wines, with the potential to augment the antiatherosclerotic functions attributable to the ethanol that they contain.

  16. Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D M; Hoffman, B; Yang, J; Soleas, G J

    1999-10-01

    The concentrations of 11 phenols and 5 furans were measured in 12 categories of distilled spirits by HPLC methodology, together with the total antioxidant status (TAS) of the same beverages. Ellagic acid was the phenol present in highest concentration in all beverages. Moderate amounts of syringaldehyde, syringic acid, and gallic acid, as well as lesser amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid, were measurable in most samples of whiskey, brandy, and rum but were largely undetectable in gin, vodka, liqueurs, and miscellaneous spirits. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural was the predominant furan in the former three beverages, notably cognac, with 2-furaldehyde the next highest, but these were undetectable in most of the latter beverages. Highest TAS values were given by armagnac, cognac, and bourbon whiskey, all three of which tended toward the highest concentrations of phenols. Negative TAS values were exhibited by rum, vodka, gin, and miscellaneous spirits in line with the low or undetectable phenol concentrations in these beverages. Wood aging is the most likely source of phenols and furans in distilled spirits. Those beverages exposed to this treatment contain significant antioxidant activity, which is between the ranges for white and red wines, with the potential to augment the antiatherosclerotic functions attributable to the ethanol that they contain. PMID:10552753

  17. Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yuxia; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2008-06-01

    Phenolic acids in potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) were determined and the effects of pickling methods on the contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities were investigated. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid were identified in the present study. The contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids and total phenolics in fresh potherb mustard were 84.8±0.58μg/g dry weight (DW), 539±1.36μg/g DW, and 7.95±0.28mg/g DW, respectively. The total free phenolic acids increased during the pickling processes, but the total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities decreased. However, after 5 weeks of fermentation, all the pickling methods retained over 70% of total phenolic contents and above 65% of antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that pickling processes were relatively good methods for the preservation of phenolic acids and antioxidants for potherb mustard. PMID:26065739

  18. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

    2011-04-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  19. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Gözlekçi, Şadiye; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Özgen, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  20. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Polish Apple Ciders.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, A; Ruszkiewicz, M; Biskup, I

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated. PMID:26798183

  1. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Polish Apple Ciders

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, A.; Ruszkiewicz, M.; Biskup, I.

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated. PMID:26798183

  2. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).

    PubMed

    Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc

    2010-11-24

    The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective.

  3. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).

    PubMed

    Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc

    2010-11-24

    The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective. PMID:20964342

  4. Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoids, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Scrophularia Striata Boiss Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Boland Nazar, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrophularia striata (Scrophulariaceae family) is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used for treatment of microbial infections. Objectives Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of different extracts (methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous and ethyl acetate) from S. striata aerial parts was evaluated. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial activity of different extracts from S. striata was evaluated against a large number of bacteria and fungi by micro broth dilution. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and their antioxidant activities evaluated by DPPH assay and beta carotene linoleic acid test. Results Antimicrobial screening exhibited the positive relation between the total phenolic content and its antimicrobial activity but their antioxidant activity had a negative relation. Conclusions Further studies are recommended against clinical isolate of sensitive bacteria and deep investigation on flavonoid and phenolic compounds of S. striata and detecting the antioxidant portion in aqueous extract. PMID:24624181

  5. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  6. The impact of drying techniques on phenolic compound, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of oat flour tarhana.

    PubMed

    Değirmencioğlu, Nurcan; Gürbüz, Ozan; Herken, Emine Nur; Yıldız, Aysun Yurdunuseven

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the changes in phenolic composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tarhanas supplemented with oat flour (OF) at the levels of 20-100% (w/w) after three drying treatments (sun-, oven-, and microwave drying) were investigated. A total of seventeen phenolic standards have been screened in tarhanas, and the most abundant flavonol and phenolic acid compounds were kaempferol (23.62mg/g) and 3-hydroxy-4-metoxy cinnamic acid (9.60mg/g). The total phenolic content amount gradually increased with the addition of OF to tarhana, but decidedly higher total phenolic content was found in samples oven dried at 55°C as compared with other methods. The microwave- and oven dried tarhana samples showed higher TEACDPPH and TEACABTS values than those dried with the other methods, respectively, in higher OF amounts. Consequently, oven- and microwave-drying can be recommended to retain the highest for phenolic compounds as well as maximal antioxidant capacity in OF supplemented tarhana samples. PMID:26471596

  7. Assessment of total (free and bound) phenolic compounds in spent coffee extracts.

    PubMed

    Monente, Carmen; Ludwig, Iziar A; Irigoyen, Angel; De Peña, María-Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2015-05-01

    Spent coffee is the main byproduct of the brewing process and a potential source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic acids easily extracted with water. Free and bound caffeoylquinic (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA), dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, 4,5-diCQA), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured by HPLC, after the application of three treatments (alkaline, acid, saline) to spent coffee extracts. Around 2-fold higher content of total phenolics has been estimated in comparison to free compounds. Phenolic compounds with one or more caffeic acid molecules were approximately 54% linked to macromolecules such as melanoidins, mainly by noncovalent interactions (up to 81% of bound phenolic compounds). The rest of the quantitated phenolic acids were mainly attached to other structures by covalent bonds (62-97% of total bound compounds). Alkaline hydrolysis and saline treatment were suitable to estimate total bound and ionically bound phenolic acids, respectively, whereas acid hydrolysis is an inadequate method to quantitate coffee phenolic acids.

  8. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  9. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits. PMID:16418890

  10. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization.

  11. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization. PMID:15998127

  12. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D

    2008-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit.

  13. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C.E.; Oladeinde, F. O.; Kinyua, A.M.; Michelin, R.; Makinde, J.M.; Jaiyesimi, A.A.; Mbiti, W.N.; Kamau, G.N.; Kofi-Tsekpo, W.M.; Pramanik, S.; Williams, A.; Kennedy, A.; Bronner, Y.; Clarke, K.; Fofonoff, P.; Nemerson, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  14. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D

    2008-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  15. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  17. Phenolic acid esterases, coding sequences and methods

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David L.; Kataeva, Irina; Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2002-01-01

    Described herein are four phenolic acid esterases, three of which correspond to domains of previously unknown function within bacterial xylanases, from XynY and XynZ of Clostridium thermocellum and from a xylanase of Ruminococcus. The fourth specifically exemplified xylanase is a protein encoded within the genome of Orpinomyces PC-2. The amino acids of these polypeptides and nucleotide sequences encoding them are provided. Recombinant host cells, expression vectors and methods for the recombinant production of phenolic acid esterases are also provided.

  18. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  19. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Cozzolino, Daniel; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-01

    Measuring chemical composition is a common approach to support decisions about allocating foods and beverages to grades related to market value. Red wine is a particularly complex beverage, and multiple compositional attributes are needed to account for its sensory properties, including measurement of key phenolic components such as anthocyanins, total phenolics, and tannin, which are related to color and astringency. Color has been shown to relate positively to red wine grade; however, little research has been presented that explores the relationship between astringency-related components such as total phenolic or tannin concentration and wine grade. The aim of this research has been to investigate the relationship between the wine grade allocations of commercial wineries and total phenolic and tannin concentrations, respectively, in Australian Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Total phenolic and tannin concentrations were determined using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and then compared to wine grade allocations made by winemaker panels during the companies' postvintage allocation process. Data were collected from wines produced by one Australian wine company over the 2005, 2006, and 2007 vintages and by a further two companies in 2007 (total wines = 1643). Statistical analysis revealed a positive trend toward higher wine grade allocation and wines that had higher concentrations of both total phenolics and tannin, respectively. This research demonstrates that for these companies, in general, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines allocated to higher market value grades have higher total phenolics and higher tannin concentrations and suggests that these compositional parameters should be considered in the development of future multiparameter decision support systems for relevant commercial red wine grading processes. In addition, both tannin and total phenolics would ideally be included because although, in general, a positive relationship

  20. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, U.

    1998-04-01

    Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

  1. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods. PMID:26396332

  2. Improved removal of ascorbate interference in the folin-ciocalteu assay of “total phenolic content”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The venerable Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can substantially exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been a promising approach to ...

  3. Improved Folin-Ciocalteu assay of “total phenolic content” by removal of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The venerable and operationally simple Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been...

  4. Determination of antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids, and fatty acid composition of rapeseed varieties.

    PubMed

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Trokowski, Konrad; Karlovits, György; Szłyk, Edward

    2010-07-14

    Three different analytical methods: ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were used for determination of antioxidant capacity of seven rapeseed varieties. Antioxidant capacity and levels of the total phenolic content, individual phenolic acids, fatty acid composition, and the selected physicochemical properties of the studied rapeseed cultivars were determined. Mean ORAC values for methanolic extracts of rapeseeds (4092-12989 mmol of Trolox/100 g) were significantly higher than FRAP and DPPH values (6218-7641 and 6238-7645 mumol of Trolox/100 g, respectively). Although FRAP and DPPH results were lower than ORAC values for all studied rapeseed varieties, there are linear and significant correlations between these three analytical methods (correlation coefficients ranged between 0.9124 and 0.9930, p < 0.005). Also, total phenolic compounds in rapeseeds correlated with antioxidant capacity (correlation coefficients ranged between 0.8708 and 0.9516, p < 0.01). Total phenolic acids determined by HPLC varied from 20.3 mg to 40.7 mg per 100 g of rapeseed flour, and the main phenolic acid is sinapic acid (17.4-36.4 mg/100 g). Fatty acid composition (SAFA = 7.2-8.6%, MUFA = 58.5-68.0%, PUFA = 24.7-33.9%) and the absence of trans-fatty acids indicate that the studied rapeseed varieties can be a source of unsaturated fatty acids and have a positive impact on human health.

  5. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2015-01-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs. PMID:27006902

  6. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-03-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55-24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs. PMID:27006902

  7. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of three microfluidic chemiluminescence methods for the determination of the total phenolic contents in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2017-01-01

    Three recently reported microfluidic chemiluminescence (MF-CL) methods (based on reactions with acidic permanganate enhanced by formaldehyde (KMnO4-COH), acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine B (Ce-RB), and acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine 6G (Ce-R6G) enhanced by SDS) for the determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) in juices were critically evaluated in terms of their selectivity. The evaluation was carried out using 86 analytes, including 22 phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and polyphenols), 6 known non-phenolic antioxidants, 9 amino acids and a number of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleotide bases, inorganic salts and other compounds. Each method was sensitive toward phenolic compounds (PCs). However, the KMnO4-COH CL system showed a higher sensitivity toward phenolic acids and also responded to non-phenolic antioxidants. The other two systems showed higher sensitivity toward polyphenolic compounds than to phenolic acids and did not responded to all other compounds including non-phenolic antioxidants. PMID:27507524

  9. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  10. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  11. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements. PMID:23687998

  12. Phenolics and betacyanins in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) root: distribution and effect of cold storage on the content of total phenolics and three individual compounds.

    PubMed

    Kujala, T S; Loponen, J M; Klika, K D; Pihlaja, K

    2000-11-01

    The distribution of total phenolics and main betacyanins in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) root was determined. Also, the subsequent effects of cold storage on the content of total phenolics, main betacyanins (betanin and isobetanin), and the main known ferulic acid ester (beta-D-fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-O-(E)-feruloylglucopyranoside) were determined in the peel, which is the root part containing the largest amount of total phenolics. The content of total phenolics in the red beetroot water extracts was determined according to a modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The compounds of interest were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and NMR techniques, and the contents of compounds were determined by HLPC analyses. The total phenolic contents in various root parts were found to decrease in the order peel, crown, flesh. Significant differences in the contents of total phenolics and individual compounds were found when the effect of cold storage (5 degrees C, 0-196 days) on the constituents of the peel from intact roots was examined. In addition to the betacyanins of red beetroot peel found in our earlier study, tentative identifications of betanidin and feruloylamaranthin were made.

  13. [Phenolic acid derivatives from Alchornea trewioides].

    PubMed

    Qin, Ri-Dong; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Liang, Hong

    2012-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Alchornea trewioides, silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, reverse phase ODS column chromatography, MCI and semi-preparative HPLC were used to separate the 95% EtOH extract of the root of Alchornea trewioides. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies including ESI-TOF-MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC and HMBC. Eight phenolic acids were obtained and identified as 1-O-galloyl-6-O-vanilloyl-beta-glucose (1), gallic acid (2), ethyl gallate (3), syringic acid (4), glucosyringic acid (5), erigeside C (6), 3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7) and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8). Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, compounds 4-8 are isolated from the genus Alchornea for the first time, and the others are isolated from the plant for the first time.

  14. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Andújar, Isabel; Vilanova, Santiago; Plazas, Mariola; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Brar, Navjot Singh; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids.

  15. Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay

    PubMed Central

    Polat, A. Aytekin; Çalişkan, Oğuzhan; Serçe, Sedat; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Kaya, Cemal; Özgen, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Several fruit characteristics of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cultivars/selections grown in Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey were investigated in 2008. The cultivars/selections included ‘Baduna 5’, Güzelyurt 1, ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’, ‘Ottaviani,’ and Type 1. The characteristics evaluated included fruit weight, width, length, seed number and weight, flesh/seed ratio, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total phenolic (TP) content, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analyses were conducted by three replicates, with 30 fruits in each replicate. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars, for all the traits tested. For example, ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ and ‘Ottaviani’ had smaller fruits than others, although ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had heavier seeds. The flesh/seed ratio was the highest in Type 1, while ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had the highest pH and high soluble solids. ‘Baduna 5’ and ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had the highest acidity. The TP ranged from 129 (‘Baduna 5’) to 578 (‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’) mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw). The results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and a relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health. PMID:20548929

  16. Changes in antioxidant activity and phenolic acid composition of tarhana with steel-cut oats.

    PubMed

    Kilci, A; Gocmen, D

    2014-02-15

    Steel-cut oats (SCO) was used to replace wheat flour in the tarhana formulation (control) at the levels of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% (w/w). Control sample included no SCO. Substitution of wheat flour in tarhana formulation with SCO affected the mineral contents positively. SCO additions also increased phenolic acid contents of tarhana samples. The most abundant phenolic acids were ferulic and vanillic acids, followed by syringic acid in the samples with SCO. Tarhana samples with SCO also showed higher antioxidant activities than the control. Compared with the control, the total phenolic content increased when the level of SCO addition was increased. SCO addition did not have a deteriorative effect on sensory properties of tarhana samples and resulted in acceptable soup properties in terms of overall acceptability. SCO addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of tarhana by causing increases in antioxidant activity, phenolic content and phenolic acids.

  17. Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanins, Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activity of Some Red Fruits Teas.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Bianca; Hosu, Anamaria; David, Luminita; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Fruits represent one of the main dietary sources of bioactive compounds. Due to their remarkable health benefits, many functional foods of fruit origin, including fruit teas, are present on the market and there is an increased interest regarding the investigation of their nutritional parameters and quality. The aims of our study were: 1) to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), antioxidant activity (AA), the scavenging capacity (IC50), the pro-oxidant activity (Pro-ox) and Pro-Antidex of 12 commercially available red fruit teas, 2) to classify the analysed teas and 3) to evaluate the similarities between samples. The TPC was between 12.5 and 29.3 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g tea, the TAC varied between 2.6 and 5.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu)/g tea and AA was in the range of 10.9-19.1 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g tea. The Pro-ox activity varied between 3.9 and 10.0 mg/mL tea extract and Pro-Antidex was between 3.3 and 7.3.

  18. Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanins, Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activity of Some Red Fruits Teas.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Bianca; Hosu, Anamaria; David, Luminita; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Fruits represent one of the main dietary sources of bioactive compounds. Due to their remarkable health benefits, many functional foods of fruit origin, including fruit teas, are present on the market and there is an increased interest regarding the investigation of their nutritional parameters and quality. The aims of our study were: 1) to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), antioxidant activity (AA), the scavenging capacity (IC50), the pro-oxidant activity (Pro-ox) and Pro-Antidex of 12 commercially available red fruit teas, 2) to classify the analysed teas and 3) to evaluate the similarities between samples. The TPC was between 12.5 and 29.3 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g tea, the TAC varied between 2.6 and 5.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu)/g tea and AA was in the range of 10.9-19.1 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g tea. The Pro-ox activity varied between 3.9 and 10.0 mg/mL tea extract and Pro-Antidex was between 3.3 and 7.3. PMID:27333542

  19. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  20. Phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Manfred; Weber, Markus

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century, phenol was recovered primarily from coal tar. With the commercialization of the phenolic resins, the demand for phenol grew significantly. Currently, the cumene-to-phenol process is the predominant synthetic route for the production of phenol. It is accompanied by acetone as a co-product. Cumene is oxidized with oxygen to form cumene hydroperoxide. The peroxide is subsequently decomposed to phenol and acetone, using a strong mineral acid as catalyst. The products are purified in a series of distillation columns. The cumene-to-phenol process is described in more detail in this chapter. An overview is given about synthetic routes via direct oxidation of benzene. None of these alternative routes has been commercialized. The chapter also gives an overview of global supply and use of phenol in 2008. Finally, the main natural sources and synthetic routes for cresols, xylenols, resorcinol, and bisphenol-A are described. These components are used as comonomers for special phenolic resins.

  1. Role of Phenolic Acids in Expression of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Autotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of phenolic acids in autotoxicity of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties was investigated using radicle growth bioassays and analytical techniques. Total phenolic content of barley plant components varied within and between varieties during the 1999-2002 growing seasons. Inhibition o...

  2. Modulation of hepatic phase II phenol sulfotransferase and antioxidant status by phenolic acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2006-08-01

    Phenolic acids have significant biological and pharmacological properties and some have demonstrated remarkable ability to alter sulfate conjugation. However, the modulatory effects of phenolic acids on phenol sulfotransferases (PSTs) in vivo have not been described. The present investigation evaluates the role of phenolic acid on the expression of PSTs in male Sprague-Dawley rat liver. According to the results, gentisic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid in a dosage of 100 mg/kg of body weight for 14 consecutive days significantly increased P-form PST (PST-P) activity as compared with that of the control rats (P<.05), whereas the activity of M-form PST (PST-M) in rats that received gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were also significantly (P<.05) higher than in the control rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the changes in both PST-P and PST-M mRNA levels by phenolic acids were similar to those noted in the enzyme activity levels. The plasma obtained from phenolic acid-administered rats had significantly (P<.05) increased oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(ROO*) values than that from control rats. In a bioavailability study, following oral administration of gallic acid and p-coumaric acid, the phenolic acids were detected in the plasma, and the Cmax values after 2.0-h administration were 665+/-23 and 550+/-33 nmol/L, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the activity of both forms of PSTs and the antioxidant capacity of ORAC(ROO*) value by phenolic acids (r=.74, P<.05 and r=.77, P<.05). These data suggest that phenolic acids might alter sulfate conjugation and antioxidant capacity in living systems. PMID:16443358

  3. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Piper auritum and Porophyllum ruderale.

    PubMed

    Conde-Hernández, Lilia A; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Á

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from fresh and dried samples of Mexican pepperleaf (Piper auritum Kunth) and "papalo" (Porophyllum ruderale) were obtained using a stirring or an ultrasound extraction system with five types of solvents (water, 50:50% v/v ethanol:water, 70:30% v/v ethanol:water, 85:15% v/v ethanol:1.5N HCl, and ethanol). Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated with the phenol Folin Ciocalteu reagent and the ABTS method, respectively. Total phenolic compounds (PC), trolox (T), and ascorbic acid (AA), in the two herbs, were in the range of 6.79-68.03mg of galic acid (GA)/g dry solids (d.s.), 4.88-64.99mg of T/gd.s., and 5.31-49.84mgAA/gd.s., respectively. Extracts from fresh "papalo", using ultrasound as the extraction system, had the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The fresh pepperleaf extract, obtained using ultrasound as the extraction method contained the highest amount of antioxidant activity.

  4. Comparison of phenolic acids profile and antioxidant potential of six varieties of spelt (Triticum spelta L.).

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz

    2012-05-01

    Phenolic acids profile and antioxidant activity of six diverse varieties of spelt are reported. Antioxidant activity was assessed using eight methods based on different mechanism of action. Phenolic acids composition of spelt differed significantly between varieties and ranged from 506.6 to 1257.4 μg/g DW. Ferulic and sinapinic acids were the predominant phenolic acids found in spelt. Total ferulic acid content ranged from 144.2 to 691.5 μg/g DW. All analyzed spelt varieties possessed high antioxidant potential. In spite of the fact that bound phenolic acids possessed higher antioxidant activities, analysis of antioxidant potential and their relationship with phenolic acid content showed that free phenolics were more effective. Eight antioxidant methods were integrated to obtain a total antioxidant capacity index that may be used for comparison of total antioxidant capacity of spelt varieties. Total antioxidant potential of spelt cultivars were ordered as follows: Ceralio > Spelt INZ ≈ Ostro > Oberkulmer Rotkorn > Schwabenspelz > Schwabenkorn.

  5. Free phenolic acids in Ruta graveolens L. in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Ekiert, H; Szewczyk, A; Kuś, A

    2009-10-01

    Eight phenolic acids were determined using HPLC method in methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) shoots cultured in vitro on four variants of Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium differing in contents of growth regulators, NAA and BAP (ranging between 0.1-3.0 mg/l). Four compounds: protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic and p-coumaric acid were detected and quantified. The total content of metabolites was dependent on LS medium variants. The contents of protocatechuic acid, quantitatively dominating on all tested LS medium variants, were considerable (from 67.15 to 93.24 mg/100 g d.w.) in comparison with its contents in the plant material under analysis (46.36 to 218.27 mg/ 100 g d.w.). This is the first report of the isolation of protocatechuic acid from an in vitro plant culture.

  6. Chemoselective esterification of phenolic acids and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Appendino, Giovanni; Minassi, Alberto; Daddario, Nives; Bianchi, Federica; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2002-10-31

    [formula: see text] The Mitsunobu reaction can distinguish between alcohol and phenol hydroxyls in esterification reactions, providing an expeditious and broadly applicable entry into various phenolics and polyphenolics of biomedical and nutritional relevance.

  7. Total content of phenols and anthocyanins in edible fruits from Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Rimpapa, Zlatan; Toromanović, Jasmin; Tahirović, Ismet; Sapcanin, Aida; Sofić, Emin

    2007-05-01

    Content of total phenols and total anthocyanins was estimated in edible fruits from Bosnia by photometric methods. Cyanidin-3-galactoside chloride was used as a standard for determination of total anthocyanins, and galic acid served as a standard for determination of total phenols. Total content of phenols was 12.7 mg/g in elderberry fruits, 10.4 mg/g in bilberry, 9.8 mg/g in blackberry, 8.8 mg/g in wild cherry, 6.1 mg/g in cultivated blackberry, 3.5 mg/g in cultivated strawberry, 2.4 mg/g in average in sour cherry fruits from different locations and the lowest quantity of total phenols was in edible parts of melon, only 0.2 mg/g. Total content of anthocyanins was 6.8 mg/g in wild cherry, 6.7 mg/g in elderberry fruits and 4.5 mg/g in bilberry. Wild bilberry fruits from different locations had in average 3.5 mg/g, cherries from different locations 1.3 mg/g, cultivated blackberries 1.0 mg/g, cultivated strawberries 0.8 mg/g while melon fruit had no anthocyanins at all. Acidity was measured in macerate of edible fruits by direct insertion of electrode. pH values in the macerates were as follows: 3.03 in bilberry, 3.45 in blackberries, 3.59 in sour cherries, 3.92 in wild cherries, 4.44 in elderberries and 6.19 in melon. PMID:17489745

  8. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols.

  9. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (p<0.05) were observed in both peel and pulp. The levels of total phenolic acids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms.

  10. Determination of total phenolic compounds in compost by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cascant, M M; Sisouane, M; Tahiri, S; Krati, M El; Cervera, M L; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2016-06-01

    Middle and near infrared (MIR and NIR) were applied to determine the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content in compost samples based on models built by using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate and first derivative were employed as spectra pretreatment, and the number of latent variable were optimized by leave-one-out cross-validation. The performance of PLS-ATR-MIR and PLS-DR-NIR models was evaluated according to root mean square error of cross validation and prediction (RMSECV and RMSEP), the coefficient of determination for prediction (Rpred(2)) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) being obtained for this latter values of 5.83 and 8.26 for MIR and NIR, respectively. PMID:27130128

  11. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Hieracium pilosella L. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Stanojević, Ljiljana; Stanković, Mihajlo; Nikolić, Vesna; Nikolić, Ljubiša; Ristić, Dušica; Čanadanovic-Brunet, Jasna; Tumbas, Vesna

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of water, ethanol and methanol Hieracium pilosella L. extracts is reported. The antioxidative activity was tested by spectrophotometrically measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH• free radical and a reactive hydroxyl radical trapped by DMPO during the Fenton reaction, using the ESR spectroscopy. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. A HPLC method was used for identification of some phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and umbelliferone). The antioxidant activity of the investigated extracts slightly differs depending on the solvent used. The concentration of 0.30 mg/mL of water, ethanol and methanol extract is less effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals (56.35, 58.73 and 54.35%, respectively) in comparison with the DPPH• radical scavenging activity (around 95% for all extracts). The high contents of total phenolic compounds (239.59–244.16 mg GAE/g of dry extract) and total flavonoids (79.13–82.18 mg RE/g of dry extract) indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity. PMID:22346723

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Dietary Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Saibabu, Venkata; Fatima, Zeeshan; Khan, Luqman Ahmad; Hameed, Saif

    2015-01-01

    Although modern lifestyle has eased the quality of human life, this lifestyle's related patterns have imparted negative effects on health to acquire multiple diseases. Many synthetic drugs are invented during the last millennium but most if not all of them possess several side effects and proved to be costly. Convincing evidences have established the premise that the phytotherapeutic potential of natural compounds and need of search for novel drugs from natural sources are of high priority. Phenolic acids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites spread throughout the plant kingdom and generally involved in plethora of cellular processes involved in plant growth and reproduction and also produced as defense mechanism to sustain various environmental stresses. Extensive research on PAs strongly suggests that consumption of these compounds hold promise to offer protection against various ailments in humans. This paper focuses on the naturally derived PAs and summarizes the action mechanisms of these compounds during disease conditions. Based on the available information in the literature, it is suggested that use of PAs as drugs is very promising; however more research and clinical trials are necessary before these bioactive molecules can be made for treatment. Finally this review provides greater awareness of the promise that natural PAs hold for use in the disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26442119

  13. Content Variation of Catechin Markers, Total Phenolics and Caffeine in Green Tea Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Abourashed, Ehab A; Roberson, Cindy Leslie A; Elsharkawy, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) preparations are among the top selling products in the United States dietary supplements market. Numerous manufacturers claim different levels of specific catechin markers in their products while many others use total phenolic concentration instead, or not at all. Limited quality control results have been published for green tea dietary supplements over the past seven years. Thus, the goal of this work was to correlate determined levels of phenolics, catechins, and caffeine with manufacturer label claims for selected dietary supplement products (26 total) purchased in the United States. The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method was used to determine the total phenolic content while reversed-phase (RP) HPLC was used to quantify the major catechins: epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The developed HPLC method was validated for accuracy and precision. It utilized a C8 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile in 0.1% aqueous formic acid over 11 min total run time. Peak detection was performed at 280 nm. Caffeine was also included in the HPLC method as another non-phenolic alkaloid marker commonly found in green tea. Both methods showed a good correlation between the content of catechins and polyphenolic compounds in the selected products. The ranges of total catechins and polyphenol concentrations were 3.8-70.2% and 3.6-95.8%, respectively, while that of caffeine was 0.8-11.2%. The selected products displayed a wide range of marker levels. A lack of conformity in disclosing the actual levels of marker compounds was also noticed in the labeling of many products.

  14. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    PubMed

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  15. Ethnobotanical study, antifungal activity, phytochemical screening and total phenolic content of Algerian Aristolochia longa

    PubMed Central

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Aristolochia longa (from the family Aristolochiaceae) is widely used in Algerian traditional medicine. Here, we document ethnomedicinal uses by local population of Mascara province (West Algeria) and we evaluate the antifungal activity, the phytochemical composition and total phenolic content of aqueous extract (decoction) of the roots of A. longa from Algeria. Materials and Methods: The ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in Mascara Province (West Algeria). Antifungal activity was assessed against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total phenolic content was measured using the Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent. Results: Our results showed that A. longa is widely used to treat several ailments such as cancer (38%), skin infections (14%), and diabetes (11%). Crushed roots are commonly used (89%) mixed with honey, milk, water or other medicinal plants. A. longa aqueous extract induced growth inhibition of S. cerevisiae cells in a dose - and time - dependent manner. An effective suppression of S. cerevisiae (97.06% inhibition of proliferation) was obtained at the 500 µg/mL after 72 h. Results of the phytochemical screening revealed that A. longa aqueous extract contained various bioactive compounds, including polyphenols and flavonoids. Total phenolic content in A. longa aqueous extract was found to be 6.07 ± 0.12 mg (gallic acid equivalents)/g. Conclusion: A. longa may be considered as a promising source of new drugs for treating cancer and as a good antifungal agent. PMID:26401365

  16. In vitro antimutagenic, antioxidant activities and total phenolics of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Aslam, Maryam; Ijaz, Sidra

    2014-07-01

    The present work explores antimutagenic and antioxidant potential as well as total phenolics of aqueous and acidified methanol extractable components from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) seed. The magnitude of antimutagenic activity of clove seed extracts (CSE) against two mutant bacterial strains: S. typhimurium TA98 and S. typhimurium TA100 (Ames bacterial test) ranged from 34.11-79.74%. Antioxidant activity in terms of measurement of DPPH radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation was noted to be 71.16-94.58% and 54.96-86.89%, respectively. CSE also exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics with contribution between 22.80 and 115.33 GAE mg/100g. A strong correlation between total phenolics and tested biological activities were recorded. The results of this study advocate that clove seed can be explored as a viable source of bioactives for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer in addition to acting as nutraceutical and functional food ingredient.

  17. Assessment of Antioxidant Potential, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids of Different Solvent Fractions of Monotheca Buxifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Rashid, Umbreen; Bokhari, Jasia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) of fruits of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) Dc., a locally used fruit in Pakistan. Methods Dried powder of the fruit of M. buxifolia was extracted with methanol and the resultant was fractionated with solvents having escalating polarity; n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the residual soluble aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated for the methanol and various fractions. These fractions were also subjected to various in vitro assays to estimate the scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and reductive ability for ferric ions and phosphomolybdate assay. Results The n-butanol, aqueous and methanol fractions possessed high amount of phenolics and flavonoids compared with other fractions, and subsequently showed a pronounced scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals and had a potent reductive ability on ferric ion and phosphomolybdate assay. There was a found significant correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and EC50 of DPPH, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radical and phosphomolybdate assays, whereas a nonsignificant correlation was found with the hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical assay. Conclusion M. buxifolia fruit can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent damage associated with free radicals. PMID:24298440

  18. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  19. Effect of Cooking on Isoflavones, Phenolic Acids, and Antioxidant Activity in Sprouts of Prosoy Soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Shweta; Chang, Sam K C

    2016-07-01

    Soy sprouts possess health benefits and is required to be cooked before consumption. The effects of cooking on the phenolic components and antioxidant properties of soy sprouts with different germination days were investigated. A food-grade cultivar Prosoy with a high protein content was germinated for 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d and cooked till palatable for 20, 20, 5, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), condensed tannins content (CTC), individual phenolic acids, isoflavones, DPPH, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of raw and cooked sprouts were measured. Cooking caused significant losses in phenolic content and antioxidant activities, and maximum loss was on day 3 > 5 > 7, including TPC (32%, 23%, and 15%), TFC (50%, 44%, and 20%), CTC (73%, 47%, and 12%), DPPH (31%, 15%, and 5%), FRAP (34%, 25%, and 1%), and ORAC (34%, 22%, 32%), respectively. Cooking caused significant losses in most individual phenolic acid, benzoic group, cinnamic group, total phenolic composition, individual isoflavones, and total isoflavones. The losses of phenolic acids such as gallic, protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, syringic, chlorogenic, or sinapic acids during cooking were not compensated by the increases in trihydroxybenzoic, vanillic or coumaric acids on certain days of germination. Cooking caused minimal changes in phenolic acid composition of day 1 and 2 sprouts compared to 3, 5, and 7 d sprouts. PMID:27258930

  20. Phenolic Acid Composition, Antiatherogenic and Anticancer Potential of Honeys Derived from Various Regions in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Spilioti, Eliana; Jaakkola, Mari; Tolonen, Tiina; Lipponen, Maija; Virtanen, Vesa; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Karabournioti, Sofia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01), vanillic acid (p<0.05), caffeic acid (p<0.01), p-coumaric acid (p<0.001) and their total phenolic content (p<0.001). Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and

  1. Phenolic acid composition, antiatherogenic and anticancer potential of honeys derived from various regions in Greece.

    PubMed

    Spilioti, Eliana; Jaakkola, Mari; Tolonen, Tiina; Lipponen, Maija; Virtanen, Vesa; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Karabournioti, Sofia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01), vanillic acid (p<0.05), caffeic acid (p<0.01), p-coumaric acid (p<0.001) and their total phenolic content (p<0.001). Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and

  2. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  3. Investigation of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Azadirachta indica roots

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Delowar; Sarwar, Md. Shahid; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Hossain, Md. Shohel; Shahid-Ud-Daula, AFM; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was an attempt to study total phenolic content and antioxidant property of the crude ethanolic extract of the roots of Azadirachta indica (A. indica). Materials and Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of the crude extract, some complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay, and ferrous ion chelating ability and determination of total phenolic content were conducted. Results: In DPPH free radical scavenging test, IC50 value of the crude extract was found to be fairly significant (13.81±0.06 μg/ml) while compared with that of the reference standards, ascorbic acid and BHA (2.12±0.02 and 4.87±0.05 μg/ml, respectively). In reducing power assay, the maximum absorbance for the extract was found to be 1.523±0.026 at100 μg/ml compared with standard ascorbic acid and BHA (2.811±0.013 μg/ml and 2.031±0.019 μg/ml, respectively). The IC50 value of the extract as percentage of Fe++ ion chelating ability was determined as 19.01±0.024 μg/ml where EDTA showed 8.87±0.035 μg/ml. The total phenolic amount was also calculated quite high in the extract (238.81±0.98 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent). Conclusion: The assays showed the presence of significant antioxidant properties of the crude sample, which would justify its traditional use. However, it would be very interesting to investigate the possible causes and their mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant property of the plant A. indica. PMID:25050306

  4. Estimation of total phenol and in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia procera leaves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on natural products has gained a wide popularity due to the potential of discovering active compounds. The antioxidant properties contained in plants have been proposed as one of the mechanisms for the observed beneficial effect. Therefore, the present study investigated the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of various solvent extracts of Albizia procera leaves. Methods Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract and its derived fractions petroleum ether (APP), carbon tetrachloride (APC), dichloromethane (APD), ethyl acetate (APE), and residual aqueous fraction (APA) of the leaves of Albizia procera was performed by in vitro chemical analyses. Total phenolic content of the APM and other five fractions were also determined. APM and its derived fractions were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening test for various constituents. Results Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids in the extracts. Amongst the extracts, APE showed the highest total phenolic content (449.18 ± 18.41mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of extract). In DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging test, the IC50 value of APM, APP, APC, APD, APE and APA was 43.43, 63.60, 166.18, 41.15, 11.79, and 63.06 μg/mL, respectively. Therefore, among the APM and its derived fractions, APE showed the highest antioxidant activity which is comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid (AA) (IC50 10.12 μg/mL). The total antioxidant capacity was found to be varied in different fractions. The reducing activity on ferrous ion was ranked as APE > APD > APM > APA > APC. Conclusion The above evidences suggest that APE of A. procera leaf is a potential source of natural antioxidant and can be used to prevent diseases associated with free radicals. PMID:23531304

  5. An organic solvent-tolerant phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus licheniformis for the efficient bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongfei; Li, Lulu; Ding, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    A new phenolic acid decarboxylase gene (blpad) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The full-length blpad encodes a 166-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 19,521 Da and 5.02, respectively. The recombinant BLPAD displayed maximum activity at 37 °C and pH 6.0. This enzyme possesses a broad substrate specificity and is able to decarboxylate p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids at the relative ratios of specific activities 100:74.59:34.41:0.29. Kinetic constant K m values toward p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids were 1.64, 1.55, 1.93, and 2.45 mM, and V max values were 268.43, 216.80, 119.07, and 0.78 U mg(-1), respectively. In comparison with other phenolic acid decarboxylases, BLPAD exhibited remarkable organic solvent tolerance and good thermal stability. BLPAD showed excellent catalytic performance in biphasic organic/aqueous systems and efficiently converted p-coumaric and ferulic acids into 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol. At 500 mM of p-coumaric and ferulic acids, the recombinant BLPAD produced a total 60.63 g l(-1) 4-vinylphenol and 58.30 g l(-1) 4-vinylguaiacol with the conversion yields 97.02 and 70.96 %, respectively. The low yield and product concentration are the crucial drawbacks to the practical bioproduction of vinyl phenol derivatives using phenolic acid decarboxylases. These unusual properties make BLPAD a desirable biocatalyst for commercial use in the bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives via enzymatic decarboxylation in a biphasic organic/aqueous reaction system. PMID:25547838

  6. Electron transfer reactions of osmium(II) complexes with phenols and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Velayudham, Murugesan; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-07-01

    Three [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes (NN = polypyridine) with ligands of varying hydrophobicity were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectral techniques. The geometry of the molecules are optimized by DFT calculations. The interaction between [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes and phenolate ion in ground state is confirmed by absorption spectral study and the binding constant values are in the range of 3-740 M-1. The photoinduced electron transfer reaction of these [Os(NN)3]2+ complexes with phenols and phenolic acids at pH 12.5 leads to the formation of phenoxyl radical confirmed through transient absorption spectral study. Binding constants and electron transfer rate constants within the [Os(NN)3]2+-phenolate ion adduct account for the change for the overall quenching constant with the change of structure of reactants.

  7. Anthocyanin characterization, total phenolic quantification and antioxidant features of some Chilean edible berry extracts.

    PubMed

    Brito, Anghel; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Kennelly, Edward J; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2014-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS). The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid) and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin) were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay), followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL), and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21), respectively. PMID:25072199

  8. Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jing; Villani, Thomas S; Guo, Yue; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous separation, and determination of natural compounds including phenolic acids and flavonoids in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. By analyzing the UV and MS data, and comparison with authenticated standards, 10 polyphenols including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were identified together with 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. Major constituents in the leaves of 25 different populations from worldwide accessions were quantified and compared with each other. The total phenolic content of each accession was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, ranging from 18.98 ± 2.7 to 29.9 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, varying from 17.5 to 152.5 ± 18.8 μmol Trolox/g. After the treatment of H. sabdariffa leaf extract, the reduction of LPS-induced NO production dose-dependently in RAW 264.7 cell indicates the extract's potential anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26213025

  9. Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jing; Villani, Thomas S; Guo, Yue; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous separation, and determination of natural compounds including phenolic acids and flavonoids in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. By analyzing the UV and MS data, and comparison with authenticated standards, 10 polyphenols including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were identified together with 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. Major constituents in the leaves of 25 different populations from worldwide accessions were quantified and compared with each other. The total phenolic content of each accession was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, ranging from 18.98 ± 2.7 to 29.9 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, varying from 17.5 to 152.5 ± 18.8 μmol Trolox/g. After the treatment of H. sabdariffa leaf extract, the reduction of LPS-induced NO production dose-dependently in RAW 264.7 cell indicates the extract's potential anti-inflammatory activity.

  10. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  11. Modulation of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis in Solanum lycopersicum; consequences for phenolic accumulation and UV-tolerance.

    PubMed

    Clé, Carla; Hill, Lionel M; Niggeweg, Ricarda; Martin, Cathie R; Guisez, Yves; Prinsen, Els; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2008-08-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant phenolic compounds in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate transferase (HQT) is the key enzyme catalysing CGA biosynthesis in tomato. We have studied the relationship between phenolic accumulation and UV-susceptibility in transgenic tomato plants with altered HQT expression. Overall, increased CGA accumulation was associated with increased UV-protection. However, the genetic manipulation of HQT expression also resulted in more complex alterations in the profiles of phenolics. Levels of rutin were relatively high in both HQT gene-silenced and HQT-overexpressing plants raised in plant growth tunnels. This suggests plasticity in the flux along different branches of phenylpropanoid metabolism and the existence of regulatory mechanisms that direct the flow of phenolic precursors in response to both metabolic parameters and environmental conditions. These changes in composition of the phenolic pool affected the relative levels of UV-tolerance. We conclude that the capability of the phenolic compounds to protect against potentially harmful UV radiation is determined both by the total levels of phenolics that accumulate in leaves as well as by the specific composition of the phenolic profile.

  12. Phenolic acids of the two major blueberry species in the US Market and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Thakali, Keshari M; Jensen, Gitte S; Wu, Xianli

    2015-03-01

    Highbush (cultivated) and lowbush (wild) are the two major blueberry species in the US market. Eight phenolic acids were detected and quantified from these two species by HPLC-MS. Chlorogenic acid was found to be the predominant phenolic acid in both species, with 0.44 mg/g fresh weight in lowbush blueberries and 0.13 mg/g fresh weight in highbush blueberries. Total phenolic content in lowbush blueberries is over three times higher than that of highbush blueberries. The phenolic acid mixtures representing those in the two species were prepared by using authentic standards to assess their contribution to total antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the whole berries. Neither lowbush nor highbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture contributed significantly to the total antioxidant capacity of their relevant whole berries measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Both phenolic acid mixtures were able to enter the cell and showed in cell antioxidant activities from the cell based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay. Lowbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture was found to show anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) at the high dose.

  13. Effect of thermal processing on free and total phenolics in nine varieties of common beans.

    PubMed

    Redan, Benjamin W; Vinson, Joe A; Coco, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Though much attention has been devoted to phenolics in beans, to our knowledge no studies have been done to determine the effect commercial canning has on these compounds. Free and total phenolic concentration in 18 cultivars of raw beans and 9 cultivars of commercial canned beans was determined. Alkaline hydrolysis was used on samples prior to analysis by Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent (FCR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). A correction for non-phenolic antioxidants, interferences, was then made. There is a significant difference between the free phenolics of canned and raw beans using FCR (P = 0.006) but not FRAP. There is also a significant difference in the total phenolics of canned and raw beans using FRAP (P = 0.006) but not FCR. When considered on a single serving basis, the amount of phenolics in canned beans is comparable to that provided by raw fruits and vegetables.

  14. Evaluation of anti-oxidant activities and total phenolic content of Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, K; Chaudhury, Pradeep Kumar; Pradhan, Anshuman

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of chloroform extract of Chromolaena odorata leaves. The DPPH activity of the extract (0.1-5 mg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 23.48-91.61% as compared to ascorbic acid (33.69-94.10%). The IC50 values of chloroform extract in DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, ABTS radical were obtained to be 0.31, 0.43, 0.28 and 1.32 mg/ml, respectively. However, the IC50 values for the standard ascorbic acid were noted to be 0.24, 0.41, 0.23 and 1 mg/ml, respectively. Measurement of total phenolic content of the chloroform extract of C. odorata was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 242.2 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly higher when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that C. odorata has a significant potential to use as a natural anti-oxidant agent.

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonoids, Tannins and Phenolic Compounds in Psychotria Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Formagio, Anelise Samara Nazari; Volobuff, Carla Roberta Ferreira; Santiago, Matheus; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Zefa Valdevina

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Psychotria carthagenensis, P. leiocarpa, P. capillacea and P. deflexa (Rubiaceae) extracts were investigated, and the concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and flavonols were determined. The chemical compositions of the extracts were investigated using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PAD) method. We used 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), β-Carotene bleaching and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cations to determine antioxidant activity. The ability to scavenge radical was measured in these experiments by the discoloration of the solution. Concentrations of constituents were measured spectrophotometrically. P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, in the DPPH test, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS system. The highest phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin and flavonol concentration was found in P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea extracts. HPLC-PDA analysis of P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea revealed hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid). This is the first report on the antioxidant properties and constituent analysis of these Psychotria extracts. PMID:26785238

  16. Effect of esterification condensation on the Folin-Ciocalteu method for the quantitative measurement of total phenols.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Cheng, Chien-Wei; Liang, Ji-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    The Folin-Ciocalteu method is widely applied for the determination of the total phenolic contents in natural products. This method is significantly affected by the addition of sodium carbonate. The currently applied Folin-Ciocalteu methods may have been modified without any validation in the quantitative standards and the order of processes. In this study, serial experiments were performed to investigate the effect of phenolic calibrations based on the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method. Esterification condensations were observed in the assays with prior basification for gallic acid and catechin used as quantitative standards. The phenolic contents obtained in the samples differed depending on when basification occurred compared with the gallic acid calibration. The bias of the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method derived from cross-linkage of molecules was first defined in this study. The performance of the Folin-Ciocalteu method is optimised and validated again.

  17. Antidiabetic Effects of Simple Phenolic Acids: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Vinayagam, Ramachandran; Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Xu, Baojun

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major public health threat across the globe. Current antidiabetic therapies are based on synthetic drugs that very often have side effects. It has been widely acknowledged that diet plays an important role in the management of diabetes. Phenolic acids are widely found in daily foods such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, and wine and they provide biological, medicinal, and health properties. Simple phenolic acids have been shown to increase glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, improve glucose and lipid profiles of certain diseases (obesity, cardiovascular diseases, DM, and its complication). The current review is an attempt to list out the antidiabetic effects of simple phenolic acids from medicinal plants and botanical foods. PMID:26634804

  18. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Some Malvaceae Family Species

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Adriana Maria Fernandes; Pinheiro, Lilian Sousa; Pereira, Charlane Kelly Souto; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Gomes, Roosevelt Albuquerque; Chaves, Otemberg Souza; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Assis, Temilce Simões

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of four species of the Malvaceae family (Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl, Sida rhombifolia (L.) E. H. L and Herissantia crispa L. (Brizicky)) were studied using the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract, phases and two isolated flavonoids, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (lespedin) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) glucopyranoside (tiliroside) was determined. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of the crude extract of Sidastrum micranthum and Wissadula periplocifolia; however, this was not observed between Sida rhombifolia and Herissantia crispa. The ethyl acetate (EaF) phase showed the best antioxidant effect in the total phenolics, DPPH and TEAC assays, followed by the chloroform (CfF) phase, in most species tested. Lespedin, isolated from the EaF phase of W. periplocifolia and H. crispa may not be responsible for the antioxidant activity due to its low antioxidant activity (IC50: DPPH: 1,019.92 ± 68.99 mg/mL; TEAC: 52.70 ± 0.47 mg/mL); whereas tiliroside, isolated from W. periplocifolia, H. crispa and S. micrantum presented a low IC50 value (1.63 ± 0.86 mg/mL) compared to ascorbic acid in the TEAC assay. PMID:26787614

  19. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Some Malvaceae Family Species.

    PubMed

    Fernandes de Oliveira, Adriana Maria; Sousa Pinheiro, Lilian; Souto Pereira, Charlane Kelly; Neves Matias, Wemerson; Albuquerque Gomes, Roosevelt; Souza Chaves, Otemberg; Vanderlei de Souza, Maria de Fátima; Nóbrega de Almeida, Reinaldo; Simões de Assis, Temilce

    2012-10-26

    The antioxidant activity of four species of the Malvaceae family (Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl, Sida rhombifolia (L.) E. H. L and Herissantia crispa L. (Brizicky)) were studied using the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract, phases and two isolated flavonoids, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (lespedin) and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) glucopyranoside (tiliroside) was determined. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of the crude extract of Sidastrum micranthum and Wissadula periplocifolia; however, this was not observed between Sida rhombifolia and Herissantia crispa. The ethyl acetate (EaF) phase showed the best antioxidant effect in the total phenolics, DPPH and TEAC assays, followed by the chloroform (CfF) phase, in most species tested. Lespedin, isolated from the EaF phase of W. periplocifolia and H. crispa may not be responsible for the antioxidant activity due to its low antioxidant activity (IC50: DPPH: 1,019.92 ± 68.99 mg/mL; TEAC: 52.70 ± 0.47 mg/mL); whereas tiliroside, isolated from W. periplocifolia, H. crispa and S. micrantum presented a low IC50 value (1.63 ± 0.86 mg/mL) compared to ascorbic acid in the TEAC assay.

  20. Joint action of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chunhong; Jia, Chunghong; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K

    2006-02-22

    The joint action of binary and ternary mixtures of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids was studied using the additive dose model (ADM) as reference model. The activity of fixed-ratio mixtures of phenolic acids [ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (CA), vanillic acid (VA), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA)] and benzoxazinone derivatives [2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA), 2-aminophenol (AP), and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (HPAA)] on Lolium perenne and Myosotis arvensis root growth was assessed in Petri dishes. Root length was recorded 6 days after seeding, and EC(50) and EC(90) values were estimated using nonlinear regression analyses. The benzoxazinone derivatives were found to be more phytotoxic than the phenolic acids, particularly on M. arvensis. Binary mixtures of phenolic acids responded predominantly additively on both plant species. Deviations from additivity were species-specific with antagonistic responses on L. perenne and synergistic responses on M. arvensis. Similarly, binary mixtures of benzoxazinone derivatives also followed the ADM, although synergistic responses were observed for BOA + AP and BOA + HPAA. Binary and ternary mixtures of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids responded primarily antagonistically; however, a significant synergistic performance was observed with DIMBOA + FA and DIMBOA + VA on L. perenne. These results do not support the assumption that allelopathic effects of wheat can be attributed to synergistic effects of otherwise weakly active allelopathic compounds, and it is suggested that future research be directed toward identifying and studying the effects of other potential allelochemicals including the degradation products of the most abundant wheat allelochemicals.

  1. Bound Phenolics of Quinoa Seeds Released by Acid, Alkaline, and Enzymatic Treatments and Their Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Effects.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Zhang, Bing; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2016-03-01

    Unextractable phenolics from plant foods and their role in health benefits have become increasingly important. Meal residues of three quinoa seeds free of fat and extractable phenolics were subjected to acid, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolyses. The total and individual phenolic compounds released were analyzed, and 19 phenolics, predominantly phenolic acids and several flavonoids, were identified. The concentration of bound phenolics was highest in black quinoa followed by red and white, regardless of the hydrolysis method. Higher phenolic contents also showed stronger antioxidant activities and inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities. Carbohydrases, that is, pectinase, xylanase and feruloyl esterase, which effectively liberated bound phenolics are known to be secreted by colonic bacteria, suggesting potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by these compounds in the large intestine during colonic fermentation. These results can also be applied to treat foods high in bound phenolics to enhance bioaccessibility.

  2. Bound Phenolics of Quinoa Seeds Released by Acid, Alkaline, and Enzymatic Treatments and Their Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Effects.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Zhang, Bing; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2016-03-01

    Unextractable phenolics from plant foods and their role in health benefits have become increasingly important. Meal residues of three quinoa seeds free of fat and extractable phenolics were subjected to acid, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolyses. The total and individual phenolic compounds released were analyzed, and 19 phenolics, predominantly phenolic acids and several flavonoids, were identified. The concentration of bound phenolics was highest in black quinoa followed by red and white, regardless of the hydrolysis method. Higher phenolic contents also showed stronger antioxidant activities and inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities. Carbohydrases, that is, pectinase, xylanase and feruloyl esterase, which effectively liberated bound phenolics are known to be secreted by colonic bacteria, suggesting potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by these compounds in the large intestine during colonic fermentation. These results can also be applied to treat foods high in bound phenolics to enhance bioaccessibility. PMID:26853559

  3. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Byrsonima species.

    PubMed

    Pereira, V V; Borel, C R; Silva, R R

    2015-01-01

    The species of the Byrsonima genus (Malpighiaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, asthma and skin infections. In this study, the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening were carried out in polar extracts of Byrsonima coccolobifolia, Byrsonima verbascifolia and Byrsonima intermedia. The presence of tannins and flavonoids in the samples and high phenols content was observed. B. coccolobifolia and B. intermedia species showed the best results of antioxidant action. It was analysed the correlation between the methods, and there was a great correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant assay, showing that the phenolic substances contribute to the antioxidant activities of these plants.

  4. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions. PMID:26787973

  5. Phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Richard Pereira; Abreu, Bruno Vinicius de Barros; Cunha, Mayara Soares; Batista, Marisa Cristina Aranha; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Nascimento, Flavia Raquel Fernandes; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce Sousa; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles

    2014-03-26

    Geopropolis is a mixture of plant resins, waxes, and soil produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith. This paper describes the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. The total phenolic content determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was highest in the ethyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract. Antioxidant activity was assayed by the in vitro DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of geopropolis, except for the hexane fraction, exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP. The phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS on the basis of the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (λmax) and mass spectral analysis. Eleven compounds belonging to the classes of phenolic acids and hydrolyzable tannins (gallotannins and ellagitannins) were tentatively identified. These compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activity and high phenolic content of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata.

  6. Forest Gaps Alter the Total Phenol Dynamics in Decomposing Litter in an Alpine Fir Forest.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year.

  7. Forest Gaps Alter the Total Phenol Dynamics in Decomposing Litter in an Alpine Fir Forest

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year. PMID:26849120

  8. Forest Gaps Alter the Total Phenol Dynamics in Decomposing Litter in an Alpine Fir Forest.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year. PMID:26849120

  9. Antioxidant activities, metal contents, total phenolics and flavonoids of seven Morchella species.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Nevcihan; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Cengiz, Mustafa; Solak, M Halil

    2009-09-01

    Seven Morchella species were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, chelating effect and scavenging effect (%) on the stable ABTS*(+), in addition to their heavy metals, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid system, the most active mushrooms were M. esculenta var. umbrina and M.angusticeps. In the case of DPPH, methanol extract of M. conica showed high antioxidant activity. The reducing power of the methanol extracts of mushrooms increased with concentration. Chelating capacity of the extracts was also increased with the concentration. On the other hand, in 40 microg ml(-1) concentration, methanol extract of M. conica, exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (78.66+/-2.07%) when reacted with the ABTS*(+) radical. Amounts of seven elements (Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg) and five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Al) were also determined in all species. M. conica was found to have the highest phenolic content among the samples. Flavonoid content of M. rotunda was also found superior (0.59+/-0.01 microg QEs/mg extract). PMID:19563856

  10. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of total phenolic content, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial activities of Solanum violaceum Ortega

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Golam Sarwar; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Billah, Mustahsan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to detect possible chemicals (phytoconstituents), prove ethno-medicinal value of the plant, and investigate antimicrobial, anthelmintic, and total phenolic content of crude methanolic extract of the Solanum violaceum plant. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out using different chemical group test methods. In anthelmintic activity test (using Pheretima posthuma model), five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 mg/ml in distilled water) of extracts and albendazole as standard were used which involved the vermifuge and vermicidal activity on the worms. For the evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity, disc diffusion method, and to determine the total phenolic content, Folin-Ceocalteu method (gallic acid as standard) were used. Results: The phytoconstituent analysis revealed presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, glycoside, flavonoid, saponin, gum, diterpenes, phenol, protein, and tannin. The crude extract exhibited significant anthelmintic property comparing with the standard. The methanolic extract revealed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 400 µg/disc. The results were compared with that of the standard ciprofloxacin. The extract exhibited moderate amount of total phenolic compound (54.67±1.18 mg/gm of gallic acid equivalent). Conclusion: Since S. violaceum have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activities, more studies such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and other pharmacological activities should be carried out to justify its traditional use, as the plant is available and used broadly in the rural areas for folkloric remedies. PMID:25050288

  11. Development of an automated method for Folin-Ciocalteu total phenolic assay in artichoke extracts.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Leskovar, Daniel; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-12-01

    We developed a system to run the Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) total phenolic assay, in artichoke extract samples, which is fully automatic, consistent, and fast. The system uses 2 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pumps, an autosampler, a column heater, a UV/Vis detector, and a data collection system. To test the system, a pump delivered 10-fold diluted F-C reagent solution at a rate of 0.7 mL/min, and 0.4 g/mL sodium carbonate at a rate of 2.1 mL/min. The autosampler injected 10 μL per 1.2 min, which was mixed with the F-C reagent and heated to 65 °C while it passed through the column heater. The heated reactant was mixed with sodium carbonate and color intensity was measured by the detector at 600 nm. The data collection system recorded the color intensity, and peak area of each sample was calculated as the concentration of the total phenolic content, expressed in μg/mL as either chlorogenic acid or gallic acid. This new method had superb repeatability (0.7% CV) and a high correlation with both the manual method (r(2) = 0.93) and the HPLC method (r(2) = 0.78). Ascorbic acid and quercetin showed variable antioxidant activity, but sugars did not. This method can be efficiently applied to research that needs to test many numbers of antioxidant capacity samples with speed and accuracy. PMID:23163965

  12. Antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials of selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Kemal; Tepe, Bektas; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ten different phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, cinnamic, ferulic, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, rosmarinic, syringic, and vanillic acids) were evaluated for their antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using four different test systems named as β-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating effect. In all test systems, rosmarinic acid showed the maximum activity potential, while protocatechuic acid was determined as the weakest antioxidant in β-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, and chelating effect assays. Phenolic acids were also screened for their protective effects on pBR322 plasmid DNA against the mutagenic and toxic effects of UV and H2O2. Ferulic acid was found as the most active phytochemical among the others. Even at the lowest concentration value (0.002 mg/ml), ferulic acid protected all of the bands in the presence of H2O2 and UV. It is followed by caffeic, rosmarinic, and vanillic acids. On the other hand, cinnamic acid (at 0.002 mg/ml), gallic acid (at 0.002 mg/ml), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004 mg/ml), and protocatechuic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004 mg/ml) could not protect plasmid DNA. PMID:25542528

  13. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Selected Chinese Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feng-Lin; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Yuan; Xiao, Qin; Kuang, Lei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP value suggested that the antioxidants in these plants possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content implied that phenolic compounds are a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these plants. The results showed that Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20640157

  14. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity.

  15. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. PMID:25863614

  16. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Lugemwa, Fulgentius Nelson; Snyder, Amanda L.; Shaikh, Koonj

    2013-01-01

    Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon) were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel). The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v). The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively. PMID:26784340

  17. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and ascorbate content as a function of the genetic diversity of leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum).

    PubMed

    Bernaert, Nathalie; De Paepe, Domien; Bouten, Charlotte; De Clercq, Hervé; Stewart, Derek; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2012-09-15

    Extracts of the white shaft and green leaves of 30 leek cultivars were investigated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic (TP) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) content. The measured antioxidant properties included free radical scavenging activities against peroxyl (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) and their Fe(3+) reducing capacity (FRAP). The results from this study suggest that the green leek leaves generally have significantly stronger antioxidant properties than the white shaft. Correlation analysis between the TP and the AA content and the antioxidant activity showed that phenolics and ascorbic acid contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity of leek. The three antioxidant activity assays were all correlated for the extracts of the white shaft of the 30 leek cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) elucidated the influence of part and type of cultivar on the antioxidant capacity, TP, and l-ascorbic acid content, whilst the breeding strategy and seed company had no influence.

  18. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and ascorbate content as a function of the genetic diversity of leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum).

    PubMed

    Bernaert, Nathalie; De Paepe, Domien; Bouten, Charlotte; De Clercq, Hervé; Stewart, Derek; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2012-09-15

    Extracts of the white shaft and green leaves of 30 leek cultivars were investigated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic (TP) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) content. The measured antioxidant properties included free radical scavenging activities against peroxyl (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) and their Fe(3+) reducing capacity (FRAP). The results from this study suggest that the green leek leaves generally have significantly stronger antioxidant properties than the white shaft. Correlation analysis between the TP and the AA content and the antioxidant activity showed that phenolics and ascorbic acid contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity of leek. The three antioxidant activity assays were all correlated for the extracts of the white shaft of the 30 leek cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) elucidated the influence of part and type of cultivar on the antioxidant capacity, TP, and l-ascorbic acid content, whilst the breeding strategy and seed company had no influence. PMID:23107677

  19. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  4. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of phenolic acid, flavonoid, and phenol contents in various natural Yemeni honeys using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Badjah Hadj Ahmed, A Y; Obbed, Munir S; Wabaidur, Saikh M; AlOthman, Zeid A; Al-Shaalan, Nora H

    2014-06-18

    A simple method has been described for simultaneous determination of phenolic acid, flavonoid, and other phenol contents in various natural honey samples collected from various regions of Yemen. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used as a solid-phase adsorbent for extraction of the polyphenols from honey samples. The total contents of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phenolic components of the 12 different samples were found in the range of 363-2658, 261-1646, and 224-1355 μg/100 g of honey samples, respectively. The major phenolic acid, flavonoid, and phenolic compound in these samples were found to be 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (1410 μg/100 g), chrysin (850 μg/100 g), and cinnamic acid (1336 μg/100 g), respectively. A total of 25 compounds (10 phenolic acids, 9 flavonoids, and 6 phenols) were analyzed, and a total of 24 were detected, while only 23 compounds were determined quantitatively in the honey samples. The developed method showed potential usefulness for the analysis of honey and was used for the determination of polyphenols in honey extracts.

  6. HPLC method for comparative study on tissue distribution in rat after oral administration of salvianolic acid B and phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man; Fu, Gang; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, Hui; Liu, Ai-Hua; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Guo, De-An

    2007-10-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to determine the prototype of salvianolic acid B and the metabolites of phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and ferulic acid) in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids and salvianolic acid B extracted from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, respectively. The tissue samples were treated with a simple liquid-liquid extraction prior to HPLC. Analysis of the extract was performed on a reverse-phase C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.05% trifluoracetic acid. The calibration curves for the four phenolic acids were linear in the given concentration ranges. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations in the measurement of quality control samples were less than 10% and the accuracies were in the range of 88-115%. The average recoveries of all the tissues ranged from 78.0 to 111.8%. This method was successfully applied to evaluate the distribution of the four phenolic acids in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids of Salvia miltiorrhiza or salvianolic acid B and the possible metabolic pathway was illustrated. PMID:17549679

  7. Performance of structured lipids incorporating selected phenolic and ascorbic acids.

    PubMed

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Przybylski, Roman; Aladedunye, Felix

    2015-04-15

    Conditions applied during frying require antioxidant which is stable at these conditions and provides protection for frying oil and fried food. Novel structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants were formed by enzymatic transesterification, exploring canola oil and naturally occurring antioxidants such as ascorbic and selected phenolic acids as substrates. Lipozyme RM IM lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was used as biocatalyst. Frying performance and oxidative stability of the final transesterification products were evaluated. The novel lipids showed significantly improved frying performance compared to canola oil. Oxidative stability assessment of the structured lipids showed significant improvement in resistance to oxidative deterioration compared to original canola oil. Interestingly, the presence of ascorbic acid in an acylglycerol structure protected α-tocopherol against thermal degradation, which was not observed for the phenolic acids. Developed structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants may directly affect nutritional properties of lipids also offering nutraceutical ingredients for food formulation.

  8. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

  9. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  10. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

    2012-09-15

    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid.

  11. Photocatalysis of phenol and salicyclic acid by nanostructured titania powders

    SciTech Connect

    Fotou, G.P.; Pratsinis, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    The photocatalytic destruction of phenol and salicylic acid was studied in aqueous suspensions of titania powders made in flame reactors. These powders were made in six hydrocarbon diffusion flames by hydrolysis and oxidation of TiCl{sub 4} that resulted in powders of high specific surface area and high anatase content. The photoactivity of the flame-made titania powders was compared with that of commercially available powders. Doping the titania with SiO{sub 2} was detrimental to the photoactivity of the powders in aerated solutions in contrast to non-aerated solutions. Titania powders in the range of 20-40 nm containing small amounts of rutile were more active than pure anatase powders. The phenol degradation reaction followed a first-order law while the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was found to most accurately represent the photodegradation of salicylic acid.

  12. Flavonoids and free phenolic acids from Phytolacca americana L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Bylka, W; Matławska, I

    2001-01-01

    In the leaves of Phytolacca americana L. flavonoid compounds: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside were identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods and using co-chromatography, phenolic acids: p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, synapic, p-coumaric ferulic and caffeic were also confirmed.

  13. Total organic carbon disappearance kinetics for the supercritical water oxidation of monosubstituted phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.J.; Savage, P.E.

    1999-06-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a process technology for destroying organic compounds present in aqueous waste streams. The authors oxidized phenols bearing single -CH{sub 3}, -C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, -COCH{sub 3}, -CHO, -OH, -OCH{sub 3}, and -NO{sub 2} substituents in supercritical water at 460 C and 25.3 MPa. The observed effects of the concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and oxygen on the global disappearance rates for TOC were correlated by using power-law rate expressions. This kinetics study revealed that the rate of TOC disappearance is more sensitive to the oxygen concentration than is the rate of reactant disappearance. Additionally, the rate of TOC disappearance is always slower than the rate of reactant disappearance, with the ratio of these rates ranging from 0.10 to 0.65 for the different phenols at the conditions studied. The rates of TOC disappearance during SCWO of these substituted phenols varied by nearly 2 orders of magnitude, showing significant effects from both the identity and location of the substituent. These substituent effects are greater for TOC disappearance kinetics than for reactant disappearance kinetics. Additionally, all of the substituted phenols exhibit faster TOC disappearance rates than does phenol. Accordingly, phenol is a good worst case model compound for SCWO studies. The pronounced substituent effects for TOC disappearance rates indicate that the oxidation of a common refractory intermediate is not an important feature of the SCWO networks for these phenols at the conditions studied.

  14. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  16. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids in Arnica montana L. by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, Markus; Egger, Christoph; Zidorn, Christian; Stuppner, Hermann

    2008-05-01

    Arnica montana preparations have been used in Europe for centuries to treat skin disorders. Among the biologically active ingredients in the flower heads of the plant are sequiterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids. For the simultaneous determination of compounds belonging to the latter two groups a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) method was developed and validated. By using an electrolyte solution containing 50 mM borax, 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 30% of acetonitrile the separation of seven flavonoids and four caffeic acid derivatives was feasible in less than 20 min. The optimized system was validated for repeatability (sigma(rel) < or = 4.4%), precision (inter-day sigma(rel) < or = 8.13%, intra-day sigma(rel) < or = 4.32%), accuracy (recovery rates from 96.8 to 102.4%), sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD) < or = 4.5 microg mL(-1)) and linearity (R(2) > or = 0.9996), and then successfully applied to assay several plant samples. In all of them the most dominant flavonoid was found to be quercetin 3-O-glucuronic acid, whereas 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid was the major phenolic acid; the total content of flavonoids and phenolic acids varied in the samples from 0.60 to 1.70%, and 1.03 to 2.24%, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

    2014-03-26

    Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively. PMID:24635720

  18. Antioxidant activities of cold-nature Tibetan herbs are signifcantly greater than hot-nature ones and are associated with their levels of total phenolic components.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan-Fang; Li, Ji-Yu; Zheng, Li-Fang; Li, Hong-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Tibetan medicinal plants have been used for more than 2 000 years. In order to find their differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids between "hot-nature" and "cold-nature" herbs, we investigated the antioxidant activities of 40 Tibetan herbs from Qinghai plateau, with 20 herbs in cold-nature and 20 herbs in hot-nature. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by the following methods: scavenging ABTS•(+) (2, 2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), scavenging O2•(-), and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The effects on inhibition of mitochondrion lipid peroxidation were determined by measuring the formation of TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates). Total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH colorimetric methods. Interestingly, the cold-nature herbs displayed higher antioxidant activities than the hot-nature ones, corresponding to nearly three-fold higher total phenolic contents in the cold-nature herbs. Moreover, the antioxidant activities correlated linearly with the levels of total phenolics for both cold-nature and hot-nature herbs, but only with the levels of total flavonoids for the hot-nature herbs. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds, but not the flavonoids, play the major role in antioxidant capacities of the cold-nature herbs. These findings could shed new lights on the study the theory of Tibetan medicine.

  19. Simultaneous ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Among the several chemical processes conducted for the removal of organic matter present in wastewaters coming from some agro-industrial plants (wine distilleries, olive oil mills, etc), the oxidation by ozone has shown a great effectiveness in the destruction of specially refractory pollutants: it is demonstrated that the biodegradability of those wastewaters increases aflcer an ozonation pretreatment. Their great pollutant character is imputed to the presence of some organic compounds, like phenols and polyphenols, which are toxic and inhibit the latter biological treatments. In this research, a competitive kinetic procedure reported by Clurol and Nekouinaini is applied to determine the degradation rate constants by ozone of several phenolic acids which are present in the wastewaters from the olive oil obtaining process. The resulting kinetic expressions for the ozonation reactions are useful for the successful design and operation of ozone reactors in water and wastewaters treatment plants.

  20. Effects of seasonal variation on sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Marisa L; Kendall, Patricia A; Stone, Martha B; Stonaker, Frank H; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2010-04-01

    Butterhead, crisphead, green leaf, red leaf, and romaine types of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are all commonly available in U.S. markets. Sensory properties of lettuce may vary in response to environmental factors that often fluctuate widely throughout the growing season. Bitterness is generally thought to increase in lettuce grown at higher temperatures and may be related to phenolic content. This study evaluated sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars harvested early, midway, and late in the growing season and investigated possible correlations with environmental temperature and light intensity indexes. Thirty panelists rated bitterness, appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of "Crisp and Green" (green leaf), "Crispino" (crisphead), "Green Forest" (romaine), "Lochness" (butterhead), and "Vulcan" (red leaf) lettuce. There was considerable variation in sensory ratings among the 5 cultivars (P < 0.005) but few differences within cultivars across the growing season. The crisphead cultivar, Crispino, received higher scores (P < 0.01) for flavor, texture, and overall acceptability and was rated less bitter (P < 0.05) than other cultivars. Total phenolic content varied significantly (P < 0.001) among cultivars with the red leaf cultivar, Vulcan, exhibiting the highest levels. There was no correlation between bitterness and total phenolic content or environmental factors. Differences among lettuce cultivars appear to have a larger impact on sensory and phenolic profiles than environmental variation during the growing season.

  1. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and nutritional content in selected ethiopian staple food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Forsido, Sirawdink Fikreyesus; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Astatkie, Tess

    2013-12-01

    The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content (TPC) and nutritional content of five types of enset (Enset ventricosum) flour in comparison with four staples (teff [Eragrostis tef], wheat, corn and tapioca) were evaluated. Teff, corn and "amicho" (corm of enset) had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP and TPC of teff (1.8 mmol Trolox equivalence/100 g dry matter (DM) and 123.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DM, respectively) were over 4-fold larger than the lowest obtained from "bulla" (dehydrated juice of pseudostem of enset). Corn had the lowest IC(50) value of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (10.27 mg DM mL(-1)). Teff had the highest crude fat content (3.71%) and some mineral profile (P, Mg, Mn and Cu). Enset products had higher fiber, Ca, K, Mg and Mn content as compared to wheat and corn. Ethiopian staple teff has a potential for developing value-added food products with nutritional and health benefits. PMID:23777527

  2. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and nutritional content in selected ethiopian staple food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Forsido, Sirawdink Fikreyesus; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Astatkie, Tess

    2013-12-01

    The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content (TPC) and nutritional content of five types of enset (Enset ventricosum) flour in comparison with four staples (teff [Eragrostis tef], wheat, corn and tapioca) were evaluated. Teff, corn and "amicho" (corm of enset) had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP and TPC of teff (1.8 mmol Trolox equivalence/100 g dry matter (DM) and 123.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DM, respectively) were over 4-fold larger than the lowest obtained from "bulla" (dehydrated juice of pseudostem of enset). Corn had the lowest IC(50) value of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (10.27 mg DM mL(-1)). Teff had the highest crude fat content (3.71%) and some mineral profile (P, Mg, Mn and Cu). Enset products had higher fiber, Ca, K, Mg and Mn content as compared to wheat and corn. Ethiopian staple teff has a potential for developing value-added food products with nutritional and health benefits.

  3. [Role of NO signal in ABA-induced phenolic acids accumulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots].

    PubMed

    Shen, Lihong; Ren, Jiahui; Jin, Wenfang; Wang, Ruijie; Ni, Chunhong; Tong, Mengjiao; Liang, Zongsuo; Yang, Dongfeng

    2016-02-01

    To investigate roles of nitric oxide (NO) signal in accumulations of phenolic acids in abscisic.acid (ABA)-induced Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots, S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were treated with different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-an exogenous NO donor, for 6 days, and contents of phenolic acids in the hairy roots are determined. Then with treatment of ABA and NO scavenger (2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1- oxyl-3-oxide, c-PTIO) or NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME), contents of phenolic acids and expression levels of three key genes involved in phenolic acids biosynthesis were detected. Phenolic acids production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots was most significantly improved by 100 µmoL/L SNP. Contents of RA and salvianolic acid B increased by 3 and 4 folds. ABA significantly improved transcript levels of PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) and RAS (rosmarinic acid synthase), and increased phenolic acids accumulations. However, with treatments of ABA+c-PTIO or ABA+L-NAME, accumulations of phenolic acids and expression levels of the three key genes were significantly inhibited. Both NO and ABA can increase accumulations of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. NO signal probably mediates the ABA-induced phenolic acids production. PMID:27382772

  4. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (p<0.05) were observed in both peel and pulp. The levels of total phenolic acids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms. PMID:27542479

  5. New enzymatic method for the determination of total phenolic content in tea and wine.

    PubMed

    Stevanato, Roberto; Fabris, Sabrina; Momo, Federico

    2004-10-01

    A new spectrophotometric enzymatic method for the determination of total phenol content in tea and wine has been developed. The method is based on the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation, by hydrogen peroxide, of phenols to phenoxyl radicals, which can react with aromatic substrates to form intensely colored adducts. In comparison with the widely used Folin-Ciocalteu method, this method appears to be more specific and more rapid and as a whole is not affected by the common interfering substances such as ascorbate, citrate, and sulfite. Numerous samples of teas and wines were analyzed by using the new method, and the results compared with those obtained by using the Folin and scavenging of DPPH methods. The differences of the total phenols content found by applying the three methods are discussed in terms of the different specificities of the analytical basis.

  6. [On the phenolic acids of vegetables. IV. Hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids of vegetables and potatoes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmidtlein, H; Herrmann, K

    1975-12-16

    Lettuce, endive and chicory exclusively, cornsalad and sweet fennel almost exclusively contain caffeic acid derivatives beside traces of ferulic acid. Parsley exclusively and spinach almost exclusively show p-coumaric acid derivatives. Compared to root, fruit and seed vegetables the contents of phenolic acids in green leaves are considerably high. Rhubarb is the only vegetable, which contains gallic acid (chief phenolic acid) beside hydroxycinnamic, protocatechuic and vanillic acid derivatives. Furthermore hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (salicylic, gentisic and vanillic acid) occur in cornsalad, sweet fennel, parsley and spinach in small concentrations; cornsalad shows p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ca. 20 mg/kg). Onions (Allium cepa) contain almost only protocatechuic acid beside small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acid. In the outer dry coloured skins protocatechuic acid reaches concentrations up to 2% of plant material; the internal pulpy tissues show lower concentrations (ca. 20 mg/kg). On the contrary to the bulbs the green leaves of onions like chive and leek contain almost exclusively compounds of ferulic and p-coumaric acid. Garlic even shows a different phenolic acid pattern of skins and internal tissues. The caffeic acid derivatives of potatoes are mainly localized to a 1--2 mm thick outer layer. The different localization of phenolic acids in the different parts of vegetable plants is discussed.

  7. Flavonoids and phenolic acids of Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Becker) Balb. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Modnicki, Daniel; Tokar, Magdalena; Klimek, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide as well as free aglycones luteolin and apigenin have been isolated from lemon catnip herb (Nepeta cataria L. var citriodora). Luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside is probably a new compound, for the first time described. Two minor constituents of flavonoid fraction have been identified as apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside by means of HPLC method. The percentage of total flavonoids determined by use of spectrophotometric method was in the range from 0.30 to 0.46% of dry mass. In phenolic acid fraction, caffeic, rosmarinic and p-coumaric acids have been identified. Total amount of phenolic acids determined by spectrophotometric method was in the range of 0.75% to 1.4 % and the content of rosmarinic acid quantified by HPLC method fluctuated in the wide range from 0.06% to 0.15% depending on the sample. The results of the investigations showed that the composition of flavonoid compounds and phenolic acids in lemon catnip are similar to those in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). The amount of flavonoids are similar in both plants, and the percentage of rosmarinic acid is about ten times lower in lemon catnip than in lemon balm. The presence of luteolin, apigenin and their glycosides, caffeic acid as well as the previously described terpenoids (ursolic acid, citral, nerol. geraniol) suggests the possibility of the use of lemon catnip herb as a constituent of phytopharmaceutical preparations with mild sedative, antispasmodic, antioxidative and antiinflammatory action.

  8. Flavonoids and phenolic acids of Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Becker) Balb. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Modnicki, Daniel; Tokar, Magdalena; Klimek, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide as well as free aglycones luteolin and apigenin have been isolated from lemon catnip herb (Nepeta cataria L. var citriodora). Luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside is probably a new compound, for the first time described. Two minor constituents of flavonoid fraction have been identified as apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside by means of HPLC method. The percentage of total flavonoids determined by use of spectrophotometric method was in the range from 0.30 to 0.46% of dry mass. In phenolic acid fraction, caffeic, rosmarinic and p-coumaric acids have been identified. Total amount of phenolic acids determined by spectrophotometric method was in the range of 0.75% to 1.4 % and the content of rosmarinic acid quantified by HPLC method fluctuated in the wide range from 0.06% to 0.15% depending on the sample. The results of the investigations showed that the composition of flavonoid compounds and phenolic acids in lemon catnip are similar to those in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). The amount of flavonoids are similar in both plants, and the percentage of rosmarinic acid is about ten times lower in lemon catnip than in lemon balm. The presence of luteolin, apigenin and their glycosides, caffeic acid as well as the previously described terpenoids (ursolic acid, citral, nerol. geraniol) suggests the possibility of the use of lemon catnip herb as a constituent of phytopharmaceutical preparations with mild sedative, antispasmodic, antioxidative and antiinflammatory action. PMID:17695148

  9. Biological effects, total phenolic content and flavonoid concentrations of fragrant yellow onion (Allium flavum L.).

    PubMed

    Curcic, Milena G; Stankovic, Milan S; Radojevic, Ivana D; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Comic, Ljiljana R; Topuzovic, Marina D; Djacic, Dragana S; Markovic, Snezana D

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities, total phenolic content and concentrations of flavonoids of A. flavum extracts were determined. The total phenolic content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 42.29 to 80.92 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in various extracts of A. flavum was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and obtained results varied from 64.07 to 95.71 mg RU/g. The antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically and expressed in terms of IC50 (μg/ml), and its values ranged from 64.34 to 243.34 μg/ml. The highest phenolic content and capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals were found in acetone extract. Antibacterial efficacy was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations using microdilution method. Significant antibacterial activity, especially for ethyl acetate extract, was observed. The best activity was showed against G+ bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis, while Escherichia coli was one of the least sensitive bacteria. Antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extract on HCT- 116 cell line was determined by MTT assay. Results showed that A. flavum has good antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 28.29 for 24 h and 35.09 for 72 h. Based on these results, A. flavum is a potential source of phenols as natural antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer substance of high value. Phenolic content of extracts depend on the solvents used for extraction.

  10. Direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil using a pH-based flow-injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mesa, José A; Mateos, Raquel

    2007-05-16

    Flavor and taste are sensorial attributes of virgin olive oil (VOO) highly appreciated by consumers. Among the organoleptic properties of VOO, bitterness is related to the natural phenolic compounds present in the oil. Sensorial analysis is the official method to evaluate VOO flavor and bitterness, which requires highly specialized experts. Alternatively, methods based on physicochemical determinations could be useful for the industry. The present work presents a flow-injection analysis system for the direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in VOO without prior isolation, based on the spectral shift undergone by phenolic compounds upon pH variation. This system enables a complete automation of the process, including dilution of the sample and its sequential injection into buffer solutions of acidic and alkaline pH. The variation of the absorbance at 274 nm showed a high correlation with bitterness and the total phenolic content of VOO, due to the close relationship between these two parameters. Thus, the proposed method determines the bitterness and phenolic compounds, with results similar to those from reference methods (relative errors ranging from 1% to 8% for bitterness and from 2% and 7% for phenolic compounds). The precision evaluated at two levels of both parameters ranged between 0.6% and 1.5% for bitterness and between 0.7% and 2.6% for phenolic compounds.

  11. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes.

  12. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. PMID:26213005

  13. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Zampariello, Carly A; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults ⩾50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2μg/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8μg/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults.

  14. The Influence of Prefermentative Addition of Gallic Acid on the Phenolic Composition and Chromatic Characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Bo; He, Fei; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid in Cabernet Sauvignon red winemaking was performed. The influence of gallic acid addition on wine phenolic composition, the ratio of copigmentation, and the color parameters were monitored throughout the winemaking process. The results showed that the prefermentative addition of gallic acid enhanced the extraction of total anthocyanins and the copigmentation effect, producing wines with more darkness, redness, yellowness, and saturation. Moreover, the addition of gallic acid contributed to the concentration of total phenolic acids. However, it had a negative effect on the concentrations of flavonols and flavan-3-ols in the final wines. Thus, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid at appropriate levels might be a promising enological technology to obtain wines with high color quality and aging potential.

  15. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Evaluation and Estimation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoidal Content of Mimosa pudica L

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. Results: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group. Conclusion: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. SUMMARY Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in

  16. Assessment of total phenolic compounds and in vitro free radical scavenging potentials of water extracts of ten selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use in folkloric medicine.

    PubMed

    Adekoya, Alafiatayo Akinola; Ahmad, Syahida; Maziah, Mahmood

    2016-05-01

    The use of herbal medicine and traditional healing practices for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness and ailment continue to have more awareness among the scientific community due to their safety and also as a source of alternatives to synthetic products. This research assessed the total phenolic compounds and in vitro total antioxidant potentials of water extracts in selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use as spice, drinks and medicine. DPPH and FRAP were used to determine the antioxidant capacity, total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents assays to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant activity and the control was ascorbic acid. The results showed that all extracts contain significant antioxidant activity with Zingiber officinale having the highest activity in all assays. DPPH (222.30mg/TE/g DW), FRAP (98.04mg/TE/g DW), Flavonoid (38.58mg/NGN/g DW) phenolic acid (10.78mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (22.84mg/GAE/g DW). Significant and positive linear correlation were found in DPPH, FRAP and total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents. This study reveals some phytochemicals present in Zingiberaceae species, which might be responsible for their biological activities and reason for it use in folkloric medicine in Southeast Asia.

  17. Assessment of total phenolic compounds and in vitro free radical scavenging potentials of water extracts of ten selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use in folkloric medicine.

    PubMed

    Adekoya, Alafiatayo Akinola; Ahmad, Syahida; Maziah, Mahmood

    2016-05-01

    The use of herbal medicine and traditional healing practices for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness and ailment continue to have more awareness among the scientific community due to their safety and also as a source of alternatives to synthetic products. This research assessed the total phenolic compounds and in vitro total antioxidant potentials of water extracts in selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use as spice, drinks and medicine. DPPH and FRAP were used to determine the antioxidant capacity, total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents assays to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant activity and the control was ascorbic acid. The results showed that all extracts contain significant antioxidant activity with Zingiber officinale having the highest activity in all assays. DPPH (222.30mg/TE/g DW), FRAP (98.04mg/TE/g DW), Flavonoid (38.58mg/NGN/g DW) phenolic acid (10.78mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (22.84mg/GAE/g DW). Significant and positive linear correlation were found in DPPH, FRAP and total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents. This study reveals some phytochemicals present in Zingiberaceae species, which might be responsible for their biological activities and reason for it use in folkloric medicine in Southeast Asia. PMID:27166542

  18. [Inhibition of Denitrification by Total Phenol Load of Coal Gasification Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-ying; Chen, Xiu-rong; Wang, Lu; Li, Jia-hui; Xu, Yan; Zhuang, You-jun; Yu, Ze-ya

    2016-03-15

    High loaded phenolic pollutants, refractory and high toxic, which existed in coal gasification wastewater, could cause the inhibition of sludge activity. In biological denitrification process of activated sludge treatment system, people tend to focus on the phenol inhibition on the efficiency and activity of nitrifying bacteria while there are few researches on the denitrification process. In order to investigate the inhibition of phenolic compounds from coal gasification wastewater on the denitrification and sludge activity, we used anoxic denitrification system to indentify the influence of different phenol load on denitrification efficiency (removal efficiency of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N) as well as the stress and degradation activity of sludge. The results showed that when the concentration of total phenol was changed from 50 mg · L⁻¹ to 200 mg · L⁻¹, the removal rates of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N were changed from 55% and 25% to 83% and 83% respectively. In the process of sludge domestication, the characteristics of denitrifying sludge were influenced to a certain degree.

  19. [Inhibition of Denitrification by Total Phenol Load of Coal Gasification Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-ying; Chen, Xiu-rong; Wang, Lu; Li, Jia-hui; Xu, Yan; Zhuang, You-jun; Yu, Ze-ya

    2016-03-15

    High loaded phenolic pollutants, refractory and high toxic, which existed in coal gasification wastewater, could cause the inhibition of sludge activity. In biological denitrification process of activated sludge treatment system, people tend to focus on the phenol inhibition on the efficiency and activity of nitrifying bacteria while there are few researches on the denitrification process. In order to investigate the inhibition of phenolic compounds from coal gasification wastewater on the denitrification and sludge activity, we used anoxic denitrification system to indentify the influence of different phenol load on denitrification efficiency (removal efficiency of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N) as well as the stress and degradation activity of sludge. The results showed that when the concentration of total phenol was changed from 50 mg · L⁻¹ to 200 mg · L⁻¹, the removal rates of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N were changed from 55% and 25% to 83% and 83% respectively. In the process of sludge domestication, the characteristics of denitrifying sludge were influenced to a certain degree. PMID:27337900

  20. Radical scavenging capacity of methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. extract: anthocyanin and phenolic acids composition of fruits.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Erol; Erkan, Naciye

    2013-01-01

    Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and IC(50) values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g FW of fruits. PMID:23364751

  1. An inelastic neutron scattering study of dietary phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Marques, M Paula M; Batista de Carvalho, Luís A E; Valero, Rosendo; Machado, Nelson F L; Parker, Stewart F

    2014-04-28

    The conformational preferences and hydrogen-bonding motifs of several potential chemopreventive hydroxycinnamic derivatives were determined by inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. The aim is to understand their recognized beneficial activity and establish reliable structure-activity relationships for these types of dietary phytochemicals. A series of phenolic acids with different hydroxyl/methoxyl ring substitution patterns were studied: trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, trans-caffeic and ferulic acids. Their INS spectra were completely assigned by theoretical calculations performed at the Density Functional Theory level, for the isolated molecule, dimeric centrosymmetric species and the solid (using plane-wave expansion approaches). Access to the low energy vibrational region of the spectra enabled the identification of particular modes associated with intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions, which are the determinants of the main conformational preferences and antioxidant capacity of these systems.

  2. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’, ‘Rubel’, ‘Rancocas’, and ‘Friendship’. PMID:24009199

  3. Antioxidant activities, distribution of phenolics and free amino acids of Erica australis L. leaves and flowers collected in Algarve, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ricardo; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2013-01-01

    Leaves and flowers from Erica plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties. We determined the antioxidant activity, phenolic, flavonoid and amino acid profiles of the leaves and flowers of this plant. Total amino acid content varied from 28 to 49 and essential amino acids from 8 to 20 mg/g for flowers and leaves, respectively, with different distributions within the plant. From 16 phenolic compounds identified, delphinidin-3-glucoside, caffeic acid and cyanidin-3,5-glucoside in leaves and pelargonidin-3,5-glucoside in flowers were the compounds in highest amount, all with over 500 μg/g. Although flowers had higher contents of phenolic compounds (4000 μg/g) than leaves (3400 μg/g), they showed lower antioxidant activity, indicating that the antioxidant activity depends not only on the content of phenolics, but also on their type. This study shows that this plant has the potential to be used as an extra dietary source of amino acids and phenolic compounds and its consumption may provide health benefits.

  4. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Inbaraj, B Stephen; Lu, H; Kao, T H; Chen, B H

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method with electrospray ionization mode (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus, a widely used traditional Chinese herb possessing vital biological activity. Both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol and purified using a polymeric solid phase extraction cartridge followed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis. By employing a Vydac C18 column, a total of 52 phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated within 70min using a gradient mobile phase of 0.5% (v/v) formic acid in water and acetonitrile-water (94:6, v/v) with flow rate at 1mL/min, column temperature at 30 degrees C and detection wavelength at 280nm. Of 52 compounds, 15 phenolic acids and flavonoids were positively identified based on both absorption and mass spectra, with the remaining 37 tentatively identified by comparison of absorption spectra with reported values in the literature. Internal standards 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and hesperidin were used for quantitation of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. Among the 15 positively identified compounds, quercetin-rhamno-di-hexoside was present in largest mass fraction (438.6microg/g), followed by quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (281.3microg/g), dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers (250.1microg/g), chlorogenic acid (237.0microg/g), quercetin-di-(rhamnohexoside) (117.5microg/g), quercetin-di-(rhamno)-hexoside (116.8mug/g), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (97.7microg/g), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (72.1microg/g), p-coumaric acid (64.0microg/g), caffeic acid (23.7microg/g) and vanillic acid (22.8microg/g). PMID:19819093

  5. Phenolic acids in neem (Azadirachta indica): a major pre-existing secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Singh, U P; Maurya, S; Singh, D P

    2005-01-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analyses of various parts (fresh and dry bark of stem, mature and tender leaves, flower and different parts of fruit, i.e., raw and ripe fruit epicarp, mesocarp and seed) of neem (Azadirachta indica), which occupies an important place in socio-cultural-religious life in Indian communities, indicate that neem is rich in pre-existing secondary metabolites (phenolic acids). Dry bark showed only tannic acid but in fresh bark three phenolic acids were observed, i.e., gallic, tannic, and ferulic acids. In tender leaves only gallic and ferulic acids were detected, but the levels of these phenolic acids in mature leaves were about three times and fifty times greater, respectively. Flowers had only two phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum followed by chlorogenic acid. The level of phenolic acid was maximum in seeds followed by epicarp and pulp. In raw and ripe fruit seeds four phenolic acids were detected. Raw fruit seeds were rich in phenolic acids than ripe fruit seeds. Fruit epicarp was relatively richer than seed, seed pulp and flowers of the plants. Neem flowers were also rich in gallic and chlorogenic acids. PMID:16093234

  6. Effect of Drought Stress on Total Phenolic, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Activity of Achillea Species.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Shima; Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed; Saeidi, Ghodratollah; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-02-01

    The changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and antioxidant activity were assessed based on three model systems in three Achillea species (Achillea millefolium, A. nobilis, and A. filipendulina) growing under four irrigation regimes, including 100% FC (field capacity as normal irrigation) 75% FC (low stress), 50% FC (moderate stress), and 25% FC (severe stress) conditions. The highest TPC (47.13 mg tannic acid/g DW) and TFC (20.86 mg quercetin/g W) were obtained in A. filipendulina under moderate and severe stress conditions. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the highest and the lowest antioxidant activity was obtained for A. millefolium (70.28%) and A. filipendulina (53.21%), respectively, while in the FTC model system A. nobilis revealed the highest antioxidant activity (1.934) in severe drought condition. In the linoleic model system, the highest antioxidant activity was observed under low drought stress condition in A. nobilis. MDA and H2O2 content were increased due to both low (75% FC) and moderate (50% FC) drought stress, but they were decreased under severe stress condition (25% FC). Furthermore, A. millefolium revealed the lowest H2O2 (4.96 nm/g FW) and MDA content (176.32 μmol/g). Investigation of the relationship among different metabolites showed a strong positive correlation with TPC and TFC. Finally, the moderate drought stress treatment (50% FC) was introduced as the optimum condition to obtain appreciable TPC and TFC,, while the highest antioxidant activity was obtained in severe stress condition (25%FC).

  7. [Phenolic acid derivatives from Bauhinia glauca subsp. pernervosa].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiao-Li; Wu, Zeng-Bao; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Lu, Xin-Hua; Liang, Hong; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Bauhinia glauca subsp. pernervosa, eleven phenolic acids were isolated from a 95% ethanol extract by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, ODS, MCI, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC. By spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS, these compounds were identified as isopropyl O-beta-(6'-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (1), ethyl O-beta-(6'-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (2), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), gallic acid (5), methyl gallate (6), ethyl gallate (7), protocatechuic acid (8), 3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (9), erigeside C (10) and glucosyringic acid (11). Among them, compound 1 is a new polyhydroxyl compound; compounds 2, 10, and 11 were isolated from the genus Bauhinia for the first time, and the other compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. Compounds 6 and 8 showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity in vitro with the IC50 values of 72.3 and 54.1 micromol x L(-1), respectively.

  8. Phenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenol ; CASRN 108 - 95 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  9. Analysis of Phenolic Acids of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Responding to Salt-Stress by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW) were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu). Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW) than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals. PMID:25302328

  10. Analysis of phenolic acids of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) responding to salt-stress by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fujia; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW) were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu). Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW) than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals.

  11. Analysis of phenolic acids of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) responding to salt-stress by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fujia; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW) were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu). Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW) than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals. PMID:25302328

  12. Protodeboronation of ortho- and para-phenol boronic acids and application to ortho and meta functionalization of phenols using boronic acids as blocking and directing groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Young; Ahn, Su-Jin; Cheon, Cheol-Hong

    2013-12-01

    The first metal-free thermal protodeboronation of ortho- and para-phenol boronic acids in DMSO was developed. The protodeboronation was successfully applied to the synthesis of ortho- and meta-functionalized phenols using the boronic acid moiety as a blocking group and a directing group, respectively. Mechanistic studies suggested that this protodeboronation proceeds through the coordination of water to the boron atom followed by σ-bond metathesis.

  13. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  14. Antioxidant, total phenolic content and cytotoxicity evaluation of selected Malaysian plants.

    PubMed

    Qader, Suhailah Wasman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Lee Suan; Najim, Nigar; Zain, Mazatulikhma Mat; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of different traditional Malaysian plants (Polygonum minus, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Momordica charantia and Strobilanthes crispus) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic content and cytotoxic activity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that ethanol extracts contain high antioxidant activities compared to aqueous extracts. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, all the plant extracts showed non-toxic effects against a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (Hs888Lu). Although traditionally aqueous extracts are used, we determined that ethanol extracts usually achieved better activity in the assays.

  15. Antioxidant capacity, total phenols and color profile during the storage of selected plants used for infusion.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-05-15

    Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet. PMID:26775980

  16. Antioxidant capacity, total phenols and color profile during the storage of selected plants used for infusion.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-05-15

    Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet.

  17. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  18. Phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition of organic and conventional grown pecan kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, differences in contents of phenolic compounds and fatty acids in pecan kernels of organically versus conventionally grown pecan cultivars (‘Desirable’, ‘Cheyenne’, and ‘Wichita’) were evaluated. Although we were able to identify nine phenolic compounds (gallic acid, catechol, catechin...

  19. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  20. Phenolic acid content and composition in leaves and roots of common commercial sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) cultivars in the United States.

    PubMed

    Truong, V-D; McFeeters, R F; Thompson, R T; Dean, L L; Shofran, B

    2007-08-01

    Phenolic acids in commercially important sweet potato cultivars grown in the United States were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were well separated with an isocratic elution in less than 25 min compared to about 120 min for analyzing and re-equilibrating the column with a gradient method. The isocratic elution order of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives was confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Chlorogenic acid was the highest in root tissues, while 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and/or 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were predominant in the leaves. Steam cooking resulted in statistically nonsignificant increases in the concentration of total phenolics and all the individual phenolic acids identified. Sweetpotato leaves had the highest phenolic acid content followed by the peel, whole root, and flesh tissues. However, there was no significant difference in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity between purees made from the whole and peeled sweet potatoes.

  1. Spatial distribution of total phenolic content, enzymatic activities and browning in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tubers.

    PubMed

    Graham-Acquaah, Seth; Ayernor, George Sodah; Bediako-Amoa, Betty; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2014-10-01

    Browning in raw and processed yams resulting from enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), activities is a major limitation to the industrial utilization of Dioscorea varieties of yams. Two elite cultivars of D. rotundata species were selected to study the spatial distribution of total phenols and enzymes (PPO and POD) activities. The intensities of tissue darkening in fresh yam chips prepared from the tuber sections of cultivars during frozen storage were also studied. Total phenolic content was observed to be highest in the head and mid sections of the cultivars than at the tail end. PPO activity did not have any specific distribution pattern whereas POD activity was found to be more concentrated in the head than in the middle and tail regions. Browning was found to be most intense in the head regions of the two cultivars studied; and was observed to correlate with total phenol and dry matter contents of tubers. Between the two enzymes, POD activity appeared to be more related to browning than PPO.

  2. Spatial distribution of total phenolic content, enzymatic activities and browning in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tubers.

    PubMed

    Graham-Acquaah, Seth; Ayernor, George Sodah; Bediako-Amoa, Betty; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2014-10-01

    Browning in raw and processed yams resulting from enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), activities is a major limitation to the industrial utilization of Dioscorea varieties of yams. Two elite cultivars of D. rotundata species were selected to study the spatial distribution of total phenols and enzymes (PPO and POD) activities. The intensities of tissue darkening in fresh yam chips prepared from the tuber sections of cultivars during frozen storage were also studied. Total phenolic content was observed to be highest in the head and mid sections of the cultivars than at the tail end. PPO activity did not have any specific distribution pattern whereas POD activity was found to be more concentrated in the head than in the middle and tail regions. Browning was found to be most intense in the head regions of the two cultivars studied; and was observed to correlate with total phenol and dry matter contents of tubers. Between the two enzymes, POD activity appeared to be more related to browning than PPO. PMID:25328234

  3. Influence of technological processes on phenolic compounds, organic acids, furanic derivatives, and antioxidant activity of whole-lemon powder.

    PubMed

    García-Salas, Patricia; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; García-Villanova, Belén; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-11-15

    The healthy properties of citrus fruits have been attributed to ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, mainly to flavonoids. Flavonoids are important phytonutrients because they have a wide range of biological effects that provide health-related properties. In this context, this study seeks to characterise the phenolic compounds in lemon and their stability in different drying processes (freeze-drying and vacuum-drying) and storage conditions (-18 and 50°C for 1 and 3months). A powerful high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) method has been applied for the separation, identification, and quantification of 19 phenolic compounds and 4 organic acids. To our knowledge, two hydroxycinnamic acids have been identified for the first time in lemon. Folin-Ciocalteu was applied to determine total phenolic compounds and TEAC, FRAP, and ORAC were applied to determine the antioxidant capacity of lemon. Total phenolic content significantly differed in the samples analysed, vacuum-dried lemon showing the highest phenolic content, followed by freeze-dried lemon and, finally, vacuum-dried lemon stored at 50°C for 1 and 3months. The content in furanic compounds was determined to evaluate the heat damage in lemon and it was showed an increase with the thermal treatment because of the triggering of Maillard reaction. As exception of ORAC, antioxidant-capacity assays were not correlated to phenolic content by HPLC due to the formation of antioxidant compounds during Maillard reaction. PMID:23790861

  4. Influence of technological processes on phenolic compounds, organic acids, furanic derivatives, and antioxidant activity of whole-lemon powder.

    PubMed

    García-Salas, Patricia; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; García-Villanova, Belén; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-11-15

    The healthy properties of citrus fruits have been attributed to ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, mainly to flavonoids. Flavonoids are important phytonutrients because they have a wide range of biological effects that provide health-related properties. In this context, this study seeks to characterise the phenolic compounds in lemon and their stability in different drying processes (freeze-drying and vacuum-drying) and storage conditions (-18 and 50°C for 1 and 3months). A powerful high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) method has been applied for the separation, identification, and quantification of 19 phenolic compounds and 4 organic acids. To our knowledge, two hydroxycinnamic acids have been identified for the first time in lemon. Folin-Ciocalteu was applied to determine total phenolic compounds and TEAC, FRAP, and ORAC were applied to determine the antioxidant capacity of lemon. Total phenolic content significantly differed in the samples analysed, vacuum-dried lemon showing the highest phenolic content, followed by freeze-dried lemon and, finally, vacuum-dried lemon stored at 50°C for 1 and 3months. The content in furanic compounds was determined to evaluate the heat damage in lemon and it was showed an increase with the thermal treatment because of the triggering of Maillard reaction. As exception of ORAC, antioxidant-capacity assays were not correlated to phenolic content by HPLC due to the formation of antioxidant compounds during Maillard reaction.

  5. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.

  6. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties. PMID:25582178

  7. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes.

  8. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on

  9. Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activities of different extracts of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pomace without seeds.

    PubMed

    Varshneya, Chandresh; Kant, Vinay; Mehta, Madhuri

    2012-03-01

    In this study, 100% methanolic extract (ME), 70% aqua-methanolic extract (AME) and 100% aqueous extract of seabuckthorn byproduct were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The total phenolic contents were high in AME (84.28 ± 1.58 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/gm of extract) compared to other extracts. All the extracts scavenged different in vitro radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) values were lowest in AME for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals, while ME had lowest values for hydroxyl radicals. The reducing power of the extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner and was highest in AME. The findings of this study revealed that seabuckthorn pomace without seed is one of the important resources as an antioxidant for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic or nutraceutical industries. PMID:21875373

  10. Sulfated phenolic acids from Dasycladales siphonous green algae.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Caroline; Welling, Matthew; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Sulfated aromatic acids play a central role as mediators of chemical interactions and physiological processes in marine algae and seagrass. Among others, Dasycladus vermicularis (Scopoli) Krasser 1898 uses a sulfated hydroxylated coumarin derivative as storage metabolite for a protein cross linker that can be activated upon mechanical disruption of the alga. We introduce a comprehensive monitoring technique for sulfated metabolites based on fragmentation patterns in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and applied it to Dasycladales. This allowed the identification of two new aromatic sulfate esters 4-(sulfooxy)phenylacetic acid and 4-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid. The two metabolites were synthesized to prove the mass spectrometry-based structure elucidation in co-injections. We show that both metabolites are transformed to the corresponding desulfated phenols by sulfatases of bacteria. In biofouling experiments with Escherichia coli and Vibrio natriegens the desulfated forms were more active than the sulfated ones. Sulfatation might thus represent a measure of detoxification that enables the algae to store inactive forms of metabolites that are activated by settling organisms and then act as defense. PMID:26188914

  11. Stimulation of indoleacetic acid production in a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo by root nodule phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Santi; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Amit K; Das, Amit; Pati, Bikas R; Pati, Bikas; Ghosh, Ananta K; Ghosh, Ananta

    2009-04-01

    The influence of endogenous root nodules phenolic acids on indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by its symbiont (Rhizobium) was examined. The root nodules contain higher amount of IAA and phenolic acids than non-nodulated roots. Presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes, IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase indicate the metabolism of IAA in the nodules and roots. Three most abundant endogenous root nodule phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-coumaric acid) have been identified and their effects on IAA production by the symbiont have been studied in L-tryptophan supplemented yeast extract basal medium. Protocatechuic acid (1.5 microg ml(-1)) showed maximum stimulation (2.15-fold over control) of IAA production in rhizobial culture. These results indicate that the phenolic acids present in the nodule might serve as a stimulator for IAA production by the symbiont (Rhizobium).

  12. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  13. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  14. Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-structural phenolic compounds provide a variety of functions to plants, including acting as antioxidants. We describe a microplate-adapted colorimetric total phenolics assay, which utilizes Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) reagent. The F-C assay relies on the transfer of electrons in alkaline medium from p...

  15. HPLC Quantification of Phenolic Acids from Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash and Its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prajna, Jha; Richa, Jindal; Dipjyoti, Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Extraction procedure was standardized and for the soluble, glycoside, and wall-bound fractions of phenolic acids from Vetiveria zizanioides. The water soluble alkaline extract which represents the cell wall-bound fraction contained the highest amount of phenolic acids (2.62 ± 1.2 μM/g fwt GA equivalents). Increased phenolic content in the cell wall indicates more lignin deposition which has an important role in plant defense and stress mitigation. Antioxidant property expressed as percentage TEAC value obtained by ABTS assay was correlated with the amount of phenolic acids and showed a Pearson's coefficient 0.988 (significant at 0.01 level). The compounds p-coumaric acid, p-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid were detected in the acidic extracts by HPLC analysis. The plant extracts exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:26555971

  16. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Boerhavia elegans (choisy) grown in Baluchestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Zahra; Valizadeh, Jafar; Azyzian Shermeh, Omid; Akaberi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Boerhaavia elegans L. (Nyctaginaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of kidney disorders, urinary tract disorders and blood purification in Baluch tribe. The aim of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant property of B. elegans species for the first time. Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem and fruit) of the plant were extracted by using various solvents (water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Results: Antioxidant results were expressed as IC50. The antioxidant power in DPPH and FRAP assay were evaluated as shown in decreasing order: Methanolic extract > Aqueous extract > Ethyl acetate extract > Chloroform extract, for all parts of the plant. In both methods of antioxidant assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, methanolic extract of leaf exhibited the highest activity and the most phenolic content IC50= 6.85 ppm and 16.41 mg GA/g d w respectively. Total phenolic content had a positive relationship with antioxidant capacity in extracts and there was a high correlation (r=1.00, p<0.01) between antioxidant activities as determined by both antioxidant assays for various parts. Conclusion: The results of the experiments showed that B. elegans extract had significant antioxidant effects. This high antioxidant activity may be linked to phenolic contents of the plant but complementary investigations are suggested in order to determine active elements. PMID:25767751

  17. Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolics, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin of oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Taha M; Banat, Fawzi; Rababah, Anfal; Ereifej, Khalil; Yang, Wade

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic extracts and antioxidant activity and anthocyanins of varieties of the investigated plants. These plants include oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate. The optimum extraction conditions including temperature and solvent of the extraction process itself were investigated. Total phenolic and anthocyanin extracts were examined according to Folin-Ciocalteu assay and Rabino and Mancinelli method, respectively. The effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on extracts of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins were studied. Plant samples were evaluated for their antioxidant chemical activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl assay, to determine their potential as a source of natural antioxidant. Results showed that all tested plants exhibited appreciable amounts of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract (60 °C) of sour pomegranate peel contained the highest phenolic extract (4952.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Terebinth green seed had the lowest phenolic extract (599.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Anthocyanins ranged between 3.5 (terebinth red seed) and 0.2 mg/100 g of dry material (thyme). Significant effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on total phenolics and anthocyanin extracts were found. The methanol and 60 °C of extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting phenolic compounds. The distilled water and 60 °C extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting anthocyanin. PMID:21535529

  18. Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Alhakmani, Fatma; Kumar, Sokindra; Khan, Shah Alam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman. Methods Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. Alcoholic extract of the dry pulverized flowers of M. oleifera were obtained by cold maceration method. The ethanolic flower extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening as the reported methods. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content. DPPH was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers was investigated by protein denaturation method. Results Phytochemical analysis of extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc. M. oleifera flowers were found to contain 19.31 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent of total phenolics in dry extract but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possess potent anti-inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23905019

  19. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains at four stages of development after flowering.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yafang; Xu, Feifei; Sun, Xiao; Bao, Jinsong; Beta, Trust

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated differences in total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and phenolic acids in free, conjugated and bound fractions of white (unpolished), red and black rice at 1-, 2-, and 3-weeks of grain development after flowering and at maturity. Unlike the TPC (mg/100g) of white rice (14.6-33.4) and red rice (66.8-422.2) which was significantly higher at 1-week than at later stages, the TPC of black rice (56.5-82.0) was highest at maturity. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC methods generally followed a similar trend as TPC. Only black rice had detectable anthocyanins (26.5-174.7mg/100g). Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) were the main anthocyanins in black rice showing significantly higher levels at 2- and 3-weeks than at 1-week development and at maturity. At all stages, the phenolic acids existed mainly in the bound form as detected by HPLC and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Black rice (20.1-31.7mg/100g) had higher total bound phenolic acids than white rice and red rice (7.0-11.8mg/100g). Protocatechuic acid was detected in red rice and black rice with relatively high levels at 1-week development (1.41mg/100g) and at maturity (4.48mg/100g), respectively. Vanillic acid (2.4-5.4mg/100g) was detected only in black rice where it peaked at maturity. p-Coumaric acid (<3.5mg/100g) did not differ significantly at most stages with somewhat high levels at 1-week for red and black rice. Ferulic acid (4.0-17.9mg/100g), the most abundant bound phenolic acid, had an inconsistent trend with higher levels being observed in black rice where it peaked at maturity. Isoferulic acid levels (0.8-1.6mg/100g) were generally low with slightly elevated values being observed at maturity. Overall black rice had higher total bound phenolic acids than white and red rice while white rice at all stages of development after flowering.

  20. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents Enhancement with Acute Gamma Irradiation in Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. PMID:25056545

  1. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae. PMID:27081460

  2. Total antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the Brazilian diet: a real scenario.

    PubMed

    Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; Bracht, Adelar; Nishida, Verônica Sayuri; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) taken in by the Brazilian population. For analysis, the 36 most consumed foods in Brazil were evaluated. The foods were prepared according to their usual form of consumption and submitted to in vitro digestion. The daily intake of phenolics and flavonoids was estimated to be 2.31 ± 0.12 g and 374.12 ± 18.17 mg, respectively. The TDAC, evaluated as the ferric-reducing antioxidant power and as the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, was 10.3 and 9.4 mmol/d, respectively. The beverages, especially coffee, followed by beans, rice and salt bread were the most important sources of antioxidants. The average intake of phenolics and flavonoids of the Brazilian diet was comparatively higher than that estimated for several other countries. However, the contribution of fruits and vegetables to the phenolic intake and TDAC was minimal (4-6%).

  3. Assessment of total phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of Passiflora species.

    PubMed

    Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses. PMID:25028673

  4. Assessment of Total Phenolic, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Passiflora Species

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses. PMID:25028673

  5. Comparison of postprandial phenolic acid excretions and glucose responses after ingestion of breads with bioprocessed or native rye bran.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Aura, Anna-Marja; Katina, Kati; Nordlund, Emilia; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-06-01

    Rye bran contains a high amount of phenolic acids with potential health promoting effects. However, due to binding to dietary fibre, the phenolic acids are poorly absorbed in human body. We used bioprocessing with enzymes and yeast to release phenolic acids from the fibre complex and studied the effect of bioprocessing on absorption of phenolic acids in healthy humans. White wheat breads fortified with bioprocessed or native rye bran, and wholegrain rye bread and white wheat bread as controls were served to 15 subjects in a randomized order in the cross-over design. Urine was collected at the basal state and over 24 hours in four-, eight-, and twelve-hour periods and analyzed for phenolic acids and their metabolites with gas chromatography. A total of six blood samples were taken over four hours to study the effect of the bread ingestion on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Bioprocessing of rye bran increased the proportion of free ferulic acid (FA) and soluble arabinoxylan in the bread. Ingestion of the white wheat bread fortified with bioprocessed rye bran increased (p < 0.001) urinary excretion of FA particularly during the first four hours, indicating increased absorption of FA from the small intestine. The postprandial glucose and insulin responses were similar between these breads. Bioprocessing of rye bran did not affect excretion of benzoic, phenylpropionic, and phenylacetic acid metabolites. As a conclusion, bioprocessed rye bran as compared with native rye bran increased absorption of FA from the small intestine, but did not improve postprandial glucose and insulin responses.

  6. Comparison of postprandial phenolic acid excretions and glucose responses after ingestion of breads with bioprocessed or native rye bran.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Aura, Anna-Marja; Katina, Kati; Nordlund, Emilia; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-06-01

    Rye bran contains a high amount of phenolic acids with potential health promoting effects. However, due to binding to dietary fibre, the phenolic acids are poorly absorbed in human body. We used bioprocessing with enzymes and yeast to release phenolic acids from the fibre complex and studied the effect of bioprocessing on absorption of phenolic acids in healthy humans. White wheat breads fortified with bioprocessed or native rye bran, and wholegrain rye bread and white wheat bread as controls were served to 15 subjects in a randomized order in the cross-over design. Urine was collected at the basal state and over 24 hours in four-, eight-, and twelve-hour periods and analyzed for phenolic acids and their metabolites with gas chromatography. A total of six blood samples were taken over four hours to study the effect of the bread ingestion on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Bioprocessing of rye bran increased the proportion of free ferulic acid (FA) and soluble arabinoxylan in the bread. Ingestion of the white wheat bread fortified with bioprocessed rye bran increased (p < 0.001) urinary excretion of FA particularly during the first four hours, indicating increased absorption of FA from the small intestine. The postprandial glucose and insulin responses were similar between these breads. Bioprocessing of rye bran did not affect excretion of benzoic, phenylpropionic, and phenylacetic acid metabolites. As a conclusion, bioprocessed rye bran as compared with native rye bran increased absorption of FA from the small intestine, but did not improve postprandial glucose and insulin responses. PMID:23674066

  7. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  10. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content. PMID:26688969

  11. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content.

  12. Release and degradation of anthocyanins and phenolics from blueberry pomace during thermal acid hydrolysis and dry heating.

    PubMed

    Bener, Mustafa; Shen, Yixiao; Apak, Reşat; Finley, John W; Xu, Zhimin

    2013-07-10

    In this study, blueberry pomace was soaked in pH 1, 4, or 7 solution for 10 min followed by boiling hydrolysis. Nine anthocyanins and 11 other phenolic compounds were released after acid hydrolysis. The highest anthocyanin release (4.70 mg/g) was achieved by boiling at pH 1 for 15 min followed by 3.94 mg/g at pH 4 and 3.46 mg/g at pH 7. Phenolics were released more quickly than anthocyanins during boiling. The change of antioxidant activity of the pomace during boiling was correlated with the total phenolic content but not anthocyanin content. The degradation rate of anthocyanins during boiling eventually surpassed the release rate from the pomace. Protocatechuic acid and catechin continuously increased during heating. Dry heat resulted in continuous degradation of anthocyanins and other phenolics in the pomace. The reduction in antioxidant activity of the pomace during dry heating was correlated with both the phenolic and anthocyanin contents.

  13. Phenolic acid metabolites derived from coffee consumption are unlikely to cross the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Lardeau, A; Poquet, L

    2013-03-25

    Coffee drinking is well known for its stimulating effects on the brain and on cognition. In addition to the most active component, caffeine, coffee contains phenolic acids, which may also have some activity. Dihydrocaffeoyl-3-O-sulfate, caffeoyl-3-O-sulfate, dihydroferuloyl-4-O-sulfate, as well as dihydroferulic, dihydrocaffeic, 5-O-feruloylquinic and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, the major phenolic acid metabolites circulating in human plasma after coffee ingestion, were tested for their potential to enter the brain using a validated in vitro model of the blood brain barrier made of endothelial cells from bovine brain capillaries. As expected, caffeine showed a high rate of permeation across this barrier, but the phenolic acid metabolites exhibited a very low rate of permeation. The data suggest that none of these phenolic acid metabolites can be considered as potential candidate to enter the brain in vivo and so are unlikely to affect cognitive processes directly as proposed for caffeine.

  14. Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Servili, M; Rizzello, C G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Urbani, S; Mazzacane, F; Di Maio, I; Selvaggini, R; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2011-05-14

    Functional milk beverages (FMB100 and FMB200) fortified with phenolic compounds (100 and 200mg/l) extracted from olive vegetable water, and fermented with γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing (Lactobacillus plantarum C48) and autochthonous human gastro-intestinal (Lactobacillus paracasei 15N) lactic acid bacteria were manufactured. A milk beverage (MB), without addition of phenolic compounds, was used as the control. Except for a longer latency phase of FMB200, the three beverages showed an almost similar kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose and synthesis of lactic acid. Apart from the beverage, Lb. plantarum C48 showed a decrease of ca. Log 2.52-2.24 cfu/ml during storage. The cell density of functional Lb. paracasei 15N remained always above the value of Log 8.0 cfu/ml. During fermentation, the total concentration of free amino acids markedly increased without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. The concentration of GABA increased during fermentation and further storage (63.0 ± 0.6-67.0 ± 2.1mg/l) without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. After fermentation, FMB100 and FMB200 showed the same phenolic composition of the phenol extract from olive vegetable water but a different ratio between 3,4-DHPEA and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. During storage, the concentrations of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA and verbascoside of both FMB100 and FMB200 decreased. Only the concentration of 3,4-DHPEA increased. As shown by SPME-GC-MS analysis, diactetyl, acetoin and, especially, acetaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found. The concentration of phenolic compounds does not interfere with the volatile composition. Sensory analyses based on triangle and paired comparison tests showed that phenolic compounds at the concentrations of 100 or 200mg/l were suitable for addition to functional milk beverages.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on total phenolics, trypsin and tannin inhibitors in soybean grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Toledo, T. C. F.; Canniatti-Brazaca, S. G.; Arthur, V.; Piedade, S. M. S.

    2007-10-01

    The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too.

  16. Preparation, characterization and antioxidant activity of phenolic acids grafted carboxymethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Tang, Ying-qing; Jin, Chang-hai

    2013-11-01

    In this study, three phenolic acids including gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) were grafted onto N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) by a free radical mediated grafting method. The grafted copolymers obtained were all water-soluble samples. UV-vis absorption peaks of the grafted copolymers shifted toward longer wavelengths. FT-IR spectroscopy of the grafted copolymers exhibited additional phenolic characteristics of the aromatic ring CC stretching within 1450-1650 cm(-1). NMR spectroscopy of the grafted copolymers showed new peaks at 6.2-7.6 ppm assigned to the phenyl protons of phenolic acids. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of three phenolic acids to NOCC. The conjugation probably occurred at amine of NOCC and carboxyl groups of phenolic acids. The grafted copolymers exhibited decreased crystallinity as compared to NOCC and chitosan. Moreover, antioxidant activity in vitro assays showed that the antioxidant property decreased in the order of GA-g-NOCC>CA-g-NOCC>FA-g-NOCC>NOCC>chitosan. Our results suggested the potential of phenolic acids grafted NOCC for the development of effective antioxidant agents.

  17. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. PMID:27052717

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  19. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon. PMID:26584982

  20. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon.

  1. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26197530

  2. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  3. Total phenols, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, Letícia; Pereira, José Alberto

    2008-07-01

    The total phenols content and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were studied in walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks aqueous extracts of five different cultivars (Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne). Total phenols content was determined by colorimetric assay and their amount ranged from 32.61 mg/g of GAE (cv. Mellanaise) to 74.08 mg/g of GAE t (cv. Franquette). The antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts was assessed through reducing power assay, scavenging effects on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. A concentration-dependent antioxidative capacity was verified in reducing power and DPPH assays, with EC50 values lower than 1 mg/mL for all the tested extracts. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. All the extracts inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being Staphylococcus aureus the most susceptible one with MIC of 0.1 mg/mL for all the extracts. The results obtained indicate that walnut green husks may become important in the obtainment of a noticeable source of compounds with health protective potential and antimicrobial activity.

  4. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin.

  5. Antioxidant potential, cytotoxic activity and total phenolic content of Alpinia pahangensis rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia pahangensis, a wild ginger distributed in the lowlands of Pahang, Malaysia, is used by the locals to treat flatulence. In this study, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the crude aqueous methanol and fractionated extracts of Alpinia pahangensis against five different cancer and one normal cell lines were investigated. The total phenolic content of each extract and its fractions were also quantified. This is the first report on the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Alpinia pahangensis extract. Methods In the current study, the crude methanol and fractionated extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis were investigated for their antioxidant activity using four different assays namely, the DPPH scavenging activity, superoxide anion scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays whilst their phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method. In vitro neutral red cytotoxicity assay was employed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity against five different cancer cell lines, colon cancer (HCT 116 and HT-29), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), breast cancer (MCF7) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines, and one normal cell line (MRC-5). The extract that showed high cytotoxic activity was further investigated for its chemical constituents by GC-MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis. Results The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging (0.35 ± 0.094 mg/ml) and SOD activities (51.77 ± 4.9%) whilst the methanol extract showed the highest reducing power and also the strongest antioxidant activity in the β-carotene bleaching assays in comparison to other fractions. The highest phenolic content was found in the ethyl acetate fraction, followed by the crude methanol extract, hexane and water fractions. The results showed a positive correlation between total phenolic content with DPPH radical scavenging capacities and SOD activities. The hexane fraction showed potent cytotoxic

  6. Poly(N-vinylimidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Schemeth, Dieter; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Jakschitz, Thomas; Rainer, Matthias; Tessadri, Richard; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-07-23

    In this study we report the novel polymeric resin poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids. The monomer to crosslinker ratio and the porogen composition were optimized for isolating phenolic acids diluted in acetonitrile at normal phase chromatography conditions, first. Acetonitrile serves as polar, aprotic solvent, dissolving phenolic acids but not interrupting interactions with the stationary phase due to the approved Hansen solubility parameters. The optimized resin demonstrated high loading capacities and adsorption abilities particularly for phenolic acids in both, acetonitrile and aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior of aqueous standards can be attributed to ion exchange effects due to electrostatic interactions between protonated imidazole residues and deprotonated phenolic acids. Furthermore, adsorption experiments and subsequent curve fittings provide information of maximum loading capacities of single standards according to the Langmuir adsorption model. Recovery studies of the optimized polymer in the normal-phase and ion-exchange mode illustrate the powerful isolation properties for phenolic acids and are comparable or even better than typical, commercially available solid phase extraction materials. In order to prove the applicability, a highly complex extract of rosemary leaves was purified by poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and the isolated compounds were identified using UHPLC-qTOF-MS.

  7. Chemical oxidation of phenolic acids by soil iron and manganese oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation of six phenolic acids by soil Fe and Mn oxides was demonstrated by changes in phenolic acid extractability from soil with time, by production of Fe(II) and soluble Mn from the oxidation reaction, by quantitative recoveries of added phenolic acids from soil pretreated with dithionite-citrate to remove Fe and Mn oxides, and by the reactivity of phenolic acids in the presence of pure Mn and Fe oxides. The reactivities of phenolic acids were associated with the structures of the chemicals. Increasing methoxy substitution on the aromatic ring increased reactivity, and cinnamic acid derivatives were more reactive than benzoic acid derivatives. Oxidation products of /sup 14/C labeled ferulic acid were sorbed to MnO/sub 2/ within minutes and were unextractable by organic solvents unless the mineral was pretreated with 6 M HCl or 0.5 M NaOH. The oxidation rate of ferulic acid by MnO/sub 2/ approached zero after four days even with a surplus of reactants.

  8. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe.

    PubMed

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp=200...600 μm, porosity ε=0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol)=0 after t=6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest. PMID:26529301

  9. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe.

    PubMed

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp=200...600 μm, porosity ε=0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol)=0 after t=6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  10. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H.

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp = 200…600 μm, porosity ε = 0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol) = 0 after t = 6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  11. Efficient quantification of the health-relevant anthocyanin and phenolic acid profiles in commercial cultivars and breeding selections of blueberries ( Vaccinium spp.).

    PubMed

    Yousef, Gad G; Brown, Allan F; Funakoshi, Yayoi; Mbeunkui, Flaubert; Grace, Mary H; Ballington, James R; Loraine, Ann; Lila, Mary A

    2013-05-22

    Anthocyanins and phenolic acids are major secondary metabolites in blueberry with important implications for human health maintenance. An improved protocol was developed for the accurate, efficient, and rapid comparative screening for large blueberry sample sets. Triplicates of six commercial cultivars and four breeding selections were analyzed using the new method. The compound recoveries ranged from 94.2 to 97.5 ± 5.3% when samples were spiked with commercial standards prior to extraction. Eighteen anthocyanins and 4 phenolic acids were quantified in frozen and freeze-dried fruits. Large variations for individual and total anthocyanins, ranging from 201.4 to 402.8 mg/100 g, were assayed in frozen fruits. The total phenolic acid content ranged from 23.6 to 61.7 mg/100 g in frozen fruits. Across all genotypes, freeze-drying resulted in minor reductions in anthocyanin concentration (3.9%) compared to anthocyanins in frozen fruits. However, phenolic acids increased by an average of 1.9-fold (±0.3) in the freeze-dried fruit. Different genotypes frequently had comparable overall levels of total anthocyanins and phenolic acids, but differed dramatically in individual profiles of compounds. Three of the genotypes contained markedly higher concentrations of delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside, which have previously been implicated as bioactive principles in this fruit. The implications of these findings for human health benefits are discussed. PMID:23635035

  12. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf and the antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Wiwik Susanah; Swantara, I. Made Dira; Asih, I. A. Raka Astiti; Sinarsih, Ni Ketut; Suteja, I. Kadek Pater

    2016-03-01

    Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in some natural products was suspected of having a positive correlation to its activity in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity towards Escherechia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of compounds was done by ethanol 96%, followed by fractionation into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Determination of total flavonoid and phenolic contents was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer using standard of quersetin and galic acid respectively. In addition, antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Extraction of 1000 g of Samanea saman leaf was obtained 80 g of ethanol extracts, fractionation of the extract was obtained 8.02 g of n-hexane extracts, 7.11 g of ethyl acetate extracts, 13.5 g of n-butanol extracts, and 14.16 g of aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening of the n-butanol extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were successively 43.5798 mg QE/100g and 34.0180 mg GAE/100g. The butanol extracts inhibited the growth of S.aureus higher than the growth of E.coli. At the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 % (b/v), and positive control (meropenem μg/disc), inhibition zone towards S. aureus was successively 5.67, 9.33, 10.33, 12.00, and 32.33 mm, while the inhibition zone towards E. coli was1.33, 3.33, 4.33, 5.43, and 34.00 mm.

  13. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Various Solvent Extracts from In Vivo and In Vitro Grown Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Taha, Rosna; Banisalam, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract. PMID:26064936

  14. Control of product selectivity using solid acids for the catalytic addition of phenol to hydroxy fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid catalyzed reactions of hydroxy fatty acids, such as ricinoleic and lesquerolic, in the presence of phenolics can lead to four products or product groups. These include simple dehydration to dienoic acids, cyclization to epoxides, Friedel-Crafts alkylations of the double bonds, or ether for...

  15. Effects of natural phenolic acids on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Zych, Maria; Burczyk, Jan; Trzeciak, Hanna; Trzeciak, Henryk I

    2009-12-01

    Recent reports indicate the possibility of antiresorptive and/or bone formation increasing activity of natural phenolic acids, commonly present in plants which are normally consumed in the diet. The effects of 4 natural phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic, P-coumaric or chlorogenic, 10 mg/kg P. O. daily for 4 weeks) on the skeletal system of ovariectomized (estrogen-deficient) rats were investigated. Bone mass, mineral and calcium content, macrometric and histomorphometric parameters, and mechanical properties were examined. Phenolic acids differentially affected the skeletal system of rats with osteoporotic changes induced by the ovariectomy. Caffeic acid decreased bone mass, whereas P-coumaric acid increased the bone mass/body mass ratio and bone mineral mass/body mass ratio in the long bones, in comparison with the ovariectomized control rats. The phenolic acids improved some bone histomorphometric parameters, impaired by estrogen deficiency. However, they did not increase the ratio of bone mineral mass to bone mass, decreased by estrogen deficiency, and did not significantly affect bone mechanical properties. In conclusion, different natural phenolic acids exert differential effects on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats, both favourable and deleterious.

  16. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. PMID:25952870

  17. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid

    PubMed Central

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice. PMID:24804068

  18. Structural characterization of aquatic humic material. 2. Phenolic content and its relationship to chlorination mechanism in an isolated aquatic fulvi acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norwood, D.L.; Christman, R.F.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The complementary techniques of solid-state 13G nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical degradation were utilized to examine the lignin/phenolic substructure of an isolated aquatic fulvic acid capable of producing upon aqueous chlorination a number of organohalides typically found in municipal drinking water. Results indicate that while phenolic moieties are present in the fulvic acid, they account for only a minor fraction of the total carbon. A sequential chemical degradation experiment utilizing aqueous chlorine and CuO demonstrated that the lignin/phenolic substructure was attacked by the chlorine. It is concluded that while phenolic ring rupture mechanisms appear to be important in organohalide generation, other aqueous chlorination mechanisms involving aliphatic and other types of aromatic structures should also be considered. ?? 1987 American Chemical Society.

  19. Influence of cultivar, harvest time, storage conditions, and peeling on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Kevers, Claire; Pincemail, Joël; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Apple and pear fruits are important sources of secondary plant metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolics consumed all year round. The aim of this work was to identify the main variables influencing phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in apples. Higher phenolic and antioxidant contents were observed in some varieties (such as the Delbar Estival apple and Durondeau pear). Storage conditions were important. Our results also showed that fruits should be consumed rapidly after purchase and with their peel. After one week of domestic storage, the ascorbic acid content was found to decrease by 75%. Peeling led to a more than 25% decrease in total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The harvest time (at normal ripeness) had only a limited impact, but significant year-to-year variations were observed. In conclusion, well-chosen and well-stored apples and pears may contribute to an antioxidant-rich diet if consumed rapidly and with their peel.

  20. Mimicking the hierarchical functions of dentin collagen cross-links with plant derived phenols and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Cristina M P; Leme, Ariene A; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Phansalkar, Rasika; Nam, Joo-Won; Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F; Bedran-Russo, Ana

    2014-12-16

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are secondary plant metabolites that mediate nonenzymatic collagen cross-linking and enhance the properties of collagen based tissue, such as dentin. The extent and nature of cross-linking is influenced by the composition and specific chemical structure of the bioactive compounds present in certain PAC-rich extracts. This study investigated the effect of the molecular weight and stereochemistry of polyphenol compounds on two important properties of dentin, biomechanics, and biostability. For that, purified phenols, a phenolic acid, and some of its derivatives were selected: PAC dimers (A1, A2, B1, and B2) and a trimer (C1), gallic acid (Ga), its esters methyl-gallate (MGa) and propyl-gallate (PGa), and a pentagalloyl ester of glucose (PGG). Synergism was assessed by combining the most active PAC and gallic acid derivative. Mechanical properties of dentin organic matrix were determined by the modulus of elasticity obtained in a flexural test. Biostability was evaluated by the resistance to collagenase degradation. PACs significantly enhanced dentin mechanical properties and decreased collagen digestion. Among the gallic acid derivatives, only PGG had a significant enhancing effect. The lack of observed C1:PGG synergy indicates that both compounds have similar mechanisms of interaction with the dentin matrix. These findings reveal that the molecular weight of polyphenols have a determinant effect on their interaction with type I collagen and modulates the mechanism of cross-linking at the molecular, intermolecular, and inter-microfibrillar levels. PMID:25379878

  1. The effect of pro-ecological procedures and insect foraging on the total content of phenol compounds in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Lamparski, Robert; Balcerek, Maciej; Modnicki, Daniel; Kotwica, Karol; Wawrzyniak, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In laboratory conditions, the effect of pro-ecological procedures (application of effective microorganisms and Asahi SL biostimulator) and foraging by insects [cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopa L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)] on the total content of phenolic compounds in winter wheat, was studied. Correlations between the total content of phenolic compounds (determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method) expressed as the amount of pyrogallol in wheat plants: undamaged, damaged by O. melanopa, damaged by R. padi, the length of feeding scar left by cereal leaf beetle and the number of pricks made by actively feeding insects of bird cherry-oat aphid were analysed. The wheat was treated by EM inoculant and a biostimulator. The mode of application of the preparations used had a significant effect on level the total phenolic compounds in the undamaged wheat and the wheat exposed to foraging by the above-mentioned insects. The plants not exposed to insects foraging contained greater amounts of phenolic compounds than those exposed to the insects. The correlation between the total content of phenols in the wheat damaged by the insects in the 'no-choice' conditions, proved insignificant.

  2. Extraction and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonols from Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents.

    PubMed

    Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; Plata-Oviedo, Manuel Salvador Vicente; de Mattos, Gisely; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Branco, Ivanise Guilherme

    2014-10-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds of Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents was investigated in this study. The compounds were identified and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD/UV-vis). Absolute methanol was the most effective extraction agent of phenolic acids and flavonols (588.31 mg/Kg) from Eugenia pyriformis, although similar results (p ≤ 0.05) were observed using methanol/water (1:1 ratio). Our results clearly showed that higher contents of phenolic compounds were not obtained either with the most or the least polar solvents used. Several phenolic compounds were identified in the samples whereas gallic acid and quercetin were the major compounds recovered. PMID:25328239

  3. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  8. Molecular complexes of alprazolam with carboxylic acids, boric acid, boronic acids, and phenols. Evaluation of supramolecular heterosynthons mediated by a triazole ring.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Sunil; Azim, Yasser; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2010-09-01

    A series of molecular complexes, both co-crystals and salts, of a triazole drug-alprazolam-with carboxylic acids, boric acid, boronic acids, and phenols have been analyzed with respect to heterosynthons present in the crystal structures. In all cases, the triazole ring behaves as an efficient hydrogen bond acceptor with the acidic coformers. The hydrogen bond patterns exhibited with aromatic carboxylic acids were found to depend on the nature and position of the substituents. Being a strong acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid forms a salt with alprazolam. With aliphatic dicarboxylic acids alprazolam forms hydrates and the water molecules play a central role in synthon formation and crystal packing. The triazole ring makes two distinct heterosynthons in the molecular complex with boric acid. Boronic acids and phenols form consistent hydrogen bond patterns, and these are seemingly independent of the substitutional effects. Boronic acids form noncentrosymmetric cyclic synthons, while phenols form O--H...N hydrogen bonds with the triazole ring.

  9. Determination of technological maturity of grapes and total phenolic compounds of grape skins in red and white cultivars during ripening by near infrared hyperspectral image: a preliminary approach.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Heredia, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral images of intact grapes during ripening were recorded using a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm). Spectral data have been correlated with grape skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH by modified partial least squares regression (MPLS) using a number of spectral pre-treatments and different sets of calibration. The obtained results (RSQ and SEP, respectively) for the global model of red and white grape samples were: 0.89 and 1.23 mg g(-1) of grape skin for total phenolic concentration, 0.99 and 1.37 °Brix for sugar concentration, 0.98 and 3.88 g L(-1) for titratable acidity and for pH 0.94 and 0.12. Moreover, separate calibration models for red and white grape samples were also developed. The obtained results present a good potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive screening of these parameters in intact grapes and therefore, for a fast control of technological and phenolic maturity.

  10. Determination of technological maturity of grapes and total phenolic compounds of grape skins in red and white cultivars during ripening by near infrared hyperspectral image: a preliminary approach.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Heredia, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral images of intact grapes during ripening were recorded using a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm). Spectral data have been correlated with grape skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH by modified partial least squares regression (MPLS) using a number of spectral pre-treatments and different sets of calibration. The obtained results (RSQ and SEP, respectively) for the global model of red and white grape samples were: 0.89 and 1.23 mg g(-1) of grape skin for total phenolic concentration, 0.99 and 1.37 °Brix for sugar concentration, 0.98 and 3.88 g L(-1) for titratable acidity and for pH 0.94 and 0.12. Moreover, separate calibration models for red and white grape samples were also developed. The obtained results present a good potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive screening of these parameters in intact grapes and therefore, for a fast control of technological and phenolic maturity. PMID:24444979

  11. Ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    A kinetic study of the degradation by ozone of eight phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills has been performed by using a competition kinetic method. The selected phenolic acids are: caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vanillic, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic, veratric, p-hydroxy-benzoic, and protocatechuic. The influence of the operating variables (temperature, pH, and ozone partial pressure in the gas stream) is established, and the stoichiometric ratios for the individual direct reactions between ozone and each acid are determined. Once the reaction rate constants are evaluated, they are correlated as a function of temperature and pH into kinetic expressions which are provided for every phenolic acid. The global process occurs in the fast and pseudo-first-order kinetic regime of absorption, a condition required by the competition model to be used.

  12. Production of stilbenoids and phenolic acids by the peanut plant at early stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S; Horn, Bruce W; Potter, Thomas L; Deyrup, Stephen T; Gloer, James B

    2006-05-17

    The peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) is known to produce stilbene phytoalexins as a defensive response to fungal invasion; however, the distribution of phytoalexins among different organs of the peanut plant at early stages of growth under axenic conditions has not been studied. Axenic plants produced a stilbenoid, resveratrol, as well as soluble bound and free phenolic acids, including 4-methoxycinnamic acid, which is reported in peanuts for the first time. Neither resveratrol nor phenolic acids were found in the root mucilage; the prenylated stilbenes were restricted to the mucilage and were not found in other organs of the peanut plant. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the defensive role of peanut stilbenes and phenolic acids.

  13. The Phenolic, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid, is an Endogenous Regulator of Rooting in Protea Cynaroides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays indicated the presence of allelochemicals in Protea cynaroides stem cuttings. Analysis of stem extracts identified large quantities of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and other simlar phenolics. Phytotoxicity bioassay showed that 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid both stimulated and inhibited root gro...

  14. Formation of phenol under conditions of the reaction of oxidative carbonylation of benzene to benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinovsky, I.O.; Leshcheva, A.N.; Pogorelov, V.V.; Gelbshtein, A.I.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes conditions for the oxidation of benzene to phenol. It is shown that a reaction mixture of water, carbon monoxide, and oxygen are essential to the oxidation. The oxidation is a side reaction found to occur during the oxidative carbonylation of benzene to benzoic acid in a medium of trifluoroacetic acid.

  15. Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids and Coumarins from the Roots of Althaea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Gudej, J

    1991-06-01

    From the roots of ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS two flavonoid glycosides were separated. Phenolic acids and coumarins were investigated chromatographically. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR) as hypolaetin 8-glucoside and the new flavonoid sulphate - isoscutellarein 4'-methyl ether 8-glucoside-2''-SO (3)K.

  16. Effects of process parameters on supercritical CO2 extraction of total phenols from strawberry (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits: An optimization study.

    PubMed

    Akay, Seref; Alpak, Ilknur; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize total phenolic yield of Arbutus unedo fruits using supercritical fluid extraction. A Box-Behnken statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of various values of pressure (50-300 bar), temperature (30-80°C) and concentration of ethanol as co-solvent (0-20%) by CO2 flow rate of 15 g/min for 60 min. The most effective variable was co-solvent ratio (p<0.005). Evaluative criteria for both dependent variables (total phenols and radical scavenging activity) in the model were assigned maximum. Optimum extraction conditions were elicited as 60 bar, 48°C and 19.7% yielding 25.72 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) total phenols/g extract and 99.9% radical scavenging capacity, which were higher than the values obtained by conventional water (24.89 mg/g; 83.8%) and ethanol (15.12 mg/g; 95.8%) extractions demonstrating challenges as a green separation process with improved product properties for industrial applications. PMID:21695688

  17. Antimicrobial activities of rhizomes of Polygonatum verticillatum: attributed to its total flavonoidal and phenolic contents.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Ghaffar, Rukhsana; Khan, Saeed Ahmad; Hassan, Sohail

    2012-04-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the rhizomes of Polygonatum verticillatum against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Broad spectrum antibacterial activity was demonstrated by the crude extract of the plant and its subsequent solvent fractions; predominantly against Gram-negative bacteria. MICs of the extracts against Escherchia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexeneri were in the range of 1.5-40 μg/ml, 03-06 μg/ml and 03-40 μg/ml, respectively. The only sensitive Gram-positive bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus with MICs in the range of 75-80 μg/ml. The fungicidal activity was limited to Microspoum canis and Fusarium solani and the MICs were in the range of 350-360 μg/ml and 190-290 μg/ml respectively. The various fractions of rhizomes contained significant concentration of total flavonoidal and total phenolic contents that could be responsible for the current findings. PMID:22459478

  18. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals. PMID:23870885

  19. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals.

  20. Development of HPLC method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic acids in different Ocimum sanctum Linn. extracts.

    PubMed

    Shafqatullah; Khan, Rasool; Hassan, Waseem; Hussain, Arshad; Asadullah; Rehman, Khaliqur; Ali, Javid

    2014-09-01

    A simple and rapid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids including Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid, Syringic acid, Benzoic acid and Vanillic acid by HPLC with UV-VIS detector. These Phenolic acids were separated by analytical column Intersil ODS-3 C18, a gradient elution system of ACN and acidified water solution with 1ml/min flow rate and quantified in a total run of 30 minutes at 210nm wavelength. In the quantitative analysis of these compounds showed good regression (0.995-0.999). The limit of detection [LOD] and limit of quantification [LOQ] of these compounds were in the range of 0.15-0.46 and 0.42-2.47 βg/mL. The average recoveries were between 95.8-103.1% and their RSD values were less than 3.34%. By the proposed method Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid and Syringic acid were found and quantified in Methanolic, Ethanolic and Acetonic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. While the two other phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid was not found in the extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. PMID:25176382

  1. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  2. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with a Post-Column Derivatization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C18 cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C18 column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0–6.8% and 2.0–7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7–7.4% and 1.5–8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals. PMID:22312251

  3. Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Taraxacum formosanum Kitam by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a post-column derivatization technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ju; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in a medicinal Chinese herb Taraxacum formosanum Kitam. Initially, both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol in a water-bath at 60 °C for 3 h and eventually separated into acidic fraction and neutral fraction by using a C(18) cartridge. A total of 29 compounds were separated within 68 min by employing a Gemini C(18) column and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Based on the retention behavior as well as absorption and mass spectra, 19 phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids were identified and quantified in T. formosanum, with the former ranging from 14.1 μg/g to 10,870.4 μg/g, and the latter from 9.9 μg/g to 325.8 μg/g. For further identification of flavonoids, a post-column derivatization method involving shift reagents such as sodium acetate or aluminum chloride was used and the absorption spectral characteristics without or with shift reagents were compared. An internal standard syringic acid was used for quantitation of phenolic acids, whereas (±) naringenin was found suitable for quantitation of flavonoids. The developed LC-MS/MS method showed high reproducibility, as evident from the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day variability being 1.0-6.8% and 2.0-7.7% for phenolic acids and 3.7-7.4% and 1.5-8.1% for flavonoids, respectively, and thus may be applied for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chinese herb and nutraceuticals.

  4. Growth inhibitory effect of grape phenolics against wine spoilage yeasts and acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pastorkova, E; Zakova, T; Landa, P; Novakova, J; Vadlejch, J; Kokoska, L

    2013-02-15

    This paper investigates the in vitro antimicrobial potential of 15 grape phenolic compounds of various chemical classes (phenolic acids, stilbenes and flavonoids) using the broth microdilution method against yeasts and acetic acid bacteria frequently occurring in deteriorated wine. Pterostilbene (MICs=32-128 μg/mL), resveratrol (MICs=256-512 μg/mL) and luteolin (MICs=256-512 μg/mL) are among six active compounds that possessed the strongest inhibitory effects against all microorganisms tested. In the case of phenolic acids, myricetin, p-coumaric and ferulic acids exhibited selective antimicrobial activity (MICs=256-512 μg/mL), depending upon yeasts and bacteria tested. In comparison with potassium metabisulphite, all microorganisms tested were more susceptible to the phenolics. The results revealed the antibacterial and antiyeast effects against wine spoilage microorganisms of several highly potent phenolics naturally occurring in grapes. These findings also provide arguments for further investigation of stilbenes as prospective compounds reducing the need for the use of sulphites in winemaking.

  5. Cold water fish gelatin modification by a natural phenolic cross-linker (ferulic acid and caffeic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Araghi, Maryam; Moslehi, Zeinab; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Mostahsan, Amir; Salamat, Nima; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays use of edible films and coatings is increasing due to their biodegradability and environment friendly properties. Fish gelatin obtained from fish skin wastage can be used as an appropriate protein compound for replacing pork gelatin to produce edible film. In this study films were prepared by combination of fish gelatin and different concentration (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) of two phenolic compounds (caffeic acid and ferulic acid). The film was prepared at pH > 10 and temperature of 60˚c under continuous injection of O2 and addition of the plasticizer sorbitol/glycerol. Results showed that solubility, oxygen permeability, and water vapor permeability were decreased for caffeic acid and the highest effect was observed at concentration of 5%. Solubility had a linear relationship with concentration of phenolic compound in film containing ferulic acid, however, no significant change was observed in vapor and O2 permeability. A comparison between two phenolic compounds showed that caffeic acid had the highest effect in decreasing solubility, water vapor permeability, and oxygen permeability. Caffeic acid is more effective phenolic compound compared with Ferulic acid that can increase safety of biodegradable packaging by improving their barrier and physicochemical properties. PMID:26405523

  6. Effect of UV-B light on total soluble phenolic contents of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic contents (TSP) of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colo...

  7. Total phenolic compounds and tocopherols profiles of seven olive oil varieties grown in the south-west of Spain.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maria Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concha; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article reports about the presence of some of the components of minor fraction of virgin olive oils, polyphenols and tocopherols, in several of the VOO varieties from Extremadura. The relationship between both classes of compounds and the oxidative stability of the oils is also examined. The levels of total phenols, α, β, and γ tocopherols showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the different varieties. The concentration of total phenolic compounds varied from 130 to 1203 mg/kg. The α-tocopherol was the most representative in the seven varieties (95.97 %) and ranged from (288 - 170) to (485 - 244) mg/kg in the Morisca and Carrasqueña varieties respectively. On the other hand, a positive high lineal correlation was observed between oxidative stability and studied along the maturity of the fruit and the total phenolic compounds (natural antioxidants) (r(2)>0.90; p<0.05), α-tocopherol (r(2)>0.85; p<0.05), β-tocopherol (r(2)>0.70; p<0.05) and total-tocopherols (r(2)>0.87; p<0.05), in all the olive oils obtained from the seven varieties of olive from Extremadura. It is noticeable that α-tocopherol fraction contributed equally to the oxidative stability of all the VOO whereas the largest contribution was provided by the oil phenolic fraction, as it was the case of the Carrasqueña variety.

  8. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  9. Total Phenolic Content and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants of Labiatae against Four Foodborne and Some Other Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Babaeian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus caramanicus, Zataria multiflora, Ziziphora clinopodioides and Ziziphora tenuior against four foodborne and four other bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, MRSA and Pseudomona aeruginosa and measuring the amount of total phenolics of the plants. The extracts were prepared by maceration method. Pre-evaluation of the antimicrobial effect was utilized by cup-plate technique and then Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was determined by agar dilution method according to NCCLS. The total phenolics as a possible cause of antibacterial effect, was measured by Folin-Ciocalteucolorimetry. The results showed that T. caramanicus and Z. multiflora were the most effective ones with MIC values between 0.78-3.125 mg/mL against all of the Bactria and Z. tenuior and Z. clinopodioides had the minimum antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic contents of these five plants were different and followed the general pattern of the antimicrobial effect. The antibacterial effects and the total phenolic content of T. caramanicus and Z. multiflora were remarkable and should be investigated more in future studies. PMID:25237351

  10. Total phenol content of guava fruit and development of an in vitro regeneration protocol amenable to genetic improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total soluble phenolics in two white (‘Allahabad Safeda’ and ‘Lucknow-49’), two pink (‘Beaumont’ and ‘Gushiken Sweet’), and three red fleshed (‘Ka Hua Kola’, ‘Ruby Supreme’ and ‘Red Fleshed’) guava (Psidium guajava. L.) fruits were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. ‘Allahabad Safeda’ and...

  11. Total Biosynthesis of Legionaminic Acid, a Bacterial Sialic Acid Analogue.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed I; Lundgren, Benjamin R; Chaumun, Michael; Whitfield, Dennis M; Clark, Brady; Schoenhofen, Ian C; Boddy, Christopher N

    2016-09-19

    Legionaminic acid, Leg5,7Ac2 , a nonulosonic acid like 5-acetamido neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, sialic acid), is found in cell surface glycoconjugates of bacteria including the pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Acinetobacter baumanii and Legionella pneumophila. The presence of Leg5,7Ac2 has been correlated with virulence in humans by mechanisms that likely involve subversion of the host's immune system or interactions with host cell surfaces due to its similarity to Neu5Ac. Investigation into its role in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity is limited as there are no effective sources of it. Herein, we construct a de novo Leg5,7Ac2 biosynthetic pathway by combining multiple metabolic modules from three different microbial sources (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, C. jejuni, and L. pneumophila). Over-expression of this de novo pathway in Escherichia coli that has been engineered to lack two native catabolic pathways, enables significant quantities of Leg5,7Ac2 (≈120 mg L(-1) of culture broth) to be produced. Pure Leg5,7Ac2 could be isolated and converted into CMP-activated sugar for biochemical applications and a phenyl thioglycoside for chemical synthesis applications. This first total biosynthesis provides an essential source of Leg5,7Ac2 enabling study of its role in prokaryotic and eukaryotic glycobiology. PMID:27538580

  12. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the total phenolic and antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peel.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y-Q; Chen, J-C; Liu, D-H; Ye, X-Q

    2008-10-01

    Application of ultrasound to extract a variety of biologically active compounds from plant materials has been widely investigated. However, there are few reports on the local effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the yields of these compounds. In the present article, the local effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities (ATT) of extracts from citrus peels was investigated. To optimize the extraction process, a response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic variables including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature on extracts from penggan (Citrus reticulata) peel. The results showed that TPC and ATT increased on increasing ultrasonic time and temperature. The maximum of TPC and ATT by ultrasonic treatment was observed in near ultrasonic irradiation surface, in which ultrasonic power appeared to be positive effect. Furthermore, when the effect of the 3 independent variables was evaluated simultaneously using RSM, the optimal ultrasonic conditions for responses were determined as: 42 to 45 W, 23 to 25 min, 31 to 34 degrees C. The results presented here emphasized that application of ultrasound should be considered both the optimization of ultrasonic variables and available ultrasonic device. PMID:19019132

  13. [Effects of fertilization on Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings total phenolics and extractable condensed tannin contents].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Hua; Lin, Yi-Ming; Ye, Gong-Fu

    2010-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of nitrogen- and phosphorus fertilization on the total phenolics (TP) and extractable condensed tannin (ECT) contents in the branchlets of Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings, aimed to approach the nutrient effect on tannin production. Under nitrogen fertilization, the TP and ECT contents decreased significantly, which supported the hypotheses of carbon-nitrogen balance (CNB) and growth-differentiation balance (GDB), but the plant nitrogen content had less change, resulting in the decrease of TP/N and ECT/N ratios. Phosphorus fertilization had no significant effects on the TP and ECT production. With prolonged treatment time, the TP content in the branchlets of C. equisetifolia seedlings increased by 9.91% - 14.32%, but the ECT content decreased by 14.32% - 298.88%. The TP and ECT had opposite relationships with organic matters content, showing that different types of tannin had different biosynthetic pathways. However, both TP and ECT had no significant correlation with nitrogen content, and thus, the protein competition model (PCM) was not supported. Under nutrient-poor condition, the TP/N and ECT/N ratios were relatively high, which would be beneficial for the improvement of defense ability, the decrease of litter decomposition ratio and nutrient loss, and the maintenance of high productivity of C. equisetifolia plantations. PMID:21043101

  14. Total Phenol Content and In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser-A Less-explored Indian Mango Mistletoe.

    PubMed

    Sunil Kumar, Koppala Narayana; Saraswathy, Ariyamuthu; Amerjothy, Swaminathan; Susan, Thomas; Ravishankar, Basaviah

    2014-10-01

    Natural products are an important source of antioxidant molecules like tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, etc., Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (Loranthaceae) is one such plant belonging to the category of mistletoe, and grows commonly on the mango trees in India. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the antioxidant properties of the plant. Ethanol extract of H. elastica growing on mango tree was studied using different in vitro models. Shade-dried whole plant material was extracted with ethanol by cold percolation. Fifty milligrams of the alcohol extract of H. elastica was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of methanol. The resultant 5 mg/ml solution was suitably diluted to obtain different concentrations. Total phenol content, reducing power assay, and scavenging of free radicals like nitric oxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were studied by standardized in vitro chemical methods using ascorbic acid as the standard. The total phenol content of the plant was found to be 1.89% w/w. The extract showed good reducing power as well as scavenging of free radicals (nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 μg/ml. The study revealed the antioxidant potential of H. elastica. PMID:25379473

  15. Total Phenol Content and In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser-A Less-explored Indian Mango Mistletoe

    PubMed Central

    Sunil Kumar, Koppala Narayana; Saraswathy, Ariyamuthu; Amerjothy, Swaminathan; Susan, Thomas; Ravishankar, Basaviah

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are an important source of antioxidant molecules like tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, etc., Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (Loranthaceae) is one such plant belonging to the category of mistletoe, and grows commonly on the mango trees in India. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the antioxidant properties of the plant. Ethanol extract of H. elastica growing on mango tree was studied using different in vitro models. Shade-dried whole plant material was extracted with ethanol by cold percolation. Fifty milligrams of the alcohol extract of H. elastica was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of methanol. The resultant 5 mg/ml solution was suitably diluted to obtain different concentrations. Total phenol content, reducing power assay, and scavenging of free radicals like nitric oxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were studied by standardized in vitro chemical methods using ascorbic acid as the standard. The total phenol content of the plant was found to be 1.89% w/w. The extract showed good reducing power as well as scavenging of free radicals (nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 μg/ml. The study revealed the antioxidant potential of H. elastica. PMID:25379473

  16. Increasing the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents by optimizing the germination conditions of amaranth seeds.

    PubMed

    Perales-Sánchez, Janitzio X K; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Gómez-Favela, Mario A; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the germination conditions of amaranth seeds that would maximize the antioxidant activity (AoxA), total phenolic (TPC), and flavonoid (TFC) contents. To optimize the germination bioprocess, response surface methodology was applied over three response variables (AoxA, TPC, TFC). A central composite rotable experimental design with two factors [germination temperature (GT), 20-45 ºC; germination time (Gt), 14-120 h] in five levels was used; 13 treatments were generated. The amaranth seeds were soaked in distilled water (25 °C/6 h) before germination. The sprouts from each treatment were dried (50 °C/8 h), cooled, and ground to obtain germinated amaranth flours (GAF). The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized GAF with the highest AoxA [21.56 mmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g sample, dw], TPC [247.63 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g sample, dw], and TFC [81.39 mg catechin equivalent (CAE)/100 g sample, dw] was GT = 30 ºC/Gt = 78 h. The germination bioprocess increased AoxA, TPC, and TFC in 300-470, 829, and 213%, respectively. The germination is an effective strategy to increase the TPC and TFC of amaranth seeds for enhancing functionality with improved antioxidant activity.

  17. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel beverage by kefir grains. The effects of two different variables, fermentation, temperature (19 and 25 °C) and kefir grain amount (5 %w/v and 8 %w/v), on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of beverage were examined during a fermentation time of 32 h. TPC and antioxidant activities including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, inhibition effect upon linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition effect upon ascorbate autoxidation increased significantly (p < 0.05) during fermentation, but metal chelating effect showed no significant difference. The highest increases were observed when the temperature of 25 °C and kefir grain amount of 8 %w/v were applied. Results proved antioxidant activities of beverages were desirable and fermentation by kefir grains has the ability to enhance these antioxidant activities, as compared with unfermented beverage. Also pomegranate juice and whey were suitable media for producing a novel dairy-juice beverage.

  18. Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids content in two varieties of Malaysia young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-06-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale. PMID:20657444

  19. Determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaxi; Pan, Zhi Jie; Liao, Wen; Li, Jiaqi; Gruget, Pierre; Kitts, David D; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate, containing different amounts of cacao (35-100%), were determined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (4000-550cm(-1)). Antioxidant capacities were first characterized using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assays. Phenolic contents, including total phenol and procyanidins monomers, were quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD), respectively. Five partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed and cross-validated using FT-IR spectra from 18 types of chocolate and corresponding reference values determined using DPPH, ORAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, and HPLC assays. The models were validated using seven unknown samples of chocolate. PLSR models showed good prediction capability for DPPH [R(2)-P (prediction)=0.88, RMSEP (root mean squares error of prediction)=12.62μmol Trolox/g DFW], ORAC (R(2)-P=0.90, RMSEP=37.92), Folin-Ciocalteu (R(2)-P=0.88, RMSEP=5.08), and (+)-catechin (R(2)-P=0.86, RMSEP=0.10), but lacked accuracy in the prediction of (-)-epicatechin (R(2)-P=0.72, RMSEP=0.57). ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for rapid prediction of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and (+)-catechin in chocolate. PMID:26920292

  20. Theoretical investigation on antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic acids for designing a novel antioxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajeri, Afshan; Asemani, S. Somayeh

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to predict antioxidant property for two interesting classes of compounds including phenolic acids and vitamins. Important characteristics of antioxidants such as O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) were calculated in the gas-phase to analyze the effect of heterocyclic ring, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and presence of electron donating group near the O-H on the antioxidant activity. The results reveal that the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding through ortho-hydroxy group lowers BDE, IP and spin density. In general, phenolic acids were found to be more effective antioxidant than vitamins. The H-atom transfer (HAT) mechanism was selected to study the hydrogen abstraction from phenolic compounds by hydroperoxyl radical. It is found that the antioxidant with lower BDE undergoes hydrogen abstraction with low barrier and considerable exothermicity. On the basis of these results we were able to design a novel antioxidant with enhanced activity.

  1. Potential Use of Phenolic Acids as Anti-Candida Agents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, Guilherme R.; Ellepola, Kassapa; Seneviratne, Chaminda J.; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a sharp rise in the occurrence of Candida infections and associated mortality over the last few years, due to the growing body of immunocompromised population. Limited number of currently available antifungal agents, undesirable side effects and toxicity, as well as emergence of resistant strains pose a considerable clinical challenge for the treatment of candidiasis. Therefore, molecules that derived from natural sources exhibiting considerable antifungal properties are a promising source for the development of novel anti-candidal therapy. Phenolic compounds isolated from natural sources possess antifungal properties of interest. Particularly, phenolic acids have shown promising in vitro and in vivo activity against Candida species. However, studies on their mechanism of action alone or in synergism with known antifungals are still scarce. This review attempts to discuss the potential use, proposed mechanisms of action and limitations of the phenolic acids in anti-candidal therapy. PMID:26733965

  2. Extraction of phenol using sulfuric acid salts of trioctylamine in a supported liquid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.L.; Hu, K.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The extraction of phenol by trioctylamine sulfate salts in a supported-liquid membrane (SLM) process was investigated. In the extraction process, a transport model, which included the film diffusion of phenol in the aqueous phase, the membrane diffusion within the SLM, and the interfacial chemical reaction, was built. The experimental parameters, such as the cell constant ([beta]), the diffusivity of (TOA)[sub 2]H[sub 2]SO[sub 4][center dot]PhOH in the SLM (D[sub c,b]), and the mass-transfer coefficient of phenol in the aqueous solution (K[sub L]), were determined from experiments. On the basis of the experimental data and the results obtained from the transport model, the rate-controlling step of the extraction of phenol by an SLM during permeation is discussed. The effects of the operating variables and parameters, such as the initial concentration of phenol in the aqueous phase, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and trioctylamine sulfate salts, on the extraction of phenol were examined.

  3. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  4. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers. PMID:26771635

  5. Stilbene, ellagic acid, flavonol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant properties, ellagic acid, and polyphenolic were evaluated in 19 muscadine cultivars and 2 muscadine selections. Analysis was carried out on muscadine fruit skin, pulp and juice partitions. The major phenolics in muscadine juice, pulp and skins were identified by their retention times ...

  6. The Biosynthetic Pathways of Tanshinones and Phenolic Acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Ying; Tang, Jin-Fu; He, Ya-Li; Liu, Yu-Chen; Ma, Xiao-Jing; Shen, Ye; Cui, Guang-Hong; Lin, Hui-Xin; Rong, Qi-Xian; Guo, Juan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from plants play key roles in human medicine and chemical industries. Due to limited accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants and their important roles, characterization of key enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathway will enable metabolic engineering or synthetic biology to improve or produce the compounds in plants or microorganisms, which provides an alternative for production of these valuable compounds. Salvia miltiorrhiza, containing tanshinones and phenolic acids as its active compounds, has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The biosynthetic analysis of secondary metabolites in S. miltiorrhiza has made great progress due to the successful genetic transformation system, simplified hairy roots system, and high-throughput sequencing. The cloned genes in S. miltiorrhiza had provided references for functional characterization of the post-modification steps involved in biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids, and further utilization of these steps in metabolic engineering. The strategies used in these studies could provide solid foundation for elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of diterpenoids and phenolic acids in other species. The present review systematically summarizes recent advances in biosynthetic pathway analysis of tanshinones and phenolic acids as well as synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications of the rate-limiting genes involved in the secondary metabolism in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26370949

  7. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  8. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  9. Diet derived phenolic acids regulate osteoblast and adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation in young mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A blueberry (BB) supplemented diet previously has been shown to significantly stimulate bone formation in rapidly growing male and female rodents. Phenolic acids (PAs) are metabolites derived from polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables as a result of the actions of gut bacteria, and they were fo...

  10. Effect of ultrasound frequency on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of red raspberry puree.

    PubMed

    Golmohamadi, Amir; Möller, Gregory; Powers, Joseph; Nindo, Caleb

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound in the 20-1000 kHz range show unique propagation characteristics in fluid media and possess energy that can break down fruit matrices to facilitate the extraction of valuable bioactive compounds. Red raspberries carry significant amounts of specific antioxidants, including ellagitannins and anthocyanins that are important for human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ultrasound frequencies associated with cavitation (20 kHz) and microstreaming (490 and 986 kHz) on total antioxidant activity (AOA), total phenolics content (TPC), and total monomeric anthocyanin content (ACY) of red raspberry puree prepared from crushed berries. The pureed fruit was subjected to high-intensity (20 kHz) and higher frequency-low intensity (490 and 986 kHz) ultrasound for 30 min. The temperature of treated purees increased to a maximum of 56 °C with 986 kHz. Sonication at 20 and 490 kHz significantly (p<0.05) affected the AOA, ACY, and TPC of red raspberry puree, while 986 kHz had no significant effect on ACY and AOA (p<0.05). In all cases, ultrasound treatment had significant and positive effect on at least one of the measured parameters up to 30 min. Sonication beyond 10 min (and up to 30 min) using 20 kHz either produced no change or caused a drop in AOA and ACY. However, for 986 and 20 kHz, TPC, increased by 10% and 9.5%, respectively after 30 min (p<0.05) compared to the control. At 20 kHz, AOA and ACY increased by 17.3% and 12.6% after 10 min. It was demonstrated that 20 kHz ultrasound treatment, when limited to 10 min, was the most effective for extraction of bioactive compounds in red raspberry compared to 490 and 986 kHz although the effect could be similar at the higher frequencies if different amplitudes are used.

  11. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  12. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated. PMID:27373451

  13. EFFECT OF PHENOLIC ACIDS AND ESTERS ON RESPIRATION AND REPRODUCTION OF BACTERIA IN URINE.

    PubMed

    KEITH, E S; POWERS, J J

    1965-05-01

    Vanillic, syringic, gallic, and protocatechuic acids, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, and propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate generally inhibited respiration in vitro of Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Aerobacter aerogenes in human urine. In the absence of any other available carbon source, certain of the phenolic compounds were utilized. Reproduction was generally suppressed in urine buffered to pH 7, 5.6, 4.5, and 4.0. The phenolic compounds were used in the range of 0.11 to 0.99 mumole/ml.

  14. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines. PMID:27455227

  15. Prey-induced changes in the accumulation of amino acids and phenolic metabolites in the leaves of Drosera capensis L.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Effect of prey feeding (ants Formica fusca) on the quantitative changes in the accumulation of free amino acids, soluble proteins, phenolic metabolites and mineral nutrients in the leaves of carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was studied. Arginine was the most abundant compound in Drosera leaves, while proline was abundant in ants. The amount of the majority of amino acids and their sum were elevated in the fed leaves after 3 and 21 days, and the same, but with further enhancement after 21 days, was observed in ants. Accumulation of amino acids also increased in young non-fed leaves of fed plants. Soluble proteins decreased in ants, but were not enhanced in fed leaves. This confirms the effectiveness of sundew's enzymatic machinery in digestion of prey and suggests that amino acids are not in situ deposited, but rather are allocated within the plant. The content of total soluble phenols, flavonoids and two selected flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) was not affected by feeding in Drosera leaves, indicating that their high basal level was sufficient for the plant's metabolism and prey-induced changes were mainly N based. The prey also showed to be an important source of other nutrients besides N, and a stimulation of root uptake of some mineral nutrients is assumed (Mg, Cu, Zn). Accumulation of Ca and Na was not affected by feeding. PMID:21140278

  16. Prey-induced changes in the accumulation of amino acids and phenolic metabolites in the leaves of Drosera capensis L.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Effect of prey feeding (ants Formica fusca) on the quantitative changes in the accumulation of free amino acids, soluble proteins, phenolic metabolites and mineral nutrients in the leaves of carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was studied. Arginine was the most abundant compound in Drosera leaves, while proline was abundant in ants. The amount of the majority of amino acids and their sum were elevated in the fed leaves after 3 and 21 days, and the same, but with further enhancement after 21 days, was observed in ants. Accumulation of amino acids also increased in young non-fed leaves of fed plants. Soluble proteins decreased in ants, but were not enhanced in fed leaves. This confirms the effectiveness of sundew's enzymatic machinery in digestion of prey and suggests that amino acids are not in situ deposited, but rather are allocated within the plant. The content of total soluble phenols, flavonoids and two selected flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) was not affected by feeding in Drosera leaves, indicating that their high basal level was sufficient for the plant's metabolism and prey-induced changes were mainly N based. The prey also showed to be an important source of other nutrients besides N, and a stimulation of root uptake of some mineral nutrients is assumed (Mg, Cu, Zn). Accumulation of Ca and Na was not affected by feeding.

  17. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, C.; Moreira, C. F. F.; Lavinas, F. C.; Lopes, M. L. M.; Fialho, E.; Valente-Mesquita, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or 400 MPa for 3, 5 and 7 min did not change pH, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid or hydrolysable polyphenol contents. However, juice pressurized for 3 and 5 min showed higher soluble polyphenol contents. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was not altered by HPP, but when treated at 250 MPa for 3 min, it resulted in an increased value when 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used. These data demonstrate that HPP can be used in the food industry for the generation of products with higher nutritional quality.

  18. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos caudatus

    PubMed Central

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained. PMID:26784876

  19. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos Caudatus.

    PubMed

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-05-07

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.

  20. Rapid screening of ascorbic acid, glycoalkaloids, and phenolics in potato using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Roshani; Navarre, Duroy A

    2006-07-26

    Evaluation of phenolic metabolism in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) would be facilitated by faster analytical methods. A high-throughput HPLC method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination in potato of numerous phenolic compounds, the sum of the glycoalkaloids chaconine and solanine, plus ascorbic acid. Following a fast extraction, HPLC run times of 12 min were achieved with the use of a monolithic RP C18 column. UV and MS analyses were used to characterize the phenolic complement in extracts from two white-fleshed varieties. Over 30 compounds were identified, some of which are thought to possess either nutritional value or are involved in plant disease resistance. This method is expected to be useful for germplasm mining and for varietal development programs in which large numbers of lines are generated.

  1. Infusions of artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (milk thistle) are two herbs well-known for their efficiency in the prevention/treatment of liver injuries, among other chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize specific bioactive components, phenolic compounds, in hydromethanolic extracts but also in infusions (the most commonly used preparations) obtained from the whole plant of milk thistle and artichoke. The phenolic profiles were accessed using HPLC-DAD-MS/ESI. Infusions of both species presented higher phenolic contents than the hydromethanolic extracts. Milk thistle presented a similar phenolic composition between the two preparations, revealing only differences in the quantities obtained. Nevertheless, artichoke revealed a slightly different profile considering infusion and hydromethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was the major flavonoid found in milk thistle, while luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was the most abundant in artichoke. Therefore, infusions of both artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids. PMID:25367590

  2. Kinetics of phenolic and phthalic acid esters biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The kinetic of phenolic and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate was investigated. Laboratory-scale MBR was fed with mixture of fresh and stabilized landfill leachate containing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 10, 6, 3 and operated under different solid retention time (SRT) of 90, 15 and 5 d. Batch experiments using MBR sludge obtained from each steady-state operating condition revealed highest biodegradation rate constant (k) of 0.059-0.092 h(-1) of the phenolic and PAEs compounds at C/N of 6. Heterotrophic bacteria were the major group responsible for biodegradation of compounds whereas the presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) helped accelerating their removals. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria found under high ammonia condition had an important role in enhancing the biodegradation of phenols and PAEs by releasing phenol hydroxylase (PH), esterase (EST) and phthalate dioxygenase (PDO) enzymes and the presence of AOB helped improving biodegradation of phenolic and PAEs compounds through their co-metabolism. PMID:26908045

  3. Infusions of artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (milk thistle) are two herbs well-known for their efficiency in the prevention/treatment of liver injuries, among other chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize specific bioactive components, phenolic compounds, in hydromethanolic extracts but also in infusions (the most commonly used preparations) obtained from the whole plant of milk thistle and artichoke. The phenolic profiles were accessed using HPLC-DAD-MS/ESI. Infusions of both species presented higher phenolic contents than the hydromethanolic extracts. Milk thistle presented a similar phenolic composition between the two preparations, revealing only differences in the quantities obtained. Nevertheless, artichoke revealed a slightly different profile considering infusion and hydromethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was the major flavonoid found in milk thistle, while luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was the most abundant in artichoke. Therefore, infusions of both artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids.

  4. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for the Phenolic Acid Contents and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Tibetan Wild Barley.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Han, Zhigang; Huang, Yuqing; Hu, Hongliang; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Phenolic acids have been of considerable interest in human nutrition because of their strong antioxidative properties. However, even in a widely grown crop, such as barley, their genetic architecture is still unclear. In this study, genetic control of two main phenolic acids, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), and their associations with agronomic traits were investigated among 134 Tibetan wild barley accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three DArT markers (bpb-2723, bpb-7199, and bpb-7273) associated with p-CA content and one marker (bpb-3653) associated with FA content in 2 consecutive years. The contents of the two phenolic acids were positively correlated with some agronomic traits, such as the first internode length, plant height, and some grain color parameters, and negatively correlated with the thousand-grain weight (TGW). This study provides DNA markers for barley breeding programs to improve the contents of phenolic acids.

  5. Cadmium-induced changes in pigments, total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in fronds of Azolla imbricata.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ling-Peng; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Huang, Yu; Li, Min-Jing

    2006-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of cadmium on several color-related parameters (including chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin), total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in an aquatic fern species Azolla imbricate (A. imbricata). Cd accumulation and effects in the fronds were closely related with Cd concentration in the growth medium. The fronds under 0.5 mg/L Cd treatment turned red on the 3rd day, and this color change also appeared under 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L Cd treatment on the 5th day. Correlated with the color change, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid in the fronds significantly decreased in the presence of high Cd concentrations, while the anthocyanin content increased during the experiment. Significant increase in total phenolics content and PAL activity were also detected during Cd treatment. The results suggested that the Cd-induced change in color of fronds might be due to the decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid and the increase in anthocyanin. Anthocyanin, total phenolics and their biosynthesis-related PAL might play a role in detoxification of Cd in A. imbricata.

  6. Changes of phenolic-acids and vitamin E profiles on germinated rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) treated by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Li, Meishan; Lee, Youn Ri; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2017-02-15

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the phenolic acid and vitamin E profiles of germinated rough rice following high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT). Rough rice was germinated at 37°C for two days and subjected to 0.1, 10, 30, 50, and 100MPa pressures for 24h. The total phenolic acid content increased from 85.37μg/g at 0.1MPa to 183.52μg/g at 100MPa. The highest gallic acid (4.29μg/g), catechin (9.55μg/g), p-coumaric acid (8.36μg/g), ferulic acid (14.99μg/g), salicylic acid (14.88μg/g), naringin (6.18μg/g), trans-cinnamic acid (45.23μg/g), and kaempferol (40.95μg/g) contents occurred in the sample treated at 100MPa after germination. The maximum vitamin E content of about 2.56 (BG) and 4.34mg/100g (AG) were achieved at 30MPa. These result suggest that a combination of HPT and germination are efficient method for enhancement of functionality in rough rice, and clarify the influence of HPT conditions on the vitamin E and phenolic acid in germination rough rice. PMID:27664614

  7. Growth response of Avena sativa in amino-acids-rich soils converted from phenol-contaminated soils by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Bit-Na; Choi, Yong Woo; Yoo, Kye Sang; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2012-04-01

    The biodegradation of phenol in laboratory-contaminated soil was investigated using the Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. This study showed that the phenol degradation caused by C. glutamicum was greatly enhanced by the addition of 1% yeast extract. From the toxicity test using Daphnia magna, the soil did not exhibit any hazardous effects after the phenol was removed using C. glutamicum. Additionally, the treatment of the phenolcontaminated soils with C. glutamicum increased various soil amino acid compositions, such as glycine, threonine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. This phenomenon induced an increase in the seed germination rate and the root elongation of Avena sativa (oat). This probably reflects that increased soil amino acid composition due to C. glutamicum treatment strengthens the plant roots. Therefore, the phenol-contaminated soil was effectively converted through increased soil amino acid composition, and additionally, the phenol in the soil environment was biodegraded by C. glutamicum.

  8. Development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations in highly acidic and phenolic apple musts.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Gloria; Berregi, Iñaki; Santos, José Ignacio; Dueñas, Maite; Irastorza, Ana

    2008-05-01

    This work reports the influence of the high acidity and high phenolic content in apple musts on the development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and on the final chemical and microbiological composition of the ciders. Four different musts were obtained by pressing several varieties and proportions of cider apples from the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Specially acidic and phenolic varieties were selected. Three musts were obtained in experimental stations and the fourth one, in a cider factory following usual procedures. The evolution of these musts was monitored during five months by measuring 18 parameters throughout eight samplings. In the most acidic of the three experimental musts, yeasts were added to complete the alcoholic fermentation. In the rest of the musts, alcoholic and malolactic fermentations took place spontaneously due to natural microflora and no chemical was added to control these processes. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) finished before alcoholic fermentation in the three tanks obtained in experimental stations, even in the most acidic and phenolic one (pH 3.18, 1.78 g tannic acid/l). After four months, these ciders maintained low levels of lactic acid bacteria (10(4)CFU/ml) and low content of acetic acid (<0.60 g/l). Both fermentations began simultaneously in the must obtained in the cider factory, but MLF finished 10 days after alcoholic fermentation. Subsequently, this must maintained a high population of lactic acid bacteria (>10(6)CFU/ml), causing a higher production of acetic acid (>1.00 g/l) than in the other ciders. These results show the possible advantages of MLF finishing before alcoholic fermentation. PMID:17706419

  9. Effects of Increasing Doses of UV-B on Main Phenolic Acids Content, Antioxidant Activity and Estimated Biomass in Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia).

    PubMed

    Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Panjai, Lachinee

    2015-07-01

    Lavandin is a well-known aromatic plant cultivated mainly for its valuable essential oil. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid so far to the quantification of other natural products such as polyphenols. Accordingly, we examined the effect of increasing doses of UV-B radiation on the main phenolic content, antioxidant activity and estimated biomass of one year old lavandin pots compared with pots grown outdoors. Significantly higher total phenolic content and concentration of main polyphenols have been found in outdoor plants. Rosmarinic acid has been described as the major phenolic compound in methanolic extracts (max. 25.9 ± 9.7 mg/g(-1) DW). Furthermore, we found that increasing doses of UV-B promote the plant growth of this species as well as the accumulation of phenolic compounds although with less antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals. On the other hand, our results showed a remarkable variability among individual plants regarding the content of major phenolic acids. The application of UV-B doses during plant growth could be a method to promote biomass in this species along with the promotion of higher content of valuable secondary metabolites. PMID:26411027

  10. Sulfonic acid resin-catalyzed addition of phenols, carboxylic acids, and water to olefins: Model reactions for catalytic upgrading of bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qing-Wen; Yang, Xu-Lai; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Pittman, Charles U

    2010-05-01

    Acid-catalyzed 1-octene reactions with phenol and mixtures of phenol with water, acetic acid and 1-butanol were studied as partial bio-oil upgrading models. Bio-oil from fast biomass pyrolysis has poor fuel properties due to the presence of substantial amounts of water, carboxylic acid, phenolic derivatives and other hydroxyl-containing compounds. Additions across olefins offer a route to simultaneously lower water content and acidity while increasing hydrophobicity, stability and heating value. Amberlyst15, Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 effectively catalyzed phenol O- and C-alkylation from 65 to 120 degrees C, giving high O-alkylation selectivities in the presence of water, acetic acid and 1-butanol. Octanols and dioctyl ethers were formed from water and octyl acetates and phenol acetates from acetic acid. Phenol alkylation slowed in the presence of water. Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 were more stable in the presence of water than Amberlyst15 and were successfully recycled. Adding 1-butanol to phenol/water/1-octene, gave emulsion-like mixtures which improved phenol conversion and olefin hydration.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan

    2015-04-01

    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan

    2015-04-01

    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds. PMID:25649443

  13. Transepithelial transport of phenolic acids in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouchuan; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

    2015-09-01

    The oral bioavailabilities of phenolic acids in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae beverage were low. The observation from an in vitro Caco-2 cell model showed that the absorptions of phenolic acids were mainly permeated via paracellular diffusion, and influenced by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Besides, the Papp (AP→BL) values in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae were significantly higher than those of monomers, which was attributed to the decrease of efflux ratios (<1.0) influenced by flavones (luteoloside and luteolin) on the P-gp, but they were still poorly absorbed. The results indicated that the absorptions in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae as well as those of monomers were mainly restricted by the tight junctions (TJs). Food supplements (honey and propolis) or edible excipient (chitooligosaccharide) as TJ enhancers will be investigated to improve the functions of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae healthy beverages.

  14. Influence of alternative electron acceptors on the anaerobic biodegradability of chlorinated phenols and benzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Haeggblom, M.M.; Rivera, M.D.; Young, L.Y. )

    1993-04-01

    Methanogeneic conditions can promote the biodegradation of a number of halogenated aromatic compounds. This study, using sediments from freshwater and estuarine sites, is an evaluation of the anaerobic biodegradability of monochlorinated phenols and benzoic acids coupled to denitrification, sulfidogenesis, and methanogenesis. The results indicate that chlorinated phenols and benzoic acids are biodegradable under at least one set of anaerobic conditions. Metabolism depends both on the electron acceptor available and on the position of the chlorine substituent. Presence of alternative electron acceptors, nitrate, sulfate, and carbonate, can affect degradation rates and substrate specificities. Since contaminated sites usually have mixtures of wastes, bioremediation efforts may need to consider the activities of diverse anaerobic communities to carry out effective treatment of all components. 37 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Transepithelial transport of phenolic acids in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouchuan; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

    2015-09-01

    The oral bioavailabilities of phenolic acids in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae beverage were low. The observation from an in vitro Caco-2 cell model showed that the absorptions of phenolic acids were mainly permeated via paracellular diffusion, and influenced by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Besides, the Papp (AP→BL) values in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae were significantly higher than those of monomers, which was attributed to the decrease of efflux ratios (<1.0) influenced by flavones (luteoloside and luteolin) on the P-gp, but they were still poorly absorbed. The results indicated that the absorptions in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae as well as those of monomers were mainly restricted by the tight junctions (TJs). Food supplements (honey and propolis) or edible excipient (chitooligosaccharide) as TJ enhancers will be investigated to improve the functions of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae healthy beverages. PMID:26213252

  16. Effect of ethyl esterification of phenolic acids on low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chalas, J; Claise, C; Edeas, M; Messaoudi, C; Vergnes, L; Abella, A; Lindenbaum, A

    2001-02-01

    Inhibition of copper-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by phenolic acids and their ethyl esters was investigated. LDL oxidation was evaluated by the hydroperoxide concentration and the chromatographic pattern of apoprotein fractions after fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Antiradical properties against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) were also investigated, and lipophilicity determined by thin-layer chromatography. Caffeic acid at 5 microM and sinapic acid at 10 microM protected LDL against oxidation, inhibiting both hydroperoxide formation and the increase of apoprotein negative charge. Ferulic, gallic and p-hydroxy cinnamic acids were ineffective. Ethyl esterification increased the lipophilicity of the five acids, and enhanced the antioxidant properties of caffeic, sinapic and ferulic acids. Ethyl caffeate was protective at 1 microM. In contrast, gallic and p-hydroxy cinnamic ethyl esters were ineffective. Our results indicate that ethyl esterification of phenolic acids increases lipophilicity of their ethyl esters and may enable a better incorporation into the lipid layer of the LDL particle and the exertion of their antioxidant effect in the true site of lipoperoxidation. However, increasing lipophilicity is not the only mechanism able to potentiate preexisting antioxidant properties of molecules, and probably other mechanisms are implicated.

  17. Antisense-overexpression of the MsCOMT gene induces changes in lignin and total phenol contents in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Seong, Eun Soo; Yoo, Ji Hye; Lee, Jae Geun; Kim, Hee Young; Hwang, In Seong; Heo, Kweon; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lim, Jung Dae; Sacks, Erik J; Yu, Chang Yeon

    2013-02-01

    Initially, we isolated the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene from Miscanthus sinensis (accession number HM062766.1). Next, we produced transgenic tobacco plants with down-regulated COMT gene expression to study its control of total phenol and lignin content and to perform morphological analysis. These transgenic plants were found to have reduced PAL and ascorbate peroxidases expression, which are related to the phenylpropanoid pathway and antioxidant activity. The MsCOMT-down-regulated plants had decreased total lignin in the leaves and stem compared with control plants. Reduced flavonol concentrations were confirmed in MsCOMT-down-regulated transgenic plants. We also observed a morphological difference, with reduced plant cell number in transgenic plants harboring antisense MsCOMT. The transgenic tobacco plants with down-regulated COMT gene expression demonstrate that COMT plays a crucial role related to controlling lignin and phenol content in plants. Also, COMT activity may be related to flavonoid production in the plant lignin pathway.

  18. Inhibition of mammalian carbonic anhydrase isoforms I-XIV with a series of phenolic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Alfonso; Akyuz, Gulay; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-11-15

    A series of phenolic acid esters incorporating caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid, and benzyl, m/p-hydroxyphenethyl- as well as p-hydroxy-phenethoxy-phenethyl moieties were investigated for their inhibitory effects against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Many of the mammalian isozymes of human (h) or murine (m) origin, hCA I-hCA XII, mCA XIII and hCA XIV, were inhibited in the submicromolar range by these derivatives (with KIs of 0.31-1.03 μM against hCA VA, VB, VI, VII, IX and XIV). The off-target, highly abundant isoforms hCA I and II, as well as hCA III, IV and XII were poorly inhibited by many of these esters, although the original phenolic acids were micromolar inhibitors. These phenols, like others investigated earlier, possess a CA inhibition mechanism distinct of the sulfonamides/sulfamates, clinically used drugs for the treatment of a multitude of pathologies, but with severe side effects due to hCA I/II inhibition. Unlike the sulfonamides, which bind to the catalytic zinc ion, phenols are anchored at the Zn(II)-coordinated water molecule, binding more externally within the active site cavity, and making contacts with amino acid residues at the entrance of the active site. As this is the region with the highest variability between the many CA isozymes found in mammals, this class of compounds shows isoform-selective inhibitory profiles, which may be exploited for obtaining pharmacological agents with less side effects compared to other classes of inhibitors. PMID:26498394

  19. [Continuous cropping obstacle and rhizospheric microecology. II. Root exudates and phenolic acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Gao, Z

    2000-02-01

    This paper discussed the effect of main crop root exudates the relationship between the kinds and amounts of root exudates and the growth of different kinds of crops and their environments. From the aspects of the decompostion of crop residues and the excretion of root systems, the source, form and adsorption mechanism of soil phenolic acids and their effect on crop growth and soil bio-activity were also elaborated. PMID:11766577

  20. Influence of alternative electron acceptors on the anaerobic biodegradability of chlorinated phenols and benzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Haeggblom, M.M.; Rivera, M.D.; Young, L.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrate, sulfate, and carbonate were used as electron acceptors to examine the anaerobic biodegradability of chlorinated aromatic compounds in estuarine and freshwater sediments. The respective denitrifying, sulfidogenic, and methanogenic enrichment cultures were established on each of the monochlorinated phenol and monochlorinated benzoic acid isomers, using sediment from the upper (freshwater) and lower (estuarine) Hudson River and the East River (estuarine) as source materials. (Copyright (c) 1993 American Society for Microbiology.)

  1. Influence of the acetification process on phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Andlauer, W; Stumpf, C; Fürst, P

    2000-08-01

    Little is known about the change of phenolic compounds and total phenolic content by the acetification process. The aim of this study was to assess the contents of selected phenolic compounds of cider and red and white wines in comparison to phenolic profiles in corresponding vinegars by using a new HPLC method for the simultaneous separation and quantification of polar phenolic acids and less polar flavonoids. Identifications were made by retention times and by means of mass spectra. Additionally, total phenolic contents of wines and vinegars were determined photometrically. The decrease in total phenol content by the acetification process was highest for cider vinegars (40%) and lower for red and white wine vinegars (13 and 8%, respectively). A decrease in the contents of individual phenolic compounds of vinegars from white white and ciders was not observed. In contrast, the contents of individual phenolic compounds in red wine vinegar decreased approximately 50%. PMID:10956145

  2. Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of phenols and arylboronic acids through an in situ phenol activation mediated by PyBroP.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Jun; Huang, Jie; Gao, Lian-Xun; Han, Fu-She

    2011-03-28

    A new method for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of phenols and arylboronic acids through in situ phenol activation mediated by PyBroP is presented. The reaction proceeds efficiently by using cost-effective, markedly stable [NiCl(2)(dppp)] (dppp=1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) as the catalyst in only 5 mol % loading, as well as in the absence of extra ligands. The method exhibits broad applicability and high efficiency towards a wide range of both phenols and boronic acids, including activated, nonactivated, deactivated, and heteroaromatic coupling partners. In addition, various functional groups, such as ether, amino, cyano, ester, and ketone groups, are compatible with this transformation. Notably, arylboronic acids containing an unprotected NH(2) group and 2-heterocyclic boronic acids, which are generally problematic for coupling under conventional conditions, are also viable substrates, although moderate yields were obtained for sterically hindered substrates. Consequently, the in situ cross-coupling methodology coupled with the use of an inexpensive and stable nickel catalyst provides a rapid and efficient pathway for the assembly of biaryls and heterobiaryls with structural diversity from readily available phenol compounds.

  3. Effect of phenolic acids of microbial origin on production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria and neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several low-molecular-weight phenolic acids are present in the blood of septic patients at high levels. The microbial origin of the most of phenolic acids in the human body was shown previously, but pathophysiological role of the phenolic acids is not clear. Sepsis is associated with the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both the circulation and the affected organs. In this work the influence of phenolic acids on ROS production in mitochondria and neutrophils was investigated. Methods ROS production in mitochondria and neutrophils was determined by MCLA- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. The rate of oxygen consumption by mitochondria was determined polarographically. The difference of electric potentials on the inner mitochondrial membrane was registered using a TPP+-selective electrode. The formation of phenolic metabolites in monocultures by the members of the main groups of the anaerobic human microflora and aerobic pathogenic bacteria was investigated by the method of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results All phenolic acids had impact on mitochondria and neutrophils, the main producers of ROS in tissues and circulation. Phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) producing the pro-oxidant effect on mitochondria inhibited ROS formation in neutrophils. Their effect on mitochondria was abolished by dithiothreitol (DTT). Phenyllactate and p-hydroxyphenyllactate decreased ROS production in both mitochondria and neutrophils. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli produced in vitro considerable amounts of phenyllactic and p-hydroxyphenyllactic acids, Clostridia s. produced great quantities of phenylpropionic and p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acids, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii; and benzoic acid, by Serratia marcescens. Conclusions The most potent activators of ROS production in mitochondria are phenolic acids whose effect is mediated via the interaction with thiol

  4. Antagonism between lipid-derived reactive carbonyls and phenolic compounds in the Strecker degradation of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    The Strecker-type degradation of phenylalanine in the presence of 2-pentanal and phenolic compounds was studied to investigate possible interactions that either promote or inhibit the formation of Strecker aldehydes in food products. Phenylacetaldehyde formation was promoted by 2-pentenal and also by o- and p-diphenols, but not by m-diphenols. This is consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to be converted into reactive carbonyls and produce the Strecker degradation of the amino acid. When 2-pentenal and phenolic compounds were simultaneously present, an antagonism among them was observed. This antagonism is suggested to be a consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to either react with both 2-pentenal and phenylacetaldehyde, or compete with other carbonyl compounds for the amino acids, a function that is determined by their structure. All these results suggest that carbonyl-phenol reactions may be used to modulate flavor formation produced in food products by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls.

  5. RP-HPLC analysis of phenolic acids of selected Central European Carex L. (Cyperaceae) species and its implication for taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Janyszek, Magdalena; Janyszek, Sławomir; Cieśla, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    Eighteen species belonging to the Carex genus were checked for the presence and the amount of eight phenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, protocatechuic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and ferulic) by means of HPLC. Both the free and bonded phenolic acids were analyzed. The majority of the analyzed acids occurred in the studied species in relatively high amounts. The highest concentrations found were caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, for which the detected levels were negatively correlated. A very interesting feature was the occurrence of sinapic acid, a compound very rarely detected in plant tissues. Its distribution across the analyzed set of species can be hypothetically connected with the humidity of plants' habitats. Several attempted tests of aggregative cluster analysis showed no similarity to the real taxonomical structure of the genus Carex. Thus, the phenolic acids' composition cannot be considered as the major taxonomical feature for the genus Carex.

  6. Influence of natural humic acids and synthetic phenolic polymers on fibrinolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöcking, Hans-Peter

    The influence of synthetic and natural phenolic polymers on the release of plasminogen activator was studied in an isolated, perfused, vascular preparation (pig ear). Of the tested synthetic phenolic polymers, the oxidation products of caffeic acid (KOP) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPOP), at a concentration of 50 µg/ml perfusate, were able to increase the plasminogen activator activity by 70%. The oxidation products of chlorogenic acid (CHOP), hydrocaffeic acid (HYKOP), pyrogallol (PYROP) and gallic acid (GALOP), at the same concentration, exerted no influence on the release of plasminogen activator. Of the naturally occurring humic acids, the influence of sodium humate was within the same order of magnitude as KOP and 3,4-DHPOP. Ammonium humate was able to increase the plasminogen activator release only at a concentration of 100 µg/ml perfusate. In rats, the t-PA activity increased after i.v. application of 10 mg/kg of KOP, Na-HS or NH4-HS.

  7. Ultrasound promoted regioselective nitration of phenols using dilute nitric acid in the presence of phase transfer catalyst.

    PubMed

    Nandurkar, Nitin S; Bhanushali, Mayur J; Jagtap, Sachin R; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2007-01-01

    Phenols are selectively nitrated to o-nitrophenol along with rate enhancement using dilute nitric acid (6 wt%)/tetra butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) under sonication. The selectivity can also be reversed to p-nitrophenol using NaBr as a catalyst. Kinetic analysis of nitration of phenol both with and without sonication has been investigated by variation of reaction parameters such as catalyst, nitric acid and substrate concentration. PMID:16563845

  8. Comparison between ATR-IR, Raman, concatenated ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy for the determination of total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Chinese rice wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Pan, Xiaowei; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-03-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and combination of ATR-IR and RS for measurements of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of Chinese rice wine (CRW) were investigated in this study. Synergy interval partial least-squares (SiPLS), support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to process the merged data from two individual instruments. It was observed that the performances of models based on the RS spectra were better than those based on the ATR-IR spectra. In addition, SVM models based on the efficient information extracted from ATR-IR and RS spectra were superior to PLS models based on the same information and PLS models based on ATR-IR or RS spectra. The overall results demonstrated that integrating ATR-IR and RS was possible and could improve the prediction accuracy of TAC and TPC in CRWs.

  9. RNA extraction from various recalcitrant plant tissues with a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuji; Mae, Tadahiko; Makino, Amane

    2008-07-01

    High-quality total RNA was extracted using a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment from recalcitrant plant tissues such as tree leaves (pine, Norway spruce, ginkgo, Japanese cedar, rose), flowers (rose, Lotus japonicus) and storage tissues (seeds of Lotus japonicus and rice, sweet potato tuber, banana fruit). This protocol greatly reduced the time required for RNA extraction.

  10. Phenolics of Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) fruits: identification of anthocyanins and gallic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pawlowska, Agata Maria; De Leo, Marinella; Braca, Alessandra

    2006-12-27

    Arbutus unedo L., the strawberry tree (Ericaceae family), is an evergreen shrub or small tree, typical of the Mediterranean fringe and climate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the profile of the phenolic constituents of A. unedo fruits. Seven compounds were purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the MeOH extract followed by HPLC and were characterized as arbutin, beta-D-glucogalline, gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylshikimic acid, and 5-O-galloylshikimic acid, by means of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. Moreover, LC-PDA-MS analysis of the red pigment of A. unedo fruits revealed the presence of three anthocyanins recognized as cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-arabinopyranoside. These pigments were also quantified. PMID:17177565

  11. Total sulphate vs. sulphuric acid monomer in nucleation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, K.; Brus, D.; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Sarnela, N.; Jokinen, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.

    2014-10-01

    Sulphuric acid is known to be a key component for atmospheric nucleation. Precise determination of sulphuric acid concentration is crucial factor for prediction of nucleation rates and subsequent growth. In our study, we have noticed a substantial discrepancy between sulphuric acid monomer and total sulphate concentrations measured from the same source of sulphuric acid vapour. The discrepancy of about one to two orders of magnitude was found with similar formation rates. To investigate this discrepancy and its effect on nucleation, a method of thermally controlled saturator filled with pure sulphuric acid (97% wt.) for production of sulphuric acid vapour is introduced and tested. Sulphuric acid-water nucleation experiment was done using a laminar flow tube. Two independent methods of mass spectrometry and online ion chromatography were used for detecting sulphuric acid concentrations. The results are compared to our previous results, where a method of furnace was used to produce sulphuric acid vapour (Brus et al., 2010, 2011). Measured sulphuric acid concentrations are compared to theoretical prediction calculated using vapour pressure and a mixing law. The calculated prediction of sulphuric acid concentrations agrees very well with the measured values when total sulphate is considered. Sulphuric acid monomer concentration was found to be about two orders of magnitude lower than the prediction, but with similar temperature dependency as the prediction and the results obtained with ion chromatograph method. Formation rates agree well when compared to our previous results with both sulphuric acid detection and sulphuric acid production methods separately.

  12. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  13. Hypotheses on the effects of enological tannins and total red wine phenolic compounds on Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Déléris-Bou, Magali; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline

    2015-12-01

    Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines.

  14. Appraisal of Total Phenol, Flavonoid Contents, and Antioxidant Potential of Folkloric Lannea coromandelica Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tekeshwar; Jain, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impending antioxidant properties of different extracts of crude methanolic extract (CME) of leaves of Lannea coromandelica (L. coromandelica) and its two ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AqF) subfractions by employing various established in vitro systems and estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The results showed that extract and fractions possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro and among them, EAF had the strongest antioxidant activity. EAF was confirmed for its highest phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, and total antioxidant capacity. The EAF was found to show remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 63.9 ± 0.64 µg/mL), superoxide radical (EC50 8.2 ± 0.12 mg/mL), and Fe2+ chelating activity (EC50 6.2 ± 0.09 mg/mL). Based on our in vitro results, EAF was investigated for in vivo antioxidant assay. Intragastric administration of the EAF can significantly increase levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels, and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver and kidney of CCl4-intoxicated rats. These new evidences show that L. coromandelica bared antioxidant activity. PMID:26457224

  15. In vitro and in vivo studies on adlay-derived seed extracts: phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, serum uric acid suppression, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mouming; Zhu, Dashuai; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Xiao; Dong, Yi

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential of polished adlay, brown adlay, adlay bran, and adlay hull to prevent and treat hyperuricemia. Brown adlay extract effectively decreased the serum uric acid levels of oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Free and bound phenolic extracts from these materials contained significant amounts of phenolics, with free phenolics dominated by chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid while bound phenolics dominated by p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Free and bound phenolics of adlay bran exhibited significant xanthine oxidase inhibition activities, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, oxygen radical absorbance capacities, and superoxide radical scavenging activities. Adlay bran phenolics could be effective xanthine oxidase inhibitors and radical scavengers. p-Coumaric acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with strong superoxide radical scavenging activity. However, ferulic acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with weak superoxide radical scavenging activity. Chlorogenic acid is a superoxide radical scavenger with weak xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

  16. Regulation of water-soluble phenolic acid biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pengda; Liu, Jingling; Zhang, Chenlu; Liang, Zongsuo

    2013-07-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae) root, generally called Danshen, is an important herb in Chinese medicine widely used for treatment of various diseases. Phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza, as important effective compounds, have become a new research focus in plant secondary metabolism in recent years. This review summarizes the recent advances in the regulation of water-soluble phenolic acid biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza via regulators at molecular level, such as the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (PAL), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase gene (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase gene (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase gene (TAT), 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase gene (HPPR), 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvated dioxygenase gene (HPPD), hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase-like gene (RAS-like), and v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog 4 gene (MYB4), and production of anthocyanin pigmentation 1 gene (AtPAP1), and via regulators at cell level, such as methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, polyamines, metal ions, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), ultraviolet-B radiation, and yeast elicitor.

  17. Radiation- and photo-induced formation of salicylic acid from phenol and CO{sub 2} in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Krapfenbauer, K.; Getoff, N.

    1996-12-31

    The concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is steady increasing because of the combustion of fossil fuels and the industrial pollution. As a result, global warming has occurred. In the present study the formation of the salicylic acid and other products, originating from the carboxylation of phenol is investigated. It has been found that the formation of salicylic acid strongly depend on several experimental conditions: pH of the solution, concentration of phenol and CO{sub 2}, and absorbed dose. The formation of salicylic acid was also studied in the presence of catalysts. Photo-induced carboxylation of phenol to salicylic acid will be also reported. Probable reaction mechanisms for the salicylic acid formation are suggested. Finally, a comparison is made between the well known industrial Kolbe-Schmitt process for salicylic acid production and the aspects of the present new method for CO{sub 2} utilization.

  18. Structure activity relationship of phenolic acid inhibitors of α-synuclein fibril formation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ardah, Mustafa T.; Paleologou, Katerina E.; Lv, Guohua; Abul Khair, Salema B.; Kazim, Abdulla S.; Minhas, Saeed T.; Al-Tel, Taleb H.; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem A.; Haque, Mohammed E.; Eliezer, David; El-Agnaf, Omar M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) is considered the key pathogenic event in many neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, giving rise to a whole category of neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. Although the molecular basis of α-syn toxicity has not been precisely elucidated, a great deal of effort has been put into identifying compounds that could inhibit or even reverse the aggregation process. Previous reports indicated that many phenolic compounds are potent inhibitors of α-syn aggregation. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-aggregating effect of gallic acid (GA) (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a benzoic acid derivative that belongs to a group of phenolic compounds known as phenolic acids. By employing an array of biophysical and biochemical techniques and a cell-viability assay, GA was shown not only to inhibit α-syn fibrillation and toxicity but also to disaggregate preformed α-syn amyloid fibrils. Interestingly, GA was found to bind to soluble, non-toxic oligomers with no β-sheet content, and to stabilize their structure. The binding of GA to the oligomers may represent a potential mechanism of action. Additionally, by using structure activity relationship data obtained from fourteen structurally similar benzoic acid derivatives, it was determined that the inhibition of α-syn fibrillation by GA is related to the number of hydroxyl moieties and their position on the phenyl ring. GA may represent the starting point for designing new molecules that could be used for the treatment of PD and related disorders. PMID:25140150

  19. Phenolic Acid Composition and Anti-Parasitic Effects of Four Peucedanum Species on Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites

    PubMed Central

    DEGERLI, Serpil; TEPE, Bektas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine phenolic acid composition and anti-parasitic effects of Peucedanum caucasicum, P. palimbioides, P. longibracteolatum and P. chryseum on Entamoeba histolytica. Methods: Methanol extracts of the plant species were prepared by soxhlet extraction. Phenolic acid compositions were determined by HPLC. Anti-proliferative effect of extracts on trophozoites was determined by using trypan blue dye exclusion test. For counting the cells, approximately a hundred of E. histolytica trophozoites were examined in each time. The data were presented as mean values with standard deviations and analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA followed by Tukey test for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. The P-value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: All of the extracts showed a time and dose dependent amoebicidal action on trophozoites. Among the extracts tested, P. longibracteolatum showed the strongest amoebicidal effect on the trophozoites. As expected, this plant species also exhibited time and dose dependent activity on the trophozoites. At 4.0 mg/ml extract concentration, all of the trophozoites were killed by the extract in 72nd hour. Gallic (11.144 mg/g), P-hydroxybenzoic (17.646 mg/g), and o-coumaric acids (14.442 mg/g) were determined as the major phenolic acids of P. longibracteolatum. Gallic and P-hydroxybenzoic acids found in P. longibracteolatum could not be determined in other extracts. Therefore, high activity potential of this plant could probably be attributed to the presence of these phytochemicals. Conclusion: P. longibracteolatum can be further evaluated as potential therapeutic drugs for the treatment of Entamoeba infections. PMID:26622297

  20. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  5. Protective Effect of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Zhang, B.; Guo, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inula helenium has been reported to contain a large amount of phenolic compounds, which have shown promise in scavenging free radicals and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total phenolic compounds from I. helenium on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y cells. Antioxidant capacity of total phenolic compounds was determined by radical scavenging activity, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase activity. The cytotoxicity of total phenolic compounds was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The effect of total phenolic compounds on cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin-V/PI staining using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated using the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by JC-1 dye and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. It was shown that hydrogen peroxide significantly induced the loss of cell viability, increment of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate production. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds dose-dependently reversed these effects. This study suggests that total phenolic compounds exert neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage via blocking reactive oxygen species production and improving mitochondrial function. The potential of total phenolic compounds and its neuroprotective mechanisms in attenuating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is worth further exploration. PMID:26009648

  6. Voltammetric response of ferroceneboronic acid to diol and phenolic compounds as possible pollutants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigehiro; Abiko, Naoyuki; Haraguchi, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Seki, Eriko; Ono, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Kentaro; Anzai, Jun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    A voltammetric determination of possible organic pollutants such as diol and phenolic compounds in water was studied using ferroceneboronic acid (FBA) as a redox-active marker. A cyclic voltammogram of FBA exhibited a pair of oxidation and reduction peaks at 230 and 170 mV at pH 7.0, respectively, while another pair of redox peaks was observed in the presence of diol or phenolic compounds tested. The results were rationalized based on the formation of boronate esters of FBA with the added compounds. The changes in the redox peak currents were dependent on the concentration of the additives, suggesting a usefulness of FBA in the electrochemical determination of these compounds in water. PMID:22066227

  7. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peel.

    PubMed

    Dranca, Florina; Oroian, Mircea

    2016-07-01

    The present study describes the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant peel using ultrasonic treatments and methanol and 2-propanol as extraction solvents. The extraction yields were optimized by varying the solvent concentration, ultrasonic frequency, temperature and time of ultrasonic treatment. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results showed that for TPC extraction the optimal condition were obtained with a methanol concentration of 76.6%, 33.88 kHz ultrasonic frequency, a temperature of 69.4 °C and 57.5 min extraction time. For TMA the optimal condition were the following: 54.4% methanol concentration, 37 kHz, 55.1 °C and process time of 44.85 min. PMID:26701808

  8. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peel.

    PubMed

    Dranca, Florina; Oroian, Mircea

    2016-07-01

    The present study describes the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant peel using ultrasonic treatments and methanol and 2-propanol as extraction solvents. The extraction yields were optimized by varying the solvent concentration, ultrasonic frequency, temperature and time of ultrasonic treatment. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results showed that for TPC extraction the optimal condition were obtained with a methanol concentration of 76.6%, 33.88 kHz ultrasonic frequency, a temperature of 69.4 °C and 57.5 min extraction time. For TMA the optimal condition were the following: 54.4% methanol concentration, 37 kHz, 55.1 °C and process time of 44.85 min.

  9. Determination of phenolic acids in plant extracts using CZE with on-line transient isotachophoretic preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Honegr, Jan; Pospíšilová, Marie

    2013-02-01

    A novel transient ITP-CZE for preconcentration and determination of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, and vanilic acid) was developed and validated. Effects of several factors such as control of EOF, pH and buffer concentration, addition of organic solvents and CDs, and conditions for sample injection were investigated. Sample self-stacking was applied by means of induction of transient ITP, which was realized by adding sodium chloride into the sample. The CZE was realized in 200 mM borate buffer ((w)(s)pH 9.2) containing 37.5% methanol, 0.001% hexadimethrine bromide, and 15 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD. Under the optimal conditions for analysis, analytes were separated within 20 min. Linearity was tested for each compound in the concentration range of 0.1-10 μg/mL (R = 0.9906-0.9968) and the detection limits (S/N = 3) ranged from 11 ng/mL (protocatechuic acid) to 31 μg/mL (syringic acid). The validated method was applied to the ethanolic extract of Epilobium parviflorum, Onagraceae. The method of SPE was used for the precleaning of the sample. PMID:23401390

  10. Binding of polyphenols to plant cell wall analogues - Part 2: Phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, A; Netzel, G; Netzel, M; Day, L; Zabaras, D; Mikkelsen, D; Gidley, M J

    2012-12-15

    Bacterial cellulose and cellulose-pectin composites were used as well-defined model plant cell wall (PCW) systems to study the interaction between phenolic acids (PA) derived from purple carrot juice concentrate (PCJC) and PCW components. Significant PA depletion from solution occurred, with pure cellulose initially (30s-1h) absorbing more than cellulose-pectin composites in the first hour (ca 20% cf 10-15%), but with all composites absorbing similar levels (ca 30%) after several days. Individual PAs bound to different relative extents with caffeic acid>chlorogenic acid>ferulic acid. Extrapolation of data for these model systems to carrot puree suggests that nutritionally-significant amounts of PAs could bind to cell walls, potentially restricting bioavailability in the small intestine and, as a consequence, delivering PAs to the large intestine for fermentation and metabolism by gut bacteria.

  11. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  12. Mixed Phenolic Acids Mediated Proliferation of Pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in Continuously Monocultured Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere Soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Jiahui; Zheng, Cailiang; Chen, Jun; Qin, Xianjin; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274) and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465), and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence. PMID:27014250

  13. Mixed Phenolic Acids Mediated Proliferation of Pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in Continuously Monocultured Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Jiahui; Zheng, Cailiang; Chen, Jun; Qin, Xianjin; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274) and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465), and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence. PMID:27014250

  14. The interaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III) in the presence of citrate as studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Senpei; Bai, Guangling; Chen, Lingli; Shen, Qun; Diao, Xianmin; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-08-15

    Under physiological conditions, exogenous chelators such as polyphenols might interact with non-protein bound ferric complexes, such as Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, Fe(III) and citrate are widely distributed in various fruits and vegetables which are also rich in phenolic acids. In this study, we focus on the interaction between phenolic acids (gallic acid, methyl gallate and protocatechuic acid) and Fe(III) in the presence of excessive citrate by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for thermodynamic studies, and stopped-flow absorption spectrometry for fast kinetic studies. Results reveal that all of these three phenolic acids can bind to the Fe(III) with the same stoichiometry (3:1). Moreover, the binding constants of these three compounds with Fe(III) are greatly dependent on ligand structure, and are much higher than that of Fe(III)-citrate. Based on their stoichiometry and superhigh binding constants, it is most likely that these three phenolic acids can displace the citrate to bind with one iron(III) ion to form a stable octahedral geometric structure, albeit at different rates. These findings shed light on the interaction between phenolic acids and Fe(III) in the presence of citrate under either physiological conditions or in a food system.

  15. Inhibition profile of a series of phenolic acids on bovine lactoperoxidase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, S Beyza Ozturk; Sisecioglu, Melda; Cankaya, Murat; Gulcin, İlhami; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2015-06-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) catalyzes the oxidation of numerous of organic and inorganic substrates by hydrogen peroxide. It has very vital activity in the innate immune system by decreasing or stopping the activation of the bacteria in milk and mucosal secretions. This study's purpose was to investigate in vitro effect of some phenolic acids (ellagic, gallic, ferulic, caffeic, quercetin, p-coumaric, syringic, catechol and epicatechin) on the purified LPO. This enzyme was purified from milk by using different methods such as Amberlite CG-50 resin, CM-Sephadex C-50 ion-exchange and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. LPO was purified 28.7-fold with a yield of 20.03%. We found phenolic acids have inhibition effects on bovine LPO enzyme to different concentrations. Our study showed lower concentrations of caffeic acid, ferulic acid and quercetin exhibited much higher inhibitory effect on enzyme, so these three of them were clearly a more potent inhibitor than the others were. All of compounds were non-competitive inhibitors.

  16. Gas chromatographic analysis of total fatty acids in cider.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gomis, D; Alonso, J J; Cabrales, I M; Abrodo, P A

    2001-03-01

    This paper reports the composition of total fatty acids in an apple beverage, cider. Fatty acids are present in the free or esterified form and contribute to both the flavor and foam properties of cider. Fatty acids were separated and identified as methyl esters by GC-MS, and 12 of these were subsequently determined by GC-FID. The major fatty acids found in cider were caproic, caprylic, capric, and palmitic acid, the saturated acids predominating over the unsaturated ones. The proposed method was applied to 59 ciders from three consecutive harvests (1996, 1997, and 1998), which were made by 19 cider-makers from the region of Asturias (Spain). Linear discriminant analysis of fatty acids in these samples allowed selection of palmitoleic, pentadecanoic, linoleic, myristic, and linolenic acid as the most predictive variables to differentiate ciders made from apples grown in the Asturias region (1997 harvest) and ciders made from apples grown outside this region (1996 and 1998 harvests). PMID:11312846

  17. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  18. Concise total synthesis of (±)-actinophyllic acid

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Brett A.; Jewett, Ivan T.; Butler, Jeffrey D.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    A concise total synthesis of the complex indole alkaloid (±)-actinophyllic acid was accomplished by a sequence of reactions requiring only 10 steps from readily-available, known starting materials. The approach featured a Lewis acid-catalyzed cascade of reactions involving stabilized carbocations that delivered the tetracyclic core of the natural product in a single chemical operation. Optimal conversion of this key intermediate into (±)-actinophyllic acid required judicious selection of a protecting group strategy. PMID:24882888

  19. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  20. Chemical profile and seasonal variation of phenolic acid content in bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, Ewa; Pietraszek, Jacek

    2012-07-01

    Melittis melissophyllum L. is an old medicinal plant. Nowadays it is only used in the folk medicine but formerly it has been applied in the official medicine as a natural product described in French Pharmacopoeia. M. melissophyllum herbs used in our studies were collected from two localities in Poland in May and September. Methanolic plant extracts were purified by means of solid-phase extraction and then analysed by HPLC-DAD for their phenolic acid profile. Eleven compounds were identified in all plant samples and quantitatively analysed as: protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, o-coumaric and cinnamic acid. Plant materials contained free and bound phenolic acids. The main compounds were: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (30.21-54.16 mg/100 g dw and 37.04-56.75 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively) and p-coumaric acid (40.48-80.55 mg/100 g dw and 28.09-40.85 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively). The highest amounts of the investigated compounds were found in all samples collected in September, e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic acid (September 51.72-54.16 mg/100 g dw vs. May 30.21-34.07 mg/100 g dw), p-coumaric acid (September 77.14-80.55 mg/100 g dw vs. May 40.48-43.2 5mg/100 g dw). Multivariate statistical and data mining techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to characterize the sample populations according to the geographical localities, vegetation period and compound form (free or bound). To the best of our knowledge we report for the first time the results of quantitative analysis of M. melissophyllum phenolic acids and seasonal variation of their content. Plant herbs are usually collected at flowering for plant derived medical preparations. Our results show that it is not always the optimal time for the highest contents of active compounds. PMID:22513117

  1. Effect of drying of jujubes ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-Han; Wu, Chun-Sen; Wang, Min; Xu, Bian-Na; Du, Li-Juan

    2012-09-26

    This study investigated the changes in sugars, organic acids, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, phenolic profiles, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant capacity of jujube fruits after four drying treatments (sun-, oven-, microwave- and freeze-drying). Sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene were qualitatived and quantitatived by high-performance liquid chromatography. The TPC and antioxidant activity of jujube samples were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, respectively. Freeze-drying resulted in jujubes with higher antioxidant activity and was also a good choice for the preparation of β-carotene from jujubes for the food industry. Microwave-dried jujubes had a higher content of protocatechuic acid, catechin, and epicatechin and maintained the same antioxidant capacity with the freeze-dried jujubes. The combination of microwave- and freeze-drying may be an efficient alternative with shorter processing time and, consequently, less impact on the nutritional value of the jujube.

  2. Boronate-Phenolic Network Capsules with Dual Response to Acidic pH and cis-Diols.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junling; Sun, Huanli; Alt, Karen; Tardy, Blaise L; Richardson, Joseph J; Suma, Tomoya; Ejima, Hirotaka; Cui, Jiwei; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; Caruso, Frank

    2015-08-26

    Dual-responsive boronate-phenolic network (BPN) capsules are fabricated by the complexation of phenylborate and phenolic materials. The BPN capsules are stable in the presence of competing carbohydrates, but dissociate at acidic pH or in the presence of competing cis-diols at physiological pH. This engineered capsule system provides a platform for a wide range of biological and biomedical applications.

  3. Total sulfate vs. sulfuric acid monomer concenterations in nucleation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, K.; Brus, D.; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Sarnela, N.; Jokinen, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-03-01

    Sulfuric acid is known to be a key component for atmospheric nucleation. Precise determination of sulfuric-acid concentration is a crucial factor for prediction of nucleation rates and subsequent growth. In our study, we have noticed a substantial discrepancy between sulfuric-acid monomer concentrations and total-sulfate concentrations measured from the same source of sulfuric-acid vapor. The discrepancy of about 1-2 orders of magnitude was found with similar particle-formation rates. To investigate this discrepancy, and its effect on nucleation, a method of thermally controlled saturator filled with pure sulfuric acid (97% wt.) for production of sulfuric-acid vapor is applied and rigorously tested. The saturator provided an independent vapor-production method, compared to our previous method of the furnace (Brus et al., 2010, 2011), to find out if the discrepancy is caused by the production method itself. The saturator was used in a H2SO4-H2O nucleation experiment, using a laminar flow tube to check reproducibility of the nucleation results with the saturator method, compared to the furnace. Two independent methods of mass spectrometry and online ion chromatography were used for detecting sulfuric-acid or sulfate concentrations. Measured sulfuric-acid or total-sulfate concentrations are compared to theoretical predictions calculated using vapor pressure and a mixing law. The calculated prediction of sulfuric-acid concentrations agrees very well with the measured values when total sulfate is considered. Sulfuric-acid monomer concentration was found to be about 2 orders of magnitude lower than theoretical predictions, but with a temperature dependency similar to the predictions and the results obtained with the ion-chromatograph method. Formation rates are reproducible when compared to our previous results with both sulfuric-acid or total-sulfate detection and sulfuric-acid production methods separately, removing any doubts that the vapor-production method would

  4. Parallel analysis of volatile fatty acids, indole, skatole, phenol, and trimethylamine from waste-related source environments.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    An experimental technique based on sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography (ST-TD-GC) was investigated for the simultaneous determination of a cluster of eight volatile odorants (propionic acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, trimethylamine, phenol, indole, and skatole) and a reference compound (benzene). Calibration was made by direct injection of a liquid working standard (L-WS) into a quartz tube packed with three bed sorbent (Tenax TA, Carbopack B, and Carbopack X). To assess the relative performance between different detector systems, a comparative analysis was made using both mass spectrometry (MS) and a flame ionization detector (FID) with the aid of a TD system. In the TD-GC-MS analysis, calibration results were evaluated in two different modes, namely total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC). In both FID and MS, the elution order of investigated odorants complied with the retention time index (RTI) values for the polar column with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) at or above 0.99. As a means to validate our detection approach, environmental samples from a bathroom and manhole (vacuum samples) as well as cat stool and wastewater (headspace samples) were also collected. The ST-TD method tested for the concurrent analysis of diverse odorants allowed us to measure a list of offensive odorants from those samples.

  5. Parallel analysis of volatile fatty acids, indole, skatole, phenol, and trimethylamine from waste-related source environments.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    An experimental technique based on sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography (ST-TD-GC) was investigated for the simultaneous determination of a cluster of eight volatile odorants (propionic acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, trimethylamine, phenol, indole, and skatole) and a reference compound (benzene). Calibration was made by direct injection of a liquid working standard (L-WS) into a quartz tube packed with three bed sorbent (Tenax TA, Carbopack B, and Carbopack X). To assess the relative performance between different detector systems, a comparative analysis was made using both mass spectrometry (MS) and a flame ionization detector (FID) with the aid of a TD system. In the TD-GC-MS analysis, calibration results were evaluated in two different modes, namely total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC). In both FID and MS, the elution order of investigated odorants complied with the retention time index (RTI) values for the polar column with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) at or above 0.99. As a means to validate our detection approach, environmental samples from a bathroom and manhole (vacuum samples) as well as cat stool and wastewater (headspace samples) were also collected. The ST-TD method tested for the concurrent analysis of diverse odorants allowed us to measure a list of offensive odorants from those samples. PMID:24070624

  6. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts. PMID:24054243

  7. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts.

  8. Phytochemicals, in vitro antioxidant, total phenolic contents and phytotoxic activity of Cornus macrophylla Wall bark collected from the North-West of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Muhammad Mukarram; Ahmad, Zakia; Yaseen, Muhammad; Shah, Raza; Khan, Shazeb; Shah, Syed Muhammad Hassan; Khan, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Plants are one of the precious creatures of Allah, producing a verity of useful bioactive compounds having definite pharmacological actions on human body. Keeping in view this idea, the methanolic extract from the bark of Cornus macrophylla was investigated for phytochemicals, antioxidant, total phenolic conte nts (TPC) and phytotoxic activities. Phytochemical analysis of Cornus macrophylla revealed the presence of tannins, anthraquinones, glycosides, reducing sugar, saponins and flavonoids. The percent free radicals scavenging potential of DPPH at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100μg/ml was 72.69%, 73.32%, 73.51, 73.83% and 74.33% respectively and were compared to ascorbic acid (84.6%, 92.83%, 95.36%, 96.40% and 98.03%), gallic acid (85.49%, 92.47%, 95.14%, 98.22% and 98.03%) and quercetin (95.35%, 96.30%, 97.16%, 98.02% and 98.28%) as standards. The IC(50) value of Cornus macrophylla was 14.5/μg/ml. The TPC of the methanolic bark extract was 2.916 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of extract. The extract displyed excellent phytotoxic activity against the tested plant Lemna minor and inhibited the growth at 1000 μg/ml. Our findings revealed that the crude methanolic extract of Cornus macrophylla is a potential source of natural antioxidants and herbicidal. PMID:25553682

  9. Anti-biofilm potential of phenolic acids: the influence of environmental pH and intrinsic physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Horta, Bruno; Calhau, Conceição; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, M Manuela

    2016-09-13

    Phenolic acids are a particular group of small phenolic compounds which have exhibited some anti-biofilm activity, although the link between their activity and their intrinsic pH is not clear. Therefore, the present work examined the anti-biofilm activity (inhibition of biomass and metabolic activity) of phenolic acids in relation to the environmental pH, as well as other physico-chemical properties. The results indicate that, while Escherichia coli was not inhibited by the phenolic acids, both methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis were susceptible to the action of all phenolic acids, with the pH playing a relevant role in the activity: a neutral pH favored MRSE inhibition, while acidic conditions favored MRSA inhibition. Some links between molecular polarity and size were associated only with their potential as metabolic inhibitors, with the overall interactions hinting at a membrane-based mechanism for MRSA and a cytoplasmic effect for MRSE. PMID:27434592

  10. Bioactive Phenylpropanoids, Phenolic Acid and Phytosterol from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Tochukwu J N; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Its stringy seed pulp is freely eaten by humans and animals. Thus, L. owariensis stringy seed pulp was extracted serially with hexane and acetone to isolate and characterize its active pharmaceutical ingredients. Solvent/solvent partition and chromatographic separations afforded four bioactive compounds, (E)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxylcinnamoyl)quinic acid [(E)-Chlorogenic acid], I; (E)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxylcinnamoyl)quinic acid methyl ester [(E)-Chlorogenic acid methyl ester], II; 3,4-Dihydroxylbenzoic acid, (Protocatechuic acid), III; and 22,23-Dihydrostigmaster-3β-ol (3β-Sitosterol) (IV). Structures of I, II and III were assigned by combinations of high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and reference to published literatures, while compound IV was identified by chemical methods and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The phenylpropanoids and phenolic acid (compounds I, II and III) are notable standard antioxidants with confirmed hepatic-protective activity and other exciting biological activities. Compound IV has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity, anti-colon cancer action and a cholesterol-lowering effect. The described compounds are important medicinal constituents of L. owariensis stringy seed pulp, and this is the first major report on the phytochemistry of L. owariensis P. Beauv.

  11. Bioactive Phenylpropanoids, Phenolic Acid and Phytosterol from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Tochukwu J N; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Its stringy seed pulp is freely eaten by humans and animals. Thus, L. owariensis stringy seed pulp was extracted serially with hexane and acetone to isolate and characterize its active pharmaceutical ingredients. Solvent/solvent partition and chromatographic separations afforded four bioactive compounds, (E)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxylcinnamoyl)quinic acid [(E)-Chlorogenic acid], I; (E)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxylcinnamoyl)quinic acid methyl ester [(E)-Chlorogenic acid methyl ester], II; 3,4-Dihydroxylbenzoic acid, (Protocatechuic acid), III; and 22,23-Dihydrostigmaster-3β-ol (3β-Sitosterol) (IV). Structures of I, II and III were assigned by combinations of high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and reference to published literatures, while compound IV was identified by chemical methods and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The phenylpropanoids and phenolic acid (compounds I, II and III) are notable standard antioxidants with confirmed hepatic-protective activity and other exciting biological activities. Compound IV has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity, anti-colon cancer action and a cholesterol-lowering effect. The described compounds are important medicinal constituents of L. owariensis stringy seed pulp, and this is the first major report on the phytochemistry of L. owariensis P. Beauv. PMID:26537109

  12. [Effect of drying methods on monoterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Mentha haplocalyx].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shao-qing; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Yu-yang; Lu, Xue-jun; Sha, Xiu-xiu; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-12-01

    To provide a scientific basis for the selection of the appropriate drying method for Mentha Haplocalyx Herba (MHH), determine 2 monoterpenes, 4 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids in MHH by GC-MS and UPLC-TQ-MS methods, and investigate the effects of the drying methods on the changes in contents of these analytes. The qualities of products obtained with different drying methods were evaluated by the multivariate statistical method of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Results showed that the drying methods had the greatest impact on menthol, caffeic acid, and rosemary acid, which were followed by chlorogenic acid and diosmetin-7-O-glucoside. The contents in these analytes processed with hot-air-drying method were higher than those with microwave-drying and infrared-drying methods at the same temperatures. The contents in these analytes processed under low temperature (40-45 °C) were higher than those under higher temperature (60-70 °C). Above all, the contents in phenolic acids processed with microwave fixation (exposed under microwave at 100 °C for several minutes) were obviously higher than those of not being processed, showing an inhibition of some enzymes in samples after fixation. The TOPSIS evaluation showed that the variable temperature drying method of 'Hot-Air 45-60 °C' was the most suitable approach for the primary drying processing of MHH. The results could provide the scientific basis for the selection of appropriate drying method for MHH, and helpful reference for the primary drying proces of herbs containing volatile chemical components. PMID:27245035

  13. [Effect of drying methods on monoterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Mentha haplocalyx].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shao-qing; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Yu-yang; Lu, Xue-jun; Sha, Xiu-xiu; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-12-01

    To provide a scientific basis for the selection of the appropriate drying method for Mentha Haplocalyx Herba (MHH), determine 2 monoterpenes, 4 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids in MHH by GC-MS and UPLC-TQ-MS methods, and investigate the effects of the drying methods on the changes in contents of these analytes. The qualities of products obtained with different drying methods were evaluated by the multivariate statistical method of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Results showed that the drying methods had the greatest impact on menthol, caffeic acid, and rosemary acid, which were followed by chlorogenic acid and diosmetin-7-O-glucoside. The contents in these analytes processed with hot-air-drying method were higher than those with microwave-drying and infrared-drying methods at the same temperatures. The contents in these analytes processed under low temperature (40-45 °C) were higher than those under higher temperature (60-70 °C). Above all, the contents in phenolic acids processed with microwave fixation (exposed under microwave at 100 °C for several minutes) were obviously higher than those of not being processed, showing an inhibition of some enzymes in samples after fixation. The TOPSIS evaluation showed that the variable temperature drying method of 'Hot-Air 45-60 °C' was the most suitable approach for the primary drying processing of MHH. The results could provide the scientific basis for the selection of appropriate drying method for MHH, and helpful reference for the primary drying proces of herbs containing volatile chemical components.

  14. Biodiversity of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, and Juice Quality in Apple Cider Taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples are known to contain antioxidants that may play an important role in human health by providing protection against reactive free radicals affecting a wide range of biological molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While fresh apple juice is a main product of processed apples,...

  15. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Ferulago carduchorum in two vegetative stages (flower and fruit).

    PubMed

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Jamalifar, Hossein; Ramezani, Nasrin; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2016-03-01

    Ferulago carduchorum (Apiaceae family) is an endemic plant of Iran. The crude extract and four fractions of aerial parts of F. carduchorum in two vegetative stages (flower and fruit) were studied for their total phenolic contents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using folin-ciocalteu assay, micro dilution method and DPPH assay, respectively. The results indicated that the best antioxidant activity was determined in flower crude extract (IC50=0.44 mg/mL). The flower ethyl acetate fraction (FLE) showed better antimicrobial and antifungal activities than other fractions. So, FLE was selected for phytochemical investigations, resulting in isolation of a flavonoid (hesperetin). Hesperetin showed antimicrobial activity. The results showed that the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects during the flowering are obviously more than the fruit season.

  16. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Ferulago carduchorum in two vegetative stages (flower and fruit).

    PubMed

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Jamalifar, Hossein; Ramezani, Nasrin; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2016-03-01

    Ferulago carduchorum (Apiaceae family) is an endemic plant of Iran. The crude extract and four fractions of aerial parts of F. carduchorum in two vegetative stages (flower and fruit) were studied for their total phenolic contents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using folin-ciocalteu assay, micro dilution method and DPPH assay, respectively. The results indicated that the best antioxidant activity was determined in flower crude extract (IC50=0.44 mg/mL). The flower ethyl acetate fraction (FLE) showed better antimicrobial and antifungal activities than other fractions. So, FLE was selected for phytochemical investigations, resulting in isolation of a flavonoid (hesperetin). Hesperetin showed antimicrobial activity. The results showed that the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects during the flowering are obviously more than the fruit season. PMID:27087085

  17. Stability of carotenoids, total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant capacity in the thermal processing of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Donado-Pestana, Carlos M; Mastrodi Salgado, Jocelem; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro; dos Santos, Priscila Robertina; Jablonski, André

    2012-09-01

    Intervention strategies regarding the biofortification of orange-fleshed sweet potato, which is a rich source of carotenoids for combating vitamin A deficiency, are being developed in Brazil. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of individual carotenoids, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in the roots of four biofortified sweet potato cultivars that were raw or processed by four common heat treatments. HPLC, Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH and ABTS assays were used. All cultivars showed high levels of carotenoids in raw roots, predominantly all-trans-β-carotene (79.1-128.5 mg.100 g(-1) DW), suggesting a high estimated vitamin A activity. The CNPH 1194 cultivar reported carotenoids values highest than those of other cultivars (p < 0.05). The total phenolic compounds varied among cultivars and heat treatments (0.96-2.05 mg.g(-1) DW). In most cases, the heat treatments resulted in a significant decrease in the carotenoids and phenolic compounds contents as well as antioxidant capacity. Processing of flour presented the greatest losses of major carotenoids and phenolics. The phenolic compounds showed more stability than carotenoids after processing. There were significant correlations between the carotenoids and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity.

  18. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-01

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH3-TPD and N2 physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)-MCM-48 samples, SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO42-/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h-1 and the reaction temperature is 140 °C.

  19. Changes in free amino acid, protein, flavonoids, and phenolic content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely consumed Korean Boeun-deachu variety of jujube (Ziziphus jujube) was analyzed by HPLC, MS, and MS-MS for changes in the content of crude protein, free amino acids, and individual flavonoids at eight stages (S1-S8) of ripeness. They were also analyzed by colorimetry for total phenolics, to...

  20. Effect of milk on the urinary excretion of microbial phenolic acids after cocoa powder consumption in humans.

    PubMed

    Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Llorach, Rafael; Khan, Nasiruddin; Monagas, Maria; Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2010-04-28

    Health effects of cocoa flavonols depend on their bioavailability, which is strongly influenced by the food matrix and the degree of flavanol polymerization. The effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanoids considering phase II metabolites of epicatechin has been the subject of considerable debate. This work studies the effect of milk at the colonic microbial metabolism level of the nonabsorbed flavanol fraction that reaches the colon and is metabolized by the colonic microbiota into various phenolic acids. Twenty-one human volunteers followed a diet low in polyphenols for at least 48 h before taking, in a random order, 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved either in 250 mL of whole milk or in 250 mL of water. Urine samples were collected before the intake and during three different periods (0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 h). Phenolic acids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS after solid-phase extraction. Of the 15 metabolites assessed, the excretion of 9 phenolic acids was affected by the intake of milk. The urinary concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyhippuric, hippuric, caffeic, and ferulic acids diminished after the intake of cocoa with milk, whereas urinary concentrations of vanillic and phenylacetic acids increased. In conclusion, milk partially affects the formation of microbial phenolic acids derived from the colonic degradation of procyanidins and other compounds present in cocoa powder.

  1. Complex enzyme hydrolysis releases antioxidative phenolics from rice bran.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Deng, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of rice bran were analyzed following successive treatment by gelatinization, liquefaction and complex enzyme hydrolysis. Compared with gelatinization alone, liquefaction slightly increased the total amount of phenolics and antioxidant activity as measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Complex enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the total phenolics, flavonoids, FRAP and ORAC by 46.24%, 79.13%, 159.14% and 41.98%, respectively, compared to gelatinization alone. Furthermore, ten individual phenolics present in free or soluble conjugate forms were also analyzed following enzymatic processing. Ferulic acid experienced the largest release, followed by protocatechuic acid and then quercetin. Interestingly, a major proportion of phenolics existed as soluble conjugates, rather than free form. Overall, complex enzyme hydrolysis releases phenolics, thus increasing the antioxidant activity of rice bran extract. This study provides useful information for processing rice bran into functional beverage rich in phenolics. PMID:27507440

  2. Optimization of Reflux Conditions for Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Extraction and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan. PMID:25147852

  3. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ashkani, Sadegh; Baghdadi, Ali; Pazoki, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-09-09

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV

  4. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ashkani, Sadegh; Baghdadi, Ali; Pazoki, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV

  5. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of Artemisia absinthium essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, A.; Sani, T. Ahmadzadeh; Ameri, A. A.; Imani, M.; Golmakani, E.; Kamali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae) family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering) from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene). Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC50. Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium. PMID:26692746

  6. In vitro xanthine oxidase and albumin denaturation inhibition assay of Barringtonia racemosa L. and total phenolic content analysis for potential anti-inflammatory use in gouty arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Nurul Izzati; Sidik, Norrizah Jaafar; Awal, Asmah; Adam, Nurul Athirah Mohamad; Rezali, Nur Inani

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of methanolic extracts of infloresence axes, endosperms, leaves, and pericarps of Barringtonia racemosa L. Methods: The anti-inflammatory study was conducted by assessing the potential through xanthine oxidase (XO) and albumin denaturation inhibition assays. Meanwhile, the TPC in the extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Results: In the XO inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract was found to exert the highest inhibition capacity at 0.1% (w/v) with 59.54 ± 0.001% inhibition followed by leaves (58.82 ± 0.001%), pericarps (57.99 ± 0.003%), and endosperms (57.20 ± 0.003%) extracts. Similarly in the albumin denaturation inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract had shown the greatest inhibition capacity with 70.58 ± 0.004% inhibition followed by endosperms (66.80 ± 0.024%), leaves (65.29 ± 0.006%), and pericarps extracts (43.33 ± 0.002%). Meanwhile, for TPC analysis, leaves extract was found to have the highest phenolic content (53.94 ± 0.000 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g DW) followed by infloresence axes (31.54 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW), endosperms (22.63 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW), and the least was found in pericarps (15.54 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW). Conclusion: The results indeed verified the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of B. racemosa and supported its potential to be used in alleviating gouty arthritis and XO-related diseases. PMID:27757263

  7. Effect of domestic cooking on carotenoids, tocopherols, fatty acids, phenolics, and antioxidant activities of lentils (Lens culinaris).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

    2014-12-31

    The phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in lipophilic and hydrophilic (extractable and bound) fractions of lentils before and after domestic cooking were investigated. The hydrophilic fractions in lentils contributed much more to the antioxidant activity than the lipophilic fraction. The phenolic content of lentils was mainly composed of extractable compounds. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in carotenoid, tocopherol, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents of both extractable and bound phenolics fractions, as well as in antioxidant activities, were found in lentils before and after cooking. More specifically, cooking was found to favor the release of carotenoids and tocopherols and flavonols (kaempferol glycosides), but led to losses of flavanols (monomeric and condensed tannin). Whereas reduced flavanols and other phenolic compounds may have negatively affected the antioxidant activity, other components, especially the lipophilic antioxidants, were increased. The present study suggests that incorporation of cooked lentils into the diet will not cause significant loss to the phytochemical antioxidants and thus will retain the potential health benefits.

  8. Total Syntheses of Secalonic Acids A and D**

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Total syntheses of the dimeric tetrahydroxanthone natural products secalonic acids A and D are described. Key steps involve kinetic resolution of the tetrahydroxanthone core structure using homobenzotetramisole (HBTM) catalysis and late-stage copper (I)-mediated homodimerization of complex aryl stannane monomers. PMID:24519991

  9. Homogentisic acid: a phenolic acid as a marker of strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey.

    PubMed

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Tuberoso, C; Floris, I; Reniero, F; Guillou, C; Ghelli, S

    1999-10-01

    Analysis of organic acids in strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey showed the presence of an unknown acid as the main constituent. This compound was isolated and identified as homogentisic acid (2, 5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) by MS and NMR techniques. Its average content in honey was 378 +/- 92 mg/kg. Analysis of nectar confirmed the floral origin of the compound found in honey. Since this acid was not detected in any of the different monofloral honeys, it could be used as a marker of strawberry-tree (A. unedo) honey. PMID:10552766

  10. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on.

    PubMed

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction, the 'single-step' method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation. Under acidic conditions, total RNA remains in the upper aqueous phase, while most of DNA and proteins remain either in the interphase or in the lower organic phase. Total RNA is then recovered by precipitation with isopropanol and can be used for several applications. The original protocol, enabling the isolation of RNA from cells and tissues in less than 4 hours, greatly advanced the analysis of gene expression in plant and animal models as well as in pathological samples, as demonstrated by the overwhelming number of citations the paper gained over 20 years. PMID:17406285

  11. Consumption of argan oil (Morocco) with its unique profile of fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic compounds should confer valuable cancer chemopreventive effects.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, F; Younos, C; Soulimani, R; Oster, T; Charrouf, Z; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic antioxidants in three types of argan oil (Moroccan food, Moroccan aesthetic and a French commercial variety) along with a basic comparison with extra virgin olive and sunflower oil. The fatty acid profiles in the argan oils were very similar, with oleic acid (43%) and linoleic acid (36%) and their respective monoacylglycerols predominating. The major vitamer identified was -tocopherol with a mean of 483+/-11 mg/kg, in contrast to -tocopherol, which is the major vitamer in olive (190+/-1 mg/kg) and sunflower oil (532+/-6 mg/kg). The squalene content of the argan oils was very similar with a mean of 313+/-4 mg/100 g, which is lower than that of the olive oil (499 mg/100 g) but significantly higher than in the sunflower oil (6 mg/100 g). In contrast to olive and sunflower oils in which -sitosterol is predominant, the major sterols detected in the argan oils were schottenol (mean 147+/-10 mg/kg) and spinasterol (mean 122+/-10 mg/kg). The only phenolic compounds other than the tocopherol vitamers which could be readily detected and quantitated were vanillic, syringic and ferulic (probably conjugated to glucose) acids along with tyrosol. In contrast to the extra virgin olive oil (793 mg/kg), the concentration of total phenolic compounds is extremely low (<5.0 mg/kg). Nevertheless, argan oil with its high content of the vitamer -tocopherol, squalene and oleic acid is likely to enhance the cancer prevention effects of the Moroccan diet.

  12. Genetic diversity in morphological characters and phenolic acids content resulting from an interspecific cross between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild ancestor (S. incanum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum incanum, the wild ancestor of eggplant (S. melongena) has been considered as a source of variation for high phenolic acids content in breeding programs aimed at improving the functional quality of eggplant. We have evaluated the morphological and phenolic acids content in an interspecific fa...

  13. Fractionation of polyphenols in hawthorn into polymeric procyanidins, phenolic acids and flavonoids prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Svedström, Ulla; Vuorela, Heikki; Kostiainen, Risto; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2006-04-21

    Polymeric procyanidins, phenolic carboxylic acids and flavonoids of hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) were fractionated prior to HPLC analysis using column chromatography and solid-phase extraction (SPE). The flavonoid fraction also contained (-)-epicatechin. The three groups of phenolics, each with clearly different UV spectra, were examined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis. The average repeatability of the method (RSD) was in the range of 8-13% for chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin and hyperoside. The polymeric procyanidins of hawthorn flowers consisted mainly of (-)-epicatechin subunits, and their mean degree of polymerization (DP) was 22.2. The HPLC methods developed can be used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of different phenolic compounds in hawthorn plant material and their extracts.

  14. An enhanced cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence system using guest-host interactions in a lab-on-a-chip platform for estimating the total phenolic content in food samples.

    PubMed

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2016-04-01

    Two chemiluminescence-microfluidic (CL-MF) systems, e.g., Ce(IV)-rhodamine B (RB) and Ce(IV)-rhodamine 6G (R6G), for the determination of the total phenolic content in teas and some sweeteners were evaluated. The results indicated that the Ce(IV)-R6G system was more sensitive in comparison to the Ce(IV)-RB CL system. Therefore, a simple (CL-MF) method based on the CL of Ce(IV)-R6G was developed, and the sensitivity, selectivity and stability of this system were evaluated. Selected phenolic compounds (PCs), such as quercetin (QRC), catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and syringic acid (SA), produced analytically useful chemiluminescence signals with low detection limits ranging from 0.35 nmol L(-1) for QRC to 11.31 nmol L(-1) for SA. The mixing sequence and the chip design were crucial, as the sensitivity and reproducibility could be substantially affected by these two factors. In addition, the anionic surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) can significantly enhance the CL signal intensity by as much as 300% for the QRC solution. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the enhancement was due to a strong guest-host interaction between the cationic R6G molecules and the anionic amphiphilic environment. Other parameters that could affect the CL intensities of the PCs were carefully optimized. Finally, the method was successfully applied to tea and sweetener samples. Six different tea samples exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 7.32 to 13.5 g per 100g of sample with respect to GA. Four different sweetener samples were also analyzed and exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 500.9 to 3422.9 mg kg(-1) with respect to GA. The method was selective, rapid and sensitive when used to estimate the total phenolic/antioxidant level, and the results were in good agreement with those reported for honey and tea samples. PMID:26838423

  15. Direct transfer of starter substrates from type I fatty acid synthase to type III polyketide synthases in phenolic lipid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Funa, Nobutaka; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols and alkylpyrones, which have a polar aromatic ring and a hydrophobic alkyl chain, are phenolic lipids found in plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, phenolic lipids in the membrane of dormant cysts are essential for encystment. The aromatic moieties of the phenolic lipids in A. vinelandii are synthesized by two type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), ArsB and ArsC, which are encoded by the ars operon. However, details of the synthesis of hydrophobic acyl chains, which might serve as starter substrates for the type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), were unknown. Here, we show that two type I fatty acid synthases (FASs), ArsA and ArsD, which are members of the ars operon, are responsible for the biosynthesis of C22–C26 fatty acids from malonyl-CoA. In vivo and in vitro reconstitution of phenolic lipid synthesis systems with the Ars enzymes suggested that the C22–C26 fatty acids produced by ArsA and ArsD remained attached to the ACP domain of ArsA and were transferred hand-to-hand to the active-site cysteine residues of ArsB and ArsC. The type III PKSs then used the fatty acids as starter substrates and carried out two or three extensions with malonyl-CoA to yield the phenolic lipids. The phenolic lipids in A. vinelandii were thus found to be synthesized solely from malonyl-CoA by the four members of the ars operon. This is the first demonstration that a type I FAS interacts directly with a type III PKS through substrate transfer. PMID:18199837

  16. Direct transfer of starter substrates from type I fatty acid synthase to type III polyketide synthases in phenolic lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Funa, Nobutaka; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-22

    Alkylresorcinols and alkylpyrones, which have a polar aromatic ring and a hydrophobic alkyl chain, are phenolic lipids found in plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, phenolic lipids in the membrane of dormant cysts are essential for encystment. The aromatic moieties of the phenolic lipids in A. vinelandii are synthesized by two type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), ArsB and ArsC, which are encoded by the ars operon. However, details of the synthesis of hydrophobic acyl chains, which might serve as starter substrates for the type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), were unknown. Here, we show that two type I fatty acid synthases (FASs), ArsA and ArsD, which are members of the ars operon, are responsible for the biosynthesis of C(22)-C(26) fatty acids from malonyl-CoA. In vivo and in vitro reconstitution of phenolic lipid synthesis systems with the Ars enzymes suggested that the C(22)-C(26) fatty acids produced by ArsA and ArsD remained attached to the ACP domain of ArsA and were transferred hand-to-hand to the active-site cysteine residues of ArsB and ArsC. The type III PKSs then used the fatty acids as starter substrates and carried out two or three extensions with malonyl-CoA to yield the phenolic lipids. The phenolic lipids in A. vinelandii were thus found to be synthesized solely from malonyl-CoA by the four members of the ars operon. This is the first demonstration that a type I FAS interacts directly with a type III PKS through substrate transfer.

  17. Influence of alternative electron acceptors on the anaerobic biodegradability of chlorinated phenols and benzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Haeggblom, M.M.; Rivera, M.D.; Young, L.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrate, sulfate, and carbonate were used as electron acceptors to examine the anaerobic biodegradability of chlorinated aromatic compounds in estuarine and freshwater sediments. The respective denitrifying, sulfidogenic, and methanogenic enrichment cultures were established on each of the monochlorinated phenol and monochlorinated benzoic acid isomers, using sediment from the upper (freshwater) and lower (estuarine) Hudson River and the East River (estuarine) as source materials. Utilization of each chlorophenol and chlorobenzoate isomer was observed under at least one reducing condition; however, no single reducing condition permitted the metabolism of all six compounds tested. The anaerobic biodegradation of the chlorophenols and chlorobenzoates depended on the electron acceptor available and on the position of the chlorine substituent. In general, similar activities were observed under the different reducing conditions in both the freshwater and estuarine sediments.

  18. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors of phenolic constituents isolated from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He Zhong; Quan, Xiao Fang; Tian, Wei Xi; Hu, Jiang Miao; Wang, Peng Cheng; Huang, Sheng Zhuo; Cheng, Zhong Quan; Liang, Wen Juan; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Xiao Feng; Zhao, You Xing

    2010-10-15

    Natural inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FAS) are emerging as potential therapeutic agents to treat cancer and obesity. The bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the hulls of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of 13 phenolic compounds (1-13) mainly including xanthone and benzophenone, in which compounds 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 9 was a new natural product. These isolates possess strong inhibitory activity of FAS with the IC(50) values ranging from 1.24 to 91.07 μM. The study indicates that two types of natural products, xanthones and benzophenones, could be considered as promising FAS inhibitors.

  19. Infusion and decoction of wild German chamomile: bioactivity and characterization of organic acids and phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-15

    Natural products represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognised potential in drug discovery. Herein, the methanol extract of Matricaria recutita L. (German chamomile) and its decoction and infusion (the most consumed preparations of this herb) were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation; the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture (non-tumour cells). All the samples revealed antioxidant properties. The decoction exhibited no antitumour activity (GI(50)>400 μg/mL) which could indicate that this bioactivity might be related to compounds (including phenolic compounds) that were not extracted or that were affected by the decoction procedure. Both plant methanol extract and infusion showed inhibitory activity to the growth of HCT-15 (GI(50) 250.24 and 298.23 μg/mL, respectively) and HeLa (GI(50) 259.36 and 277.67 μg/mL, respectively) cell lines, without hepatotoxicity (GI(50)>400 μg/mL). Infusion and decoction gave higher contents of organic acids (24.42 and 23.35 g/100g dw). Otherwise, the plant methanol extract contained the highest amounts of both phenolic acids (3.99 g/100g dw) and flavonoids (2.59 g/100g dw). The major compound found in all the preparations was luteolin O-acylhexoside. Overall, German chamomile contains important phytochemicals with bioactive properties (mainly antitumour potential selective to colon and cervical carcinoma cell lines) to be explored in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. PMID:23122148

  20. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huawei; Trabue, Steven L; Scoggin, Kenwood; Jackson, Wendi A; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Malkina, Irina L; Koziel, Jacek A; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their manure as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). We report measurements of alcohols, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and methane (CH4) emitted from nonlactating (dry) and lactating dairy cows and their manure under controlled conditions. The experiment was conducted in an environmental chamber that simulates commercial concrete-floored freestall cow housing conditions. The fluxes of methanol, ethanol, and CH4 were measured from cows and/or their fresh manure. The average estimated methanol and ethanol emissions were 0.33 and 0.51 g cow(-1) h(-1) from dry cows and manure and 0.7 and 1.27 g cow(-1) h(-1) from lactating cows and manure, respectively. Both alcohols increased over time, coinciding with increasing accumulation of manure on the chamber floor. Volatile fatty acids and phenols were emitted at concentrations close to their detection limit. Average estimated CH4 emissions were predominantly associated with enteric fermentation from cows rather than manure and were 12.35 and 18.23 g cow(-1) h(-1) for dry and lactating cows, respectively. Lactating cows produced considerably more gaseous VOCs and GHGs emissions than dry cows (P < 0.001). Dairy cows and fresh manure have the potential to emit considerable amounts of alcohols and CH4 and research is needed to determine effective mitigation.

  1. Effect of vitamin C and folic acid on seed vigour response and phenolic-linked antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Burguieres, Elizabeth; McCue, Patrick; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2007-05-01

    Folic acid and vitamin C were used in the concentration range of 0-500muM as exogenous growth enhancers to stimulate pea (Pisum sativum) seedling vigour. The results suggest that a concentration of 50muM folic acid and 500muM vitamin C were optimum in maximally enhancing seed vigour and potentially seedling performance according to both agronomic and biochemical seed vigour parameters. Results indicated that germination percentage, shoot weight, shoot height, and root length were enhanced in folic acid and vitamin C treated plants compared to control plants. The levels of enhanced phenolic content in response to folic acid and vitamin C treatments were highest on days 8 and 10. Evaluation of critical biochemical parameters indicated that the average glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity and proline content in response to treatments were higher than control and correlated to enhanced phenolic content and DPPH-based antioxidant activity. Key enzymes, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were also higher in response to treatments and correlated to enhanced phenolic content and DPPH-based antioxidant activity. Taken together, these studies support the hypothesis that the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway stimulates phenolic synthesis and related free-radical scavenging antioxidant activity. Further, this proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway stimulation in response to folic acid and vitamin C was also correlated to antioxidant enzyme response indicated by the stimulation of GPX, SOD, and CAT activities. Therefore, this study indicates the enhancement of seed vigour response by folic acid and vitamin C as reflected in both agronomic and biochemical responses, and this occurred through the stimulation of phenolic-linked antioxidant response that is likely positively modulated through the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway.

  2. Antagonism between lipid-derived reactive carbonyls and phenolic compounds in the Strecker degradation of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    The Strecker-type degradation of phenylalanine in the presence of 2-pentanal and phenolic compounds was studied to investigate possible interactions that either promote or inhibit the formation of Strecker aldehydes in food products. Phenylacetaldehyde formation was promoted by 2-pentenal and also by o- and p-diphenols, but not by m-diphenols. This is consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to be converted into reactive carbonyls and produce the Strecker degradation of the amino acid. When 2-pentenal and phenolic compounds were simultaneously present, an antagonism among them was observed. This antagonism is suggested to be a consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to either react with both 2-pentenal and phenylacetaldehyde, or compete with other carbonyl compounds for the amino acids, a function that is determined by their structure. All these results suggest that carbonyl-phenol reactions may be used to modulate flavor formation produced in food products by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls. PMID:26471665

  3. Type III Secretion System Genes of Dickeya dadantii 3937 Are Induced by Plant Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shihui; Peng, Quan; San Francisco, Michael; Wang, Yongjun; Zeng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Background Dickeya dadantii is a broad-host range phytopathogen. D. dadantii 3937 (Ech3937) possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS), a major virulence factor secretion system in many Gram-negative pathogens of plants and animals. In Ech3937, the T3SS is regulated by two major regulatory pathways, HrpX/HrpY-HrpS-HrpL and GacS/GacA-rsmB-RsmA pathways. Although the plant apoplast environment, low pH, low temperature, and absence of complex nitrogen sources in media have been associated with the induction of T3SS genes of phytobacteria, no specific inducer has yet been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we identified two novel plant phenolic compounds, o-coumaric acid (OCA) and t-cinnamic acid (TCA), that induced the expression of T3SS genes dspE (a T3SS effector), hrpA (a structural protein of the T3SS pilus), and hrpN (a T3SS harpin) in vitro. Assays by qRT-PCR showed higher amounts of mRNA of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and rsmB (an untranslated regulatory RNA), but not hrpS (a σ54-enhancer binding protein) of Ech3937 when these two plant compounds were supplemented into minimal medium (MM). However, promoter activity assays using flow cytometry showed similar promoter activities of hrpN in rsmB mutant Ech148 grown in MM and MM supplemented with these phenolic compounds. Compared with MM alone, only slightly higher promoter activities of hrpL were observed in bacterial cells grown in MM supplemented with OCA/TCA. Conclusion/Significance The induction of T3SS expression by OCA and TCA is moderated through the rsmB-RsmA pathway. This is the first report of plant phenolic compounds that induce the expression T3SS genes of plant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:18698421

  4. Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling Reaction between N-Aryl α-Amino Acid Esters and Phenols or Phenol Derivative for Synthesis of α-Aryl α-Amino Acid Esters.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    A novel dehydrogenative cross-coupling (DCC) reaction between N-arylglycine esters and phenols or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene was developed by copper catalysis using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) as an oxidant. Under optimized conditions, a range of N-arylglycine esters 1 underwent the DCC reaction smoothly with various phenols 2 or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene 4 to give desired α-aryl α -amino acid esters 3 or 5, respectively, with high ortho regioselectivities in a moderate to excellent yield. A possible mechanism involving aromatic electrophilic substitution is proposed.

  5. Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling Reaction between N-Aryl α-Amino Acid Esters and Phenols or Phenol Derivative for Synthesis of α-Aryl α-Amino Acid Esters.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    A novel dehydrogenative cross-coupling (DCC) reaction between N-arylglycine esters and phenols or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene was developed by copper catalysis using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) as an oxidant. Under optimized conditions, a range of N-arylglycine esters 1 underwent the DCC reaction smoothly with various phenols 2 or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene 4 to give desired α-aryl α -amino acid esters 3 or 5, respectively, with high ortho regioselectivities in a moderate to excellent yield. A possible mechanism involving aromatic electrophilic substitution is proposed. PMID:26984111

  6. Integrated phospholipidomics and transcriptomics analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced tolerance to a mixture of acetic acid, furfural, and phenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of acetic acid, furfural and phenol (AFP), three representative lignocellulose derived inhibitors, significantly inhibited the growth and bioethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to uncover mechanisms behind the enhanced tolerance of an inhibitor-tolerant S.cerevisiae s...

  7. Orthogonal selectivity with cinnamic acids in 3-substituted benzofuran synthesis through C-H olefination of phenols.

    PubMed

    Agasti, Soumitra; Sharma, Upendra; Naveen, Togati; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-03-28

    A palladium catalyzed intermolecular annulation of cinnamic acids and phenols has been achieved for the selective synthesis of 3-substituted benzofurans. Isotope labeling, competition experiments, kinetic studies, and intermediate trapping have supported a sequence of C-C bond formation and decarboxylation followed by the C-O cyclization pathway.

  8. Dietary induced serum phenolic acids promote bone growth via p38 MAPK / Beta-Catenin Canonical Wnt signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet and nutritional status are critical factors that influences bone development. In this report, we demonstrate that a mixture of phenolic acids found in the serum of young rats fed blueberries (BB), significantly stimulated osteoblast differentiation, resulting in significantly increased bone mas...

  9. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    PubMed

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer.

  10. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    PubMed

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer. PMID:27191052

  11. Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Acids by Infants and Children: A Randomised Double-Blind Clinical Assay

    PubMed Central

    Uberos, J.; Fernández-Puentes, V.; Molina-Oya, M.; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R.; Ruíz-López, A.; Tortosa-Pinto, P.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study, which is part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay, is aimed at determining the effects of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim treatment for UTI. Methods: This Phase III randomised clinical trial was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain) with a study population of 192 patients, aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI, associated or otherwise with vesico-ureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with urinary infection. Each child was randomly given 0.2 mL/Kg/day of either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim (8 mg/mL). The primary and secondary objectives, respectively, were to determine the risk of UTI and the levels of phenolic acids in urine associated with each intervention. Results: With respect to UTI, the cranberry treatment was non-inferior to trimethoprim. Increased urinary excretion of ferulic acid was associated with a greater risk of UTI developing in infants aged under 1 year (RR 1.06; CI 95% 1.024–1.1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained show the excretion of ferulic acid is higher in infants aged under 1 year, giving rise to an increased risk of UTI, for both treatment options. PMID:23641168

  12. The ex vivo antiplatelet activation potential of fruit phenolic metabolite hippuric acid.

    PubMed

    Santhakumar, Abishek Bommannan; Stanley, Roger; Singh, Indu

    2015-08-01

    Polyphenol-rich fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with reduction in platelet hyperactivity, a significant contributor to thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible role of hippuric acid, a predominant metabolite of plant cyclic polyols, phenolic acids and polyphenols, in reduction of platelet activation-related thrombogenesis. Fasting blood samples were collected from 13 healthy subjects to analyse the effect of varying concentrations of hippuric acid (100 μM, 200 μM, 500 μM, 1 mM and 2 mM) on activation-dependant platelet surface-marker expression. Procaspase activating compound-1 (PAC-1) and P-selectin/CD62P monoclonal antibodies were used to evaluate platelet activation-related conformational changes and α-granule release respectively using flow cytometry. Platelets were stimulated ex vivo via the P2Y1/P2Y12- adenosine diphosphate (ADP) pathway of platelet activation. Hippuric acid at a concentration of 1 mM and 2 mM significantly reduced P-selectin/CD62P expression (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001 respectively) induced by ADP. Hippuric acid at 2 mM concentration also inhibited PAC-1 activation-dependant antibody expression (p = 0.03). High ex vivo concentrations of hippuric acid can therefore significantly reduce P-selectin and PAC-1 expression thus reducing platelet activation and clotting potential. However, although up to 11 mM of hippuric acid can be excreted in the urine per day following consumption of fruit, hippuric acid is actively excreted with a recorded Cmax for hippuric acid in human plasma at 250-300 μM. This is lower than the blood concentration of 1-2 mM shown to be bioactive in this research. The contribution of hippuric acid to the protective effects of fruit and vegetable intake against vascular disorders by the pathways measured is therefore low but could be synergistic with lowered doses of antiplatelet drugs and help reduce risk of thrombosis in current antiplatelet drug sensitive populations. PMID

  13. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.

  14. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena

    2013-03-01

    In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were previously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  15. Technological properties, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of pigmented chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Heiras-Palazuelos, Mar J; Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna I; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; López-Valenzuela, José A; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Garzón-Tiznado, José A; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2013-02-01

    Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.

  16. In-vial liquid-liquid microextraction-capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Nur Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2012-09-12

    An in-vial liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the selective extraction of the phenolic acids (caffeic, gallic, cinnamic, ferulic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, benzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric and p-coumaric) in vegetable oil samples. The optimised extraction conditions for 20 g sample were: volume of diluent (n-hexane), 2 mL; extractant, methanol: 5 mM sodium hydroxide (60:40; v/v); volume of extractant, 300 μL (twice); vortex, 1 min; centrifugation, 5 min. Recoveries for the studied phenolic acids were 80.1-119.5%. The simultaneous determination of the phenolic acid extracts was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Separations were carried out on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 μm i.d.× 40 cm length) involving 25 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.15) and 5% methanol as CE background electrolyte in the normal polarity mode, voltage of 30 kV, temperature of 25°C, injection time of 4s (50 mbar) and electropherograms were recorded at 200 nm. The phenolic acids were successfully separated in less than 10 min. The validated in-vial LLME-CE method was applied to the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oil samples (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, pure olive oil, walnut oil and grapeseed oil). The developed method shows significant advantages over the current methods as lengthy evaporation step is not required. PMID:22884208

  17. Changes in the contents and profiles of selected phenolics, soyasapogenols, tocopherols, and amino acids during soybean-rice mixture cooking: Electric rice cooker vs electric pressure rice cooker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Yu, Bo-Ra; Chung, Ill-Min

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the changes in the contents and profiles of 35 phenolics (including 12 isoflavones), four tocopherols, two soyasapogenols and 20 amino acids when soybean and rice were cooked together (soybean-rice mixture) using either an electric rice cooker (ERC) or an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The contents of the 35 selected phenolics in soybean decreased by 12% and 8% upon cooking by ERC and EPRC, respectively, and their profiles were different from that prior to cooking (P<0.05). Total tocopherol content of soybeans decreased by 7% after cooking in an ERC, but increased by 3% in soybeans cooked by EPRC. Total soyasapogenol content in soybeans cooked by ERC and EPRC decreased by 15% and 6%, respectively. Lastly, the total amino acid content of soybeans increased by 41% and 10% after cooking by ERC and EPRC, respectively. This study extends our knowledge about the effects of heat and pressure on the contents and profiles of bioactive compounds during soybean-rice mixture cooking. These results may be useful for improving the quality of bioactive compounds in soybean and rice depending on cooking conditions.

  18. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tingshun Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-15

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH{sub 3}-TPD and N{sub 2} physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)–MCM-48 samples, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h{sup −1} and the reaction temperature is 140 °C. - Highlights: • Sulfuric acid functional mesoporous solid acid catalysts were prepared via impregnation method. • The alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol was carried out over these solid acid catalysts. • The catalytic activity of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 catalyst is much higher than that of the others. • A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% was achieved under optimum reaction conditions for SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25.

  19. Release of propolis phenolic acids from semisolid formulations and their penetration into the human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zilius, Modestas; Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Briedis, Vitalis

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects are attributed to phenolic compounds present in propolis, and when delivered to the skin surface and following penetration into epidermis and dermis, they can contribute to skin protection from damaging action of free radicals that are formed under UV and premature skin aging. This study was designed to determine the penetration of phenolic acids and vanillin into the human skin in vitro from experimentally designed vehicles. Results of the study demonstrated the ability of propolis phenolic acids (vanillic, coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids) and vanillin to penetrate into skin epidermis and dermis. The rate of penetration and distribution is affected both by physicochemical characteristics of active substances and physical structure and chemical composition of semisolid vehicle. Vanillin and vanillic acid demonstrated relatively high penetration through epidermis into dermis where these compounds were concentrated, coumaric and ferulic acids were uniformly distributed between epidermis and dermis, and caffeic acid slowly penetrated into epidermis and was not determined in dermis. Further studies are deemed relevant for the development of semisolid topically applied systems designed for efficient delivery of propolis antioxidants into the skin.

  20. Dietary Phenolic Acids Act as Effective Antioxidants in Membrane Models and in Cultured Cells, Exhibiting Proapoptotic Effects in Leukaemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zambonin, Laura; Caliceti, Cristiana; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana; Landi, Laura; Prata, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H2O2. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL), whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach. PMID:22792417

  1. Enantioselective Total Syntheses of Plectosphaeroic Acids B and C

    PubMed Central

    Jabri, Salman Y.

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of the synthetic strategy that culminated in the first total syntheses of the structurally unique plectosphaeroic acids B (2) and C (3) is described. The successful enantioselective route to (+)-2 and (+)-3 proceeds in 6 and 11 steps from the known hexahydro-2H-pyrazinopyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-1,4-dione 39, which in turn are available in enantiomerically pure form by chemical synthesis. The central challenge in this synthesis endeavor was uniting the hexahydro-2H-pyrazinopyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-1,4-dione and cinnabarinic acid fragments of these marine alkaloids. Critical for achieving this successful C–N bond formation was the use of an iodocinnabarinic acid diester in which the amino group was masked with two Boc substituents, a Cu(I) carboxylate complex, and the weak base KOAc. The highly congested C–N bond generated in this coupling, in conjunction with the delicate nature of the densely functionalized coupling partners, provide striking testament to the power of modern copper-mediated amination methods. Two approaches, one stereoselective, for introducing the methylthio substituents of (+)-plectosphaeroic acid B were developed. The epitrisulfide ring of (+)-plectosphaeroic acid C was formed by ring expansion of an epidisulfide precursor. PMID:24007470

  2. Antimicrobial action of the American cranberry constituents; phenolics, anthocyanins, and organic acids, against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Alison; Wu, Vivian C H; Tyler, Seth; Edwards, Kelly

    2010-04-30

    We investigated the antimicrobial effect of constituents of the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon); sugar plus organic acids, phenolics, and anthocyanins, against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Each fractional component was assayed over a 24-h period with 5-log initial inocula to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), and log CFU/ml reductions, at their native pH and neutral pH. Each fraction produced significant reductions (P<0.05) at the native pH: MICs for sugars plus organic, phenolics, and anthocyanins were 5.6/2.6 Brix/acid (citric acid equivalents) 2.70g/L (gallic acid equivalent), and 14.80mg/L (cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent), respectively. Sugars plus organic acids at native pH (3) produced a reduction below detectable limits (<1 log CFU/ml) compared to the control at 24h for 11.3/5.2 and 5.6/2.6 Brix/acid. Phenolics at native pH (4) produced reductions below detectable limits compared to the control at 24h and initial inocula for treatments of 5.40 and 2.70g/L. Anthocyanins at native pH (2) produced reductions below detectable limits for treatments of 29.15 and 14.80mg/L cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents. Neutralized phenolics and anthocyanins had the same MIC and MBC as those at their native pH. Neutralized sugars plus organic acids did not inhibit bacterial growth compared to the control. Neutralized phenolics reduced bacteria below detectable limits in treatments of 5.40g/L and 2.70g/L compared to the control. Neutralized anthocyanins reduced bacterial growth below detectable limits at the concentration of 29.15mg/L, but at 14.80mg/L there was no significant reduction. Stationary-phase cells of E. coli O157:H7 were treated with 5% of each fraction in 0.8% NaCl for 20min and viewed under transmission electron microscopy. All fractions caused significant damage compared the control. Sugars plus organic acids caused visible osmotic stress, while phenolics and anthocyanins caused disintegration

  3. In vitro permeation studies of phenolics from horse chestnut seed gels prepared with different polyacrylic acid polymer derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zelbienė, Eglė; Draksiene, Gailute; Savickas, Arunas; Kopustinskiene, Dalia; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyacrylic acid polymers (Ultrez 10, Ultrez 20, Carbopol 980, and Carbopol 940) on the viscosity and the in vitro permeation of phenolic compounds from the gel prepared from natural horse chestnut seed extract. Experiments were performed in the presence and in the absence of peppermint oil (Mentha piperita). Our results showed that peppermint oil decreased the viscosity of the gels and permeation of phenolic compounds from all gel samples. Results show that the highest content of phenolic compounds (1.758 μg cm(-2)) permeated in vitro from gel based on Carbopol Ultrez 20 without peppermint oil added (p<0.05 vs. other tested polymers). PMID:26011934

  4. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.

  5. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions. PMID:27165530

  6. Antioxidant activity of different parts of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks fruit and its correlation to phenolic composition.

    PubMed

    Hatamnia, Ali Asghar; Rostamzad, Arman; Malekzadeh, Parviz; Darvishzadeh, Reza; Abbaspour, Nasser; Hosseini, Mohammadyar; Nourollahi, Khoshnood; Mehr, Reza Sheikh Akbari

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks were collected from Ilam province, Iran. The aim of this study was to analyse antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of different parts of P. khinjuk fruit. The antioxidant capacity of extracts was measured using different assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The phenolic composition of P. khinjuk fruit is reported for the first time. Amongst different parts of the fruit analysed in this study, hull extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents. We observed a high correlation between different antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Therefore, antioxidant capacity can be related to total phenolic and flavonoid contents. A correlation analysis revealed that ascorbic acid, gallic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid were the phenolic compounds mainly responsible for antioxidant power of the fruit extracts.

  7. Phytochemical changes in phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids associated with sweetpotato storage and impacts on bioactive properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato phytochemical content was evaluated in four genotypes (NCPUR06-020, Covington, Yellow Covington, and NC07-847) at harvest and after curing/storage for 4 or 8 months. Curing and storage for up to 8 months did not significantly affect total phenolic content in Covington, Yellow Covington, ...

  8. Interactions of Phenolic Acids, Metallic Ions and Chelating Agents on Auxin-Induced Growth

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Miroslaw; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1966-01-01

    By growth experiments in indoleacetic acid-1-14C (IAA), and determination of the 14CO2 evolved, it has been shown directly that polyphenols synergize IAA-induced growth by counteracting IAA decarboxylation. Sinapic and ferulic acids act like polyphenols. Endogenous polyphenols doubtless exert the same influence in intact plants. Monophenols stimulate the decarboxylation of IAA under conditions where they depress growth. When Mn++ is present as well, this effect is enhanced. All these growth effects are paralleled by effects on the isolated IAA oxidizing enzyme of Avena. EDTA acts like the polyphenols in depressing the decarboxylation of IAA, and not synergizing with the growth induced by naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-D. However, since EDTA synergizes with IAA for growth even at optimal IAA concentrations, its growth promotion probably involves an additional effect. DIECA inhibits powerfully the destruction of IAA, but without causing much growth promotion, apparently because its decomposition products inhibit respiration. Mn++ aloné stimulates the decarboxylation of IAA, i.e. this ion promotes the IAA oxidase in vivo as it does in vitro. Nevertheless, it does not inhibit elongation, but at relatively high concentrations even stimulates it, both at low and high IAA levels. Since Mn++ also promotes the growth induced by NAA and 2,4-D, its growth action cannot rest primarily on modifying the metabolism of the auxins. Cobalt somewhat decreases the decarboxylation of IAA, but this cannot explain its growth promotion, since Co++, like Mn++, stimulates elongation even at optimal IAA concentrations, and acts with NAA just as well as with IAA. Ferrous ion, on the other hand, acts like the polyphenols. Floating pea stem sections exude enough organic matter to support bacteria which after 7 hours cause considerable decarboxylation of IAA. Avena coleoptile sections have a comparable though smaller effect after 12 hours. The present experiments, with those of others

  9. Uptake and/or utilization of two simple phenolic acids by Cucumis sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Shann, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) from solutions (0.1 to 1.00 mM, pH 4.0 to 7.0), was determined for intact and excised roots of Cucumis sativus. Uptake methods based on high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acid depletion from solution were compared to those radioisotopic methods employing (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA or p-HBA. Although radiotracer methods more accurately reflected actual uptake of the compounds by cucumber seedlings, HPLC solution depletion methods may be useful in the elucidation of trends over very limited periods of time. The uptake of FA was unaffected by the presence of p-HBA. The uptake of p-HBA was reduced by 30% in the presence of FA when compared to the uptake from solutions containing p-HBA alone. Ferulic acid acts both as an allelopathic agent and precursor in the endogenous process of lignification. To evaluate the involvement of exogenous FA in lignin biosynthesis, roots of hydroponically grown cucumber seedlings were exposed to concentrations of FA labeled with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. Radiotracer was distributed throughout the seedling. A quantitative change in lignification occurred in treated seedlings. In roots and stems, the level of lignin increased with the number of exposures and as the concentrations of exogenous FA increased. Radiotracer was found in the residues of lignin isolated from seedling tissue treated with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. This suggested the utilization of the exogenously applied FA in the endogenous process of lignification.

  10. Fatty acids, essential oil and phenolics composition of Silybum marianum seeds and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Baya; Abbassi, Feten; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Marzouk, Brahim

    2016-05-01

    The presentstudydescribes the biochemical evaluation of Silybum marianum seed. The analysis of essential oil composition of Silybum marianum seed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry GC-MS showed the presence of14 volatile components with the predominance of γ-cadinene (49.8%) and α-pinene (24.5%). Whereas, the analysis of fatty acids composition, showed the predominance of linoleic (50.5%) and oleic (30.2%) acids. Silybum marainum presented also an important polyphenol contents with 29mgGAE/g DW, a good antiradical activity (CI(50)=39μg/ml) but a lower reducing power ability. Flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were about 3.39mg EC/g DW and 1.8mg EC/gDW, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified by RP-HPLC, were silybin A (12.2%), silybin B (17.67%), isosilybin A (21.9%), isosilybin B (12.8%), silychristin (7.9%) andsilydianin (7.5%).

  11. Fatty acids, essential oil and phenolics composition of Silybum marianum seeds and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Baya; Abbassi, Feten; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Marzouk, Brahim

    2016-05-01

    The presentstudydescribes the biochemical evaluation of Silybum marianum seed. The analysis of essential oil composition of Silybum marianum seed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry GC-MS showed the presence of14 volatile components with the predominance of γ-cadinene (49.8%) and α-pinene (24.5%). Whereas, the analysis of fatty acids composition, showed the predominance of linoleic (50.5%) and oleic (30.2%) acids. Silybum marainum presented also an important polyphenol contents with 29mgGAE/g DW, a good antiradical activity (CI(50)=39μg/ml) but a lower reducing power ability. Flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were about 3.39mg EC/g DW and 1.8mg EC/gDW, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified by RP-HPLC, were silybin A (12.2%), silybin B (17.67%), isosilybin A (21.9%), isosilybin B (12.8%), silychristin (7.9%) andsilydianin (7.5%). PMID:27166539

  12. Prevention of Alzheimer's disease: Omega-3 fatty acid and phenolic anti-oxidant interventions.

    PubMed

    Cole, Greg M; Lim, Giselle P; Yang, Fusheng; Teter, Bruce; Begum, Aynun; Ma, Qiulan; Harris-White, Marni E; Frautschy, Sally A

    2005-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are syndromes of aging that share analogous lesions and risk factors, involving lipoproteins, oxidative damage and inflammation. Unlike in CVD, in AD, sensitive biomarkers are unknown, and high-risk groups are understudied. To identify potential prevention strategies in AD, we have focused on pre-clinical models (transgenic and amyloid infusion models), testing dietary/lifestyle factors strongly implicated in reducing risk in epidemiological studies. Initially, we reported the impact of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), notably ibuprofen, which reduced amyloid accumulation, but suppressed few inflammatory markers and without reducing oxidative damage. Safety concerns with chronic NSAIDs led to a screen of alternative NSAIDs and identification of the phenolic anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant compound curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric that we found targeted multiple AD pathogenic cascades. The dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), also limited amyloid, oxidative damage and synaptic and cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model. Both DHA and curcumin have favorable safety profiles, epidemiology and efficacy, and may exert general anti-aging benefits (anti-cancer and cardioprotective.).

  13. Hydroxyalkylation of phenol to bisphenol F over heteropolyacid catalysts: The effect of catalyst acid strength on isomer distribution and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianzhang; Liu, Yutang; Liu, Ran; Wang, Longlu; Lu, Yanbing; Xia, Xinnian

    2016-11-01

    Hydroxyalkylation of phenol with formaldehyde to bisphenol F over heteropolyacid impregnated on clay was investigated. These catalysts displayed excellent catalytic performance for this reaction, especially that the effects of acid sites on the isomer distribution are obvious. Various solid catalysts were prepared by impregnating heteropolyacid on different kind of clay matrices, and their chemical compositions, textural properties, and acid strength of the heteropolyacid catalysts were characterized by EDX, BET, NH3-TPD, XRD, and FT-IR. Moreover, the effects of acid sites and reaction temperature on the yield and 4,4'-isomer distribution were launched by comparing the data obtained from the two kinds of catalysts. Furthermore, the kinetics of the hydroxyalkylation of phenol to BPF was established.

  14. Hydroxyalkylation of phenol to bisphenol F over heteropolyacid catalysts: The effect of catalyst acid strength on isomer distribution and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianzhang; Liu, Yutang; Liu, Ran; Wang, Longlu; Lu, Yanbing; Xia, Xinnian

    2016-11-01

    Hydroxyalkylation of phenol with formaldehyde to bisphenol F over heteropolyacid impregnated on clay was investigated. These catalysts displayed excellent catalytic performance for this reaction, especially that the effects of acid sites on the isomer distribution are obvious. Various solid catalysts were prepared by impregnating heteropolyacid on different kind of clay matrices, and their chemical compositions, textural properties, and acid strength of the heteropolyacid catalysts were characterized by EDX, BET, NH3-TPD, XRD, and FT-IR. Moreover, the effects of acid sites and reaction temperature on the yield and 4,4'-isomer distribution were launched by comparing the data obtained from the two kinds of catalysts. Furthermore, the kinetics of the hydroxyalkylation of phenol to BPF was established. PMID:27451037

  15. Photo-Fenton degradation of phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenol mixture in saline solution using a falling-film solar reactor.

    PubMed

    Luna, Airton J; Nascimento, Cláudio A O; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Moraes, José E F; Chiavone-Filhoe, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a saline aqueous solution of phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was treated by the photo-Fenton process in a falling-film solar reactor. The influence of the parameters such as initial pH (5-7), initial concentration of Fe2+ (1-2.5mM) and rate of H202 addition (1.87-3.74mmol min-1) was investigated. The efficiency of photodegradation was determined from the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), described by the species degradation of phenol, 2,4-D and 2,4-DCP. Response surface methodology was employed to assess the effects of the variables investigated, i.e. [Fe2+], [H202] and pH, in the photo-Fenton process with solar irradiation. The results reveal that the variables' initial concentration of Fe2+ and H202 presents predominant effect on pollutants' degradation in terms of DOC removal, while pH showed no influence. Under the most adequate experimental conditions, about 85% DOC removal was obtained in 180 min by using a reaction system employed here, and total removal of phenol, 2,4- and 2,4-DCP mixture in about 30min.

  16. An analysis on flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids contents in brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact fermentation techniques of Mao Luang ripe fruits (Antidesma bunius) harvested from Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-07-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS, 0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L(-1)), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L(-l)), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L(-1)), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L(-1)) and reducing sugar (g L(-1)) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L(-1) citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine.

  17. Effects of the Fruit Ripening Stage on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Polyphenolic Composition of Crude Palm Oil from Interspecific Hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juanita C; Gómez, Daniela; Pacetti, Deborah; Núñez, Oscar; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale G; Ojeda, Myriam L; Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Lucci, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we assessed for the first time the changes in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and polyphenolic composition of interspecific hybrid palm oil extracted from Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (O × G, Coari × La Mé cultivar) during the fruit ripening process 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis. A progressive decrease (p < 0.05) of phenolic content occurred during fruit development together with marked changes in polyphenol profiles. Significant negative correlations were established between antioxidant activity measured by TEAC (R = -0.954; p < 0.05) and ORAC (R = -0.745; p < 0.05) and the fruit ripening stage, while a positive correlation between total phenolic content was found using either the TEAC assay or the ORAC assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was also obtained with oils extracted at 18 WAA. These results highlight that O × G fruits of early ripeness represent a better source of phenolic compounds and may provide extracts with higher antioxidant activities when hybrid palm oil is aimed to be used as a functional ingredient for the development of food or food products with antioxidant properties. PMID:26752619

  18. Effects of the Fruit Ripening Stage on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Polyphenolic Composition of Crude Palm Oil from Interspecific Hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juanita C; Gómez, Daniela; Pacetti, Deborah; Núñez, Oscar; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale G; Ojeda, Myriam L; Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Lucci, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we assessed for the first time the changes in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and polyphenolic composition of interspecific hybrid palm oil extracted from Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (O × G, Coari × La Mé cultivar) during the fruit ripening process 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis. A progressive decrease (p < 0.05) of phenolic content occurred during fruit development together with marked changes in polyphenol profiles. Significant negative correlations were established between antioxidant activity measured by TEAC (R = -0.954; p < 0.05) and ORAC (R = -0.745; p < 0.05) and the fruit ripening stage, while a positive correlation between total phenolic content was found using either the TEAC assay or the ORAC assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was also obtained with oils extracted at 18 WAA. These results highlight that O × G fruits of early ripeness represent a better source of phenolic compounds and may provide extracts with higher antioxidant activities when hybrid palm oil is aimed to be used as a functional ingredient for the development of food or food products with antioxidant properties.

  19. Phenolic acid allelochemicals induced morphological, ultrastructural, and cytological modification on Cassia sophera L. and Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Aasifa; Siddiqui, M B; Bi, Shazia

    2016-09-01

    The allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Calotropis procera on growth behavior, ultrastructural changes on Cassia sophera L., and cytological changes on Allium cepa L. was investigated. LAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %) significantly reduced the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of C. sophera. Besides, the ultrastructural changes (through scanning electron microscopy, SEM) induced in epidermal cells of 15-day-old seedlings of Cassia leaf were also noticed. The changes induced were shrinking and contraction of epidermal cells along with the formation of major grooves, canals, and cyst-like structures. The treated samples of epidermal cells no longer seem to be smooth as compared to control. LAE at different concentrations induces chromosomal aberrations and variation in shape of the interphase and prophase nucleus in A. cepa root tip cells when compared with control groups. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts. The most frequent aberrations were despiralization at prophase with the formation of micronuclei, sticky anaphase with bridges, sticky telophase, C-metaphase, etc. The results also show the induction of ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and cells with heterochromatic nuclei by extract treatment. Upon HPLC analysis, nine phenolic acids (caffeic acid, gentisic acid, catechol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, resorcinol, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) were identified. Thus, the phenolic acids are mainly responsible for the allelopathic behavior of C. procera. PMID:26387115

  20. Identification and quantification of novel cranberry-derived plasma and urinary (poly)phenols.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Rodrigo P; Boeres, Albert; Massacessi, Luca; Istas, Geoffrey; Ventura, M Rita; Nunes Dos Santos, Cláudia; Heiss, Christian; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Cranberries are a rich source of (poly)phenols, in particular proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids. However, little is known about their bioavailability in humans. We investigated the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cranberry (poly)phenols in plasma and urine of healthy young men after consumption of a cranberry juice (787 mg (poly)phenols). A total of 60 cranberry-derived phenolic metabolites were identified using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis with authentic standards. These included sulfates of pyrogallol, valerolactone, benzoic acids, phenylacetic acids, glucuronides of flavonols, as well as sulfates and glucuronides of cinnamic acids. The most abundant plasma metabolites were small phenolic compounds, in particular hippuric acid, catechol-O-sulfate, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, isoferulic acid, 4-methylcatechol-O-sulfate, α-hydroxyhippuric acid, ferulic acid 4-O-sulfate, benzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid 3-O-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-O-sulfate. Some benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and flavonol metabolites appeared in plasma early, at 1-2 h post-consumption. Others such as phenylacetic acids, benzaldehydes, pyrogallols, catechols, hippuric and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives appear in plasma later (Tmax 4-22 h). The 24 h urinary recovery with respect to the amount of (poly)phenols consumed was 6.2%. Our extensive description of the bioavailability of cranberry (poly)phenols lays important groundwork necessary to start understanding the fate of these compounds in humans. PMID:26836705

  1. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety. PMID:25976793

  2. In vitro inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity of subfractions from ethanol extracts of fermented Oats (Avena sativa L.) and synergistic effect of three phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wang, Mengqian; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water) from ethanol extracts of nonfermented and fungi-fermented oats and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity at 1.5 mg/mL compared to the other subfractions, regardless of whether the oats were fermented. Meanwhile, both of the EA subfractions of two fungi-fermented oats demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than that of nonfermented oats. A positive correlation between the total phenolics content and inhibitory activity was found. The inhibitory ability of the EA subfraction from nonfermented or fermented oats also displayed a dose-dependent effect. The standards of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, mainly included in EA subfractions of fermented oats, also displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. Those results indicate that fungi-fermented oats have a more effective inhibitory ability on pancreatic lipase and polyphenols may be the most effective component and could be potentially used for dietary therapy of obesity.

  3. A simplified 96-well method for the estimation of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity from eggplant pulp extracts using UV spectral scan data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit is ranked amongst the top ten vegetables in terms of oxygen radical absorbance capacity due to its high phenolic acid content. The main objective of this study was to determine if a simple UV spectral analysis method can be used as a screening tool to estimate the amount of phenolic ...

  4. Identification of phenolic compounds in Equisetum giganteum by LC-ESI-MS/MS and a new approach to total flavonoid quantification.

    PubMed

    Francescato, Leandro N; Debenedetti, Silvia L; Schwanz, Thiago G; Bassani, Valquiria L; Henriques, Amélia T

    2013-02-15

    Equisetum giganteum L., commonly called "giant horsetail", is an endemic species of Latin America. Its aerial parts have been widely used in ethnomedicine as a diuretic and in herbal medicine and food supplements as a raw material. The phenolic composition of E. giganteum stems was studied by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (LC-DAD) and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), which identified caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids and styrylpyrones. The most abundant glycosilated flavonoids in this sample were kaempferol derivatives. Other rare phenolic components, namely, quercetin-3-O-(caffeoyl)-glucoside and 3-hydroxyhispidin-3,4'-di-O-glucoside, were reported for first time in the Equisetum genus. An LC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of flavonoid aglycones in E. giganteum obtained after hydrolysis was developed and validated. The method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes, with regression coefficients above 0.998, LOD ≥ 0.043μg mL(-1), LOQ ≥ 0.158 μg mL(-1) and recovery rates of 96.89-103.33% and 98.22-102.49% for quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. The relative standard deviation for the intra- and inter-day precision was ≤ 3.75%. The hydrolysis process was optimized by central composite rotational design and response surface analysis. The second-order response models for the aglycones contents were as follows: quercetin (μg g(-1))=24.8102+55.2823 × HCl+0.776997 × Time-7.23852 × HCl(2)-7.46528E-04 × Time(2)-0.229167 × HCl × Time; kaempferol (μg g(-1))=-9.66755+974.822 × HCl+11.8059 × Time-130.612 × HCl(2)-0.0125694×Time(2) -3.22917 × HCl × Time, with estimated optimal conditions of 1.18 M HCl and 205 min of hydrolysis. The results obtained with these new methods were compared to those from a spectrophotometric assay used to determine the total flavonoids in the Equisetum arvense monograph (Horsetail, British Pharmacopoeia 2011

  5. Influence of sodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and citric acid on phenolic and organic acids in Brassica juncea grown in excess of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Irtelli, Barbara; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

    2006-11-01

    Brassica juncea cv. 426308 was grown in soils containing 150 mg Cd(2+)kg(-1) soil. After 38 days, the soil was amended with two rates of citric acid or NTA (10 and 20 mmol kg(-1) soil). Control soil was not amended with chelates. Plants were harvested during growth, immediately before and seven days after chelate addition. Shoot composition of organic and phenolic acids and shoot Cd(2+) concentration were determined. Cadmium concentration remained constant during the growth and increased following NTA and citric acid amendments depending on chelate type and concentration. The highest increments in Cd(2+) were measured after the addition of NTA. Compared to the control, 10 and 20 NTA-treated plants showed two- and three-fold increases, respectively. At 150 mg Cd(2+)kg(-1) soil the amount of organic and phenolic acids in the leaves of B. juncea was always higher than that detected in the control. A direct correlation between organic acid concentration and cadmium content was detected both during growth and after chelate addition. On the contrary, the amount of phenols seemed to be correlated with the metal content only in non-amended and NTA-treated plants. The 10 and 20 citric acid additions caused 45% and 90% increases in shoot phenolic acids although cadmium content rose to a smaller extent. The inhibition of citrate synthase and the entrance of phosphoenolpyruvate in shikimate pathway leading to the formation of aromatic compounds might come into play. The increase in phenylalanine ammonialyase activity following citric acid amendments suggested this metabolic response.

  6. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, sugars, phenols, and heavy metals in sweet potatoes grown in soil fertilized with municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Dennis, Sam O; Unrine, Jason M; Snyder, John C

    2011-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) used for land farming typically contains heavy metals that might impact crop quality and human health. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (six replicates each) was used to monitor the impact of mixing native soil with MSS or yard waste (YW) mixed with MSS (YW +MSS) on: i) sweet potato yield and quality; ii) concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in sweet potato plant parts (edible roots, leaves, stem, and feeder roots); and iii) concentrations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, free sugars, and β-carotene in sweet potato edible roots at harvest. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for total and extractable metals using two extraction procedures, concentrated nitric acid (to extract total metals from soil) as well as CaCl₂ solution (to extract soluble metals in soil that are available to plants), respectively. Elemental analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, plant available metals were greater in soils amended with MSS compared to control plots. Concentration of Pb was greater in YW than MSS amendments. Total concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were greater in plants grown in MSS+YW treatments compared to control plants. MSS+YW treatments increased sweet potato yield, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and phenols in edible roots by 53, 28, 27, and 48%, respectively compared to plants grown in native soil. B-carotene concentration (157.5 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was greater in the roots of plants grown in MSS compared to roots of plants grown in MSS+YW treatments (99.9 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight). Concentration of heavy metals in MSS-amended soil and in sweet potato roots were below their respective permissible limits.

  7. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, sugars, phenols, and heavy metals in sweet potatoes grown in soil fertilized with municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Dennis, Sam O; Unrine, Jason M; Snyder, John C

    2011-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) used for land farming typically contains heavy metals that might impact crop quality and human health. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (six replicates each) was used to monitor the impact of mixing native soil with MSS or yard waste (YW) mixed with MSS (YW +MSS) on: i) sweet potato yield and quality; ii) concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in sweet potato plant parts (edible roots, leaves, stem, and feeder roots); and iii) concentrations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, free sugars, and β-carotene in sweet potato edible roots at harvest. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for total and extractable metals using two extraction procedures, concentrated nitric acid (to extract total metals from soil) as well as CaCl₂ solution (to extract soluble metals in soil that are available to plants), respectively. Elemental analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, plant available metals were greater in soils amended with MSS compared to control plots. Concentration of Pb was greater in YW than MSS amendments. Total concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were greater in plants grown in MSS+YW treatments compared to control plants. MSS+YW treatments increased sweet potato yield, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and phenols in edible roots by 53, 28, 27, and 48%, respectively compared to plants grown in native soil. B-carotene concentration (157.5 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was greater in the roots of plants grown in MSS compared to roots of plants grown in MSS+YW treatments (99.9 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight). Concentration of heavy metals in MSS-amended soil and in sweet potato roots were below their respective permissible limits. PMID:21207309

  8. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in fruit tissues from accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero pepper) at different stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g(-1) FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g(-1) FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  9. Influence of UV Light on Phenolic Acid Content of Broccoli Samples (Brassica oleracea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influence of environmental factors (such as rainfall, pests, soil, irrigation levels, and fertilization) on the phenolic composition of fruits and vegetables is well documented in the literature. We have evaluated the significance of ultraviolet light on the phenolic composition of broccoli samples....

  10. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p < 0.01), and seemed to be associated with a greater attack the plants in organic plots by flea beetles. These results indicated that although organic production method alone did not enhance biosynthesis of phytochemicals in lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi.

  11. Effects of Common Forage Phenolic Acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Viability in Bovine Feces

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J. E.; Berry, E. D.; Varel, V. H.

    2005-01-01

    Ruminant animals are carriers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle to the environment and to humans is a concern. It is unclear if diet can influence the survivability of E. coli O157:H7 in the gastrointestinal system or in feces in the environment. Feces from cattle fed bromegrass hay or corn silage diets were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, and the survival of this pathogen was analyzed. When animals consumed bromegrass hay for <1 month, viable E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered after 28 days postinoculation, but when animals consumed the diet for >1 month, E. coli O157:H7 cells were recovered for >120 days. Viable E. coli O157:H7 cells in feces from animals fed corn silage were detected until day 45 and differed little with the time on the diet. To determine if forage phenolic acids affected the viability of E. coli O157:H7, feces from animals fed corn silage or cracked corn were amended with common forage phenolic acids. When 0.5% trans-cinnamic acid or 0.5% para-coumaric acid was added to feces from silage-fed animals, the E. coli O157:H7 death rate was increased significantly (17-fold and 23-fold, respectively) compared to that with no addition. In feces from animals fed cracked corn, E. coli O157:H7 death rates were increased significantly with the addition of 0.1% and 0.5% trans-cinnamic acid (7- and 13-fold), 0.1% and 0.5% p-coumaric acid (3- and 8-fold), and 0.5% ferulic acid (3-fold). These data suggest that phenolic acids common to forage plants can decrease viable counts of E. coli O157:H7 shed in feces. PMID:16332775

  12. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905

  13. Fermentation with Aspergillus awamori enhanced contents of amino nitrogen and total phenolics as well as the low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitory activity of black soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fei; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-04-27

    A solid fermentation was performed on black soybeans with Aspergillus awamori. The effects of fermentation on the contents of total phenolics and amino nitrogen and on the inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation of black soybeans were examined. Results revealed that fermentation significantly enhanced the LDL oxidation inhibitory activity and total phenolics and amino nitrogen contents of black soybeans. The increased content of amino nitrogen was closely related to the enhanced LDL oxidation inhibitory activity of fermented black soybeans and its water extract. Fermentation temperature and length affected the LDL oxidation inhibitory effect exerted by the prepared fermented black soybeans. The A. awamori-fermented black soybean prepared at 30 °C for 3 days exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation. The bioactive principles related to the inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation in black soybeans, regardless of fermentation, could be most efficiently extracted with water rather than 80% methanol or 80% ethanol.

  14. Assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant properties, and yield of aeroponically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables and fruit crops: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905

  15. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds. PMID:24792924

  16. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds.

  17. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties.

  18. Phenolic acids isolated from the fungus Schizophyllum commune exert analgesic activity by inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui-Min; Wang, Gan; Liu, Ya-Ping; Rong, Ming-Qiang; Shen, Chuan-Bin; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to search for compounds with analgesic activity from the Schizophyllum commune (SC), which is widely consumed as edible and medicinal mushroom world. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), tosilica gel column chromatography, sephadex LH 20, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify compounds from SC. Structural analysis of the isolated compounds was based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effects of these compounds on voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels were evaluated using patch clamp. The analgesic activity of these compounds was tested in two types of mouse pain models induced by noxious chemicals. Five phenolic acids identified from SC extracts in the present study included vanillic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, o-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid, 3-hydroxy-5-methybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They inhibited the activity of both tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) and tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) NaV channels. All the compounds showed low selectivity on NaV channel subtypes. After intraperitoneal injection, three compounds of these compounds exerted analgesic activity in mice. In conclusion, phenolic acids identified in SC demonstrated analgesic activity, facilitating the mechanistic studies of SC in the treatment of neurasthenia. PMID:27667511

  19. Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.

    PubMed

    Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

    2003-08-01

    Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor.

  20. Enhancement of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of black soybeans by solid state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715.

    PubMed

    Juan, Ming-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a solid state fermentation of black soybeans with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 was performed. The effect of fermentation on the changes of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability exerted by various solvent (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone) extracts of black soybeans was examined. It was found that fermentation enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity of the black soybean extract. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The acetone extract and the methanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, respectively. Analysis of extraction yields showed that the active principle associated with the DPPH radical-scavenging effect was most efficiently extracted from black soybeans using water, regardless of fermentation. Water and methanol effectively extract the Fe(2+)-chelating principles from non-fermented and fermented black soybeans, respectively.

  1. Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.

    PubMed

    Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

    2003-08-01

    Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor. PMID:15248492

  2. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  3. Fluctuations of different endogenous phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid in the first days of the rooting process of cherry rootstock 'GiSelA 5' leafy cuttings.

    PubMed

    Trobec, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Osterc, Gregor

    2005-05-01

    The relationship between the phenol composition of rooting zones and rootability was studied in the first days after the establishment of cuttings. The trial included two different types of cuttings (basal and terminal). Additionally, the influence of exogenously applied auxin (IBA) was observed. The best rooting results (55.6%) were achieved with terminal IBA treated cuttings, while only 1.9% of basal cuttings formed roots. The auxin treatment increased the root formation in terminal, but not in basal cuttings. Low rooting rate of basal cuttings was probably due to higher lignification rate of the basal tissue which can represent a mechanical barrier for root emergence. When measuring phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid, terminal cuttings contained higher (rutin, vanillic acid, (-)-epicatechin, caffeic acid and sinapinic acid) or equal concentrations of detected phenols as basal cuttings, while applied auxin did not influence the level of any of discussed phenolics, neither of cinnamic acid. It is to assume that cuttings for starting of root induction phase should contain certain levels of several phenolic compounds, but higher influence on rooting success is to be ascribed to the impact of the auxin level. During the time of the experiment concentrations of monophenols sinapinic acid and vanillic acid rapidly decreased. This decrease was more pronounced in terminal cuttings, which might have a better mechanism of lowering those two compounds to which a negative influence on rooting is ascribed. Fluctuations and differences between treatments of other phenolics were not significant enough to influence the rooting process. PMID:15940876

  4. Fluctuations of different endogenous phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid in the first days of the rooting process of cherry rootstock 'GiSelA 5' leafy cuttings.

    PubMed

    Trobec, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Osterc, Gregor

    2005-05-01

    The relationship between the phenol composition of rooting zones and rootability was studied in the first days after the establishment of cuttings. The trial included two different types of cuttings (basal and terminal). Additionally, the influence of exogenously applied auxin (IBA) was observed. The best rooting results (55.6%) were achieved with terminal IBA treated cuttings, while only 1.9% of basal cuttings formed roots. The auxin treatment increased the root formation in terminal, but not in basal cuttings. Low rooting rate of basal cuttings was probably due to higher lignification rate of the basal tissue which can represent a mechanical barrier for root emergence. When measuring phenolic compounds and cinnamic acid, terminal cuttings contained higher (rutin, vanillic acid, (-)-epicatechin, caffeic acid and sinapinic acid) or equal concentrations of detected phenols as basal cuttings, while applied auxin did not influence the level of any of discussed phenolics, neither of cinnamic acid. It is to assume that cuttings for starting of root induction phase should contain certain levels of several phenolic compounds, but higher influence on rooting success is to be ascribed to the impact of the auxin level. During the time of the experiment concentrations of monophenols sinapinic acid and vanillic acid rapidly decreased. This decrease was more pronounced in terminal cuttings, which might have a better mechanism of lowering those two compounds to which a negative influence on rooting is ascribed. Fluctuations and differences between treatments of other phenolics were not significant enough to influence the rooting process.

  5. Application of capillary electrophoresis with electrokinetic supercharging and sweeping for the on-line preconcentration of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Huang, Hsin-Chieh; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-09-01

    Phenolic acids are natural antioxidants. Many studies have confirmed that these compounds can reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers. In this work, we developed a rapid and efficient capillary electrophoresis method with an on-line preconcentration technique that could be used to simultaneously analyze 10 commonly found phenolic acids in plants. Briefly, phosphate buffer solution (pH 2) was filled into an uncoated fused silica capillary as the leading electrolyte, and then samples which were prepared in borate buffer (as the terminating ion) were loaded by electrokinetic injection (-10 kV, 900 s). After sample injection, both ends of the capillary were switched to the vial containing phosphate buffer with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The separation was then performed in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) mode at -20 kV. During the method validation, the correlation coefficient of the regression curve was measured as greater than 0.997 and the relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 9.63 % and 4.7 %, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) of these 10 analytes ranged from 0.01 to 2.5 ng/mL. Compared with the conventional capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, the sensitivity for the analytes could be increased up to 25,000-fold. The method that we developed here was applied successfully to the detection of phenolic acids in fruit juices. PMID:26159571

  6. Reactivity of Cations and Zwitterions Formed in Photochemical and Acid-Catalyzed Reactions from m-Hydroxycycloalkyl-Substituted Phenol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cindro, Nikola; Antol, Ivana; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Halasz, Ivan; Wan, Peter; Basarić, Nikola

    2015-12-18

    Three m-substituted phenol derivatives, each with a labile benzylic alcohol group and bearing either protoadamantyl 4, homoadamantyl 5, or a cyclohexyl group 6, were synthesized and their thermal acid-catalyzed and photochemical solvolytic reactivity studied, using preparative irradiations, fluorescence measurements, nanosecond laser flash photolysis, and quantum chemical calculations. The choice of m-hydroxy-substitution was driven by the potential for these phenolic systems to generate m-quinone methides on photolysis, which could ultimately drive the excited-state pathway, as opposed to forming simple benzylic carbocations in the corresponding thermal route. Indeed, thermal acid-catalyzed reactions gave the corresponding cations, which undergo rearrangement and elimination from 4, only elimination from 5, and substitution and elimination from 6. On the other hand, upon photoexcitation of 4-6 to S1 in a polar protic solvent, proton dissociation from the phenol, coupled with elimination of the benzylic OH (as hydroxide ion) gave zwitterions (formal m-quinone methides). The zwitterions exhibit reactivity different from the corresponding cations due to a difference in charge distribution, as shown by DFT calculations. Thus, protoadamantyl zwitterion has a less nonclassical character than the corresponding cation, so it does not undergo 1,2-shift of the carbon atom, as observed in the acid-catalyzed reaction. PMID:26595342

  7. Structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant activity relationships of selected natural phenolic acids and derivatives: an experimental and theoretical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xiao, Huizhi; Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media. PMID:25803685

  8. Structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant activity relationships of selected natural phenolic acids and derivatives: an experimental and theoretical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xiao, Huizhi; Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media.

  9. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE.

  10. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption.

  11. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption. PMID:26471599

  12. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    PubMed

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries.

  13. Dietary phenolic acids and ascorbic acid: Influence on acid-catalyzed nitrosative chemistry in the presence and absence of lipids.

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; El Mesmari, Aziza; Preston, Tom; Crozier, Alan; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2010-03-15

    Acid-catalyzed nitrosation and production of potentially carcinogenic nitrosative species is focused at the gastroesophageal junction, where salivary nitrite, derived from dietary nitrate, encounters the gastric juice. Ascorbic acid provides protection by converting nitrosative species to nitric oxide (NO). However, NO may diffuse into adjacent lipid, where it reacts with O(2) to re-form nitrosative species and N-nitrosocompounds (NOC). In this way, ascorbic acid promotes acid nitrosation. Using a novel benchtop model representing the gastroesophageal junction, this study aimed to clarify the action of a range of water-soluble antioxidants on the nitrosative mechanisms in the presence or absence of lipids. Caffeic, ferulic, gallic, or chlorogenic and ascorbic acids were added individually to simulated gastric juice containing secondary amines, with or without lipid. NO and O(2) levels were monitored by electrochemical detection. NOC were measured in both aqueous and lipid phases by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the absence of lipids, all antioxidants tested inhibited nitrosation, ranging from 35.9 + or - 7.4% with gallic acid to 93 + or - 0.6% with ferulic acid. In the presence of lipids, the impact of each antioxidant on nitrosation was inversely correlated with the levels of NO they generated (R(2) = 0.95, p<0.01): gallic, chlorogenic, and ascorbic acid promoted nitrosation, whereas ferulic and caffeic acids markedly inhibited nitrosation.

  14. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: insight into mechanisms of improved availability

    PubMed Central

    Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Ceglińska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Background The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Results Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. Conclusion The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, National Research Institute. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25410263

  15. The Profile and Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds in Cereals Influenced by Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zicong; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing; Chen, Jun; Gong, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment (IECT) on the phenolics and its bioaccessibility in cereals, represented by brown rice, wheat, and oat. Data showed that total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in free form were significantly decreased, while the bound form was increased after IECT. After IECT, the total free phenolic acids of brown rice and wheat were significantly decreased by 5.88% and 45.66%, respectively, while the total bound phenolic acids of brown rice, wheat, and oat were significantly increased by 6.45%, 8.78%, and 9.10%, respectively. Brown rice provided the most bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant compounds, followed by oat and wheat. IECT significantly decreased the bioaccessible phenolics of brown rice and oat by 31.09% and 30.95%, while it had minimal effect on the bioaccessible phenolics of wheat. These results showed that IECT greatly affected the phenolics and its bioaccessibiltiy of cereals, with the effect depending on cereal matrix and the sensitivity of free and bound phenolics. Furthermore, bioaccessible phenolic acids of raw and processed cereals were considerably low, and it slightly contributed to the bioaccessible phenolics. PMID:27513581

  16. The Profile and Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds in Cereals Influenced by Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zicong; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing; Chen, Jun; Gong, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment (IECT) on the phenolics and its bioaccessibility in cereals, represented by brown rice, wheat, and oat. Data showed that total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in free form were significantly decreased, while the bound form was increased after IECT. After IECT, the total free phenolic acids of brown rice and wheat were significantly decreased by 5.88% and 45.66%, respectively, while the total bound phenolic acids of brown rice, wheat, and oat were significantly increased by 6.45%, 8.78%, and 9.10%, respectively. Brown rice provided the most bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant compounds, followed by oat and wheat. IECT significantly decreased the bioaccessible phenolics of brown rice and oat by 31.09% and 30.95%, while it had minimal effect on the bioaccessible phenolics of wheat. These results showed that IECT greatly affected the phenolics and its bioaccessibiltiy of cereals, with the effect depending on cereal matrix and the sensitivity of free and bound phenolics. Furthermore, bioaccessible phenolic acids of raw and processed cereals were considerably low, and it slightly contributed to the bioaccessible phenolics. PMID:27513581

  17. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  18. Regioselective oxidation of phenols to o-quinones with o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX).

    PubMed

    Magdziak, Derek; Rodriguez, Andy A; Van De Water, Ryan W; Pettus, Thomas R R

    2002-01-24

    [reaction: see text] An efficient regioselective method for oxidation of phenols to o-quinones is reported. When this procedure is combined with a subsequent reduction, it proves to be useful for the construction of a variety of catechols.

  19. Simplified method for the screening of technological maturity of red grape and total phenolic compounds of red grape skin: application of the characteristic vector method to near-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Ayala, Fernando; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Echávarri, José Federico; Heredia, Francisco José

    2015-05-01

    Characteristic vector analysis has been applied to near-infrared spectra to extract the main spectral information from hyperspectral images. For this purpose, 3, 6, 9, and 12 characteristic vectors have been used to reconstruct the spectra, and root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) have been calculated to measure the differences between characteristic vector reconstructed spectra (CVRS) and hyperspectral imaging spectra (HIS). RMSE values obtained were 0.0049, 0.0018, 0.0012, and 0.0012 [log(1/R) units] for spectra allocated into the validation set, for 3, 6, 9, and 12 characteristic vectors, respectively. After that, calibration models have been developed and validated using the different groups of CVRS to predict skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity, and pH by modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression. The obtained results have been compared to those previously obtained from HIS. The models developed from the CVRS reconstructed from 12 characteristic vectors present similar values of coefficients of determination (RSQ) and standard errors of prediction (SEP) than the models developed from HIS. RSQ and SEP were 0.84 and 1.13 mg g(-1) of skin grape (expressed as gallic acid equivalents), 0.93 and 2.26 °Brix, 0.97 and 3.87 g L(-1) (expressed as tartaric acid equivalents), and 0.91 and 0.14 for skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity, and pH, respectively, for the models developed from the CVRS reconstructed from 12 characteristic vectors. PMID:25897561

  20. Simplified method for the screening of technological maturity of red grape and total phenolic compounds of red grape skin: application of the characteristic vector method to near-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Ayala, Fernando; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Echávarri, José Federico; Heredia, Francisco José

    2015-05-01

    Characteristic vector analysis has been applied to near-infrared spectra to extract the main spectral information from hyperspectral images. For this purpose, 3, 6, 9, and 12 characteristic vectors have been used to reconstruct the spectra, and root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) have been calculated to measure the differences between characteristic vector reconstructed spectra (CVRS) and hyperspectral imaging spectra (HIS). RMSE values obtained were 0.0049, 0.0018, 0.0012, and 0.0012 [log(1/R) units] for spectra allocated into the validation set, for 3, 6, 9, and 12 characteristic vectors, respectively. After that, calibration models have been developed and validated using the different groups of CVRS to predict skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity, and pH by modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression. The obtained results have been compared to those previously obtained from HIS. The models developed from the CVRS reconstructed from 12 characteristic vectors present similar values of coefficients of determination (RSQ) and standard errors of prediction (SEP) than the models developed from HIS. RSQ and SEP were 0.84 and 1.13 mg g(-1) of skin grape (expressed as gallic acid equivalents), 0.93 and 2.26 °Brix, 0.97 and 3.87 g L(-1) (expressed as tartaric acid equivalents), and 0.91 and 0.14 for skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity, and pH, respectively, for the models developed from the CVRS reconstructed from 12 characteristic vectors.

  1. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings. PMID:26649198

  2. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian

    2012-01-11

    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  3. Fungal biotransformation of chlorogenic and caffeic acids by Fusarium graminearum: New insights in the contribution of phenolic acids to resistance to deoxynivalenol accumulation in cereals.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Léa; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noelle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Ducos, Christine; Richard-Forget, Florence; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela

    2016-03-16

    Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot, mainly caused by the fungi Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, are two of the most devastating diseases of small-grain cereals and maize. In addition to yield loss, these diseases frequently result in contamination of kernels with toxic type B trichothecenes. The potential involvement of chlorogenic acid in cereal resistance to Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot and to trichothecene accumulation was the focus of this study. The effects of chlorogenic acid and one of its hydrolyzed products, caffeic acid, on fungal growth and type B trichothecenes biosynthesis were studied using concentrations close to physiological amounts quantified in kernels and a set of F. graminearum and F. culmorum strains. Both chlorogenic and caffeic acids negatively impact fungal growth and mycotoxin production, with caffeic acid being significantly more toxic. Inhibitory efficiencies of both phenolic acids were strain-dependent. To further investigate the antifungal and anti "mycotoxin" effect of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, the metabolic fate of these two phenolic acids was characterized in supplemented F. graminearum broths. For the first time, our results demonstrated the ability of F. graminearum to degrade chlorogenic acid into caffeic, hydroxychlorogenic and protocatechuic acids and caffeic acid into protocatechuic and hydroxycaffeic acids. Some of these metabolic products can contribute to the inhibitory efficiency of chlorogenic acid that, therefore, can be compared as a "pro-drug". As a whole, our data corroborate the contribution of chlorogenic acid to the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum and its production of mycotoxins. PMID:26812586

  4. Fungal biotransformation of chlorogenic and caffeic acids by Fusarium graminearum: New insights in the contribution of phenolic acids to resistance to deoxynivalenol accumulation in cereals.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Léa; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noelle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Ducos, Christine; Richard-Forget, Florence; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela

    2016-03-16

    Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot, mainly caused by the fungi Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, are two of the most devastating diseases of small-grain cereals and maize. In addition to yield loss, these diseases frequently result in contamination of kernels with toxic type B trichothecenes. The potential involvement of chlorogenic acid in cereal resistance to Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot and to trichothecene accumulation was the focus of this study. The effects of chlorogenic acid and one of its hydrolyzed products, caffeic acid, on fungal growth and type B trichothecenes biosynthesis were studied using concentrations close to physiological amounts quantified in kernels and a set of F. graminearum and F. culmorum strains. Both chlorogenic and caffeic acids negatively impact fungal growth and mycotoxin production, with caffeic acid being significantly more toxic. Inhibitory efficiencies of both phenolic acids were strain-dependent. To further investigate the antifungal and anti "mycotoxin" effect of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, the metabolic fate of these two phenolic acids was characterized in supplemented F. graminearum broths. For the first time, our results demonstrated the ability of F. graminearum to degrade chlorogenic acid into caffeic, hydroxychlorogenic and protocatechuic acids and caffeic acid into protocatechuic and hydroxycaffeic acids. Some of these metabolic products can contribute to the inhibitory efficiency of chlorogenic acid that, therefore, can be compared as a "pro-drug". As a whole, our data corroborate the contribution of chlorogenic acid to the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum and its production of mycotoxins.

  5. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans. PMID:25179942

  6. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  7. Decolorization of molasses melanoidins and palm oil mill effluent phenolic compounds by fermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Limkhuansuwan, Vassanasak; Chaiprasert, Pawinee

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum SF5.6 is one of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that has the highest ability of molasses melanoidin (MM) decolorization among the 2114 strains of LAB. The strains were isolated from spoilage, pickle fruit and vegetable, soil and sludge from the wastewater treatment system by using technical step of enrichment, primary screening and secondary screening. This LAB strain SF5.6 was identified by 16S rDNA analysis and carbohydrate fermentation (API 50 CH). The top five LAB strains having high MM decolorization (> 55%), namely TBSF5.8-1, TBSF2.1-1, TBSF2.1, FF4A and SF5.6 were selected to determine the optimal condition. It was found that the temperature at 30 degrees C under facultative conditions in GPY-MM medium (0.5% glucose, 0.1% peptone, 0.1% yeast extract, 0.1% sodium acetate, 0.05% MgSO4 and 0.005% MnCl2 in MM solution at pH 6) giving a high microbial growth and MM decolorization for all five strains. It was noticed that the decolorization of MM by LAB strains might be cell growth associated. L. plantarum SF5.6 grew rapidly within one day while the other strains took 2-3 days. This L. plantarum SF5.6 could rapidly decolorize MM to 60.91% without any lag phase, and it also had the ability to remove 34.00% phenolic compounds and 15.88% color from treated palm oil mill effluent.

  8. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of the extracts of Humulus lupulus L. and quantification of bioactive components by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Önder, Ferah Cömert; Ay, Mehmet; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2013-11-01

    In this research, antioxidant activities of various extracts obtained from Humulus lupulus L. were compared by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and CUPRAC assays. The amount of total phenolic components determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was found to be highest for 25% aqueous ethanol (9079 ± 187.83 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) and methanol-1 (directly) (8343 ± 158.39 mg Ferulic acid equivalent/100 g extract) extracts. The n-hexane extract of H. lupulus exhibited the greatest with DPPH (14.95 ± 0.03 μg Trolox equivalent/g sample). The highest phenolic content in the ethanolic extract could be the major contributor to its highest CUPRAC activity (3.15 ± 0.44 mmol Trolox equivalent/g sample). Methanol-2 (n-hexane, acetone, and methanol) and methanol-3 (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, and methanol) extracts, respectively, exhibited the most potent ABTS (7.35 ± 0.03 mM Trolox equivalent) and FRAP (1.56 ± 0.35 mmol Fe(2+)/g sample) activities. Some of the components from the crude extracts were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses. Comparative screening of antioxidant activities of H. lupulus extracts and quantification of some major components by LC-MS/MS, qualitatively analysis of the reported ones which were optimal under negative ion SIM mode and coinjection, are going to be valuable for food and health applications. PMID:24079371

  9. Physicochemical Properties and in Vitro Digestibility of Cooked Regular and Nondarkening Cranberry Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Effects on Bioaccessibility, Phenolic Composition, and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter X; Dupuis, John H; Marcone, Massimo F; Pauls, Peter K; Liu, Ronghua; Liu, Qiang; Tang, Yao; Zhang, Bing; Tsao, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Cranberry beans from regular (RR) and nondarkening (CND) genotypes were pressure cooked, and free, conjugated, and bound phenolics were analyzed. Simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was used to assess the bioaccessibility of these phenolic fractions. Total phenolic content decreased after cooking and digestion, whereas individual phenolic compounds were affected differently. Cooking significantly increased the release of bound ferulic and sinapic acids and flavanols, whereas digestion released p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids in both genotypes, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, and catechin in only RR. Bioaccessibility of phenolics in RR and CND was 8.75 and 14.69%, respectively. Difference in total phenolics was smaller after digestion, and enzymes potentially secreted by colonic bacteria released similar amounts of phenolic acids in both varieties. Resistant and slowly digestible starch contents showed no differences between RR and CND. These results suggest that the lower phenolic content in raw CND may not completely negate its impact on gut health.

  10. Competition effects in cation binding to humic acid: Conditional affinity spectra for fixed total metal concentration conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Calin; Mongin, Sandrine; Rey-Castro, Carlos; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarnació; Garcés, José Luis; Salvador, José; Puy, Jaume; Cecilia, Joan; Lodeiro, Pablo; Mas, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    Information on the Pb and Cd binding to a purified Aldrich humic acid (HA) is obtained from the influence of different fixed total metal concentrations on the acid-base titrations of this ligand. NICA (Non-Ideal Competitive Adsorption) isotherm has been used for a global quantitative description of the binding, which has then been interpreted by plotting the Conditional Affinity Spectra of the H + binding at fixed total metal concentrations (CAScTM). This new physicochemical tool, here introduced, allows the interpretation of binding results in terms of distributions of proton binding energies. A large increase in the acidity of the phenolic sites as the total metal concentration increases, especially in presence of Pb, is revealed from the shift of the CAScTM towards lower affinities. The variance of the CAScTM distribution, which can be used as a direct measure of the heterogeneity, also shows a significant dependence on the total metal concentration. A discussion of the factors that influence the heterogeneity of the HA under the conditions of each experiment is provided, so that the smoothed pattern exhibit