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Sample records for acid transport systems

  1. Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder.

    PubMed

    Bröer, Angelika; Klingel, Karin; Kowalczuk, Sonja; Rasko, John E J; Cavanaugh, Juleen; Bröer, Stefan

    2004-06-01

    Resorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine is mediated by transporters, which prefer groups of amino acids with similar physico-chemical properties. It is generally assumed that most neutral amino acids are transported across the apical membrane of epithelial cells by system B(0). Here we have characterized a novel member of the Na(+)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (B(0)AT1) isolated from mouse kidney, which shows all properties of system B(0). Flux experiments showed that the transporter is Na(+)-dependent, electrogenic, and actively transports most neutral amino acids but not anionic or cationic amino acids. Superfusion of mB(0)AT1-expressing oocytes with neutral amino acids generated inward currents, which were proportional to the fluxes observed with labeled amino acids. In situ hybridization showed strong expression in intestinal microvilli and in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Expression of mouse B(0)AT1 was restricted to kidney, intestine, and skin. It is generally assumed that mutations of the system B(0) transporter underlie autosomal recessive Hartnup disorder. In support of this notion mB(0)AT1 is located on mouse chromosome 13 in a region syntenic to human chromosome 5p15, the locus of Hartnup disorder. Thus, the human homologue of this transporter is an excellent functional and positional candidate for Hartnup disorder. PMID:15044460

  2. Possible involvement of lipoic acid in binding protein-dependent transport systems in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Richarme, G

    1985-04-01

    We describe the properties of the binding protein dependent-transport of ribose, galactose, and maltose and of the lactose permease, and the phosphoenolpyruvate-glucose phosphotransferase transport systems in a strain of Escherichia coli which is deficient in the synthesis of lipoic acid, a cofactor involved in alpha-keto acid dehydrogenation. Such a strain can grow in the absence of lipoic acid in minimal medium supplemented with acetate and succinate. Although the lactose permease and the phosphoenolypyruvate-glucose phosphotransferase are not affected by lipoic acid deprivation, the binding protein-dependent transports are reduced by 70% in conditions of lipoic acid deprivation when compared with their activity in conditions of lipoic acid supply. The remaining transport is not affected by arsenate but is inhibited by the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone; however the lipoic acid-dependent transport is completely inhibited by arsenate and only weakly inhibited by carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The known inhibitor of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases, 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, completely inhibits all binding protein-dependent transports whether in conditions of lipoic supply or deprivation; the results suggest a possible relation between binding protein-dependent transport and alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases and shed light on the inhibition of these transports by arsenicals and uncouplers. PMID:3920206

  3. Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport.

    PubMed

    Gu, S; Roderick, H L; Camacho, P; Jiang, J X

    2001-06-29

    We report here on the characterization of a mouse N-system amino acid transporter protein, which is involved in the transport of glutamine. This protein of 485 amino acids shares 52% sequence homology with an N-system amino acid transporter, mouse N-system amino acid transporter (mNAT) and its orthologs. Because this protein shares a high degree of sequence homology and functional similarity to mNAT, we named it mNAT2. mNAT2 is predominately expressed in the retina and to a slightly lesser extent in the brain. In the retina, it is located in the axons of ganglion cells in the nerve fiber layer and in the bundles of the optic nerve. Functional analysis of mNAT2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the strongest transport activities were specific for l-glutamine. In addition, mNAT2 is a Na(+)- and pH-dependent, high affinity transporter and partially tolerates substitution of Na(+) by Li(+). Additionally, mNAT2 functions as a carrier-mediated transporter that facilitates efflux. The unique expression pattern and selective glutamine transport properties of mNAT2 suggest that it plays a specific role in the uptake of glutamine involved in the generation of the neurotransmitter glutamate in retina. PMID:11325958

  4. Physiological and regulatory properties of the general amino acid transport system of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    DeBusk, R M; DeBusk, A G

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental properties of the general amino acid transport system of Neurospora crassa were investigated in the conidial stage of the life cycle. The transport activity was found to be under genetic control, and an isogenic set of mutants deficient for the neutral, basic, or general amino acid transport systems and combinations thereof was constructed and used for analyzing the properties specific to the general permease. Amino acid transport by this system was found to be a carrier-mediated active process with broad specificity for the neutral and basic amino acids. Kinetic analysis revealed that a common binding site functioned to transport both neutral and basic amino acids and that the permease had a high affinity for its substrates. The kinetic parameters Km, Vmax, and Ki were defined for several substrates. Two modes of regulation were detected: substrate inhibition and ammonium repression. Activity of the general system was enhanced by the removal of ammonium ions from the incubation medium with a concomitant decline in either neutral or basic permease activity, suggesting that a common component exists between the neutral and the general systems and between the basic and the general systems. PMID:6447141

  5. Characterization of methylaminoisobutyric acid transport by system A in rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Tovar, A R; Avila, E; DeSantiago, S; Torres, N

    2000-07-01

    During lactation, the mammary gland has a large demand for amino acids for the synthesis of milk proteins and fatty acids. Arteriovenous differences in amino acids across the mammary gland show an elevated uptake of small neutral amino acids that are mainly transported via system A. The purpose of this study was to characterize the transport of methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), an amino acid analog used to model transport by system A in lactating rat mammary gland explants. MeAIB accumulation in mammary gland cells increased steadily, and after 3 hours of incubation, the intracellular concentration of the analog was 8-fold higher than the concentration in the medium. MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants showed a Km of 3.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/L and a maximal velocity (Vmax) of 555 +/- 23 pmol/microL intracellular fluid (ICF) x min, indicating a system with high capacity but low affinity for its substrate. MeAIB transport into mammary tissue depended highly on Na+, and the uptake was inhibited by addition of natural and analog small neutral amino acids. Cationic, anionic, and large neutral amino acids did not reduce MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants. Preincubation of mammary gland explants in an amino acid-free medium stimulated MeAIB transport, suggesting an adaptive regulation. The addition of an equimolar mixture of alanine, glycine, and serine to the preincubation medium inhibited stimulation of MeAIB transport. Furthermore, stimulation of MeAIB uptake by amino acid starvation was also prevented by the addition of actinomycin D, cycloheximide, tunicamycin, and colchicine. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increased MeAIB uptake, whereas phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) did not stimulate MeAIB transport. During the first postweaning days, kinetic analyses showed a decrease of 27% in the Vmax. Injection of rat lactating mammary gland mRNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes induced expression of the MeAIB transport system; however, the

  6. Genetic evidence of a high-affinity cyanuric acid transport system in Pseudomonas sp. ADP.

    PubMed

    Platero, Ana I; Santero, Eduardo; Govantes, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. ADP plasmid pADP-1 encodes the activities involved in the hydrolytic degradation of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine. Here, we explore the presence of a specific transport system for the central intermediate of the atrazine utilization pathway, cyanuric acid, in Pseudomonas sp. ADP. Growth in fed-batch cultures containing limiting cyanuric acid concentrations is consistent with high-affinity transport of this substrate. Acquisition of the ability to grow at low cyanuric acid concentrations upon conjugal transfer of pADP1 to the nondegrading host Pseudomonas putida KT2442 suggests that all activities required for this phenotype are encoded in this plasmid. Co-expression of the pADP1-borne atzDEF and atzTUVW genes, encoding the cyanuric acid utilization pathway and the subunits of an ABC-type solute transport system, in P. putida KT2442 was sufficient to promote growth at cyanuric acid concentrations as low as 50 μM in batch culture. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the atzTUVW gene products are involved in high-affinity transport of cyanuric acid. PMID:24484197

  7. Mutation and gene transfer of neutral amino acid transport System L genes in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gewely, M.R.; Collarini, E.J.; Campbell, G.S.; Oxender, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    The authors are attempting to clone the genes coding for amino acid transport System L. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants that are temperature sensitive in their leucyl-tRNA synthetase show temperature-dependent regulation of System L. Temperature resistant mutants isolated from these cells have constitutively derepressed System L activity. Somatic cell fusion studies using these mutants have suggested that a trans-acting element controls regulation of System L. Mutants with reduced transport activity were isolated by a TH-suicide selection. The growth of these mutant cells is limited by the transport defect. CHO mutants were transformed with a human cosmid library, followed by selection at high temperatures and low leucine concentrations. Some transformants have increased levels of System L activity, suggesting that human genes coding for leucine transport have been incorporated into the CHO genome. Human sequences were rescued by a lambda in vitro packaging system. These sequences hybridize to vector and total human DNA. Experiments are being done to confirm that these sequences indeed code for transport System L. They are also attempting to label membrane components of amino acid transporters by group-specific modifying reagents.

  8. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  9. The contribution of SNAT1 to system A amino acid transporter activity in human placental trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Desforges, M.; Greenwood, S.L.; Glazier, J.D.; Westwood, M.; Sibley, C.P.

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} mRNA levels for SNAT1 are higher than other system A subtype mRNAs in primary human cytotrophoblast. {yields} SNAT1 knockdown in cytotrophoblast cells significantly reduces system A activity. {yields} SNAT1 is a key contributor to system A-mediated amino acid transport in human placenta. -- Abstract: System A-mediated amino acid transport across the placenta is important for the supply of neutral amino acids needed for fetal growth. All three system A subtypes (SNAT1, 2, and 4) are expressed in human placental trophoblast suggesting there is an important biological role for each. Placental system A activity increases as pregnancy progresses, coinciding with increased fetal nutrient demands. We have previously shown SNAT4-mediated system A activity is higher in first trimester than at term, suggesting that SNAT1 and/or SNAT2 are responsible for the increased system A activity later in gestation. However, the relative contribution of each subtype to transporter activity in trophoblast at term has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant subtype of system A in cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placenta, maintained in culture for 66 h, by: (1) measuring mRNA expression of the three subtypes and determining the Michaelis-Menten constants for uptake of the system A-specific substrate, {sup 14}C-MeAIB, (2) investigating the contribution of SNAT1 to total system A activity using siRNA. Results: mRNA expression was highest for the SNAT1 subtype of system A. Kinetic analysis of {sup 14}C-MeAIB uptake revealed two distinct transport systems; system 1: K{sub m} = 0.38 {+-} 0.12 mM, V{sub max} = 27.8 {+-} 9.0 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which resembles that reported for SNAT1 and SNAT2 in other cell types, and system 2: K{sub m} = 45.4 {+-} 25.0 mM, V{sub max} = 1190 {+-} 291 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which potentially represents SNAT4. Successful knockdown of SNAT1 mRNA using target-specific si

  10. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, J. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bruning, H.; Ter Heijne, A.

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density.

  11. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, J E; Biesheuvel, P M; Bruning, H; Ter Heijne, A

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density. PMID:25122405

  12. [Inherited amino acid transport disorders].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Y; Tada, K

    1992-07-01

    Disorders due to inherited amino acids transport defect are reviewed. The disorders were categorized into three types of transport defects, namely, brush-border membrane of epithelial cells of small intestine and kidney tubules (Hartnup disease, blue diaper syndrome, cystinuria, iminoglycinuria and lysine malabsorption syndrome), basolateral membrane (lysinuric protein intolerance) and membrane of intracellular organelles (cystinosis and hyperornitinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome). Pathogenesis, clinical feature, laboratory findings, diagnosis, genetics and treatment of these disorders are described, briefly. There is not much data for the transport systems themselves, so that further investigation in molecular and gene levels for transport systems is necessary to clarify the characteristics of the transport and heterogeneity of phenotypes in inherited amino acids transport disorders. PMID:1404888

  13. Hypertonic upregulation of amino acid transport system A in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, J G; Klus, L R; Steenbergen, D K; Kempson, S A

    1994-08-01

    The A10 line of vascular smooth muscle cells has Na+ dependent transport systems for alanine, proline, and Pi, whereas uptake of leucine, myo-inositol and D-glucose is Na+ independent. When A10 cells were incubated for 4 h in medium made hypertonic by addition of sucrose, there was a marked increase in Na(+)-dependent transport of alanine and proline but no change in Na(+)-dependent Pi uptake or Na(+)-independent uptake of leucine and inositol. Intracellular alanine content was increased 61% by the hypertonic treatment. Other nonpenetrating solutes, such as cellobiose and mannitol, reproduced the effect of sucrose, but urea, a penetrating solute, did not. Studies with 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid revealed that the upregulation by hypertonicity involved only system A. Increases in alanine and proline uptake also occurred after incubating the cells in isotonic medium containing 0.1 mM ouabain, suggesting that an increase in intracellular Na+ may be part of the intracellular signal for upregulation of system A. Hypertonic upregulation of Na(+)-dependent alanine transport occurred also in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells. The response was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating that gene transcription and protein synthesis play important roles in the mechanism leading to increased alanine uptake. We conclude that vascular smooth muscle cells, during prolonged hypertonic stress, activate system A and accumulate specific neutral amino acids which may act as organic osmolytes to help maintain normal cell volume. PMID:8074188

  14. Repression and inhibition of transport systems for branched-chain amino acids in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kiritani, K; Ohnishi, K

    1977-02-01

    Kinetics of the transport systems common for entry of L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine in Salmonella typhimurium LT2 have been analyzed as a function of substrateconcentration in the range of 0.5 to 45 muM. The systems of transport mutants, KA203 (ilvT3) and KA204 (ilvT4), are composed of two components; apparent Km values for uptake of isoleucine, leucine, and valine by the low Km component are 2 muM, 2 to 3 muM, and 1 muM, respectively, and by the high Km component 30 muM, 20 to 40 muM, and 0.1 mM, respectively. The transport system(s) of the wild type has not been separated into components but rather displays single Km values of 9 muM for isoleucine, 10 muM for leucine, and 30 muM for valine. The transport activity of the wild type was repressed by L-leucine, alpha ketoisocaproate, glycyl-L-isoleucine, glycyl-L-leucine, and glycyl-L-methionine. That for the transport mutants was repressed by L-alanine, L-isoleucine, L-methionine, L-valine, alpha-ketoisovalerate, alpha-keto-beta-methylvalerate, glycyl-L-alanine, glycyl-L-threonine, and glycyl-L-valine, in addition to the compounds described above. Repression of the mutant transport systems resulted in disappearance of the low Km component for valine uptake, together with a decrease in Vmax of the high Km component; the kinetic analysis with isoleucine and leucine as substrates was not possible because of poor uptake. The maximum reduction of the transport activity for isoleucine was obtained after growing cells for two to three generations in a medium supplemented with repressor, and for the depression, protein synthesis was essential after removal of the repressor. The transport activity for labeled isoleucine in the transport mutant and wild-type strains was inhibited by unlabeled L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-threonine, and L-valine. D-Amino acids neither repressed nor inhibited the transport activity of cells for entry of isoleucine. PMID:320186

  15. Expression of amino acid transport systems in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, G E; Pearson, J D; Sheriff, C J; Toothill, V J

    1989-03-01

    1. Nutrient transport in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells was characterized using a rapid dual-isotope dilution technique. Microcarrier beads with confluent endothelial cells were perfused in small columns, and uptake and efflux were assessed relative to D-mannitol (extracellular tracer) during a single transit through the column. 2. At tracer concentrations significant unidirectional uptakes were measured for L-leucine (53 +/- 2%), L-phenylalanine (73 +/- 2%), L-serine (40 +/- 4%), L-arginine (42 +/- 3%) and L-ornithine (26 +/- 3%). Uptake for L-proline, D-glucose, dopamine and serotonin was lower (6-10%), whereas uptake for the system A analogue 2-methylaminoisobutyric acid (2-MeAIB) was negligible. Uptakes rapidly decreased with time due to tracer efflux. 3. Endothelial cell transport of L-leucine was markedly inhibited during perfusion with 1 mM-BCH (beta-2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid, system L analogue), L-leucine, D-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-methionine and L-DOPA. 2-MeAIB, L-cysteine, glycine, L-proline, hydroxy-L-proline, L-aspartate and beta-alanine were poor inhibitors, while L-serine and the cationic substrates L-lysine and L-arginine inhibited uptake by 10-35%. 4. When the kinetics of L-leucine transport were examined over a wide range of substrate concentrations (0.025-1 mM) transport was saturable. A single entry site analysis gave a half-maximal saturation constant Kt = 0.24 +/- 0.08 mM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 5) and a Vmax = 27.8 +/- 4.6 nmol/min per column (approximately 3 x 10(6) cells). 5. Removal of sodium from the perfusate inhibited tracer uptake of L-leucine, L-serine and L-arginine by respectively 20 +/- 5% (n = 3), 77 +/- 5% (n = 3) and 35 +/- 4% (n = 3). 6. Our results provide the first evidence that cultured human endothelial cells of venous origin express a saturable transport system for large neutral amino acids resembling system L described in brain microvascular endothelium. Detection of Na

  16. A novel glutamate transport system in poly(γ-glutamic acid)-producing strain Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 0833.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Dan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2011-08-01

    Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 0833 is a poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA)-producing strain. It has the capacity to tolerate high concentration of extracellular glutamate and to utilize glutamate actively. Such a high uptake capacity was owing to an active transport system for glutamate. Therefore, a specific transport system for L-glutamate has been observed in this strain. It was a novel transport process in which glutamate was symported with at least two protons, and an inward-directed sodium gradient had no stimulatory effect on it. K(m) and V(m) for glutamate transport were estimated to be 67 μM and 152 nmol⁻¹ min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ of protein, respectively. The transport system showed structural specificity and stereospecificity and was strongly dependent on extracellular pH. Moreover, it could be stimulated by Mg²⁺, NH₄⁺, and Ca²⁺. In addition, the glutamate transporter in this strain was studied at the molecular level. As there was no important mutation of the transporter protein, it appeared that the differences of glutamate transporter properties between this strain and other B. subtilis strains were not due to the differences of the amino acid sequence and the structure of transporter protein. This is the first extensive report on the properties of glutamate transport system in γ-PGA-producing strain. PMID:21437781

  17. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  18. The active transport of 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid from a recirculatory perfusion system of the cerebral ventricles of the unanaesthetized dog

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, G. W.; Dow, R. C.; Moir, A. T. B.

    1968-01-01

    1. An operation on dogs for the implantation of guide tubes to the lateral ventricle and cisterna magna and a method whereby the ventricular space can be repeatedly perfused in conscious and unrestrained animals are described. 2. The characteristics of a recirculatory perfusion system were examined and the bulk formation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid and the volume of the ventricular space perfused were derived from the concentrations achieved during the infusion of inulin into the system. 3. 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HIAA), the acid metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HVA), the main acid metabolite of dopamine, were demonstrated to be mainly removed from cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) by an active transport system localized in the region of the fourth ventricle. 4. It was possible to inhibit the active transport of these acids from cerebrospinal fluid by pre-treating the dogs with probenecid. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:5723518

  19. TNF-α stimulates System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by p38 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increase the risk of delivering infants that are large for gestational age with greater adiposity, who are prone to the development of metabolic disease in childhood and beyond. These maternal conditions are also associated with increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in maternal tissues and the placenta. Recent evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport contribute to altered fetal growth. TNF-α was previously shown to stimulate System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), however the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TNF-α regulates amino acid uptake in cultured PHTs by a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. Treatment of PHTs with TNF-α significantly increased System A amino acid transport, as well as Erk and p38 MAPK signaling. Pharmacological antagonism of p38, but not Erk MAPK activity, inhibited TNF-α stimulated System A activity. Silencing of p38 MAPK using siRNA transfections prevented TNF-α stimulated System A transport in PHTs. TNF-α significantly increased the protein expression of System A transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2, but did not affect their mRNA expression. The effects of TNF-α on SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein expression were reversed by p38 MAPK siRNA silencing. In conclusion, TNF-α regulates System A activity through increased SNAT1 and SNAT2 transporter protein expression in PHTs. These findings suggest that p38 MAPK may represent a critical mechanistic link between elevated proinflammatory cytokines and increased placental amino acid transport in obese and GDM pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth. PMID:26508738

  20. Amino Acid Transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kay, W. W.; Gronlund, Audrey F.

    1969-01-01

    Properties of the transport systems for amino acids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. Exogenous 14C-labeled amino acids were shown to equilibrate with the internal native amino acid pool prior to incorporation into protein. When added at low external concentrations, the majority of the amino acids examined entered the protein of the cell unaltered. The rates of amino acid transport, established at low concentrations with 18 commonly occurring amino acids, varied as much as 40-fold. The transport process became saturated at high external amino acid concentrations, was temperature-sensitive, and was inhibited by sodium azide and iodoacetamide. Intracellular to extracellular amino acid ratios of 100- to 300-fold were maintained during exponential growth of the population in a glucose minimal medium. When the medium became depleted of glucose, neither extracellular nor intracellular amino acids could be detected. PMID:4974392

  1. Osmotically inducible uptake of betaine via amino acid transport system A in SV-3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Petronini, P G; De Angelis, E; Borghetti, A F; Wheeler, K P

    1994-05-15

    The osmotically inducible uptake of betaine (NNN-trimethylglycine) by SV-3T3 cells has been studied and compared with the similar process in MDCK cells. Betaine uptake by SV-3T3 cells could be described in terms of a saturable, Na(+)-dependent, component plus a small non-saturable, Na(+)-independent, component. Transport was active, producing considerable accumulation of betaine in the cells. After exposure of the cells to hypertonic conditions for 6 h, there was a marked increase in betaine uptake. Kinetic analysis indicated that this increase resulted from an increase in the Vmax. value of the saturable component, from about 88 to 185 nmol of betaine/5 min per mg of protein, the corresponding Km values of about 15 and 10 mM not being significantly different. This induction of transport activity was detectable only after about 2 h exposure of the cells to hypertonic medium, closely paralleling an induction of influx of N-methylaminoisobutyric acid, and was prevented by the presence of cycloheximide. Betaine influx was markedly inhibited by several neutral amino acids, particularly those transported by system A, such as N-methylaminoisobutyric acid and the imino acid proline. A high concentration (25 mM) of betaine also significantly inhibited the uptake of proline by SV-3T3 cells. Although very similar results were obtained with MDCK cells, prolonged exposure of cells to hypertonic conditions revealed distinct differences. When the hypertonic incubation was extended from 6 h to 24 h, betaine transport in SV-3T3 cells either remained the same or decreased, whereas it showed a further marked increase in MDCK cells, and also became sensitive to inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid. mRNA for the betaine transporter BGT-1 [Yamauchi, Uchida, Kwon, Preston, Brooks Robey, Garcia-Perez, Burg and Handler (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 649-652] was detectable in MDCK cells exposed to hypertonic medium for 24 h, but not in SV-3T3 cells under any conditions. It is concluded that

  2. Geochemical Controls on the Partitioning and Hydrological Transport of Metals in a Human Impacted, Non-Acidic, River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorslund, J.; Jarsjo, J.; Wällstedt, T.; Morth, C. M.; Lychagin, M.; Chalov, S.

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of coupled processes controlling the spreading and fate of metals in non-acidic river systems is currently much more limited than the knowledge of metal behavior under acidic conditions (e.g., in acid mine drainage systems). Critical geochemical controls governing metal speciation may thus differ substantially between acidic and non-acidic hydrological systems. We here aim at expanding the knowledge of metals in non-acidic river systems, by considering a high pH river, influenced by mining by the largest gold mining area in the Mongolian part of the transboundary Lake Baikal drainage basin. The combined impact of geochemical and hydrological processes is investigated, to be able to understand the solubility of various heavy metals, their partitioning between particulate and dissolved phase and its impact on overall transport. We show, through site specific measurements and a geochemical modelling approach, that the combined effects of precipitation of ferrihydrite and gibbsite and associated sorption complexes of several metals can explain the high impact of suspended transport relative to total transport often seen under non-acidic conditions. Our results also identifies the phosphate mineral Hydroxyapatite as a potential key sorption site for many metals, which has both site specific and general relevance for metal partitioning under non-acidic conditions. However, an adsorption database, which is currently unavailable for hydroxyapatite, needs to be developed for appropriate sorption quantification. Furthermore, Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn were particularly sensitive to increasing DOC concentrations, which increased the solubility of these metals due to metal-organic complexation. Modeling the sensitivity to changes in geochemical parameters showed that decreasing pH and increasing DOC concentrations in downstream regions would increase the dissolution and hence the toxicity and bioavailability of many pollutants of concern in the downstream ecosystem. In

  3. A sodium-indpendent low affinity transport system for neutral amino acids in rabbit ileal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, J Y; Sepúlveda, F V; Smith, M W

    1980-01-01

    1. The kinetic parameters for serine, alanine and methionine uptake by rabbit ileal mucosa have been determined in the absence of Na. 2. Uptake of all three amino acids took place through a single mediated system. The apparent Km values of serine, alanine and methionine for this system were equal to their respective apparent K1 values (approximately 89, 75 and 23 mM respectively). 3. Autoradiography was used to measure the cellular location of alanine uptake by rabbit ileum. Approximately 80% of the total uptake took place in the upper third of each villus. This uptake was reduced by 75% either by removal of Na or addition of serine. The proportional distribution of Na-dependent and Na-independent alanine uptakes along the villus was found to be equal. 4. The kinetic properties of the low affinity uptake mechanism for neutral amino acids, seen in the absence of Na, were virtually identical with those of one of the uptake mechanisms seen previously in the presence of Na. 5. The low affinity uptake mechanism appears to be Na-independent. It is suggested that the Na-coupled uptake of amino acid takes place through the high affinity system. PMID:7359411

  4. Pharmacology of Glutamate Transport in the CNS: Substrates and Inhibitors of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAATs) and the Glutamate/Cystine Exchanger System x c -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, Richard J.; Patel, Sarjubhai A.

    As the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, l-glutamate participates not only in standard fast synaptic communication, but also contributes to higher order signal processing, as well as neuropathology. Given this variety of functional roles, interest has been growing as to how the extracellular concentrations of l-glutamate surrounding neurons are regulated by cellular transporter proteins. This review focuses on two prominent systems, each of which appears capable of influencing both the signaling and pathological actions of l-glutamate within the CNS: the sodium-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and the glutamate/cystine exchanger, system x c - (Sx c -). While the family of EAAT subtypes limit access to glutamate receptors by rapidly and efficiently sequestering l-glutamate in neurons and glia, Sxc - provides a route for the export of glutamate from cells into the extracellular environment. The primary intent of this work is to provide an overview of the inhibitors and substrates that have been developed to delineate the pharmacological specificity of these transport systems, as well as be exploited as probes with which to selectively investigate function. Particular attention is paid to the development of small molecule templates that mimic the structural properties of the endogenous substrates, l-glutamate, l-aspartate and l-cystine and how strategic control of functional group position and/or the introduction of lipophilic R-groups can impact multiple aspects of the transport process, including: subtype selectivity, inhibitory potency, and substrate activity.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of brain distribution and blood-brain barrier efflux transport of probenecid in rats by microdialysis: possible involvement of the monocarboxylic acid transport system.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Y; Nozawa, K; Yamada, S; Yokoyama, Y; Kimura, R

    1997-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate quantitatively the brain distribution and the efflux transport across the blood-brain barrier of probenecid, using in vivo microdialysis and in situ brain perfusion techniques. The brain interstitial fluid (ISF)-to-plasma cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-plasma and brain tissue-to-plasma unbound concentration ratios of probenecid at steady state were less than unity, which suggests restricted distribution in the brain. An uphill concentration gradient from ISF to plasma and a downhill concentration gradient from CSF to ISF were observed. Kinetic analysis revealed that the efflux clearance from brain ISF to plasma (0.0373 ml/min/g brain) was significantly greater than the influx clearance from plasma to brain (0.00733 ml/min/g brain). The ratio of the ISF concentration (Cisf) to the plasma unbound concentration (Cp,f) of probenecid was increased 2- to 3-fold by salicylate (3.7 mM) and benzoate (3.6 mM), which are accepted as substrates of the monocarboxylic acid transport system, compared with the same ratio for the control. In addition, the ratio Cisf/Cp,f was increased by treatment with N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl-modifying agent, whereas p-aminohippuric acid and choline did not produce increasing effects on Cisf/Cp,f. These data suggest that the restricted distribution of probenecid in the brain may be ascribed to efficient efflux from the brain ISF, which may be regulated by the monocarboxylic acid transport system at a relatively high ISF concentration. PMID:9023263

  6. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values <27) were analyzed at 1, 3, and 6 h after GlyF treatment by RT-qPCR. The results demonstrated that expression levels of four AAT genes, RcLHT6, RcANT15, RcProT2, and RcCAT2, were induced by the GlyF treatment in R. communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional

  7. System A amino acid transporter SNAT2 shows subtype-specific affinity for betaine and hyperosmotic inducibility in placental trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Yagi, Risa; Usuda, Mariko; Oda, Kenji; Yamazaki, Mai; Suda, Sayaka; Takahashi, Yu; Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Sai, Yoshimichi; Higuchi, Kei; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Tomi, Masatoshi; Nakashima, Emi

    2014-05-01

    Betaine uptake is induced by hypertonic stress in a placental trophoblast cell line, and involvement of amino acid transport system A was proposed. Here, we aimed to identify the subtype(s) of system A that mediates hypertonicity-induced betaine uptake. Measurement of [(14)C]betaine uptake by HEK293 cells transiently transfected with human or rat sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs), SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 revealed that only human and rat SNAT2 have betaine uptake activity. The Michaelis constants (Km) of betaine uptake by human and rat SNAT2 were estimated to be 5.3 mM and 4.6 mM, respectively. Betaine exclusively inhibited the uptake activity of SNAT2 among the rat system A subtypes. We found that rat SNAT1, SNAT2 and SNAT4 were expressed at the mRNA level under isotonic conditions, while expression of SNAT2 and SNAT4 was induced by hypertonicity in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells. Western blot analyses revealed that SNAT2 expression on plasma membrane of TR-TBT 18d-1 cells was more potently induced by hypertonicity than that in total cell lysate. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the induction of SNAT2 expression in TR-TBT 18d-1 cells exposed to hypertonic conditions and indicated that SNAT2 was localized on the plasma membrane in these cells. Our results indicate that SNAT2 transports betaine, and that tonicity-sensitive SNAT2 expression may be involved in regulation of betaine concentration in placental trophoblasts. PMID:24434061

  8. The EGF Receptor Promotes the Malignant Potential of Glioma by Regulating Amino Acid Transport System xc(-).

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Okazaki, Shogo; Ohmura, Mitsuyo; Ishikawa, Miyuki; Sampetrean, Oltea; Onishi, Nobuyuki; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Momoko; Seishima, Ryo; Iwasaki, Yoshimi; Morikawa, Takayuki; Abe, Shinya; Takao, Ayumi; Shimizu, Misato; Masuko, Takashi; Nagane, Motoo; Furnari, Frank B; Akiyama, Tetsu; Suematsu, Makoto; Baba, Eishi; Akashi, Koichi; Saya, Hideyuki; Nagano, Osamu

    2016-05-15

    Extracellular free amino acids contribute to the interaction between a tumor and its microenvironment through effects on cellular metabolism and malignant behavior. System xc(-) is composed of xCT and CD98hc subunits and functions as a plasma membrane antiporter for the uptake of extracellular cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. Here, we show that the EGFR interacts with xCT and thereby promotes its cell surface expression and function in human glioma cells. EGFR-expressing glioma cells manifested both enhanced antioxidant capacity as a result of increased cystine uptake, as well as increased glutamate, which promotes matrix invasion. Imaging mass spectrometry also revealed that brain tumors formed in mice by human glioma cells stably overexpressing EGFR contained higher levels of reduced glutathione compared with those formed by parental cells. Targeted inhibition of xCT suppressed the EGFR-dependent enhancement of antioxidant capacity in glioma cells, as well as tumor growth and invasiveness. Our findings establish a new functional role for EGFR in promoting the malignant potential of glioma cells through interaction with xCT at the cell surface. Cancer Res; 76(10); 2954-63. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26980765

  9. Geochemical processes controlling fate and transport of arsenic in acid mine drainage (AMD) and natural systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Luo, Jian; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Jianfu

    2009-06-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is often accompanied with elevated concentrations of arsenic, in the forms of arsenite, As(III), and/or arsenate, As(V), due to the high affinity of arsenic for sulfide mineral ores. This review summarizes the major geochemical processes controlling the release, speciation, fate, and distribution of inorganic arsenic in mine drainage and natural systems. Arsenic speciation depends highly on redox potential and pH of the solution, and arsenite can be oxidized to the less toxic arsenate form. Homogeneous oxidation of arsenite occurs rather slowly while its heterogeneous oxidation on mineral surfaces can greatly enhance the reaction rates. Little evidence suggests that precipitation reaction limits the concentrations of arsenic in natural water, while co-precipitation may lead to rapid arsenic removal when large amount of iron hydroxides precipitate out of the aqueous phase upon neutralization of the mine drainage. Both arsenate and arsenite adsorb on common metal oxides and clay minerals through formation of inner-sphere and/or outer-sphere complexes, controlling arsenic concentration in natural water bodies. Arsenite adsorbs less strongly than arsenate in the typical pH range of natural water and is more mobile. Part of the adsorbed arsenic species can be exchanged by common anions (e.g., PO(4)(3-) and SO(4)(2-)), especially phosphate, which leads to their re-mobilization. Understanding the geochemistry of arsenic is helpful for predicting its mobility and fate in AMD and natural systems, and for designing of cost-effective remediation/treatment strategies to reduce the occurrence and risk of arsenic contamination. PMID:19070955

  10. Isolation of the braZ gene encoding the carrier for a novel branched-chain amino acid transport system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, T; Kose-Terai, K; Uratani, Y

    1991-03-01

    The braZ gene for a novel branched-chain amino acid transport system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO was isolated and characterized. Determination of the nucleotide sequence showed that the braZ gene comprises 1,311 nucleotides specifying a protein of 437 amino acids. Hydropathy analysis suggested that the product is an integral membrane protein with 12 membrane-spanning segments. The amino acid sequence showed extensive homology to those of the braB and brnQ gene products, branched-chain amino acid carriers of P. aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, respectively. By using the T7 RNA polymerase-promoter system, the braZ gene product was identified as a protein of an apparent Mr of 34,000 on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. Properties of the transport system encoded by braZ were studied by using P. aeruginosa PAO3537, defective in both the high- and low-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport systems (LIV-I and LIV-II, respectively). The transport system encoded by braZ was found to be another effective branched-chain amino acid transport system in P. aeruginosa PAO and was thus designated as LIV-III. This system is specific for isoleucine and valine, giving the same Km value of 12 microM for these amino acids. The system was found, however, to have a very low affinity for leucine, with a Km value of 150 microM, which contrasts with the substrate specificities of LIV-I and LIV-II. PMID:1900503

  11. Water transport in water-in-oil-in-water liquid emulsion membrane system for the separation of lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, Y.S.; Lee, W.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Liquid emulsion membranes (LEMs) were applied to the separation of lactic acid from an aqueous feed phase, and water transport (swelling) was investigated during the separation. Considering that as lactic acid was extracted into the internal stripping phase, osmotic pressure difference across the membrane was varied, the water transfer coefficient was evaluated. The water transfer coefficient was larger at higher carrier concentration and initial lactic acid concentration, which means that emulsion swelling can also be mediated by solute/carrier complexes although it is, in general, osmotically induced. The appropriate LEM formulation was given for separation and concentration of lactic acid. If both separation and concentration are desired, evidently emulsion swelling should be considered in conjunction with the transport rate of lactic acid. It was observed that the separated solute concentration in the internal phase was lowered due to swelling during the operation. Nevertheless, lactic acid could be concentrated in the internal phase more than 6 times in specific conditions, indicating that as the volume ratio of external phase to internal phase is increased, a still higher concentration in the internal phase can be obtained. 22 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Modeling Electrical Transport through Nucleic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianqing

    Nucleic acids play a vital role in many biological systems and activities. In recent years, engineers and scientists have been interested in studying their electrical properties. The motivation for these studies stems from the following facts: (1) the bases, which form the building blocks of nucleic acids, have unique ionization potentials. Further, nucleic acids are one of the few nanomaterials that can be reproducibly manufactured with a high degree of accuracy (though admittedly their placement at desired locations remains a challenge). As a result, designed strands with specific sequences may offer unique device properties; (2) electrical methods offer potential for sequencing nucleic acids based on a single molecule; (3) electrical methods for disease detection based on the current flowing through nucleic acids are beginning to be demonstrated. While experiments in the above mentioned areas is promising, a deeper understanding of the electrical current flow through the nucleic acids needs to be developed. The modeling of current flowing in these molecules is complex because: (1) they are based on atomic scale contacts between nucleic acids and metal, which cannot be reproducibly built; (2) the conductivity of nucleic acids is easily influenced by the environment, which is constantly changing; and (3) the nucleic acids by themselves are floppy. This thesis focuses on the modeling of electrical transport through nucleic acids that are connected to two metal electrodes at nanoscale. We first develop a decoherent transport model for the double-stranded helix based on the Landauer-Buttiker framework. This model is rationalized by comparison with an experiment that measured the conductance of four different DNA strands. The developed model is then used to study the: (1) potential to make barriers and wells for quantum transport using specifically engineered sequences; (2) change in the electrical properties of a specific DNA strand with and without methylation; (3

  13. Phosphorus: Riverine system transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport and transformation of phosphorus (P) in riverine systems fundamentally affects the outcome of watershed mitigation strategies aimed at curbing downstream eutrophication. Phosphorus transport and transformations in streams and rivers are mediated by physical (sediment deposition and res...

  14. Transportation System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  15. Epithelial cells isolated from chicken jejunum: an experimental model for the study of the functional properties of amino acid transport system b(0,+).

    PubMed

    Angelo, S; Rojas, A M; Ramírez, H; Devés, R

    2002-07-01

    The transport of lysine has been investigated in epithelial cells isolated from chicken jejunum. The kinetics of lysine transport and the pattern of interaction with zwitterionic amino acids were consistent with system b(0,+) activity, the broad-spectrum and Na(+)-independent amino acid transporter. The half-saturation constant for lysine entry (K(m)+/-S.E.) was 0.029+/-0.002 mM and the flux was not affected significantly by Na(+) replacement with choline. Lysine influx was inhibited by L-leucine both in Na(+) and choline medium with inhibition constants (K(i)+/-S.E.) 0.068+/-0.006 mM (in Na(+)) and 0.065+/-0.009 mM (in choline). Other inhibitory amino acids (K(i)+/-S.E.) were (mM): L-tyrosine (0.073+/-0.018), L-methionine (0.15+/-0.015), L-cystine (0.42+/-0.04), L-cysteine (1.1+/-0.07), L-isoleucine (1.1+/-0.09), L-glutamine (1.8+/-0.16) and L-valine (2.5+/-0.13). Lysine exit was trans-accelerated (approx. 20 fold) by 2 mM L-lysine and L-leucine. The flux was resistant to pretreatment of the cells with p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate (0.2 mM), which is an inhibitor of system y(+)L, the broad-spectrum and cation-modulated transporter. PMID:12044773

  16. Payload transportation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A standard size set of shuttle payload transportation equipment was defined that will substantially reduce the cost of payload transportation and accommodate a wide range of payloads with minimum impact on payload design. The system was designed to accommodate payload shipments between the level 4 payload integration sites and the launch site during the calendar years 1979-1982. In addition to defining transportation multi-use mission support equipment (T-MMSE) the mode of travel, prime movers, and ancillary equipment required in the transportation process were also considered. Consistent with the STS goals of low cost and the use of standardized interfaces, the transportation system was designed to commercial grade standards and uses the payload flight mounting interfaces for transportation. The technical, cost, and programmatic data required to permit selection of a baseline system of MMSE for intersite movement of shuttle payloads were developed.

  17. Intercellular transport of lysosomal acid lipase mediates lipoprotein cholesteryl ester metabolism in a human vascular endothelial cell-fibroblast coculture system.

    PubMed Central

    Sando, G N; Ma, G P; Lindsley, K A; Wei, Y P

    1990-01-01

    We present results from studies of human cell culture models to support the premise that the extracellular transport of lysosomal acid lipase has a function in lipoprotein cholesteryl ester metabolism in vascular tissue. Vascular endothelial cells secreted a higher fraction of cellular acid lipase than did smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Acid lipase and lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase were secreted at approximately the same rate from the apical and basolateral surface of an endothelial cell monolayer. Stimulation of secretion with NH4Cl did not affect the polarity. We tested for the ability of secreted endothelial lipase to interact with connective tissue cells and influence lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in a coculture system in which endothelial cells on a micropore filter were suspended above a monolayer of acid lipase-deficient (Wolman disease) fibroblasts. After 5-7 d, acid lipase activity in the fibroblasts reached 10%-20% of the level in normal cells; cholesteryl esters that had accumulated from growth in serum were cleared. Addition of mannose 6-phosphate to the coculture medium blocked acid lipase uptake and cholesterol clearance, indicating that lipase released from endothelial cells was packaged into fibroblast lysosomes by a phosphomannosyl receptor-mediated pathway. Supplementation of the coculture medium with serum was not required for lipase uptake and cholesteryl ester hydrolysis by the fibroblasts, but was necessary for cholesterol clearance. Results from our coculture model suggest that acid lipase may be transported from intact endothelium to cells in the lumen or the wall of a blood vessel. We postulate that delivery of acid hydrolases and lipoproteins to a common endocytic compartment may occur and have an impact on cellular lipoprotein processing. PMID:2150334

  18. Cloning, nucleotide sequences, and identification of products of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO bra genes, which encode the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system.

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, T; Kose, K

    1990-01-01

    A DNA fragment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO containing genes specifying the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system (LIV-I) was isolated. The fragment contained the braC gene, encoding the binding protein for branched-chain amino acids, and the 4-kilobase DNA segment adjacent to 3' of braC. The nucleotide sequence of the 4-kilobase DNA fragment was determined and found to contain four open reading frames, designated braD, braE, braF, and braG. The braD and braE genes specify very hydrophobic proteins of 307 and 417 amino acid residues, respectively. The braD gene product showed extensive homology (67% identical) to the livH gene product, a component required for the Escherichia coli high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport systems. The braF and braG genes encode proteins of 255 and 233 amino acids, respectively, both containing amino acid sequences typical of proteins with ATP-binding sites. By using a T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system together with plasmids having various deletions in the braDEFG region, the braD, braE, braF, and braG gene products were identified as proteins with apparent Mrs of 25,500, 34,000, 30,000, and 27,000, respectively. These proteins were found among cell membrane proteins on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel stained with Coomassie blue. Images PMID:2120183

  19. Neutral amino acid transport in bovine articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Barker, G A; Wilkins, R J; Golding, S; Ellory, J C

    1999-02-01

    1. The sodium-dependent amino acid transport systems responsible for proline, glycine and glutamine transport, together with the sodium-independent systems for leucine and tryptophan, have been investigated in isolated bovine chondrocytes by inhibition studies and ion replacement. Each system was characterized kinetically. 2. Transport via system A was identified using the system-specific analogue alpha-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as an inhibitor of proline, glycine and glutamine transport. 3. Uptake of proline, glycine and glutamine via system ASC was identified by inhibition with alanine or serine. 4. System Gly was identified by the inhibition of glycine transport with excess sarcosine (a substrate for system Gly) whilst systems A and ASC were inhibited. This system, having a very limited substrate specificity and tissue distribution, was also shown to be Na+ and Cl- dependent. Evidence for expression of the system Gly component GLYT-1 was obtained using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). 5. System N, also of narrow substrate specificity and tissue distribution, was shown to be present in chondrocytes. Na+-dependent glutamine uptake was inhibited by high concentrations of histidine (a substrate of system N) in the presence of excess MeAIB and serine. 6. System L was identified using the system specific analogue 2-aminobicyclo(2,2, 1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) and D-leucine as inhibitors of leucine and tryptophan transport. 7. The presence of system T was tested by using leucine, tryptophan and tyrosine inhibition. It was concluded that this system was absent in the chondrocyte. 8. Kinetic analysis showed the Na+-independent chondrocyte L system to have apparent affinities for leucine and tryptophan of 125 +/- 27 and 36 +/- 11 microM, respectively. 9. Transport of the essential amino acids leucine and tryptophan into bovine chondrocytes occurs only by the Na+-independent system L, but with a higher affinity than the

  20. Nucleotide sequences and characterization of liv genes encoding components of the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, K; Ohnishi, K; Kiritani, K

    1992-07-01

    A 7.6-kb fragment of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 containing the liv gene cluster, which specifies the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system (LIV-I), has been isolated. The upstream region contains the livB and livC genes encoding the leucine-isoleucine-valine-threonine and leucine-specific binding proteins, respectively. In this study, the nucleotide sequence of the 4-kb downstream segment was determined and found to contain four reading frames, designated as livA, livE, livF, and livG, that encode putative membrane-associated proteins. The livA and livE genes encode hydrophobic proteins composed of 308 and 425 amino acid residues, respectively. The livF and livG genes encode hydrophilic proteins of 255 and 237 amino acids, respectively; both the proteins contain consensus amino acid sequences found in proteins with ATP-binding sites. These four genes linked together have a potential rho-independent transcriptional terminator adjacent to the 3'-end of livG. No promoter sequence was found in the immediate upstream region of the livAEFG cluster. The livA, livE, livF, and livG gene products were identified as proteins with apparent M(r)s of 25,500, 34,500, 28,000, and 26,000, respectively, by SDS-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis. The deduced amino acid sequences of these four proteins showed strong homology to those of the corresponding membrane-associated proteins required for the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport systems from both Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:1429514

  1. Space Transportation systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.

    1979-01-01

    Planning for the operations phase of the Space Transportation system is reviewed. Attention is given to mission profile (typical), applications, manifesting rationale, the Operational Flight Test manifest, the operations manifest, pricing policy, and potential applications of the STS.

  2. Smart vehicular transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1997-05-01

    This work builds upon established Sandia intelligent systems technology to develop a unique approach for the integration of intelligent system control into the US Highway and urban transportation systems. The Sandia developed concept of the COPILOT controller integrates a human driver with computer control to increase human performance while reducing reliance on detailed driver attention. This research extends Sandia expertise in sensor based, real-time control of robotics systems to high speed transportation systems. Knowledge in the form of maps and performance characteristics of vehicles provides the automatic decision making intelligence needed to plan optimum routes, maintain safe driving speeds and distances, avoid collisions, and conserve fuel.

  3. Alternate mechanism for amino acid entry into Neurospora crassa: extracellular deamination and subsequent keto acid transport.

    PubMed Central

    DeBusk, R M; Brown, D T; DeBusk, A G; Penderghast, R D

    1981-01-01

    The growth of the pm nbg mutant strain of Neurospora crassa was inhibited by the amino acid analog para-fluorophenylalanine despite the fact that none of the three constitutive amino acid permeases is functional in this strain. This observation led to the detection of both a deaminase which was released into the growth medium in response to para-fluorophenylalanine and a keto acid transport system which allowed entry of the resulting keto acid into the cell. The transported keto acid was recovered in cellular protein, suggesting its regeneration as the amino acid. The cooperative activity of these two systems represents an additional mechanism for the intracellular accumulation of amino acids, which is distinct from the known amino acid permeases. Images PMID:6452443

  4. Regulation of renal amino acid transporters during metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Moret, Caroline; Dave, Mital H; Schulz, Nicole; Jiang, Jean X; Verrey, Francois; Wagner, Carsten A

    2007-02-01

    The kidney plays a major role in acid-base homeostasis by adapting the excretion of acid equivalents to dietary intake and metabolism. Urinary acid excretion is mediated by the secretion of protons and titratable acids, particularly ammonia. NH(3) is synthesized in proximal tubule cells from glutamine taken up via specific amino acid transporters. We tested whether kidney amino acid transporters are regulated in mice in which metabolic acidosis was induced with NH(4)Cl. Blood gas and urine analysis confirmed metabolic acidosis. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantify the mRNAs of 16 amino acid transporters. The mRNA of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was quantified as positive control for the regulation and that of GAPDH, as internal standard. In acidosis, the mRNA of kidney system N amino acid transporter SNAT3 (SLC38A3/SN1) showed a strong induction similar to that of PEPCK, whereas all other tested mRNAs encoding glutamine or glutamate transporters were unchanged or reduced in abundance. At the protein level, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry demonstrated an increased abundance of SNAT3 and reduced expression of the basolateral cationic amino acid/neutral amino acid exchanger subunit y(+)-LAT1 (SLC7A7). SNAT3 was localized to the basolateral membrane of the late proximal tubule S3 segment in control animals, whereas its expression was extended to the earlier S2 segment of the proximal tubule during acidosis. Our results suggest that the selective regulation of SNAT3 and y(+)LAT1 expression may serve a major role in the renal adaptation to acid secretion and thus for systemic acid-base balance. PMID:17003226

  5. Zidovudine and ursodeoxycholic acid conjugation: design of a new prodrug potentially able to bypass the active efflux transport systems of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Pavan, Barbara; Fogagnolo, Marco; Medici, Alessandro; Beggiato, Sarah; Perrone, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    We have synthesized a new prodrug obtained by the 5'-ester conjugation of zidovudine (AZT), an antiviral agent substrate of active efflux transport systems (AET), with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid able to permeate into the central nervous system (CNS). We have demonstrated, by HPLC analysis, that UDCA-AZT is quickly hydrolyzed in rat plasma and whole blood (half-life <10 s). The same compound was hydrolyzed with slower rates in human plasma (half-life =7.53 ± 0.44 h) and whole blood (half-life =3.71 ± 0.16 h), allowing to control the AZT release. UDCA-AZT appeared hydrolyzed also in rat brain (half-life = 7.24 ± 0.45 min) and liver homogenates (half-life = 2.70 ± 0.14 min). In the aim to study the permeation properties of the UDCA-AZT across physiological barriers, we have used an established human retinal pigment epithelium (HRPE) cell line to obtain a polarized cell monolayer showing epithelial features. The bidirectional permeation of 30 μM AZT across this monolayer was regulated by apparent permeability coefficients (P(E)) higher from the apical to basolateral compartments (P(E) = 209 ± 4 × 10⁻⁵ cm/min) than in the opposite way (P(E) = 133 ± 8 × 10⁻⁵ cm/min), in conformity with the in vivo behavior of AZT, actively effluxed from the CNS. The influx (P(E) = 39.1 ± 1.2 × 10⁻⁵ cm/min) and efflux (P(E) = 31.3 ± 3.6 × 10⁻⁵ cm/min) permeability coefficients of 30 μM UDCA-AZT were instead the same, suggesting the ability of the prodrug to avoid the AET systems and, potentially, to allow its accumulation in the CNS. The relatively low P(E) values of UDCA-AZT were associated with a partial hydrolysis during its permeation across the cell monolayer. PMID:22356133

  6. Primordial transport of sugars and amino acids via Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, William; Rau, Aruna

    1981-09-01

    Experimental support is given for a model concerning the origin of a primordial transport system. The model is based on the facilitated diffusion of amino acids stimulated by aliphatic aldehyde carriers and sugars stimulated by aliphatic amine carriers. The lipid-soluble diffusing species is the Schiff base. The possible role of this simple transport system in the origin of an early protocell is discussed.

  7. Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Karpen, Saul J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their classical roles as detergents to aid in the process of digestion, bile acids have been identified as important signaling molecules that function through various nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors to regulate a myriad of cellular and molecular functions across both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways. Signaling via these pathways will vary depending on the tissue and the concentration and chemical structure of the bile acid species. Important determinants of the size and composition of the bile acid pool are their efficient enterohepatic recirculation, their host and microbial metabolism, and the homeostatic feedback mechanisms connecting hepatocytes, enterocytes, and the luminal microbiota. This review focuses on the mammalian intestine, discussing the physiology of bile acid transport, the metabolism of bile acids in the gut, and new developments in our understanding of how intestinal metabolism, particularly by the gut microbiota, affects bile acid signaling. PMID:25210150

  8. Genetic analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system by use of plasmids carrying the bra genes.

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, T; Kose, K

    1990-01-01

    About 30 mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO defective in the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system (LIV-I) were isolated by the selection for resistance to 4-aza-DL-leucine, a toxic leucine analog for LIV-I. All of the mutants were complemented by plasmid pKTH24, harboring the braC gene, which encodes the branched-chain amino acid-binding protein, and the four open reading frames named braD, braE, braF, and braG (T. Hoshino and K. Kose, J. Bacteriol. 172:5531-5539, 1990). We identified five cistrons corresponding to these bra genes by complementation analysis with various derivatives of pKTH24, confirming that the braD, braE, braF, and braG genes are required for the LIV-I transport system. We also found mutations that seem likely to be mutations in a promoter region for the bra genes and those with polarity in the intercistronic region between braC and braD. Analysis with an omega interposon showed that the bra genes are organized as an operon and are cotranscribed in the order braC-braD-braE-braF-braG from a promoter located in the 5'-flanking region of the braC gene. PMID:2120184

  9. Transportation Anslysis Simulation System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-23

    TRANSIMS version 3.1 is an integrated set of analytical and simulation models and supporting databases. The system is designed to create a virtual metropolitan region with representation of each of the region’s individuals, their activities and the transportation infrastructure they use. TRANSIMS puts into practice a new, disaggregate approach to travel demand modeling using agent-based micro-simulation technology. TRANSIMS methodology creates a virtual metropolitan region with representation of the transportation infrastructure and the population, at the level of households and individual travelers. Trips a planned to satisfy the population’s activity pattems at the individual traveler level. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of travelers and vehicles across the transportation network using multiple modes, including car, transit, bike and walk, on a second-by-second basis. Metropolitan planners must plan growth of their cities according to the stringent transportation system planning requirements of the Interniodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other similar laws and regulations. These require each state and its metropotitan regions to work together to develop short and long term transportation improvement plans. The plans must (1) estimate the future transportation needs for travelers and goods movements, (2) evaluate ways to manage and reduce congestion, (3) examine the effectiveness of building new roads and transit systems, and (4) limit the environmental impact of the various strategies. The needed consistent and accurate transportation improvement plans require an analytical capability that properly accounts for travel demand, human behavior, traffic and transit operations, major investments, and environmental effects. Other existing planning tools use aggregated information and representative behavior to predict average response and average use of transportation facilities. They do not account

  10. Transportation Anslysis Simulation System

    2004-08-23

    TRANSIMS version 3.1 is an integrated set of analytical and simulation models and supporting databases. The system is designed to create a virtual metropolitan region with representation of each of the region’s individuals, their activities and the transportation infrastructure they use. TRANSIMS puts into practice a new, disaggregate approach to travel demand modeling using agent-based micro-simulation technology. TRANSIMS methodology creates a virtual metropolitan region with representation of the transportation infrastructure and the population, at themore » level of households and individual travelers. Trips a planned to satisfy the population’s activity pattems at the individual traveler level. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of travelers and vehicles across the transportation network using multiple modes, including car, transit, bike and walk, on a second-by-second basis. Metropolitan planners must plan growth of their cities according to the stringent transportation system planning requirements of the Interniodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other similar laws and regulations. These require each state and its metropotitan regions to work together to develop short and long term transportation improvement plans. The plans must (1) estimate the future transportation needs for travelers and goods movements, (2) evaluate ways to manage and reduce congestion, (3) examine the effectiveness of building new roads and transit systems, and (4) limit the environmental impact of the various strategies. The needed consistent and accurate transportation improvement plans require an analytical capability that properly accounts for travel demand, human behavior, traffic and transit operations, major investments, and environmental effects. Other existing planning tools use aggregated information and representative behavior to predict average response and average use of transportation facilities. They do not

  11. Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Michael; Brachvogel, Volker; Matter, Hans; Stengelin, Siegfried; Thüring, Harald; Kramer, Werner

    2003-02-01

    Bile acids are generated in vivo from cholesterol in the liver, and they undergo an enterohepatic circulation involving the small intestine, liver, and kidney. To understand the molecular mechanism of this transportation, it is essential to gain insight into the three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins involved in the bile acid recycling in free and complexed form and to compare them with homologous members of this protein family. Here we report the solution structure of the human ileal lipid-binding protein (ILBP) in free form and in complex with cholyltaurine. Both structures are compared with a previously published structure of the porcine ILBP-cholylglycine complex and with related lipid-binding proteins. Protein structures were determined in solution by using two-dimensional (2D)- and 3D-homo and heteronuclear NMR techniques, leading to an almost complete resonance assignment and a significant number of distance constraints for distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics simulations. The identification of several intermolecular distance constraints unambiguously determines the cholyltaurine-binding site. The bile acid is deeply buried within ILBP with its flexible side-chain situated close to the fatty acid portal as entry region into the inner ILBP core. This binding mode differs significantly from the orientation of cholylglycine in porcine ILBP. A detailed analysis using the GRID/CPCA strategy reveals differences in favorable interactions between protein-binding sites and potential ligands. This characterization will allow for the rational design of potential inhibitors for this relevant system. PMID:12486725

  12. A lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  13. Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  14. Transportation Systems Center

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, G.S.

    1992-07-01

    The Transportation Systems Center at Sandia Laboratory performs research, development, and implementation of technologies that enhance the safe movement of people, goods, and information. Our focus is on systems engineering. However, we realize that to understand the puzzle, you must also understand the pieces. This brochure describes some of the activities currently underway at the Center and presents the breadth and depth of our capabilities. Please contact the noted, individuals for more, information.

  15. Heat transport system

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Bill L.

    1978-01-01

    A heat transport system of small size which can be operated in any orientation consists of a coolant loop containing a vaporizable liquid as working fluid and includes in series a vaporizer, a condenser and two one-way valves and a pressurizer connected to the loop between the two valves. The pressurizer may be divided into two chambers by a flexible diaphragm, an inert gas in one chamber acting as a pneumatic spring for the system.

  16. A TEM study of samples from acid mine drainage systems: metal-mineral association with implications for transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochella, Michael F.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Golla, Ute; Putnis, Andrew

    1999-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy (EFTEM/EELS), as well as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), have been used to study bed sediments from two acid mine drainage (AMD) sites in western Montana, USA. TEM and associated techniques, including sample preparation via epoxy impregnation and ultramicrotome sectioning, afford the opportunity to better interpret and understand complex water-rock interactions in these types of samples. For the sample taken from the first site (Mike Horse mine), ferrihydrite is the dominant phase, Si and Zn are the most abundant elements sorbed to ferrihydrite surfaces, and Pb is notably absent from ferrihydrite association. Three additional important metal-containing phases (gahnite, hydrohetaerolite, and plumbojarosite), that were not apparent in the powder XRD pattern because of their relatively low concentration, were identified in the TEM. The presence of these phases is important, because, for example, gahnite and plumbojarosite act as sinks for Zn and Pb, respectively. Therefore, the mobility of Pb from this part of the drainage system depends on the stability of plumbojarosite and the ability of ferrihydrite to sorb the released Pb. From thermodynamic data in the literature, we predict that Pb will be released by the dissolution of plumbojarosite above a pH of 4 to 5, but it will then be recaptured by ferrihydrite if the pH continues to rise to 5.5 and higher, irrespective of competition effects from other metals. Therefore, only a relatively narrow pH window exists in which Pb can escape this portion of the system as an aqueous species. For the sample taken from the other site included in this study (the Carbonate mine), jarosite and quartz are the dominant phases. Interestingly, however, the jarosites are both Pb-poor and Pb-enriched. In addition, TEM reveals the

  17. Mars Equipment Transport System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick

    1993-12-01

    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  18. Mars Equipment Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  19. Space Transportation Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    2001-01-01

    This document is the final report by the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on contracted support provided to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Contract NAS8-99060, 'Space Transportation Systems Technologies'. This contract, initiated by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on February 8, 1999, was focused on space systems technologies that directly support NASA's space flight goals. It was awarded as a Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) contract to SAIC, following a competitive procurement via NASA Research Announcement, NRA 8-21. This NRA was specifically focused on tasks related to Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). Through Task Area 3 (TA-3), "Other Related Technology" of this NRA contract, SAIC extensively supported the Space Transportation Directorate of MSFC in effectively directing, integrating, and setting its mission, operations, and safety priorities for future RLV-focused space flight. Following an initially contracted Base Year (February 8, 1999 through September 30, 1999), two option years were added to the contract. These were Option Year 1 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000) and Option Year 2 (October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001). This report overviews SAIC's accomplishments for the Base Year, Option Year 1, and Option Year 2, and summarizes the support provided by SAIC to the Space Transportation Directorate, NASA/MSFC.

  20. Magnetically Coupled Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Breshears, S.A.

    1999-01-26

    Throughout the DOE complex, materials are routinely transported within glovebox processing lines. Cylindrical product cans, crucibles, sample containers, tools, and waste products are all examples of items that are moved between equipment stations during glovebox operations. Traditional transport methods have included manual handling using tongs, chain and belt conveyors, carts with pull wires, and overhead hoists on monorails. These methods rely on hands-on operations and/or utilize high maintenance equipment located inside the gloveboxes, which can lead to high radiation exposure to personnel and can generate large amounts of radioactive waste. One innovative approach incorporates linear induction motors (LIMs) so that high maintenance items are located outside the gloveboxes, but LIMs produce heat, do not move smoothly over a wide range of velocities, and are not locked in position at zero velocity. Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) engineers have developed and demonstrated a concept for a magnetically coupled transport system to transfer material within process lines and from line to line. This automated system significantly reduces hands-on operations. Linear actuators and lead screws provide smooth horizontal and vertical movement. Rare earth magnetic coupling technology allows the majority of the equipment to be located outside the glovebox, simplifying maintenance and minimizing radioactive waste.

  1. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  2. Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William; Vano, Andrew; Rutherford, Dave

    1992-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Advanced Space Design Program has developed a sample Mars exploration scenario. The purpose of the design project is to enhance NASA and university interaction, to provide fresh ideas to NASA, and to provide real world design problems to engineering students. The Mars Transportation System in this paper is designed to transport a crew of six astronauts to the Martian surface and return them to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) starting in the year 2016. The proposed vehicle features such advanced technologies as nuclear propulsion, nuclear power generation, and aerobraking. Three missions are planned. Orbital trajectories are of the conjunction class with an inbound Venus swingby providing a 60-day surface stay at Mars and an average total trip time of 520 days.

  3. The involvement of L-type amino acid transporters in theanine transport.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sachiko; Kimura, Toru; Tachiki, Takashi; Anzai, Naohiko; Sakurai, Takuya; Ushimaru, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    L-Theanine has favorable physiological effects in terms of human health, but the mechanisms that transport it to its target organs or cells are not completely defined. To identify the major transport mechanisms of L-theanine, we screened for candidate transporters of L-3H-theanine in several mammal cell lines that intrinsically express multiple transporters with various specificities. All of the cells tested, T24, HepG2, COS1, 293A, Neuro2a, and HuH7, absorbed L-3H-theanine. Uptake was significantly inhibited by the addition of L-leucine and by a specific inhibitor of the system L transport system, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). L-3H-Theanine uptake occurred mostly independently of Na+. These results indicate that L-theanine was taken up via a system L like transport system in all of the cells tested. Additionally, in experiments using cells stably expressing two system L isoforms, LAT1 and LAT2, we found that the two isoforms mediated L-theanine transport to similar extents. Taken together, our results indicate that L-theanine is transported mostly via the system L transport pathway and its isoforms. PMID:23221699

  4. Abscisic Acid Transport in Human Erythrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Guida, Lucrezia; Millo, Enrico; Fresia, Chiara; Turco, Emilia; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in the response to environmental stress. Recently, ABA has been shown to be present and active also in mammals, where it stimulates the functional activity of innate immune cells, of mesenchymal and hemopoietic stem cells, and insulin-releasing pancreatic β-cells. LANCL2, the ABA receptor in mammalian cells, is a peripheral membrane protein that localizes at the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Here we investigated the mechanism enabling ABA transport across the plasmamembrane of human red blood cells (RBC). Both influx and efflux of [3H]ABA occur across intact RBC, as detected by radiometric and chromatographic methods. ABA binds specifically to Band 3 (the RBC anion transporter), as determined by labeling of RBC membranes with biotinylated ABA. Proteoliposomes reconstituted with human purified Band 3 transport [3H]ABA and [35S]sulfate, and ABA transport is sensitive to the specific Band 3 inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid. Once inside RBC, ABA stimulates ATP release through the LANCL2-mediated activation of adenylate cyclase. As ATP released from RBC is known to exert a vasodilator response, these results suggest a role for plasma ABA in the regulation of vascular tone. PMID:25847240

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease alters intestinal bile acid transporter expression.

    PubMed

    Jahnel, Jörg; Fickert, Peter; Hauer, Almuthe C; Högenauer, Christoph; Avian, Alexander; Trauner, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BAs) critically depends on absorption of BA in the terminal ileum and colon, which can be affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Diarrhea in IBD is believed to result in part from BA malabsorption (BAM). We explored whether IBD alters mRNA expression of key intestinal BA transporters, BA detoxifying systems, and nuclear receptors that regulate BA transport and detoxification. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, mucosal biopsy specimens from the terminal ileum in Crohn's disease (CD) patients and from the descending colon in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were assessed for mRNA expression. Levels were compared with healthy controls. The main ileal BA uptake transporter, the apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter, was downregulated in active CD and UC and in CD in remission. Other significant changes such as repression of breast cancer-related protein and sulphotransferase 2A1 were seen only during active disease. In UC, pancolitis (but not exclusively left-sided colitis) was associated with altered expression of major BA transporters [multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3), MRP4, multidrug resistance gene 1, organic solute transporter α/β] and nuclear receptors (pregnane X receptor, vitamin D receptor) in the descending colon. UC pancolitis leads to broad changes and CD ileitis to selective changes in intestinal BA transporter expression. Early medical manipulation of intestinal BA transporters may help prevent BAM. PMID:24965812

  6. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  7. Mars transportation system synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Archie C.; Mulqueen, John A.; Emrich, William J.

    Performance and requirements synthesized to support the manned Mars mission of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the Mars transportation system (MTS), which uses nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion technology associated with accomplishing the manned Mars mission. Data are also presented for a propulsion system options comparison of chemical/aerobrake and nuclear electric propulsion systems. Vehicle- and weight-scaling are used to determine the MTS mass, size, and performance range required for different Mars mission durations. The split sprint, opposition, and conjunction class mission modes are employed to determine the MTS requirements envelope. MTS sensitivity to Mars surface payload, crew size, Mars orbit payload, NTR engine thrust level, engine specific impulse, and NTR engine thrust-to-weight ratio are synthesized. A suggested NTR technology level to accomplish both cargo and piloted Mars missions is discussed.

  8. Alternate transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  9. Pneumatic Pellet-Transporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George; Pugsley, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Pneumatic system transports food pellets to confined animals. Flow of air into venturi assembly entrains round pellets, drawing them from reservoir into venturi for transport by airflow. Pneumatic pellet-transporting system includes venturi assembly, which creates flow of air that draws pellets into system.

  10. Sodium-coupled sugar and amino acid transport in an acidic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, G A; Clay, L P

    1988-01-01

    1. Nutrient transport mechanisms of lobster hepatopancreatic epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) are strongly influenced by the acidic nature of the tubular lumen. 2. Sodium-dependent glucose uptake by BBMV was electrogenic and was stimulated at low pH by reducing sugar transport Ki, without affecting JM. 3. Glutamate was largely transported in zwitterionic form at pH 4.0 by an electrically silent cotransport mechanism with both Na and Cl. 4. Increased H+ concentration tripled the apparent membrane permeability to glutamate as well as the amino acid transport JM. 5. At pH 4.0 leucine was transported as a cation by two dissimilar carrier systems: a Na-independent process shared by polar amino acids, and an electroneutral Na-2Cl-dependent mechanism shared with non-polar amino acids. 6. A model is proposed for hepatopancreatic BBMV at acidic pH which employs ionic chemical gradients and membrane potential as nutrient transport driving forces. PMID:2902970

  11. Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes

  12. Proton and anion transport at the tonoplast in crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants: specificity of the malate-influx system in Kalanchoë daigremontiana.

    PubMed

    White, P J; Smith, J A

    1989-09-01

    Tonoplast vesicles were prepared from leaf mesophyll homogenates of the crassulacean-acid-metabolism plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier de la Bâthie to study the effects of anions on ATP- and inorganic-pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent H(+) transport. In the presence of gramicidin, substrate hydrolysis by the tonoplast ATPase was characteristically stimulated by chloride and inhibited by nitrate, but was unaffected by malate and a wide range of other organic-acid anions; the PPiase was anion-insensitive. Malate was more effective than chloride both in stimulating ATP- and PPi-dependent vesicle acidification (measured as quinacrine-fluorescence quenching) and in dissipating a pre-existing inside-positive membrane potential (measured as oxonol-V-fluorescence quenching), indicating that malate was more readily transported across the tonoplast. Certain other four-carbon dicarboxylates also supported high rates of vesicle acidification, their order of effectiveness being fumarate ≫ malate ∼-succinate > oxalacetate ∼- tartrate; the five-carbon dicarboxylates 2-oxoglutarate and glutarate were also transported, although at lower rates. Experiments with non-naturally occurring anions indicated that the malate transporter was not stereospecific, but that it required the trans-carboxyl configuration for transport. Shorter-chain or longer-chain dicarboxylates were not transported, and neither were monocarboxylates, the amino-acid anions aspartate and glutamate, nor the tricarboxylate isocitrate. The non-permeant anions maleate and tartronate appeared to be competitive inhibitors of malate transport but did not affect chloride transport, indicating that malate and chloride influx at the tonoplast might be mediated by separate transporters. PMID:24201527

  13. Fatty Acid and Lipid Transport in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Nannan; Xu, Changcheng; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) and lipids are essential - not only as membrane constituents but also for growth and development. In plants and algae, FAs are synthesized in plastids and to a large extent transported to the endoplasmic reticulum for modification and lipid assembly. Subsequently, lipophilic compounds are distributed within the cell, and thus are transported across most membrane systems. Membrane-intrinsic transporters and proteins for cellular FA/lipid transfer therefore represent key components for delivery and dissemination. In addition to highlighting their role in lipid homeostasis and plant performance, different transport mechanisms for land plants and green algae - in the model systems Arabidopsis thaliana, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - are compared, thereby providing a current perspective on protein-mediated FA and lipid trafficking in photosynthetic cells. PMID:26616197

  14. Aerobic catabolism of phenylacetic acid in Pseudomonas putida U: biochemical characterization of a specific phenylacetic acid transport system and formal demonstration that phenylacetyl-coenzyme A is a catabolic intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Schleissner, C; Olivera, E R; Fernández-Valverde, M; Luengo, J M

    1994-01-01

    The phenylacetic acid transport system (PATS) of Pseudomonas putida U was studied after this bacterium was cultured in a chemically defined medium containing phenylacetic acid (PA) as the sole carbon source. Kinetic measurement was carried out, in vivo, at 30 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Under these conditions, the uptake rate was linear for at least 3 min and the value of Km was 13 microM. The PATS is an active transport system that is strongly inhibited by 2,4-dinitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol (100%), KCN (97%), 2-nitrophenol (90%), or NaN3 (80%) added at a 1 mM final concentration (each). Glucose or D-lactate (10 mM each) increases the PATS in starved cells (140%), whereas arsenate (20 mM), NaF, or N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (1 mM) did not cause any effect. Furthermore, the PATS is insensitive to osmotic shock. These data strongly suggest that the energy for the PATS is derived only from an electron transport system which causes an energy-rich membrane state. The thiol-containing compounds mercaptoethanol, glutathione, and dithiothreitol have no significant effect on the PATS, whereas thiol-modifying reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetate strongly inhibit uptake (100 and 93%, respectively). Molecular analogs of PA with a substitution (i) on the ring or (ii) on the acetyl moiety or those containing (iii) a different ring but keeping the acetyl moiety constant inhibit uptake to different extents. None of the compounds tested significantly increase the PA uptake rate except adipic acid, which greatly stimulates it (163%). The PATS is induced by PA and also, gratuitously, by some phenyl derivatives containing an even number of carbon atoms on the aliphatic moiety (4-phenyl-butyric, 6-phenylhexanoic, and 8-phenyloctanoic acids). However, similar compounds with an odd number of carbon atoms (benzoic, 3-phenylpropionic, 5-phenylvaleric, 7-phenylheptanoic, and 9-phenylnonanoic acids) as well as many other PA derivatives do not induce the system

  15. Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Longo, Nicola; Frigeni, Marta; Pasquali, Marzia

    2016-10-01

    Carnitine is essential for the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent β-oxidation. It can be synthesized by the body or assumed with the diet from meat and dairy products. Defects in carnitine biosynthesis do not routinely result in low plasma carnitine levels. Carnitine is accumulated by the cells and retained by kidneys using OCTN2, a high affinity organic cation transporter specific for carnitine. Defects in the OCTN2 carnitine transporter results in autosomal recessive primary carnitine deficiency characterized by decreased intracellular carnitine accumulation, increased losses of carnitine in the urine, and low serum carnitine levels. Patients can present early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy, or later in life with skeletal and cardiac myopathy or sudden death from cardiac arrhythmia, usually triggered by fasting or catabolic state. This disease responds to oral carnitine that, in pharmacological doses, enters cells using the amino acid transporter B(0,+). Primary carnitine deficiency can be suspected from the clinical presentation or identified by low levels of free carnitine (C0) in the newborn screening. Some adult patients have been diagnosed following the birth of an unaffected child with very low carnitine levels in the newborn screening. The diagnosis is confirmed by measuring low carnitine uptake in the patients' fibroblasts or by DNA sequencing of the SLC22A5 gene encoding the OCTN2 carnitine transporter. Some mutations are specific for certain ethnic backgrounds, but the majority are private and identified only in individual families. Although the genotype usually does not correlate with metabolic or cardiac involvement in primary carnitine deficiency, patients presenting as adults tend to have at least one missense mutation retaining residual activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler

  16. Boramino acid as a marker for amino acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Haojun; Chen, Kai; Shao, Yihan; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) are a series of integral channels for uphill cellular uptake of nutrients and neurotransmitters. Abnormal expression of AATs is often associated with cancer, addiction, and multiple mental diseases. Although methods to evaluate in vivo expression of AATs would be highly useful, efforts to develop them have been hampered by a lack of appropriate tracers. We describe a new class of AA mimics—boramino acids (BAAs)—that can serve as general imaging probes for AATs. The structure of a BAA is identical to that of the corresponding natural AA, except for an exotic replacement of the carboxylate with -BF3−. Cellular studies demonstrate strong AAT-mediated cell uptake, and animal studies show high tumor-specific accumulation, suggesting that BAAs hold great promise for the development of new imaging probes and smart AAT-targeting drugs. PMID:26601275

  17. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower level

  18. Cation-halide transport through peptide pores containing aminopicolinic acid.

    PubMed

    Basak, Debajyoti; Sridhar, Sucheta; Bera, Amal K; Madhavan, Nandita

    2016-05-18

    Synthetic pores that selectively transport ions of biological significance through membranes could be potentially used in medical diagnostics or therapeutics. Herein, we report cation-selective octapeptide pores derived from alanine and aminopicolinic acid. The ion transport mechanism through the pores has been established to be a cation-chloride symport. The cation-chloride co-transport is biologically essential for the efficient functioning of the central nervous system and has been implicated in diseases such as epilepsy. The pores formed in synthetic lipid bilayers do not exhibit any closing events. The ease of synthesis as well as infinite lifetimes of these pores provides scope for modifying their transport behaviour to develop sensors. PMID:27137995

  19. The structure of the gene ATRC1 coding for a cationic amino acid transport system in man: Molecular studies in lysinuric protein intolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Incerti, B.; Sebastio, G.; Parenti, G.

    1994-09-01

    The human cDNA (ATRC1) homologue of a murine gene encoding for a transporter specific for cationic amino acid (CAA) has been isolated. ATRC1 stimulates the uptake of CAA and shows the kinetic properties of system y+ when expressed in frog oocytes. To characterize the organization of the ATRC1 gene, a {lambda} phages genomic DNA library has been screened using an ATRC1 full length cDNA clone as a probe. Nine positive phages have been subcloned in plasmids and sequenced using cDNA specific primers to identify intron-exon junctions. The ATRC1 gene consists of 13 exons with an alternative first exon. Analysis of the intron/exon boundaries showed canonical sequences at the splice junction sites. ATRC1 expression pattern has been analyzed by RT-PCR. ATRC1 is expressed in adult fibroblasts and enterocytes, in fetal kidney, brain and heart, and in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The knowledge of structure and organization of ATRC1 can help in studying inborn errors of CAA transport. The best characterized among these diseases is Lysinuric Protein Intolerance (LPI) a multisystem disorder with impaired formation of urea and hyperammonemia after protein ingestion. Linkage analysis performed on 10 LPI patients from 9 Italian families using two intragenic RFLPs revealed 3 informative families and no recombinations. Using the CA-repeat microsatellite D12S120 (2 cM far from ATRC-1 locus) we found 7 informative families and 3 recombinational events. The sequence of the entire coding region of an LPI patient failed to show mutations. The data so far obtained do not seem to support the hypothesis that ATRC1 is the LPI gene.

  20. Apical transporters for neutral amino acids: physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Bröer, Stefan

    2008-04-01

    Absorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine involves a variety of transporters for different groups of amino acids. This is illustrated by inherited disorders of amino acid absorption, such as Hartnup disorder, cystinuria, iminoglycinuria, dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, and lysinuric protein intolerance, affecting separate groups of amino acids. Recent advances in the molecular identification of apical neutral amino acid transporters has shed a light on the molecular basis of Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria. PMID:18400692

  1. Electrogenicity of Na(+)-coupled bile acid transporters.

    PubMed Central

    Weinman, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    The Na(+)-bile acid cotransporters NTCP and ASBT are largely responsible for the Na(+)-dependent bile acid uptake in hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells, respectively. This review discusses the experimental methods available for demonstrating electrogenicity and examines the accumulating evidence that coupled transport by each of these bile acid transporters is electrogenic. The evidence includes measurements of transport-associated currents by patch clamp electrophysiological techniques, as well as direct measurement of fluorescent bile acid transport rates in whole cell patch clamped, voltage clamped cells. The results support a Na+:bile acid coupling stoichiometry of 2:1. PMID:9626753

  2. Antigen-specific stimulation of amino acid transport in bovine lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of bovine lymphocytes isolated from animals which were either infected with Mycobacterium bovis or sensitized to a purified protein derivative (PPD-B) from this organism induced an increase in the transport of a-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and a-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB). PPD-B did not stimulate these transport activities in lymphocytes from nonsensitized animals. The transport stimulation was first measurable after about 7 hours of treatment, reached about a two-fold enhancement after 20 hours, and continued to increase to 30- to 40-fold after 6 days. The stimulation of AIB transport was inhibited by both ouabain and cycloheximide. Experiments to determine transport system specificities in nonstimulated lymphocytes showed that MeAIB transport was primarily by the Na/sup +/-dependent, A-system,and leucine transport was mostly by Na/sup +/-independent system(s). In contrast, AIB transport was about 25% by the A-system, 25% by at least one Na/sup +/-dependent, non-A-system, and 50% by one or more Na/sup +/-independent system(s). Analysis of the three components of AIB transport after treatment with PPD-B showed that: 1) transport by both the A-system and the Na/sup +/-independent system(s) was stimulated; 2) A-system transport was stimulated to a larger extent than Na/sup +/-independent transport; and 3) Na/sup +/-dependent, non-A-system transport was not stimulated significantly.

  3. Age-related changes in the renal dopaminergic system and expression of renal amino acid transporters in WKY and SHR rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vanda; Amaral, João; Silva, Elisabete; Simão, Sónia; Cabral, José Miguel; Afonso, Joana; Serrão, Maria Paula; Gomes, Pedro; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in renal dopaminergic activity and expression of amino acid transporters potentially involved in renal tubular uptake of l-DOPA in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Aging (from 13 to 91 weeks) was accompanied by increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in both WKY and SHR. The sum of urinary dopamine and DOPAC and the urinary dopamine/l-DOPA ratio were increased in aged SHR but not in aged WKY. The urinary dopamine/renal delivery of l-DOPA ratio was increased in both rat strains with aging. LAT2 abundance was increased in aged WKY and SHR. The expression of 4F2hc was markedly elevated in aged SHR but not in aged WKY. ASCT2 was upregulated in both aged WKY and SHR. Plasma aldosterone levels and urinary noradrenaline levels were increased in aged WKY and SHR though levels of both entities were more elevated in aged SHR. Activation of the renal dopaminergic system is more pronounced in aged SHR than in aged WKY and is associated with an upregulation of renal cortical ASCT2 in WKY and of LAT2/4F2hc and ASCT2 in SHR. This activation may be the consequence of a counter-regulatory mechanism for stimuli leading to sodium reabsorption. PMID:21699911

  4. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion. PMID:25915115

  5. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion. PMID:25915115

  6. Structural insights into thyroid hormone transport mechanisms of the L-type amino acid transporter 2.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katrin M; Meyer, Katja; Kinne, Anita; Schülein, Ralf; Köhrle, Josef; Krause, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are transported across cell membranes by different transmembrane transporter proteins. In previous studies, we showed marked 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2) but moderate T3 uptake by the L-type amino acid transporter 2 (Lat2). We have now studied the structure-function relationships of this transporter and TH-like molecules. Our Lat2 homology model is based on 2 crystal structures of the homologous 12-transmembrane helix transporters arginine/agmatine antiporter and amino acid/polyamine/organocation transporter. Model-driven mutagenesis of residues lining an extracellular recognition site and a TH-traversing channel identified 9 sensitive residues. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes as expression system, we found that side chain shortening (N51S, N133S, N248S, and Y130A) expanded the channel and increased 3,3'-T2 transport. Side chain enlargements (T140F, Y130R, and I137M) decreased 3,3'-T2 uptake, indicating channel obstructions. The opposite results with mutations maintaining (F242W) or impairing (F242V) uptake suggest that F242 may have a gating function. Competitive inhibition studies of 14 TH-like compounds revealed that recognition by Lat2 requires amino and carboxylic acid groups. The size of the adjacent hydrophobic group is restricted. Bulky substituents in positions 3 and 5 of the tyrosine ring are allowed. The phenolic ring may be enlarged, provided that the whole molecule is flexible enough to fit into the distinctly shaped TH-traversing channel of Lat2. Taken together, the next Lat2 features were identified 1) TH recognition site; 2) TH-traversing channel in the center of Lat2; and 3) switch site that potentially facilitates intracellular substrate release. Together with identified substrate features, these data help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and role of Lat2 in T2 transport. PMID:25945809

  7. Droplet transport system and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. Paul (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Embodiments of droplet transport systems and methods are disclosed for levitating and transporting single or encapsulated droplets using thermocapillary convection. One method embodiment, among others comprises providing a droplet of a first liquid; and applying thermocapillary convection to the droplet to levitate and move the droplet.

  8. Novel Lactate Transporters from Carboxylic Acid-Producing Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  9. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. PMID:26854723

  10. Structural Determinants for Transport Across the Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Using C-24 Bile Acid Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Rana; Acharya, Chayan; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Polli, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The human apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) re-absorbs gram quantities of bile acid daily and is a potential prodrug target to increase oral drug absorption. In the absence of a high resolution hASBT crystal structure, 3D-QSAR modeling may prove beneficial in designing prodrug targets to hASBT. The objective was to derive a conformationally sampled pharmacophore 3D–QSAR (CSP-SAR) model for the uptake of bile acid conjugates by hASBT. A series of bile acid conjugates of glutamyl chenodeoxycholate were evaluated in terms of Km and normalized Vmax(normVmax) using hASBT-MDCK cells. All mono-anionic conjugates were potent substrates. Dianions, cations and zwitterions, which bound with a high affinity, were not substrates. CSP-SAR models were derived using structural and physicochemical descriptors, and evaluated via cross-validation. The best CSP-SAR model for Km included two structural and two physiochemical descriptors, where substrate hydrophobicity enhanced affinity. A best CSP-SAR model for Km/normVmax employed one structural and three physicochemical descriptors, also indicating hydrophobicity enhanced efficiency. Overall, the bile acid C-24 region accommodated a range of substituted anilines, provided a single negative charge was present near C-24. In comparing uptake findings to prior inhibition results, increased hydrophobicity enhanced activity, with dianions and zwitterions hindering activity. PMID:20939504

  11. Identification and characterization of an amino acid transporter expressed differentially in liver

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sumin; Roderick, Hywel Llewelyn; Camacho, Patricia; Jiang, Jean X.

    2000-01-01

    Cellular metabolic needs are fulfilled by transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane by means of specialized transporter proteins. Although many of the classical amino acid transporters have been characterized functionally, less than half of these proteins have been cloned. In this report, we identify and characterize a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane amino acid transporter. The deduced amino acid sequence is 505 residues and is highly hydrophobic with the likely predicted structure of 9 transmembrane domains, which putatively place the amino terminus in the cytoplasm and the carboxy terminus on the cell surface. Expression of the cRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed strong transport activities specific for histidine and glutamine. This protein is a Na+- and pH-dependent transporter and tolerates substitution of Na+ by Li+. Furthermore, this transporter is not an obligatory exchanger because efflux occurs in the absence of influx. This transporter is expressed predominantly in the liver, although it is also present in the kidney, brain, and heart. In the liver, it is located in the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, and the strongest expression was detected in those adjacent to the central vein, gradually decreasing towards the portal tract. Because this protein displays functional similarities to the N-system amino acid transport, we have termed it mNAT, for murine N-system amino acid transporter. This is the first transporter gene identified within the N-system, one of the major amino acid transport systems in the body. The expression pattern displayed by mNAT suggests a potential role in hepatocyte physiology. PMID:10716701

  12. Heat transport system

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, Samuel D.

    1982-01-01

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  13. Heat transport system

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, S.D.

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  14. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  15. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA c...

  16. Tether Transportation System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, M. E.; Lorenzini, E.; Vestal, L.

    1998-01-01

    The projected traffic to geostationary earth orbit (GEO) is expected to increase over the next few decades. At the same time, the cost of delivering payloads from the Earth's surface to low earth orbit (LEO) is projected to decrease, thanks in part to the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). A comparable reduction in the cost of delivering payloads from LEO to GEO is sought. The use of in-space tethers, eliminating the requirement for traditional chemical upper stages and thereby reducing the launch mass, has been identified as such an alternative. Spinning tethers are excellent kinetic energy storage devices for providing the large delta vee's required for LEO to GEO transfer. A single-stage system for transferring payloads from LEO to GEO was proposed some years ago. The study results presented here contain the first detailed analyses of this proposal, its extension to a two-stage system, and the likely implementation of the operational system.

  17. Amino acid transporters: roles in amino acid sensing and signalling in animal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Russell; Taylor, Peter M; Hundal, Harinder S

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid availability regulates cellular physiology by modulating gene expression and signal transduction pathways. However, although the signalling intermediates between nutrient availability and altered gene expression have become increasingly well documented, how eukaryotic cells sense the presence of either a nutritionally rich or deprived medium is still uncertain. From recent studies it appears that the intracellular amino acid pool size is particularly important in regulating translational effectors, thus, regulated transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane represents a means by which the cellular response to amino acids could be controlled. Furthermore, evidence from studies with transportable amino acid analogues has demonstrated that flux through amino acid transporters may act as an initiator of nutritional signalling. This evidence, coupled with the substrate selectivity and sensitivity to nutrient availability classically associated with amino acid transporters, plus the recent discovery of transporter-associated signalling proteins, demonstrates a potential role for nutrient transporters as initiators of cellular nutrient signalling. Here, we review the evidence supporting the idea that distinct amino acid "receptors" function to detect and transmit certain nutrient stimuli in higher eukaryotes. In particular, we focus on the role that amino acid transporters may play in the sensing of amino acid levels, both directly as initiators of nutrient signalling and indirectly as regulators of external amino acid access to intracellular receptor/signalling mechanisms. PMID:12879880

  18. Identification and application of keto acids transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Peiran; Madzak, Catherine; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Production of organic acids by microorganisms is of great importance for obtaining building-block chemicals from sustainable biomass. Extracellular accumulation of organic acids involved a series of transporters, which play important roles in the accumulation of specific organic acid while lack of systematic demonstration in eukaryotic microorganisms. To circumvent accumulation of by-product, efforts have being orchestrated to carboxylate transport mechanism for potential clue in Yarrowia lipolytica WSH-Z06. Six endogenous putative transporter genes, YALI0B19470g, YALI0C15488g, YALI0C21406g, YALI0D24607g, YALI0D20108g and YALI0E32901g, were identified. Transport characteristics and substrate specificities were further investigated using a carboxylate-transport-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. These transporters were expressed in Y. lipolytica WSH-Z06 to assess their roles in regulating extracellular keto acids accumulation. In a Y. lipolytica T1 line over expressing YALI0B19470g, α-ketoglutarate accumulated to 46.7 g·L(-1), whereas the concentration of pyruvate decreased to 12.3 g·L(-1). Systematic identification of these keto acids transporters would provide clues to further improve the accumulation of specific organic acids with higher efficiency in eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:25633653

  19. Identification and application of keto acids transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Peiran; Madzak, Catherine; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Production of organic acids by microorganisms is of great importance for obtaining building-block chemicals from sustainable biomass. Extracellular accumulation of organic acids involved a series of transporters, which play important roles in the accumulation of specific organic acid while lack of systematic demonstration in eukaryotic microorganisms. To circumvent accumulation of by-product, efforts have being orchestrated to carboxylate transport mechanism for potential clue in Yarrowia lipolytica WSH-Z06. Six endogenous putative transporter genes, YALI0B19470g, YALI0C15488g, YALI0C21406g, YALI0D24607g, YALI0D20108g and YALI0E32901g, were identified. Transport characteristics and substrate specificities were further investigated using a carboxylate-transport-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. These transporters were expressed in Y. lipolytica WSH-Z06 to assess their roles in regulating extracellular keto acids accumulation. In a Y. lipolytica T1 line over expressing YALI0B19470g, α-ketoglutarate accumulated to 46.7 g·L−1, whereas the concentration of pyruvate decreased to 12.3 g·L−1. Systematic identification of these keto acids transporters would provide clues to further improve the accumulation of specific organic acids with higher efficiency in eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:25633653

  20. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elicits Inflammatory Responses that Dysregulate Placental Amino Acid Transport

    PubMed Central

    Boeuf, Philippe; Aitken, Elizabeth H.; Chandrasiri, Upeksha; Chua, Caroline Lin Lin; McInerney, Bernie; McQuade, Leon; Duffy, Michael; Molyneux, Malcolm; Brown, Graham; Glazier, Jocelyn; Rogerson, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Placental malaria (PM) can lead to poor neonatal outcomes, including low birthweight due to fetal growth restriction (FGR), especially when associated with local inflammation (intervillositis or IV). The pathogenesis of PM-associated FGR is largely unknown, but in idiopathic FGR, impaired transplacental amino acid transport, especially through the system A group of amino acid transporters, has been implicated. We hypothesized that PM-associated FGR could result from impairment of transplacental amino acid transport triggered by IV. In a cohort of Malawian women and their infants, the expression and activity of system A (measured by Na+-dependent 14C-MeAIB uptake) were reduced in PM, especially when associated with IV, compared to uninfected placentas. In an in vitro model of PM with IV, placental cells exposed to monocyte/infected erythrocytes conditioned medium showed decreased system A activity. Amino acid concentrations analyzed by reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography in paired maternal and cord plasmas revealed specific alterations of amino acid transport by PM, especially with IV. Overall, our data suggest that the fetoplacental unit responds to PM by altering its placental amino acid transport to maintain adequate fetal growth. However, IV more profoundly compromises placental amino acid transport function, leading to FGR. Our study offers the first pathogenetic explanation for FGR in PM. PMID:23408887

  1. Transport Systems in Halophilic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Plemenitaš, Ana; Konte, Tilen; Gostinčar, Cene; Cimerman, Nina Gunde

    2016-01-01

    Fungi that tolerate very high environmental NaCl concentrations are good model systems to study mechanisms that enable them to endure osmotic and salinity stress. The whole genome sequences of six such fungal species have been analysed: Hortaea werneckii, Wallemia ichthyophaga and four Aureobasidium spp.: A. pullulans, A. subglaciale, A. melanogenum and A. namibiae. These fungi show different levels of halotolerance, with the presence of numerous membrane transport systems uncovered here that are believed to maintain physiological intracellular concentrations of alkali metal cations. Despite some differences, the intracellular cation contents of H. werneckii, A. pullulans and W. ichthyophaga remain low even under extreme extracellular salinities, which suggests that these species have efficient cation transport systems. We speculate that cation transporters prevent intracellular accumulation of Na(+), and thus avoid the toxic effects that such Na(+) accumulation would have, while also maintaining the high K(+)/Na(+) ratio that is required for the full functioning of the cell - another crucial task in high-Na(+) environments. This chapter primarily summarises the cation transport systems of these selected fungi, and it also describes other membrane transporters that might be involved in their mechanisms of halotolerance. PMID:26721280

  2. Transport, metabolism, and effect of chronic feeding of lagodeoxycholic acid. A new, natural bile acid.

    PubMed

    Schmassmann, A; Angellotti, M A; Clerici, C; Hofmann, A F; Ton-Nu, H T; Schteingart, C D; Marcus, S N; Hagey, L R; Rossi, S S; Aigner, A

    1990-10-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7 beta-hydroxy epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, is more hydrophilic and less hepatotoxic than chenodeoxycholic acid. Because "lagodeoxycholic acid," the 12 beta-hydroxy epimer of deoxycholic acid, is also more hydrophilic than deoxycholic acid, it was hypothesized that it should also be less hepatotoxic than deoxycholic acid. To test this, lagodeoxycholic acid was synthesized, and its transport and metabolism were examined in the rat, rabbit, and hamster. The taurine conjugate of lagodeoxycholic acid was moderately well transported by the perfused rat ileum (Tmax = 2 mumol/min.kg). In rats and hamsters with biliary fistulas, the taurine conjugate of lagodeoxycholic acid was well transported by the liver with a Tmax greater than 20 mumol/min.kg; for the taurine conjugate of deoxycholic acid, doses infused at a rate greater than 2.5 mumol/min.kg are known to cause cholestasis and death. Hepatic biotransformation of lagodeoxycholic acid in the rabbit was limited to conjugation with glycine; in the hamster, lagodeoxycholic acid was conjugated with glycine or taurine; in addition, 7-hydroxylation occurred to a slight extent (approximately 10%). When lagodeoxycholic acid was instilled in the rabbit colon, it was absorbed as such although within hours it was progressively epimerized by bacteria to deoxycholic acid. When injected intravenously and allowed to circulate enterohepatically, lagodeoxycholic acid was largely epimerized to deoxycholic acid in 24 hours. Surgical creation of a distal ileostomy abolished epimerization in the rabbit, indicating that exposure to colonic bacterial enzymes was required for the epimerization. Lagodeoxycholic acid was administered for 3 weeks at a dose of 180 mumol/day (0.1% by weight of a chow diet; 2-4 times the endogenous bile acid synthesis rate); other groups received identical doses of deoxycholic acid (hamster) or cholyltaurine, a known precursor of deoxycholic acid (rabbit). After 3 weeks of

  3. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions. PMID:26721276

  4. Earthquake damage to transportation systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Heather

    1994-01-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents and disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis.

  5. Sialic acid acquisition in bacteria-one substrate, many transporters.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gavin H

    2016-06-15

    The sialic acids are a family of 9-carbon sugar acids found predominantly on the cell-surface glycans of humans and other animals within the Deuterostomes and are also used in the biology of a wide range of bacteria that often live in association with these animals. For many bacteria sialic acids are simply a convenient source of food, whereas for some pathogens they are also used in immune evasion strategies. Many bacteria that use sialic acids derive them from the environment and so are dependent on sialic acid uptake. In this mini-review I will describe the discovery and characterization of bacterial sialic acids transporters, revealing that they have evolved multiple times across multiple diverse families of transporters, including the ATP-binding cassette (ABC), tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP), major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and sodium solute symporter (SSS) transporter families. In addition there is evidence for protein-mediated transport of sialic acids across the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria, which can be coupled to periplasmic processing of different sialic acids to the most common form, β-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) that is most frequently taken up into the cell. PMID:27284039

  6. Sialic Acid Transport Contributes to Pneumococcal Colonization ▿

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Carolyn; Burnaugh, Amanda M.; Woodiga, Shireen A.; King, Samantha J.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia and meningitis. Airway colonization is a necessary precursor to disease, but little is known about how the bacteria establish and maintain colonization. Carbohydrates are required as a carbon source for pneumococcal growth and, therefore, for colonization. Free carbohydrates are not readily available in the naso-oropharynx; however, N- and O-linked glycans are common in the airway. Sialic acid is the most common terminal modification on N- and O-linked glycans and is likely encountered frequently by S. pneumoniae in the airway. Here we demonstrate that sialic acid supports pneumococcal growth when provided as a sole carbon source. Growth on sialic acid requires import into the bacterium. Three genetic regions have been proposed to encode pneumococcal sialic acid transporters: one sodium solute symporter and two ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Data demonstrate that one of these, satABC, is required for transport of sialic acid. A satABC mutant displayed significantly reduced growth on both sialic acid and the human glycoprotein alpha-1. The importance of satABC for growth on human glycoprotein suggests that sialic acid transport may be important in vivo. Indeed, the satABC mutant was significantly reduced in colonization of the murine upper respiratory tract. This work demonstrates that S. pneumoniae is able to use sialic acid as a sole carbon source and that utilization of sialic acid is likely important during pneumococcal colonization. PMID:21189320

  7. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  8. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  9. Acid aerosol transport episodes in Toronto, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.D. . Inst. of Environmental Medicine); Waldman, J. )

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the pollution data collected during a 1986 field study in order to assess the nature and sources of acidic aerosols in the Toronto metropolitan area during this period. Through the examination of the continuous and filter aerosol data, isobaric back-trajectories of air masses, weather maps, and available trace element data, assessment are made of the character and possible sources of acid aerosols in this Southern Ontario city.

  10. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  11. Physiological Adaptation to the Loss of Amino Acid Transport Ability

    PubMed Central

    DeBusk, Ruth M.; Ogilvie-Villa, Susan

    1982-01-01

    A strain of Neurospora crassa devoid of constitutive amino acid transport ability can utilize arginine as the sole nitrogen source. Nitrogen starvation, presence of arginine, and mutational inactivation of the general permease are key factors in signaling production of an extracellular enzyme which removes the alpha-amino group from the amino acid. PMID:6214547

  12. Nucleic acids encoding metal uptake transporters and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Antosiewicz, Danuta M.; Schachtman, Daniel P.; Clemens, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides LCT1 nucleic acids which encode metal ion uptake transporters. The invention also provides methods of modulating heavy metal and alkali metal uptake in plants. The methods involve producing transgenic plants comprising a recombinant expression cassette containing an LCT1 nucleic acid linked to a plant promoter.

  13. Utilization of Lactic Acid by Fusarium oxysporum var. lini: Regulation of Transport and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ieso M.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1994-01-01

    Lactic acid was transported in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini ATCC 10960 by a saturable transport system that had a half-saturation constant of 56.6 ± 7.5 μM and a maximum velocity of 0.61 ± 0.10 mmol h-1 g-1 (dry weight) at 26°C and pH 5.0. This transport system was inducible and was not expressed in the presence of a repressing substrate. Evidence is presented that the anionic form lactate- was taken up by the cells. Propionic, acetic, pyruvic, and bromoacetic acids but not succinic acid competitively inhibited the transport of lactic acid. Bromoacetic acid, which was not metabolized, was taken up to a steady-state level when intracellular and extracellular concentrations were identical, indicating that the transport system was not accumulative. The enzymatic activity that was physiologically more relevant in the metabolism of lactic acid was lactate: ferricytochrome c oxidase. This enzyme did not exhibit stereospecifity and was induced by lactic acid. PMID:16349143

  14. Transportation Cluster Volume 7 [Transportation Systems].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is one of seven volumes of instructional materials developed around a cluster of Transportation Industries. Primarily technical in focus, they are designed to be used in a cluster-concept program and to integrate with a regular General Education Development (G.E.D.) program so that students may attain an employable skill level and a…

  15. Regulation of amino acid transport in Escherichia coli by transcription termination factor rho.

    PubMed Central

    Quay, S C; Oxender, D L

    1977-01-01

    Amino acid transport rates and amino acid binding proteins were examined in a strain containing the rho-120 mutation (formerly SuA), which has been shown to lower the rho-dependent, ribonucleic acid-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity to 9% of the rho activity in the isogenic wild-type strain. Tryptophan and proline transport, which occur by membrane-bound systems, were not altered. On the other hand, arginine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine transport were variably increased by a factor of 1.4 to 5.0. Kinetics of leucine transport showed that the LIV (leucine, isoleucine, and valine)-I (binding protein-associated) transport system is increased 8.5-fold, whereas the LIV-II (membrane-bound) system is increased 1.5-fold in the rho mutant under leucine-limited growth conditions. The leucine binding protein is increased fourfold under the same growth conditions. The difference in leucine transport in these strains was greatest during leucine-limited growth; growth on complex media repressed both strains to the same transport activity. We propose that rho-dependent transcriptional termination is important for leucine-specific repression of branched-chain amino acid transport, although rho-independent regulation, presumably by a corepressor-aporepressor-type mechanism, must also occur. PMID:324970

  16. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey; Conley, Gerald; Diaz, Claudine; Dimella, Timothy; Dodson, Pete; Hykin, Jeff; Richards, Byron; Richardson, Kroy; Shetzer, Christie; Vandyke, Melissa

    1990-01-01

    A first generation lunar transportation vehicle was designed for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focussed on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. It's purpose will be for the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 kilometers). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the asronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include: a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat restraints, heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model was built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  17. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  18. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  19. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine-histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  20. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine–histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  1. Acid aerosol transport episodes in Toronto, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.D.; Waldman, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    Authors used recently developed equipment to continuously monitor levels of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 4/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentrations in the ambient air outside Toronto, Ontario. These data were combined with 48-hour isobaric air mass back-trajectories ending in Toronto on each of the four days with highest acid (and sulfate) aerosol levels. The air masses with highest acid levels were found to have first passed over the SO/sub 2/ source region of the U.S. and then across the Great Lakes to Toronto. The role of ammonia as a modulator of aerosol acidity for eastern U.S. cities but not for Toronto (where the Great Lakes serve as ammonia sinks) is also discussed.

  2. Transport of D-serine via the amino acid transporter ATB(0,+) expressed in the colon.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takahiro; Huang, Wei; Nakanishi, Takeo; Bridges, Christy C; Smith, Sylvia B; Prasad, Puttur D; Ganapathy, Malliga E; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2002-02-22

    D-Serine, synthesized endogenously in the brain, is an important modulator of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Since colonic bacteria produce D-serine, we asked the question whether there are transport mechanisms in the colon that might make this exogenously produced D-serine available to the host. Here we identify for the first time an amino acid transporter in the intestine for high-affinity active transport of D-serine. This transporter, called ATB(0,+), is a Na(+)- and Cl(-)-coupled transporter for L-enantiomers of neutral and cationic amino acids. Here we demonstrate that ATB(0,+) is also capable of mediating the Na(+)- and Cl(-)-coupled transport of D-serine. The affinity of ATB(0,+) for L-serine and D-serine is similar, the K(t) value for the two enantiomers being approximately 150 microM. In addition to D-serine, ATB(0,+) transports D-alanine, D-methionine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan. However, several other neutral and cationic amino acids that are transportable substrates for ATB(0,+) as L-enantiomers are not transported when presented as D-enantiomers. ATB(0,+) is expressed in the intestinal tract, interestingly not in the proximal intestine but in the distal intestine. Expression is most predominant in the colon where the transporter is localized to the luminal membrane of colonocytes, making this transporter uniquely suitable for absorption of bacteria-derived D-serine. PMID:11846403

  3. Aphid amino acid transporter regulates glutamine supply to intracellular bacterial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Feng, Honglin; Baker, James D; Bavan, Selvan; Luetje, Charles W; Wilson, Alex C C

    2014-01-01

    Endosymbiotic associations have played a major role in evolution. However, the molecular basis for the biochemical interdependence of these associations remains poorly understood. The aphid-Buchnera endosymbiosis provides a powerful system to elucidate how these symbioses are regulated. In aphids, the supply of essential amino acids depends on an ancient nutritional symbiotic association with the gamma-proteobacterium Buchnera aphidicola. Buchnera cells are densely packed in specialized aphid bacteriocyte cells. Here we confirm that five putative amino acid transporters are highly expressed and/or highly enriched in Acyrthosiphon pisum bacteriocyte tissues. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, two bacteriocyte amino acid transporters displayed significant levels of glutamine uptake, with transporter ACYPI001018, LOC100159667 (named here as Acyrthosiphon pisum glutamine transporter 1, ApGLNT1) functioning as the most active glutamine transporter. Transporter ApGLNT1 has narrow substrate selectivity, with high glutamine and low arginine transport capacity. Notably, ApGLNT1 has high binding affinity for arginine, and arginine acts as a competitive inhibitor for glutamine transport. Using immunocytochemistry, we show that ApGLNT1 is localized predominantly to the bacteriocyte plasma membrane, a location consistent with the transport of glutamine from A. pisum hemolymph to the bacteriocyte cytoplasm. On the basis of functional transport data and localization, we propose a substrate feedback inhibition model in which the accumulation of the essential amino acid arginine in A. pisum hemolymph reduces the transport of the precursor glutamine into bacteriocytes, thereby regulating amino acid biosynthesis in the bacteriocyte. Structural similarities in the arrangement of hosts and symbionts across endosymbiotic systems suggest that substrate feedback inhibition may be mechanistically important in other endosymbioses. PMID:24367072

  4. Transport Function of Rice Amino Acid Permeases (AAPs).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Margaret R; Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M

    2015-07-01

    The transport function of four rice (Oryza sativa) amino acid permeases (AAPs), OsAAP1 (Os07g04180), OsAAP3 (Os06g36180), OsAAP7 (Os05g34980) and OsAAP16 (Os12g08090), was analyzed by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiology. OsAAP1, OsAAP7 and OsAAP16 functioned, similarly to Arabidopsis AAPs, as general amino acid permeases. OsAAP3 had a distinct substrate specificity compared with other rice or Arabidopsis AAPs. OsAAP3 transported the basic amino acids lysine and arginine well but selected against aromatic amino acids. The transport of basic amino acids was further analyzed for OsAAP1 and OsAAP3, and the results support the transport of both neutral and positively charged forms of basic amino acids by the rice AAPs. Cellular localization using the tandem enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter pHusion showed that OsAAP1 and OsAAP3 localized to the plasma membrane after transient expression in onion epidermal cells or stable expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:25907566

  5. Inhibition of 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid transport by amphipathic drugs.

    PubMed

    Branda, R F; Nelson, N L

    1981-01-01

    Numerous chemically unrelated drugs after the membrane transport of folate compounds. To investigate drug structure-activity relationships, we measured the effect of amphipathic drugs (that is, compounds with polar-apolar character) on 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid permeability of human erythrocytes. All drugs tested were inhibitory, but only compounds that exist at least partially in the anionic form were highly active. Ethacrynic acid, sulfinpyrazone, phenylbutazone, sulfasalazine, and furosemide were effective transport inhibitors in micromolar concentrations. In contrast, compounds that are capable of forming cations at physiologic pH, such as chlorpromazine, procaine, tetracaine, and papaverine, were inhibitory only in millimolar concentrations or caused hemolysis before major inhibition was seen. Inhibitory activity correlated with drug dissociation constant (r = 0.87). A double-reciprocal plot analysis of drug effect on 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid transport showed changes in both Km and Vmax (indicating a mixture of competitive and noncompetitive inhibition) by ethacrynic acid, sulfasalazine, and phlorizin. Inhibitory activity of a series of eight phenoxyacetic derivatives, including ethacrynic acid, correlated highly with measurements of liposolubility (r = 0.87) but only weakly with the Hammet substituent constant (r = 0.56). These results suggest that the effect of amphipathic drugs on 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid transport is influenced by drug pKa and by the presence of hydrophobic substituents, but is relatively independent of electron-attracting groups. PMID:6926815

  6. Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1 to 9, breast cancer resistance protein, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G members 5 and 8, are responsible for the unidirectional export of endogenous and exogenous substances. Other efflux transporters [ATPase copper-transporting β polypeptide (ATP7B) and ATPase class I type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1) as well as organic solute transporters (OST) α and β] also play major roles in the transport of some endogenous chemicals across biological membranes. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of these transporters (both rodent and human) with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and substrate preferences. Because uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in multiple cell types, the roles of transporters in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidneys, intestine, brain, heart, placenta, mammary glands, immune cells, and testes are discussed. Attention is also placed upon a variety of regulatory

  7. A chimeric light-regulated amino acid transport system allows the isolation of blue light regulator (blr) mutants of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Carattoli, A; Kato, E; Rodriguez-Franco, M; Stuart, W D; Macino, G

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a system for the isolation of Neurospora crassa mutants that shows altered responses to blue light. To this end we have used the light-regulated promoter of the albino-3 gene fused to the neutral amino acid permease gene mtr. The product of the mtr gene is required for the uptake of neutral aliphatic and aromatic amino acids, as well as toxic analogs such as p-flurophenylalanine or 4-methyltryptophan. mtr trp-2-carrying cells were transformed with the al-3 promoter-mtr wild-type gene (al-3p-mtr+) to obtain a strain with a light-regulated tryptophan uptake. This strain is sensitive to p-fluorophenylalanine when grown under illumination and resistant when grown in the dark. UV mutagenesis of the al-3p-mtr(+)-carrying strain allowed us to isolate two mutant strains, BLR-1 and BLR-2 (blue light regulator), that are light-resistant to p-fluorophenylalanine and have lost the ability to grow on tryptophan. These two strains have a pale-orange phenotype and show down-regulation of all the photoregulated genes tested (al-3, al-1, con-8, and con-10). Mutations in the BLR strains are not allelic with white collar 1 or white collar 2, regulatory genes that are also involved in the response to blue light. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7604041

  8. DeltapH-Dependent Amino Acid Transport into Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves: II. Evidence for Multiple Aliphatic, Neutral Amino Acid Symports.

    PubMed

    Li, Z C; Bush, D R

    1991-08-01

    Proton-coupled aliphatic, neutral amino acid transport was investigated in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., cv Great Western) leaves. Two neutral amino acid symport systems were resolved based on inter-amino acid transport competition and on large variations in the specific activity of each porter in different species. Competitive inhibition was observed for transport competition between alanine, methionine, glutamine, and leucine (the alanine group) and between isoleucine, valine, and threonine (the isoleucine group). The apparent K(m) and K(i) values were similar for transport competition among amino acids within the alanine group. In contrast, the kinetics of transport competition between these two groups of amino acids did not fit a simple competitive model. Furthermore, members of the isoleucine group were weak transport antagonists of the alanine group. These results are consistent with two independent neutral amino acid porters. In support of that conclusion, the ratio of the specific activity of alanine transport versus isoleucine transport varied from two- to 13-fold in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from different plant species. This ratio would be expected to remain relatively stable if these amino acids were moving through a single transport system and, indeed, the ratio of alanine to glutamine transport varied less than twofold. Analysis of the predicted structure of the aliphatic, neutral amino acids in solution shows that isoleucine, valine, and threonine contain a branched methyl or hydroxyl group at the beta-carbon position that places a dense electron cloud close to the alpha-amino group. This does not occur for the unbranched amino acids or those that branch further away, e.g. leucine. We hypothesize that this structural feature of isoleucine, valine, and threonine results in unfavorable steric interactions with the alanine transport system that limits their flux through this porter. Hydrophobicity and

  9. Transported acid aerosols measured in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Gerald J.; Spengler, John D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Allen, George A.; Raizenne, Mark; Stern, Bonnie

    During the period 29 June 1986-9 August 1986, a field health study assessing the acute health effects of air pollutants on children was conducted at a summer girls' camp on the northern shore of Lake Erie in SW Ontario. Continuous air pollution measurements of SO 2, O 3, NO x, particulate sulfates, light scattering, and meteorological measurements including temperature, dew point, and wind speed and direction were made. Twelve-hour integrated samples of size fractioned particles were also obtained using dichotomous samplers and Harvard impactors equipped with an ammonia denuder for subsequent hydrogen ion determination. Particulate samples were analyzed for trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and Neutron Activation, and for organic and elemental carbon by a thermal/optical technique. The measured aerosol was periodically very acidic with observed 12-h averaged H + concentrations in the range < 10-560 nmoles m -3. The aerosol H + appeared to represent the net strong acidity after H 2SO 4 reaction with NH 3(g). Average daytime concentrations were higher than night-time for aerosol H +, sulfate, fine mass and ozone. Prolonged episodes of atmospheric acidity, sulfate, and ozone were associated with air masses arriving at the measurement site from the west and from the southwest over Lake Erie. Sulfate concentrations measured at the lakeshore camp were more than twice those measured at inland sites during extreme pollution episodes. The concentration gradient observed with onshore flow was potentially due to enhanced deposition near the lakeshore caused by discontinuities in the meteorological fields in this region.

  10. Transportable Collective Protection System (TCPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tekesky, R.

    1990-08-15

    Human System Division (HSD/YAGD), Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6503 requested assistance from the Air Force Packaging Evaluation Activity (AFPEA) to conduct vibration, shock and environmental testing on three Rowley containers with contents. The contents consist of a Transportable Collective Protective System (TCPS). The TCPS, manufactured by IIC/Dover Inc., is a chemical warfare tent. Personnel can enter the tent, remove protective clothing and perform duties in an uncontaminated environment. The purpose of this project was to determine if the Rowley containers would be able to contain and protect the TCPS during world-wide shipment, storage, and handling.

  11. Taxol induced apoptosis regulates amino acid transport in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanyuan; Shen, Dejun; Chen, Zujian; Clayton, Sheila; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2007-03-01

    A major outcome from Taxol treatment is induction of tumor cell apoptosis. However, metabolic responses to Taxol-induced apoptosis are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesize that alterations in specific amino acid transporters may affect the Taxol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In this case, the activity of the given transporter may serve as a biomarker that could provide a biological assessment of response to drug treatment. We have examined the mechanisms responsible for Taxol-induced neutral amino acid uptake by breast cancer cells, such as MCF-7, BT474, MDAMB231 and T47D. The biochemical and molecular studies include: (1) growth-inhibition (MTT); (2) transport kinetics: (3) substrate-specific inhibition; (4) effect of thiol-modifying agents NEM and NPM; (5) gene expression of amino acid transporters; and (6) apoptotic assays. Our data show that Taxol treatment of MCF-7 cells induced a transient increase in Na(+)-dependent transport of the neutral amino acid transporter B0 at both gene and protein level. This increase was attenuated by blocking the transporter in the presence of high concentrations of the substrate amino acid. Other neutral amino acid transporters such as ATA2 (System A) and ASC were not altered. Amino acid starvation resulted in the expected up-regulation of System A (ATA2) gene, but not for B0 and ASC. B0 was significantly down regulated. Taxol treatment had no significant effect on the uptake of arginine and glutamate as measured by System y(+) and X(-) (GC) respectively. Tunel assays and FACS cell cycle analysis demonstrated that both Taxol- and doxorubicin-induced upregulation of B0 transporter gene with accompanying increase in cell apoptosis, could be reversed partially by blocking the B0 transporter with high concentration of alanine, and/or by inhibiting the caspase pathway. Both Taxol and doxorubicin treatment caused a significant decrease in S-phase of the cell cycle. However, Taxol-induced an increase primarily

  12. Na+ Interactions with the Neutral Amino Acid Transporter ASCT1*

    PubMed Central

    Scopelliti, Amanda J.; Heinzelmann, Germano; Kuyucak, Serdar; Ryan, Renae M.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The alanine, serine, cysteine transporters (ASCTs) belong to the solute carrier family 1A (SLC1A), which also includes the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and the prokaryotic aspartate transporter GltPh. Acidic amino acid transport by the EAATs is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions and one proton, and the counter-transport of one K+ ion. In contrast, neutral amino acid exchange by the ASCTs does not require protons or the counter-transport of K+ ions and the number of Na+ ions required is not well established. One property common to SLC1A family members is a substrate-activated anion conductance. We have investigated the number and location of Na+ ions required by ASCT1 by mutating residues in ASCT1 that correspond to residues in the EAATs and GltPh that are involved in Na+ binding. Mutations to all three proposed Na+ sites influence the binding of substrate and/or Na+, or the rate of substrate exchange. A G422S mutation near the Na2 site reduced Na+ affinity, without affecting the rate of exchange. D467T and D467A mutations in the Na1 site reduce Na+ and substrate affinity and also the rate of substrate exchange. T124A and D380A mutations in the Na3 site selectively reduce the affinity for Na+ and the rate of substrate exchange without affecting substrate affinity. In many of the mutants that reduce the rate of substrate transport the amplitudes of the substrate-activated anion conductances are not substantially affected indicating altered ion dependence for channel activation compared with substrate exchange. PMID:24808181

  13. Renal Transport of Uric Acid: Evolving Concepts and Uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Bobulescu, Ion Alexandru; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its role as a metabolic waste product, uric acid has been proposed to be an important molecule with multiple functions in human physiology and pathophysiology and may be linked to human diseases beyond nephrolithiasis and gout. Uric acid homeostasis is determined by the balance between production, intestinal secretion, and renal excretion. The kidney is an important regulator of circulating uric acid levels, by reabsorbing around 90% of filtered urate, while being responsible for 60–70% of total body uric acid excretion. Defective renal handling of urate is a frequent pathophysiologic factor underpinning hyperuricemia and gout. In spite of tremendous advances over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms of renal urate transport are still incompletely understood. Many transport proteins are candidate participants in urate handling, with URAT1 and GLUT9 being the best characterized to date. Understanding these transporters is increasingly important for the practicing clinician as new research unveils their physiology, importance in drug action, and genetic association with uric acid levels in human populations. The future may see the introduction of new drugs that specifically act on individual renal urate transporters for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:23089270

  14. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  15. Substrate specificity and transport mechanism of amino-acid transceptor Slimfast from Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Boudko, Dmitri Y; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Meleshkevitch, Ella A; Price, David P; Drake, Lisa L; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Anautogenous mosquitoes depend on vertebrate blood as nutrient source for their eggs. A highly efficient set of membrane transporters mediates the massive movement of nutrient amino acids between mosquito tissues after a blood meal. Here we report the characterization of the amino-acid transporter Slimfast (Slif) from the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using codon-optimized heterologous expression. Slif is a well-known component of the target-of-rapamycin signalling pathway and fat body nutrient sensor, but its substrate specificity and transport mechanism were unknown. We found that Slif transports essential cationic and neutral amino acids with preference for arginine. It has an unusual dual-affinity mechanism with only the high affinity being Na(+) dependent. Tissue-specific expression and blood meal-dependent regulation of Slif are consistent with conveyance of essential amino acids from gut to fat body. Slif represents a novel transport system and type of transceptor for sensing and transporting essential amino acids during mosquito reproduction. PMID:26449545

  16. Substrate specificity and transport mechanism of amino-acid transceptor Slimfast from Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Meleshkevitch, Ella A.; Price, David P.; Drake, Lisa L.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    Anautogenous mosquitoes depend on vertebrate blood as nutrient source for their eggs. A highly efficient set of membrane transporters mediates the massive movement of nutrient amino acids between mosquito tissues after a blood meal. Here we report the characterization of the amino-acid transporter Slimfast (Slif) from the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using codon-optimized heterologous expression. Slif is a well-known component of the target-of-rapamycin signalling pathway and fat body nutrient sensor, but its substrate specificity and transport mechanism were unknown. We found that Slif transports essential cationic and neutral amino acids with preference for arginine. It has an unusual dual-affinity mechanism with only the high affinity being Na+ dependent. Tissue-specific expression and blood meal-dependent regulation of Slif are consistent with conveyance of essential amino acids from gut to fat body. Slif represents a novel transport system and type of transceptor for sensing and transporting essential amino acids during mosquito reproduction. PMID:26449545

  17. The glutamate and neutral amino acid transporter family: physiological and pharmacological implications.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hediger, Matthias A

    2003-10-31

    The solute carrier family 1 (SLC1) is composed of five high affinity glutamate transporters, which exhibit the properties of the previously described system XAG-, as well as two Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporters with characteristics of the so-called "ASC" (alanine, serine and cysteine). The SLC1 family members are structurally similar, with almost identical hydropathy profiles and predicted membrane topologies. The transporters have eight transmembrane domains and a structure reminiscent of a pore loop between the seventh and eighth domains [Neuron 21 (1998) 623]. However, each of these transporters exhibits distinct functional properties. Glutamate transporters mediate transport of L-Glu, L-Asp and D-Asp, accompanied by the cotransport of 3 Na+ and one 1 H+, and the countertransport of 1 K+, whereas ASC transporters mediate Na+-dependent exchange of small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Cys and Thr. Given the high concentrating capacity provided by the unique ion coupling pattern of glutamate transporters, they play crucial roles in protecting neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). The regulation and manipulation of their function is a critical issue in the pathogenesis and treatment of CNS disorders involving glutamate excitotoxicity. Loss of function of the glial glutamate transporter GLT1 (SLC1A2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), resulting in damage of adjacent motor neurons. The importance of glial glutamate transporters in protecting neurons from extracellular glutamate was further demonstrated in studies of the slc1A2 glutamate transporter knockout mouse. The findings suggest that therapeutic upregulation of GLT1 may be beneficial in a variety of pathological conditions. Selective inhibition of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 (SLC1A1) but not the glial glutamate transporters may be of therapeutic interest, allowing blockage of glutamate exit from

  18. Acid-base transport in pancreas—new challenges

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ivana; Haanes, Kristian A.; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+) and base (HCO−3) transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges of transporting acid and bases across epithelia and effectively regulating their intracellular pH. In this review, we will make use of comparative physiology to enlighten the cellular mechanisms of pancreatic HCO−3 and fluid secretion, which is still challenging physiologists. Some of the novel transporters to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H+-K+-ATPases), as well as the calcium-activated K+ and Cl− channels, such as KCa3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signaling, fine-tune, and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport contributes to pancreatic diseases including cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, and cancer. PMID:24391597

  19. Energetics of low affinity amino acid transport into brain slices.

    PubMed

    Banay-Schwartz, M; Teller, D N; Lajtha, A

    1976-01-01

    It appears possible to dissect and study some of the potential energy sources for amino acid transport in brain slices despite the apparent complexity of the tissue in comparison to that of isolated bacterial vesicles23. The uptake capability of the tissue may be inadvertently damaged in some experimental protocols so that very special controls must be used to ensure that the treatment did not somehow inactivate the very mechanism that thereafter will be tested. We have presented some evidence that brain slice amino acid transport may not be obligatorily linked to glycolysis, ATP levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, K+ levels or direction of flux, or to Na+ flux. However, the energy source linkage for different amino acids appears to be rather specific, so that further generalizations are difficult to sustain. For instance, the incubation media and conditions we describe here were experimentally adjusted to maximize uptake of D-glu or alpha-AIB in the absence of glucose, or in lowered K+ or Na+. Therefore, these procedures, the results of which directly challenge some common assumptions regarding the energy basis for active transport in brain slices, probably will not be universally extensible to all other actively transported amino acids. PMID:782193

  20. Research on advanced transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  1. Transport of amino acids and nucleic acid precursors in malarial parasites

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, I. W.

    1977-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that exogenously supplied amino acids are transferred into the malaria-infected cell, where they are incorporated into proteins. Most amino acids appear to enter the cell by facilitated or simple diffusion; however, the high distribution ratios seen in Plasmodium knowlesi-infected cells are difficult to explain on this basis. The changes (leakiness) observed in amino acid transport in P. lophurae infected cells are probably the result of ATP depletion in the host cell as well as the elaboration of plasmodial substances. Depletion of isoleucine, methionine, and cysteine from the medium strikingly depresses the in vitro growth of P. knowlesi. The degree of amino acid incorporation into the malaria-infected cell is not correlated with the amount of a particular amino acid in the host cell haemoglobin, the decline of that amino acid in the plasma of infected animals, or the ratio of free amino acids of the erythrocyte to those of the plasma. In erythrocyte-“free” P. lophurae, carrier-mediated transport is apparently limited to a small number of amino acids; all others seem to enter by simple diffusion. Malaria-infected erythrocytes transport exogenously supplied purines at substantially higher rates than uninfected red cells. The preferred purines are adenosine, hypoxanthine, and inosine. The only pyrimidine incorporated is orotic acid. Thymidine, cytidine, and uridine do not readily enter the red cell, and incorporation does not take place because the parasites lack the appropriate enzyme for conversion to nucleotides. Erythrocyte-“free” P. berghei and P. lophurae take up purines and orotic acid. It has been suggested that in vivo the preferred purines are hypoxanthine and inosine, and that the transport locus for erythrocytes is specific for 6-oxopurines. Similar results of purine incorporation are reported for the insect stages of P. cynomolgi and P. berghei, although transport studies have not been carried out. PMID:338180

  2. The orally active antihyperglycemic drug beta-guanidinopropionic acid is transported by the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter hPAT1.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Linda; Dorn, Madlen; Markwardt, Fritz; Brandsch, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The orally administered creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA) decreases plasma glucose levels by increasing the sensitivity to insulin. This effect is based on a beta-GPA induced expression of mRNA and total protein content of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4. Although the oral availability of beta-GPA is well established, the underlying uptake mechanism has not yet been studied. We investigated whether the H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1, which is expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal cells, accepts guanidine derivatives as substrates. Uptake of l-[(3)H]proline into Caco-2 cells expressing hPAT1 constitutively was strongly inhibited by beta-GPA and its derivatives guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and 4-guanidinobutyric acid (4-GBA). Competition assays revealed apparent affinity constants of about 1.5 mM. Electrophysiological measurements at hPAT1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes unequivocally demonstrated that beta-GPA, GAA and 4-GBA are effectively transported by this transport system in an electrogenic manner. We conclude that hPAT1 might be responsible for the intestinal absorption of beta-GPA thereby allowing its oral administration. Moreover, with beta-GPA we identified a new high affinity hPAT1 substrate that might be an interesting starting point for future drug design-drug delivery strategies. PMID:19358571

  3. Regulation of branched-chain amino acid transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Quay, S C; Oxender, D L

    1976-01-01

    The repression and derepression of leucine, isoleucine, and valine transport in Escherichia coli K-12 was examined by using strains auxotrophic for leucine, isoleucine, valine, and methionine. In experiments designed to limit each of these amino acids separately, we demonstrate that leucine limitation alone derepressed the leucine-binding protein, the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system (LIV-I), and the membrane-bound, low-affinity system (LIV-II). This regulation did not seem to involve inactivation of transport components, but represented an increase in the differential rate of synthesis of transport components relative to total cellular proteins. The apparent regulation of transport by isoleucine, valine, and methionine reported elsewhere was shown to require an intact leucine, biosynthetic operon and to result from changes in the level of leucine biosynthetic enzymes. A functional leucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase was also required for repression of transport. Transport regulation was shown to be essentially independent of ilvA or its gene product, threonine deaminase. The central role of leucine or its derivatives in cellular metabolism in general is discussed. PMID:783137

  4. L-aspartic acid transport by cat erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    Cat and dog red cells are unusual in that they have no Na/K ATPase and contain low K and high Na intracellularly. They also show significant Na dependent L-aspartate (L-asp) transport. The authors have characterized this system in cat RBCs. The influx of /sup 3/H-L-asp (typically 2..mu..M) was measured in washed RBCs incubated for 60 s at 37/sup 0/C in medium containing 140 mM NaCl, 5 mM Kcl, 2 mM CaCl/sub 2/, 15 mM MOPS pH 7.4, 5 mM glucose, and /sup 14/C-PEG as a space marker. The cells were washed 3 times in the medium immediately before incubation which was terminated by centrifuging the RBCs through a layer of dibutylphthalate. Over an L-asp concentration range of 0.5-1000..mu..M, influx obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a small added linear diffusion component. The Kt and Jmax of the saturable component were 5.40 +/- 0.34 ..mu..M and 148.8 +/- 7.2 ..mu..mol 1. cell/sup -1/h/sup -1/ respectively. Replacement of Na with Li, K, Rb, Cs or choline reduce influx to diffusion. With the addition of asp analogues (4/sup +/M L-asp, 40/sup +/M inhibitor), the following sequence of inhibition was observed (range 80% to 40% inhib.): L-glutamate > L-cysteine sulfonate > D-asp > L-cysteic acid > D-glutamate. Other amino acids such as L-alanine, L-proline, L-lysine, L-cysteine, and taurine showed no inhibition (<5%). These data suggest that cat red cells contain a high-affinity Na dependent transport system for L-asp, glutamate, and closely related analogues which resembles that found in the RBCs of other carnivores and in neural tissues.

  5. Urban Transportation Planning Short Course: Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This urban transportation pamphlet delves into the roles of policy groups and technical staffs in evaluating alternative transportation plans, evaluation criteria, systems to evaluate, and evaluation procedures. The introduction admits the importance of subjective, but informed, judgment as an effective tool in weighing alternative transportation…

  6. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transport trailer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ard, Kevin E.; King, David A.; Leigh, Harley; Satoh, Juli A.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System (System 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the U.S. Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware.

  7. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transport trailer system

    SciTech Connect

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1995-01-20

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System (System 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the U.S. Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  8. Reactive Transport Modeling of Acid Gas Generation and Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    G. Zhahg; N. Spycher; E. Sonnenthal; C. Steefel

    2005-01-25

    Pulvirenti et al. (2004) recently conducted a laboratory evaporation/condensation experiment on a synthetic solution of primarily calcium chloride. This solution represents one potential type of evaporated pore water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a site proposed for geologic storage of high-level nuclear waste. These authors reported that boiling this solution to near dryness (a concentration factor >75,000 relative to actual pore waters) leads to the generation of acid condensate (pH 4.5) presumably due to volatilization of HCl (and minor HF and/or HNO{sub 3}). To investigate the various processes taking place, including boiling, gas transport, and condensation, their experiment was simulated by modifying an existing multicomponent and multiphase reactive transport code (TOUGHREACT). This code was extended with a Pitzer ion-interaction model to deal with high ionic strength. The model of the experiment was set-up to capture the observed increase in boiling temperature (143 C at {approx}1 bar) resulting from high concentrations of dissolved salts (up to 8 m CaCl{sub 2}). The computed HCI fugacity ({approx} 10{sup -4} bars) generated by boiling under these conditions is not sufficient to lower the pH of the condensate (cooled to 80 and 25 C) down to observed values unless the H{sub 2}O mass fraction in gas is reduced below {approx}10%. This is because the condensate becomes progressively diluted by H{sub 2}O gas condensation. However, when the system is modeled to remove water vapor, the computed pH of instantaneous condensates decreases to {approx}1.7, consistent with the experiment (Figure 1). The results also show that the HCl fugacity increases, and calcite, gypsum, sylvite, halite, MgCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O and CaCl{sub 2} precipitate sequentially with increasing concentration factors.

  9. Phase stable RF transport system

    DOEpatents

    Curtin, Michael T.; Natter, Eckard F.; Denney, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    An RF transport system delivers a phase-stable RF signal to a load, such as an RF cavity of a charged particle accelerator. A circuit generates a calibration signal at an odd multiple frequency of the RF signal where the calibration signal is superimposed with the RF signal on a common cable that connects the RF signal with the load. Signal isolating diplexers are located at both the RF signal source end and load end of the common cable to enable the calibration to be inserted and extracted from the cable signals without any affect on the RF signal. Any phase shift in the calibration signal during traverse of the common cable is then functionally related to the phase shift in the RF signal. The calibration phase shift is used to control a phase shifter for the RF signal to maintain a stable RF signal at the load.

  10. Classical transport in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  11. Activation of a new proline transport system in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Ekena, K; Liao, M K; Maloy, S

    1990-06-01

    Proline uptake can be mediated by three different transport systems in wild-type Salmonella typhimurium: a high-affinity proline transport system encoded by the putP gene and two glycine-betaine transport systems with a low affinity for proline encoded by the proP and proU genes. However, only the PutP permease transports proline well enough t allow growth on proline as a sole carbon or nitrogen source. By selecting for mutations that allow a putP mutant to grow on proline as a sole nitrogen source, we isolated mutants (designated proZ) that appeared to activate a cryptic proline transport system. These mutants enhanced the transport of proline and proline analogs but did not require the function of any of the known proline transport genes. The mutations mapped between 75 and 77.5 min on the S. typhimurium linkage map. Proline transport by the proZ mutants was competitively inhibited by isoleucine and leucine, which suggests that the ProZ phenotype may be due to unusual mutations that alter the substrate specificity of the branched-chain amino acid transport system encoded by the liv genes. PMID:2160931

  12. [Enhancers on the transmembrane transport of chlorogenic acid].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Deng, Sheng-Qi; Jiang, Xue-Hua; Wang, Ling-Ling; Xiao, Yu

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the influence of the difference enhancers on the transport mechanism of chlorogenic acid (CGA) across Caco-2 cells model, a RP-HPLC method was adopted to detect the concentrations of CGA. At the concentrations of 20 to 80 microg x mL(-1), the difference of absorption rate constants (K(a)) was not statistically significant. At the concentrations of 40 and 20 microg x mL(-1), the ratios of apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of the apical to basolateral and the basolateral to apical were 1.14 and 1.18, respectively. With the effect of enhancers K(a) and P(app) increased, the absorption half-life (T1/2) decreased. CGA passed through the Caco-2 cell membrane mainly by passive transport. It showed that monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) could be involved in the across membrane transport process of CGA. Borneol had no effect on the cell membrane transport processes. The order of increasing absorption of CGA caused by the enhancers was sodium lauryl sulphate > sodium taurocholate > carbomer. PMID:24761618

  13. Manned transportation system study - Evaluation of candidate transportation architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Nicholas; Klemer, R.; Sooter, C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall evaluation process, the tool developed to perform the evaluation, and the evaluation results in determining the right approach to meet the nation's mannned transportation needs are presented. To address the various considerations, architecture sets consisting of the candidate transportation systems are constructed. As this methodology results in multiple architectures to examine, an architecture evaluation tool was developed to facilitate the evaluation of the architecture attribute values from the system values of the attributes.

  14. Prohibitin/annexin 2 interaction regulates fatty acid transport in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Ahmad; Daquinag, Alexes C.; Staquicini, Daniela I.; An, Zhiqiang; Hajjar, Katherine A.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified prohibitin (PHB) and annexin A2 (ANX2) as proteins interacting on the surface of vascular endothelial cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) of humans and mice. Here, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB also interact in adipocytes. Mice lacking ANX2 have normal WAT vascularization, adipogenesis, and glucose metabolism but display WAT hypotrophy due to reduced fatty acid uptake by WAT endothelium and adipocytes. By using cell culture systems in which ANX2/PHB binding is disrupted either genetically or through treatment with a blocking peptide, we show that fatty acid transport efficiency relies on this protein complex. We also provide evidence that the interaction between ANX2 and PHB mediates fatty acid transport from the endothelium into adipocytes. Moreover, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB form a complex with the fatty acid transporter CD36. Finally, we show that the colocalization of PHB and CD36 on adipocyte surface is induced by extracellular fatty acids. Together, our results suggest that an unrecognized biochemical interaction between ANX2 and PHB regulates CD36-mediated fatty acid transport in WAT, thus revealing a new potential pathway for intervention in metabolic diseases. PMID:27468426

  15. Late endosomal membranes rich in lysobisphosphatidic acid regulate cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Beuchat, M H; Lindsay, M; Frias, S; Palmiter, R D; Sakuraba, H; Parton, R G; Gruenberg, J

    1999-06-01

    The fate of free cholesterol released after endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins remains obscure. Here we report that late endosomes have a pivotal role in intracellular cholesterol transport. We find that in the genetic disease Niemann-Pick type C (NPC), and in drug-treated cells that mimic NPC, cholesterol accumulates in late endosomes and sorting of the lysosomal enzyme receptor is impaired. Our results show that the characteristic network of lysobisphosphatidic acid-rich membranes contained within multivesicular late endosomes regulates cholesterol transport, presumably by acting as a collection and distribution device. The results also suggest that similar endosomal defects accompany the anti-phospholipid syndrome and NPC. PMID:10559883

  16. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  17. Transporters, channels, or simple diffusion? Dogmas, atypical roles and complexity in transport systems.

    PubMed

    Conde, Artur; Diallinas, George; Chaumont, François; Chaves, Manuela; Gerós, Hernâni

    2010-06-01

    The recent breakthrough discoveries of transport systems assigned with atypical functions provide evidence for complexity in membrane transport biochemistry. Some channels are far from being simple pores creating hydrophilic passages for solutes and can, unexpectedly, act as enzymes, or mediate high-affinity uptake, and some transporters are surprisingly able to function as sensors, channels or even enzymes. Furthermore, numerous transport studies have demonstrated complex multiphasic uptake kinetics for organic and mineral nutrients. The biphasic kinetics of glucose uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a result of several genetically distinct uptake systems operating simultaneously, is a classical example that is a subject of continuous debate. In contrast, some transporters display biphasic kinetics, being bona fidae dual-affinity transporters, their kinetic properties often modulated by post-translational regulation. Also, aquaporins have recently been reported to exhibit diverse transport properties and can behave as highly adapted, multifunctional channels, transporting solutes such as CO(2), hydrogen peroxide, urea, ammonia, glycerol, polyols, carbamides, purines and pyrimidines, metalloids, glycine, and lactic acid, rather than being simple water pores. The present review provides an overview on some atypical functions displayed by transporter proteins and discusses how this novel knowledge on cellular uptake systems may be related to complex multiphasic uptake kinetics often seen in a wide variety of living organisms and the intriguing diffusive uptake of sugars and other solutes. PMID:20026419

  18. Uptake of aristolochic acid I into Caco-2 cells by monocarboxylic acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Endo, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The uptake mechanism of aristolochic acid I (AAI) was investigated using Caco-2 cells cultured on dishes and permeable membranes. The uptake of AAI from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells cultured on a dish was rapid, and a decrease in the pH of the incubation medium significantly increased uptake. Incubation at low temperature (4°C) and treatment with sodium azide (a metabolic inhibitor) or carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a protonophore) significantly inhibited the AAI uptake. Coincubation with L-lactic acid or benzoic acid, typical substrates for the proton-linked monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs), significantly decreased the AAI uptake, as did coincubation with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (an inhibitor of MCTs). Dixon plotting revealed the competitive inhibition of benzoic acid on the AAI uptake. To confirm the AAI uptake via MCTs, the apical-to-basolateral transport of AAI was investigated using the Caco-2 cells cultured on the permeable membranes. The transport of AAI at pH 6.0 was markedly higher than that at pH 7.4, and was significantly decreased by coincubation with benzoic acid. These results suggest that the uptake of AAI from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells is mediated mainly by MCTs along with benzoic acid. PMID:25177030

  19. Adsorption and transport of polymaleic acid on Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone: Batch and transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, Delphine; Landesman, Catherine; Grambow, Bernd; Ribet, Solange; Giffaut, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) can affect the mobility of radionuclides in pore water of clay-rich geological formations, such as those intended to be used for nuclear waste disposal. The present work studies the adsorption and transport properties of a polycarboxylic acid, polymaleic acid (PMA, Mw = 1.9 kDa), on Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples (COx). Even though this molecule is rather different from the natural organic matter found in clay rock, the study of its retention properties on both dispersed and intact samples allows assessing to which extent organic acids may undergo sorption under natural conditions (pH 7) and what could be the impact on their mobility. PMA sorption and desorption were investigated in dispersed systems. The degree of sorption was measured after 1, 8 and 21 days and for a range of PMA initial concentrations from 4.5 × 10- 7 to 1.4 × 10- 3 mol.L- 1. The reversibility of the sorption process was estimated by desorption experiments performed after the sorption experiments. At the sorption steady state, the sorption was described by a two-site Langmuir model. A total sorption capacity of COx for PMA was found to be 1.01×10- 2 mol.kg- 1 distributed on two sorption sites, one weak and one strong. The desorption of PMA was incomplete, independently of the duration of the sorption phase. The amount of desorbable PMA even appeared to decrease for sorption phases from 1 to 21 days. To describe the apparent desorption hysteresis, two conceptual models were applied. The two-box diffusion model accounted for intraparticle diffusion and more generally for nonequilibrium processes. The two-box first-order non-reversible model accounted for a first-order non-reversible sorption and more generally for kinetically-controlled irreversible sorption processes. The use of the two models revealed that desorption hysteresis was not the result of nonequilibrium processes but was due to irreversible sorption. Irreversible sorption on the strong site was

  20. Mitochondrial transporters for ornithine and related amino acids: a review.

    PubMed

    Monné, Magnus; Miniero, Daniela Valeria; Daddabbo, Lucia; Palmieri, Luigi; Porcelli, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2015-09-01

    Among the members of the mitochondrial carrier family, there are transporters that catalyze the translocation of ornithine and related substrates, such as arginine, homoarginine, lysine, histidine, and citrulline, across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial carriers ORC1, ORC2, and SLC25A29 from Homo sapiens, BAC1 and BAC2 from Arabidopsis thaliana, and Ort1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been biochemically characterized by transport assays in liposomes. All of them transport ornithine and amino acids with side chains terminating at least with one amine. There are, however, marked differences in their substrate specificities including their affinity for ornithine (KM values in the mM to μM range). These differences are most likely reflected by minor differences in the substrate binding sites of these carriers. The physiological role of the above-mentioned mitochondrial carriers is to link several metabolic pathways that take place partly in the cytosol and partly in the mitochondrial matrix and to provide basic amino acids for mitochondrial translation. In the liver, human ORC1 catalyzes the citrulline/ornithine exchange across the mitochondrial inner membrane, which is required for the urea cycle. Human ORC1, ORC2, and SLC25A29 are likely to be involved in the biosynthesis and transport of arginine, which can be used as a precursor for the synthesis of NO, agmatine, polyamines, creatine, glutamine, glutamate, and proline, as well as in the degradation of basic amino acids. BAC1 and BAC2 are implicated in some processes similar to those of their human counterparts and in nitrogen and amino acid metabolism linked to stress conditions and the development of plants. Ort1p is involved in the biosynthesis of arginine and polyamines in yeast. PMID:26002808

  1. Abscisic acid transporters cooperate to control seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Yim, Sojeong; Choi, Hyunju; Kim, Areum; Lee, Keun Pyo; Lopez-Molina, Luis; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process that has to be tightly controlled to avoid germination under unfavourable conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential repressor of seed germination. In Arabidopsis, it has been shown that the endosperm, a single cell layer surrounding the embryo, synthesizes and continuously releases ABA towards the embryo. The mechanism of ABA transport from the endosperm to the embryo was hitherto unknown. Here we show that four AtABCG transporters act in concert to deliver ABA from the endosperm to the embryo: AtABCG25 and AtABCG31 export ABA from the endosperm, whereas AtABCG30 and AtABCG40 import ABA into the embryo. Thus, this work establishes that radicle extension and subsequent embryonic growth are suppressed by the coordinated activity of multiple ABA transporters expressed in different tissues. PMID:26334616

  2. A National MagLev Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The case for a national high-speed magnetic-levitation (MagLev) transportation system is presented. Focus is on current issues facing the country, such as national security, the economy, transportation, technology, and the environment. NASA s research into MagLev technology for launch assist is also highlighted. Further, current socio-cultural norms regarding motor-vehicle-based transportation systems are questioned in light of the problems currently facing the U.S. The multidisciplinary benefits of a long-distance MagLev system support the idea that such a system would be an important element of a truly multimodal U.S. transportation infrastructure.

  3. Characterization of mouse amino acid transporter B0AT1 (slc6a19)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of the mouse (m)B0AT1 (slc6a19) transporter was studied in detail using two electrode voltage-clamp techniques and tracer studies in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. All neutral amino acids induced inward currents at physiological potentials, but large neutral non-aromatic amino acids were the preferred substrates of mB0AT1. Substrates were transported with K0.5 values ranging from approx. 1 mM to approx. 10 mM. The transporter mediates Na+–amino acid co-transport with a stoichiometry of 1:1. No other ions were involved in the transport mechanism. An increase in the extracellular Na+ concentration reduced the K0.5 for leucine, and vice versa. Moreover, the K0.5 values and Vmax values of both substrates varied with the membrane potential. As a result, K0.5 and Vmax values are a complex function of the concentration of substrate and co-substrate and the membrane potential. A model is presented assuming random binding order and a positive charge associated with the ternary [Na+–substrate–transporter] complex, which is consistent with the experimental data. PMID:15804236

  4. ΔpH-Dependent Amino Acid Transport into Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Sugar Beet Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-Chang; Bush, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid transport into plasma membrane vesicles isolated from mature sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv Great Western) leaves was investigated. The transport of alanine, leucine, glutamine, glutamate, isoleucine, and arginine was driven by a trans-membrane proton concentration difference. ΔpH-Dependent alanine, leucine, glutamine, and glutamate transport exhibited simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and double-reciprocal plots of the data were linear with apparent Km values of 272, 346, 258, and 1981 micromolar, respectively. These results are consistent with carrier mediated transport. ΔpH-Dependent isoleucine and arginine transport exhibited biphasic kinetics, suggesting these amino acids may be transported by at least two transport systems. Symport mediated alanine transport was electrogenic as demonstrated by the effect of membrane potential (ΔΨ) on ΔpH-dependent flux. In the absence of significant charge compensation, a low rate of alanine transport was observed. When ΔΨ was held at 0 millivolt with symmetric potassium concentrations and valinomycin, the rate of flux was stimulated fourfold. In the presence of a negative ΔΨ, alanine transport increased sixfold. These results are consistent with an electrogenic transport process which results in a net flux of positive charge into the vesicles. The effect of changing ΔΨ on the kinetics of alanine transport altered Vmax with no apparent change in Km. Amino acid transport was inhibited by the protein modifier diethyl pyrocarbonate, but was insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene disulfonic acid, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, phenylglyoxal, and N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Four amino acid symport systems, two neutral, one acidic, and one basic, were resolved based on inter-amino acid competition experiments. One neutral system appears to be active for all neutral amino acids while the second exhibited a low affinity for isoleucine, threonine, valine, and proline

  5. Transport in Halobacterium Halobium: Light-Induced Cation-Gradients, Amino Acid Transport Kinetics, and Properties of Transport Carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    Cell envelope vesicles prepared from H. halobium contain bacteriorhodopsin and upon illumination protons are ejected. Coupled to the proton motive force is the efflux of Na(+). Measurements of Na-22 flux, exterior pH change, and membrane potential, Delta(psi) (with the dye 3,3'-dipentyloxadicarbocyanine) indicate that the means of Na(+) transport is sodium/proton exchange. The kinetics of the pH changes and other evidence suggests that the antiport is electrogenic (H(+)/Na(++ greater than 1). The resulting large chemical gradient for Na(+) (outside much greater than inside), as well as the membrane potential, will drive the transport of 18 amino acids. The I9th, glutamate, is unique in that its accumulation is indifferent to Delta(psi): this amino acid is transported only when a chemical gradient for Na(+) is present. Thus, when more and more NaCl is included in the vesicles glutamate transport proceeds with longer and longer lags. After illumination the gradient of H+() collapses within 1 min, while the large Na(+) gradient and glutamate transporting activity persists for 10- 15 min, indicating that proton motive force is not necessary for transport. A chemical gradient of Na(+), arranged by suspending vesicles loaded with KCl in NaCl, drives glutamate transport in the dark without other sources of energy, with V(sub max) and K(sub m) comparable to light-induced transport. These and other lines of evidence suggest that the transport of glutamate is facilitated by symport with Na(+), in an electrically neutral fashion, so that only the chemical component of the Na(+) gradient is a driving force.

  6. Transportation Planning with Immune System Derived Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Kenji; Yaji, Yasuhito; Ootsuki, John Takuya; Fujimoto, Yasutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    This paper presents an immune system derived approach for planning transportation of materials between manufacturing processes in the factory. Transportation operations are modeled by Petri Net, and divided into submodels. Transportation orders are derived from the firing sequences of those submodels through convergence calculation by the immune system derived excitation and suppression operations. Basic evaluation of this approach is conducted by simulation-based investigation.

  7. Aluminum in acidic surface waters: chemistry, transport, and effects.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, C T

    1985-01-01

    Ecologically significant concentrations of Al have been reported in surface waters draining "acid-sensitive" watersheds that are receiving elevated inputs of acidic deposition. It has been hypothesized that mineral acids from atmospheric deposition have remobilized Al previously precipitated within the soil during soil development. This Al is then thought to be transported to adjacent surface waters. Dissolved mononuclear Al occurs as aquo Al, as well as OH-, F-, SO4(2-), and organic complexes. Although past investigations have often ignored non-hydroxide complexes of Al, it appears that organic and F complexes are the predominant forms of Al in dilute (low ionic strength) acidic surface waters. The concentration of inorganic forms of Al increases exponentially with decreases in solution pH. This response is similar to the theoretical pH dependent solubility of Al mineral phases. The concentration of organic forms of Al, however, is strongly correlated with variations in organic carbon concentration of surface waters rather than pH. Elevated concentrations of Al in dilute acidic waters are of interest because: Al is an important pH buffer; Al may influence the cycling of important elements like P, organic carbon, and trace metals; and Al is potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. An understanding of the aqueous speciation of Al is essential for an evaluation of these processes. PMID:3935428

  8. Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long N; Ma, Dongliang; Shui, Guanghou; Wong, Peiyan; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wenk, Markus R; Goh, Eyleen L K; Silver, David L

    2014-05-22

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for normal brain growth and cognitive function. Consistent with its importance in the brain, DHA is highly enriched in brain phospholipids. Despite being an abundant fatty acid in brain phospholipids, DHA cannot be de novo synthesized in brain and must be imported across the blood-brain barrier, but mechanisms for DHA uptake in brain have remained enigmatic. Here we identify a member of the major facilitator superfamily--Mfsd2a (previously an orphan transporter)--as the major transporter for DHA uptake into brain. Mfsd2a is found to be expressed exclusively in endothelium of the blood-brain barrier of micro-vessels. Lipidomic analysis indicates that Mfsd2a-deficient (Mfsd2a-knockout) mice show markedly reduced levels of DHA in brain accompanied by neuronal cell loss in hippocampus and cerebellum, as well as cognitive deficits and severe anxiety, and microcephaly. Unexpectedly, cell-based studies indicate that Mfsd2a transports DHA in the form of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not unesterified fatty acid, in a sodium-dependent manner. Notably, Mfsd2a transports common plasma LPCs carrying long-chain fatty acids such LPC oleate and LPC palmitate, but not LPCs with less than a 14-carbon acyl chain. Moreover, we determine that the phosphor-zwitterionic headgroup of LPC is critical for transport. Importantly, Mfsd2a-knockout mice have markedly reduced uptake of labelled LPC DHA, and other LPCs, from plasma into brain, demonstrating that Mfsd2a is required for brain uptake of DHA. Our findings reveal an unexpected essential physiological role of plasma-derived LPCs in brain growth and function. PMID:24828044

  9. Regulation of hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Bsep expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Buckley, David; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2007-12-01

    Sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and bile salt export pump (Bsep) are two key transporters for hepatic bile acid uptake and excretion. Alterations in Ntcp and Bsep expression have been reported in pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effects of age, gender, and various chemicals on the regulation of these two transporters were characterized in mice. Ntcp and Bsep mRNA levels in mouse liver were low in the fetus, but increased to its highest expression at parturition. After birth, mouse Ntcp and Bsep mRNA decreased by more than 50%, and then gradually increased to adult levels by day 30. Expression of mouse Ntcp mRNA and protein exhibit higher levels in female than male livers. No gender difference exists in BSEP/Bsep expression in human and mouse livers. Hormone replacements conducted in gonadectomized, hypophysectomized, and lit/lit mice indicate that female-predominant Ntcp expression in mouse liver is due to the inhibitory effect of male-pattern GH secretion, but not sex hormones. Ntcp and Bsep expression are in general resistant to induction by a large battery of microsomal enzyme inducers. Administration of cholestyramine increased Ntcp, whereas chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) increased Bsep mRNA expression. In conclusion, mouse Ntcp and Bsep are regulated by age, gender, cholestyramine, and bile acid, but resistant to induction by most microsomal enzyme inducers. PMID:17897632

  10. MATE Transporter-Dependent Export of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides.

    PubMed

    Dobritzsch, Melanie; Lübken, Tilo; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Gorzolka, Karin; Blum, Elke; Matern, Andreas; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Böttcher, Christoph; Dräger, Birgit; Rosahl, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to successfully prevent colonization by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), depends on multilayered defense responses. To address the role of surface-localized secondary metabolites for entry control, droplets of a P. infestans zoospore suspension, incubated on Arabidopsis leaves, were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling. The hydroxycinnamic acid amide coumaroylagmatine was among the metabolites secreted into the inoculum. In vitro assays revealed an inhibitory activity of coumaroylagmatine on P. infestans spore germination. Mutant analyses suggested a requirement of the p-coumaroyl-CoA:agmatine N4-p-coumaroyl transferase ACT for the biosynthesis and of the MATE transporter DTX18 for the extracellular accumulation of coumaroylagmatine. The host plant potato is not able to efficiently secrete coumaroylagmatine. This inability is overcome in transgenic potato plants expressing the two Arabidopsis genes ACT and DTX18. These plants secrete agmatine and putrescine conjugates to high levels, indicating that DTX18 is a hydroxycinnamic acid amide transporter with a distinct specificity. The export of hydroxycinnamic acid amides correlates with a decreased ability of P. infestans spores to germinate, suggesting a contribution of secreted antimicrobial compounds to pathogen defense at the leaf surface. PMID:26744218

  11. STARS: The Space Transportation Architecture Risk System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to perform comparisons between transportation systems that are likely to have significantly different levels of risk, both because of differing degrees of freedom in achieving desired performance levels and their different states of development and utilization, an approach has been developed for performing early comparisons of transportation architectures explicitly taking into account quantitative measures of uncertainty and resulting risk. The approach considers the uncertainty associated with the achievement of technology goals, the effect that the achieved level of technology will have on transportation system performance and the relationship between transportation system performance/capability and the ability to accommodate variations in payload mass. The consequences of system performance are developed in terms of expected values and associated standard deviations of nonrecurring, recurring and the present value of transportation system life cycle cost. Typical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  12. Choline inhibition of amino acid transport in preimplantation mouse blastocysts

    SciTech Connect

    Campione, A.L.; Haghighat, N.; Gorman, J.; Van Winkle, L.J.

    1987-05-01

    Addition of 70 mM choline chloride to Brinster's medium (140 mM Na/sup +/) inhibited uptake of approx. 1 ..mu..M (/sup 3/H)glycine, leucine, lysine and alanine in blastocysts by about 50% each during a five-minute incubation period at 37/sup 0/C, whereas 70 mM LiCl, sodium acetate and NaCl or 140 mM mannitol had no effect. They attribute the apparent linear relationship between Gly transport in blastocysts and the square of the (Na/sup +/), observed when choline was substituted for Na/sup +/ in Brinster's medium, to concomitant, concentration-dependent enhancement and inhibition of transport by Na/sup +/ and choline, respectively. As expected, Gly uptake and the (Na/sup +/) were linearly related up to 116 mM Na/sup +/, when Na/sup +/ was replaced with Li/sup +/. The rates of Na/sup +/-independent Gly and Ala uptake were <5% and <2% of the total, respectively, and similar when either Li/sup +/ or choline replaced Na/sup +/. Therefore, neither Li/sup +/ nor choline appears to substitute for Na/sup +/ in supporting Na/sup +/-dependent transport in blastocysts. Na/sup +/-independent Leu uptake was 20 times faster than Gly or Ala uptake and appeared to be inhibited by choline in blastocysts since it was about 37% slower when choline instead of Li/sup +/ was substituted for Na/sup +/. In contrast to blastocysts, choline had no effect on amino acid transport in cleavage-stage mouse embryos. The unexpected sensitivity of transport to choline in blastocysts underscores the importance of testing the effects of this substance when it is used to replace Na/sup +/ in new transport studies.

  13. Collectrin and ACE2 in renal and intestinal amino acid transport.

    PubMed

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R

    2011-01-01

    Neutral amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family are expressed at the apical membrane of kidney and/or small intestine, where they (re-)absorb amino acids into the body. In this review we present the results concerning the dependence of their apical expression with their association to partner proteins. We will in particular focus on the situation of B0AT1 and B0AT3, that associate with members of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), namely Tmem27 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), in a tissue specific manner. The role of this association in relation to the formation of a functional unit related to Na+ or amino acid transport will be assessed. We will conclude with some remarks concerning the relevance of this association to Hartnup disorder, where some mutations have been shown to differentially interact with the partner proteins. PMID:21814048

  14. Transport and metabolism of glycolic acid by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the excretion of glycolate from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the conditions affecting glycolate synthesis and metabolism were investigated. Although glycolate is synthesized only in the light, the metabolism occurs in the light and dark with greater metabolism in the light due to refixation of photorespiratory CO/sub 2/. The amount of internal glycolate will affect the metabolism of externally added glycolate. When glycolate synthesis exceeds the metabolic capacity, glycolate is excreted from the cell. The transport of glycolate into the cells occurs very rapidly. Equilibrium is achieved at 4/sup 0/C within the time cells are pelleted by the silicone oil centrifugation technique through a layer of (/sup 14/C) glycolate. Glycolate uptake does not show the same time, temperature and pH dependencies as diffusion of benzoate. Uptake can be inhibited by treatment of cells with N-ethylmaleimide and stimulated in the presence of valino-mycin/KCl. Acetate and lactate are taken up as quickly as glycolate. The hypothesis was made that glycolate is transported by a protein carrier that transports monocarboxylic acids. The equilibrium concentration of glycolate is dependent on the cell density, implying that there may be a large number of transporter sites and that uptake is limited by substrate availability.

  15. Perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) atmospheric formation and transport to the Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike-thackray, C.; Selin, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are highly persistent and toxic environmental contaminants that have been found in remote locations such as the Arctic, far from emission sources. These persistent organic pollutants are emitted directly to the atmosphere as well as being produced by the degradation of precursor compounds in the atmosphere, but recent trends towards increasing precursor emissions and decreasing direct emissions raise the importance of production in the atmosphere. Our work aims to improve understanding of the atmospheric degradation of fluorotelomer precursor compounds to form the long-chain PFCAs PFOA (C8) and PFNA (C9).Using the atmospheric chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, which uses assimilated meteorology to simulate the atmospheric transport of trace gas species, we investigate the interaction of the atmospheric formation of PFCAs and the atmospheric transport of their precursor species. Our simulations are a first application of the GEOS-Chem framework to PFCA chemistry. We highlight the importance of the spatial and temporal variability of background atmospheric chemical conditions experienced during transport. We find that yields and formation times of PFOA and PFNA respond differently and strongly to the photochemical conditions of the atmosphere, such as the abundance of NO, HO2, and other photochemical species.

  16. Rapid high-affinity transport of a chemotherapeutic amino acid across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Takada, Y; Vistica, D T; Greig, N H; Purdon, D; Rapoport, S I; Smith, Q R

    1992-04-15

    The therapeutic efficacy of many anticancer drugs against intracerebral tumors is limited by poor uptake into the central nervous system. One way to enhance brain delivery is to design agents that are transported into the brain by the saturable nutrient carriers of the blood-brain barrier. In this paper, we describe a nitrogen mustard amino acid, DL-2-amino-7-bis[(2-chloroethyl)amino/bd-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-napthoi c acid, that is taken up into brain with high affinity by the large neutral amino acid carrier of the blood-brain barrier. Brain transport of DL-2-amino-7-bis[(2-chloroethyl)aminol-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphth oic acid in the rat was found to be rapid (cerebrovascular permeability-surface area product approximately 2 x 10(-2) ml/s/g), saturable and inhibitable by large neutral amino acids. Maximal influx rate (Vmax) and half-saturation (Km) constants equaled 0.26 nmol/min/g and 0.19 microM, respectively, in the parietal cortex. Regional brain uptake of acid exceeded that of the clinical analogue, melphalan, by greater than 20-fold. The results demonstrate that drug modification to produce high-affinity ligands for the cerebrovascular nutrient carriers is a viable means to enhance drug delivery to brain for the treatment of brain tumors and other central nervous system disorders. PMID:1559223

  17. Neutral amino acid transport in epithelial cells and its malfunction in Hartnup disorder.

    PubMed

    Bröer, S; Cavanaugh, J A; Rasko, J E J

    2005-02-01

    Hartnup disorder is an autosomal recessive abnormality of renal and gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport. A corresponding transport activity has been characterized in kidney and intestinal cells and named system B(0). The failure to resorb amino acids in this disorder is thought to be compensated by a protein-rich diet. However, in combination with a poor diet and other factors, more severe symptoms can develop in Hartnup patients, including a photosensitive pellagra-like skin rash, cerebellar ataxia and other neurological symptoms. Homozygosity mapping in a Japanese family and linkage analysis on six Australian pedigrees placed the Hartnup disorder gene at a locus on chromosome 5p15. This fine mapping facilitated a candidate gene approach within the interval, which resulted in the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (B(0)AT1, SLC6A19) from mouse and human kidney, which shows all properties of system B(0). Flux experiments and electrophysiological recording showed that the transporter is Na(+) dependent and Cl(-) independent, electrogenic and actively transports most neutral amino acids. In situ hybridization showed strong expression in intestinal villi and in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Expression of B(0)AT1 was restricted to kidney, intestine and skin. A total of ten mutations have been identified in SLC6A19 that co-segregate with disease in the predicted recessive manner, with the majority of affected individuals being compound heterozygotes. These mutations lead to altered neutral amino acid transport function compared to the wild-type allele in vitro. One of the mutations occurs in members of the original Hartnup family described in 1956, thereby defining SLC6A19 as the 'Hartnup'-gene. PMID:15667315

  18. Chlorpromazine, clozapine and olanzapine inhibit anionic amino acid transport in cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, C; Dall'Asta, V; Rotoli, B M; Bianchi, M G; Maggini, C; Gazzola, G C; Bussolati, O

    2006-09-01

    We report here that chlorpromazine, a first generation antipsychotic drug, inhibits anionic amino acid transport mediated by system X(-) (AG) (EAAT transporters) in cultured human fibroblasts. With 30 microM chlorpromazine, transport inhibition is detectable after 3 h of treatment, maximal after 48 h (>60%), and referable to a decrease in V(max). Chlorpromazine effect is not dependent upon changes of membrane potential and is selective for system X(-) (AG) since transport systems A and y(+) are not affected. Among antipsychotic drugs, the inhibitory effect of chlorpromazine is shared by two dibenzodiazepines, clozapine and olanzapine, while other compounds, such as risperidon, zuclopentixol, sertindol and haloperidol, are not effective. Transport inhibition by clozapine and olanzapine, but not by chlorpromazine, is reversible, suggesting that the mechanisms involved are distinct. These results indicate that a subset of antipsychotic drugs inhibits EAAT transporters in non-nervous tissues and prompt further investigation on possible alterations of glutamate transport in peripheral tissues of schizophrenic patients. PMID:16699818

  19. The transportation operations system: A description

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L.; Dixon, L.D.; Peterson, R.W. ); Pope, R.B. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the system for transporting radioactive waste that may be deployed to accomplish the assigned system mission, which includes accepting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from waste generator sites and transporting them to the FWMS destination facilities. The system description presented here contains, in part, irradiated fuel and waste casks, ancillary equipments, truck, rail, and barge transporters, cask and vehicle traffic management organizations, maintenance facilities, and other operations elements. The description is for a fully implemented system, which is not expected to be achieved, however, until several years after initial operations. 6 figs.

  20. Systems Studies of DDT Transport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, H. L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Major consequences of present and additional environmental quantities of DDT pesticide are predictable by mathematical models of transport, accumulation and concentration mechanisms in the Wisconsin regional ecosystem. High solubility and stability produce increased DDT concentrations at high organism trophic levels within world biosphere…

  1. Unraveling fatty acid transport and activation mechanisms in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thévenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid (FA) transport and activation have been extensively studied in the model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae but have rarely been examined in oleaginous yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica. Because the latter begins to be used in biodiesel production, understanding its FA transport and activation mechanisms is essential. We found that Y. lipolytica has FA transport and activation proteins similar to those of S. cerevisiae (Faa1p, Pxa1p, Pxa2p, Ant1p) but mechanism of FA peroxisomal transport and activation differs greatly with that of S. cerevisiae. While the ScPxa1p/ScPxa2p heterodimer is essential for growth on long-chain FAs, ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 is not impaired for growth on FAs. Meanwhile, ScAnt1p and YlAnt1p are both essential for yeast growth on medium-chain FAs, suggesting they function similarly. Interestingly, we found that the ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 ΔYlant1 mutant was unable to grow on short-, medium-, or long-chain FAs, suggesting that YlPxa1p, YlPxa2p, and YlAnt1p belong to two different FA degradation pathways. We also found that YlFaa1p is involved in FA storage in lipid bodies and that FA remobilization largely depended on YlFat1p, YlPxa1p and YlPxa2p. This study is the first to comprehensively examine FA intracellular transport and activation in oleaginous yeast. PMID:25887939

  2. Amino acid depletion activates TonEBP and sodium-coupled inositol transport.

    PubMed

    Franchi-Gazzola, R; Visigalli, R; Dall'Asta, V; Sala, R; Woo, S K; Kwon, H M; Gazzola, G C; Bussolati, O

    2001-06-01

    The expression of the osmosensitive sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) is regulated by multiple tonicity-responsive enhancers (TonEs) in the 5'-flanking region of the gene. In response to hypertonicity, the nuclear abundance of the transcription factor TonE-binding protein (TonEBP) is increased, and the transcription of the SMIT gene is induced. Transport system A for neutral amino acids, another osmosensitive mechanism, is progressively stimulated if amino acid substrates are not present in the extracellular compartment. Under this condition, as in hypertonicity, cells shrink and mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated. We demonstrate here that a clear-cut nuclear redistribution of TonEBP, followed by SMIT expression increase and inositol transport activation, is observed after incubation of cultured human fibroblasts in Earle's balanced salts (EBSS), an isotonic, amino acid-free saline. EBSS-induced SMIT stimulation is prevented by substrates of system A, although these compounds do not compete with inositol for transport through SMIT. We conclude that the incubation in isotonic, amino acid-free saline triggers an osmotic stimulus and elicits TonEBP-dependent responses like hypertonic treatment. PMID:11350742

  3. Hartnup disorder: polymorphisms identified in the neutral amino acid transporter SLC1A5.

    PubMed

    Potter, S J; Lu, A; Wilcken, B; Green, K; Rasko, J E J

    2002-10-01

    Hartnup disorder is an inborn error of renal and gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport. The cloning and functional characterization of the 'system B0' neutral amino acid transporter SLC1A5 led to it being proposed as a candidate gene for Hartnup disorder. Linkage analysis performed at 19q13.3, the chromosomal position of SLC1A5, was suggestive of an association with the Hartnup phenotype in some families. However, SLC1A5 was not linked to the Hartnup phenotype in other families. Linkage analysis also excluded an alternative candidate region at 11q13 implicated by a putative mouse model for Hartnup disorder. Sequencing of the coding region of SLC1A5 in Hartnup patients revealed two coding region polymorphisms. These mutations did not alter the predicted amino acid sequence of SLC1A5 and were considered unlikely to play a role in Hartnup disorder. There were no mutations in splice sites flanking each exon. Quantitative RT-PCR of SLC1A5 messenger RNA in affected and unaffected subjects did not support systemic differences in expression as an explanation for Hartnup disorder. In the six unrelated Hartnup pedigrees studied, examination of linkage at 19q13.3, polymorphisms in the coding sequence and quantitation of expression of SLC1A5 did not suffice to explain the defect in neutral amino acid transport. PMID:12555937

  4. Transportation Systems. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Gary K.

    This curriculum guide for a 1-semester or 1-year course in transportation provides activities that show and explain many of the occupations, devices, and systems that are related to transportation on land, water, air, and space. The guide contains competencies (task lists), student competency records, and management sheets. Management sheets,…

  5. Structural interaction with transportation and handling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Problems involved in the handling and transportation of finished space vehicles from the factory to the launch site are presented, in addition to recommendations for properly accounting for in space vehicle structural design, adverse interactions during transportation. Emphasis is given to the protection of vehicle structures against those environments and loads encountered during transportation (including temporary storage) which would exceed the levels that the vehicle can safely withstand. Current practices for verifying vehicle safety are appraised, and some of the capabilities and limitations of transportation and handling systems are summarized.

  6. Role of Secondary Transporters and Phosphotransferase Systems in Glucose Transport by Oenococcus oeni ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ok Bin; Richter, Hanno; Zaunmüller, Tanja; Graf, Sabrina; Unden, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Glucose uptake by the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni B1 was studied at the physiological and gene expression levels. Glucose- or fructose-grown bacteria catalyzed uptake of [14C]glucose over a pH range from pH 4 to 9, with maxima at pHs 5.5 and 7. Uptake occurred in two-step kinetics in a high- and low-affinity reaction. The high-affinity uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and required energization. It accumulated the radioactivity of glucose by a factor of 55 within the bacteria. A large portion (about 80%) of the uptake of glucose was inhibited by protonophores and ionophores. Uptake of the glucose at neutral pH was not sensitive to degradation of the proton potential, Δp. Expression of the genes OEOE_0819 and OEOE_1574 (here referred to as 0819 and 1574), coding for secondary transporters, was induced by glucose as identified by quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR. The genes 1574 and 0819 were able to complement growth of a Bacillus subtilis hexose transport-deficient mutant on glucose but not on fructose. The genes 1574 and 0819 therefore encode secondary transporters for glucose, and the transports are presumably Δp dependent. O. oeni codes, in addition, for a phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) (gene OEOE_0464 [0464] for the permease) with similarity to the fructose- and mannose-specific PTS of lactic acid bacteria. Quantitative RT-PCR showed induction of the gene 0464 by glucose and by fructose. The data suggest that the PTS is responsible for Δp-independent hexose transport at neutral pH and for the residual Δp-independent transport of hexoses at acidic pH. PMID:22020640

  7. Extraction and carrier-facilitated transport of amino acids using synthetic non-cyclic receptors through bulk liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pratibha; Joshi, Nidhi; Sharma, Uma

    2006-10-01

    The extraction and carrier-facilitated transport of amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) was studied through chloroform bulk liquid membrane system using a series of non-cyclic receptors such as diethylene glycol (1), diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (2), diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (3), diethylene glycol dibenzoate (4), triethylene glycol (5) and tetraethylene glycol (6). The amount of amino acid extracted and transported depends mainly upon the structure and the concentration of the receptors and also on the concentration of amino acid. The receptors 1 to 4, having small chain length and flexible end groups, formed stable complexes with amino acids, and the flexibility of receptors in different conformational forms was responsible for their carrier ability, while the receptors 5 and 6, having larger chain length showed poor carrier ability. Hydrophobicity of amino acids also play an important role in the extraction as well as transport process. PMID:17133741

  8. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355

  9. Regulation of hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Bsep expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xingguo; Buckley, David; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and bile salt export pump (Bsep) are two key transporters for hepatic bile acid uptake and excretion. Alterations in Ntcp and Bsep expression have been reported in pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effects of age, gender, and various chemicals on the regulation of these two transporters were characterized in mice. Ntcp and Bsep mRNA levels in mouse liver were low in the fetus, but increased to its highest expression at parturition. After birth, mouse Ntcp and Bsep mRNA decreased by more than 50%, and then gradually increased to adult levels by day 30. Expression of mouse Ntcp mRNA and protein exhibit higher levels in female than male livers, which is consistent with the trend of human NTCP mRNA expression between men and women. No gender difference exists in BSEP/Bsep expression in human and mouse livers. Hormone replacements conducted in gonadectomized, hypophysectomized, and lit/lit mice indicate that female-predominant Ntcp expression in mouse liver is due to the inhibitory effect of male-pattern GH secretion, but not sex hormones. Ntcp and Bsep expression are in general resistant to induction by a large battery of microsomal enzyme inducers. Administration of cholestyramine increased Ntcp, whereas chenodeoxycholic acid increased Bsep mRNA expression. In silico analysis indicates that female-predominant mouse and human Ntcp/NTCP expression may be due to GH. In conclusion, mouse Ntcp and Bsep are regulated by age, gender, cholestyramine, and bile acid, but resistant to induction by most microsomal enzyme inducers. PMID:17897632

  10. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  11. A Plasma Membrane Association Module in Yeast Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-07-29

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in silico analyses and mutational studies we found that the C-terminal sequences of Gap1, Bap2, Hip1, Tat1, Tat2, Mmp1, Sam3, Agp1, and Gnp1 are about 50 residues long, associate with the PM, and have features that discriminate them from the termini of organellar amino acid transporters. We show that this sequence (named PMasseq) contains an amphipathic α-helix and the FWC signature, which is palmitoylated by palmitoyltransferase Pfa4. Variations of PMasseq, found in different AAPs, lead to different mobilities and localization patterns, whereas the disruption of the sequence has an adverse effect on cell viability. We propose that PMasseq modulates the function and localization of AAPs along the PM. PMasseq is one of the most complex protein signals for plasma membrane association across species and can be used as a delivery vehicle for the PM. PMID:27226538

  12. Transport of free and peptide-bound glycated amino acids: synthesis, transepithelial flux at Caco-2 cell monolayers, and interaction with apical membrane transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Geissler, Stefanie; Matthes, René; Peto, Anett; Silow, Christoph; Brandsch, Matthias; Henle, Thomas

    2011-05-16

    In glycation reactions, the side chains of protein-bound nucleophilic amino acids such as lysine and arginine are post-translationally modified to a variety of derivatives also known as Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Considerable amounts of MRPs are taken up in food. Here we have studied the interactions of free and dipeptide-bound MRPs with intestinal transport systems. Free and dipeptide-bound derivatives of N(6)-(1-fructosyl)lysine (FL), N(6)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N(6)-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), formyline, argpyrimidine, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1) were synthesized. The inhibition of L-[(3)H]lysine and [(14) C]glycylsarcosine uptakes was measured in Caco-2 cells which express the H(+)/peptide transporter PEPT1 and lysine transport system(s). Glycated amino acids always displayed lower affinities than their unmodified analogues towards the L-[(3)H]lysine transporter(s). In contrast, all glycated dipeptides except Ala-FL were medium- to high-affinity inhibitors of [(14)C]Gly-Sar uptake. The transepithelial flux of the derivatives across Caco-2 cell monolayers was determined. Free amino acids and intact peptides derived from CML and CEL were translocated to very small extents. Application of peptide-bound MRPs, however, led to elevation (up to 80-fold) of the net flux and intracellular accumulation of glycated amino acids, which were hydrolyzed from the dipeptides inside the cells. We conclude 1) that free MRPs are not substrates for the intestinal lysine transporter(s), and 2) that dietary MRPs are absorbed into intestinal cells in the form of dipeptides, most likely by the peptide transporter PEPT1. After hydrolysis, hydrophobic glycated amino acids such as pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, and argpyrimidine undergo basolateral efflux, most likely by simple diffusion down their concentration gradients. PMID:21538757

  13. Propulsion system for research VTOL transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsma, L. W.; Zigan, S.

    1973-01-01

    In anticipation of an eventual VTOL requirement for civil aviation, NASA has been conducting studies directed toward determining and developing the technology required for a commercial VTOL transport. In this paper, the commercial transport configurations are briefly reviewed; the propulsion system specifications and components developed by the engine study contractor are presented and described; and methods for using the lift-propulsion system for aircraft attitude control are discussed.

  14. Heteromeric amino acid transporters. In search of the molecular bases of transport cycle mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palacín, Manuel; Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Rosell, Albert

    2016-06-15

    Heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are relevant targets for structural studies. On the one hand, HATs are involved in inherited and acquired human pathologies. On the other hand, these molecules are the only known examples of solute transporters composed of two subunits (heavy and light) linked by a disulfide bridge. Unfortunately, structural knowledge of HATs is scarce and limited to the atomic structure of the ectodomain of a heavy subunit (human 4F2hc-ED) and distant prokaryotic homologues of the light subunits that share a LeuT-fold. Recent data on human 4F2hc/LAT2 at nanometer resolution revealed 4F2hc-ED positioned on top of the external loops of the light subunit LAT2. Improved resolution of the structure of HATs, combined with conformational studies, is essential to establish the structural bases for light subunit recognition and to evaluate the functional relevance of heavy and light subunit interactions for the amino acid transport cycle. PMID:27284037

  15. Electromagnetic effects on transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.E.; Dinallo, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Electronic and electrical system protection design can be used to eliminate deleterious effects from lightning, electromagnetic interference, and electrostatic discharges. Evaluation of conventional lightning protection systems using advanced computational modeling in conjunction with rocket-triggered lightning tests suggests that currently used lightning protection system design rules are inadequate and that significant improvements in best practices used for electronic and electrical system protection designs are possible. A case study of lightning induced upset and failure of a railway signal and control system is sketched.

  16. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  17. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Taro Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  18. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.; McFadden, M.

    1993-12-01

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ``B`` package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ``TRANSCOM``.

  19. ABC transporter AtABCG25 is involved in abscisic acid transport and responses

    PubMed Central

    Kuromori, Takashi; Miyaji, Takaaki; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; Shimizu, Hidetada; Sugimoto, Eriko; Kamiya, Asako; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important phytohormones involved in abiotic stress responses, seed maturation, germination, and senescence. ABA is predominantly produced in vascular tissues and exerts hormonal responses in various cells, including guard cells. Although ABA responses require extrusion of ABA from ABA-producing cells in an intercellular ABA signaling pathway, the transport mechanisms of ABA through the plasma membrane remain unknown. Here we isolated an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, AtABCG25, from Arabidopsis by genetically screening for ABA sensitivity. AtABCG25 was expressed mainly in vascular tissues. The fluorescent protein-fused AtABCG25 was localized at the plasma membrane in plant cells. In membrane vesicles derived from AtABCG25-expressing insect cells, AtABCG25 exhibited ATP-dependent ABA transport. The AtABCG25-overexpressing plants showed higher leaf temperatures, implying an influence on stomatal regulation. These results strongly suggest that AtABCG25 is an exporter of ABA and is involved in the intercellular ABA signaling pathway. The presence of the ABA transport mechanism sheds light on the active control of multicellular ABA responses to environmental stresses among plant cells. PMID:20133881

  20. Impact of Microbial Growth on Subsurface Perfluoroalkyl Acid Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, T. S.; Higgins, C. P.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The fate and transport of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the presence of active microbial communities has not been widely investigated. These emerging contaminants are commonly utilized in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) and have often been detected in groundwater. This study explores the transport of a suite of perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluoroalkylsulfonates, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in microbially active settings. Single point organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients derived by exposing inactive cellular material to PFASs result in more than an order of magnitude increase in sorption compared to soil organic carbon sorption coefficients found in literature. For example, the sorption coefficients for PFOS are 4.05±0.07 L/kg and 2.80±0.08 L/kg for cellular organic carbon and soil organic carbon respectively. This increase in sorption, coupled with enhanced extracellular polymeric substance production observed during growth of a common hydrocarbon degrading soil microbe exposed to source-level concentrations of PFASs (10 mg/L of 11 analytes, 110 mg/L total) may result in PFAS retardation in situ. To address the upscaling of this phenomenon, flow-through columns packed with low-organic carbon sediment and biostimulated with 10 mg/L glucose were exposed to PFAS concentrations from 15 μg/L to 10 mg/L of each 11 analytes. Breakthrough and tailing of each analyte was measured and modeled with Hydrus-1D to explore sorption coefficients over time for microbially active columns.

  1. MINIATURE ACID CONDENSATION SYSTEM: DESIGN AND OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extractive source sampling system was designed and constructed. The sampling system measures gaseous sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide in combustion emissions. The miniature acid condensation system (MACS) includes a high-temperature quartz probe and quartz-filter holder. Since...

  2. TRANSIMS: Transportation analysis and simulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.; Beckman, R.; Baggerly, K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes the TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System (TRANSIMS) Project, the system`s major modules, and the project`s near-term plans. TRANSIMS will employ advanced computational and analytical techniques to create an integrated regional transportation systems analysis environment. The simulation environment will include a regional population of individual travelers and freight loads with travel activities and plans, whose individual interactions will be simulated on the transportation system, and whose environmental impact will be determined. We will develop an interim operational capability (IOC) for each major TRANSIMS module during the five-year program. When the IOC is ready, we will complete a specific case study to confirm the IOC features, applicability, and readiness.

  3. TRANSIMS: TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.; Beckman, R.; Anson, D.; Nagel, K.; Williams, M.

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System (TRANSIMS) Project, the system`s major modules, and the project`s near-term plans. TRANSIMS will employ advanced computational and analytical techniques to create an integrated regional transportation systems analysis environment. The simulation environment will include a regional population of individual travelers and freight loads with travel activities and plans, whose individual interactions will be simulated on the transportation system, and whose environmental impact will be determined. We will develop an interim operational capability (IOC) for each major TRANSIMS module during the five-year program. When the IOC is ready, we will complete a specific case study to confirm the IOC features, applicability, and readiness.

  4. Fire and materials modeling for transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skocypec, R.D.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Nicolette, V.F.; Tieszen, S.R.; Thomas, R.

    1994-10-01

    Fire is an important threat to the safety of transportation systems. Therefore, understanding the effects of fire (and its interaction with materials) on transportation systems is crucial to quantifying and mitigating the impact of fire on the safety of those systems. Research and development directed toward improving the fire safety of transportation systems must address a broad range of phenomena and technologies, including: crash dynamics, fuel dispersion, fire environment characterization, material characterization, and system/cargo thermal response modeling. In addition, if the goal of the work is an assessment and/or reduction of risk due to fires, probabilistic risk assessment technology is also required. The research currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in each of these areas is summarized in this paper.

  5. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengbo; Yang, Xiaojian; Lackeyram, Dale; Rideout, Todd C; Wang, Zirong; Stoll, Barbara; Yin, Yulong; Burrin, Douglas G; Fan, Ming Z

    2016-06-01

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA co-transporter (B(0)AT1, encoded by the SLC6A19 gene) plays a dominant role for apical uptake of large neutral AA including L-Gln, we hypothesized that high apical Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity, and B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) in co-expression with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) were expressed along the entire small intestinal crypt-villus axis in young animals via unique control mechanisms. Kinetics of Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity in the apical membrane vesicles, prepared from epithelial cells sequentially isolated along the jejunal crypt-villus axis from liquid formula-fed young pigs, were measured with the membrane potential being clamped to zero using thiocyanate. Apical maximal Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity was much higher (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus (by 29 %) and the crypt (by 30 %) cells, whereas Na(+)-Gln co-transport affinity was lower (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus and the crypt cells. The B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) mRNA abundance was lower (p < 0.05) in the crypt (by 40-47 %) than in the villus cells. There were no significant differences in B(0)AT1 and ACE2 protein abundances on the apical membrane among the upper villus, the middle villus and the crypt cells. Our study suggests that piglet fast growth is associated with very high intestinal apical Na(+)-neutral AA uptake activities via abundantly co-expressing B(0)AT1 and ACE2 proteins in the apical membrane and by transcribing the B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) gene in the epithelia along the entire crypt-villus axis. PMID:26984322

  6. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Lara A.; Boron, Walter F.; Zhou, Yuehan

    2015-01-01

    Each day, the kidneys filter 180 L of blood plasma, equating to some 4,300 mmol of the major blood buffer, bicarbonate (HCO3−). The glomerular filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule (PT), and the majority of filtered HCO3− is reclaimed along the early (S1) and convoluted (S2) portions of the PT in a manner coupled to the secretion of H+ into the lumen. The PT also uses the secreted H+ to titrate non-HCO3− buffers in the lumen, in the process creating “new HCO3−” for transport into the blood. Thus, the PT – along with more distal renal segments – is largely responsible for regulating plasma [HCO3−]. In this review we first focus on the milestone discoveries over the past 50+ years that define the mechanism and regulation of acid-base transport by the proximal tubule. Further on in the review, we will summarize research still in progress from our laboratory, work that addresses the problem of how the PT is able to finely adapt to acid–base disturbances by rapidly sensing changes in basolateral levels of HCO3− and CO2 (but not pH), and thereby to exert tight control over the acid–base composition of the blood plasma. PMID:21170887

  7. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  8. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems....

  9. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  11. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  12. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems....

  13. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems....

  14. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems....

  15. Design of a lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  16. Folate and Vitamin B12 Transport Systems in the Developing Infant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B vitamin transport systems in infants are not as well studied as those for amino acids and glucose. For most B vitamins, a 2-step process allows for digestion of coenzyme forms of the vitamins in food, followed by specific transport systems for the free vitamin in the intestine. Folate and vitamin ...

  17. Hyperspectral imaging utility for transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. Bruce; Tolliver, Denver

    2015-03-01

    The global transportation system is massive, open, and dynamic. Existing performance and condition assessments of the complex interacting networks of roadways, bridges, railroads, pipelines, waterways, airways, and intermodal ports are expensive. Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging remote sensing technique for the non-destructive evaluation of multimodal transportation infrastructure. Unlike panchromatic, color, and infrared imaging, each layer of a hyperspectral image pixel records reflectance intensity from one of dozens or hundreds of relatively narrow wavelength bands that span a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Hence, every pixel of a hyperspectral scene provides a unique spectral signature that offers new opportunities for informed decision-making in transportation systems development, operations, and maintenance. Spaceborne systems capture images of vast areas in a short period but provide lower spatial resolution than airborne systems. Practitioners use manned aircraft to achieve higher spatial and spectral resolution, but at the price of custom missions and narrow focus. The rapid size and cost reduction of unmanned aircraft systems promise a third alternative that offers hybrid benefits at affordable prices by conducting multiple parallel missions. This research formulates a theoretical framework for a pushbroom type of hyperspectral imaging system on each type of data acquisition platform. The study then applies the framework to assess the relative potential utility of hyperspectral imaging for previously proposed remote sensing applications in transportation. The authors also introduce and suggest new potential applications of hyperspectral imaging in transportation asset management, network performance evaluation, and risk assessments to enable effective and objective decision- and policy-making.

  18. Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

  19. Transport and signaling via the amino acid binding site of the yeast Gap1 amino acid transceptor.

    PubMed

    Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Bonini, Beatriz Monge; Versele, Matthias; Thevelein, Johan M

    2009-01-01

    Transporter-related nutrient sensors, called transceptors, mediate nutrient activation of signaling pathways through the plasma membrane. The mechanism of action of transporting and nontransporting transceptors is unknown. We have screened 319 amino acid analogs to identify compounds that act on Gap1, a transporting amino acid transceptor in yeast that triggers activation of the protein kinase A pathway. We identified competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors of transport, either with or without agonist action for signaling, including nontransported agonists. Using substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) analysis, we identified Ser388 and Val389 as being exposed into the amino acid binding site, and we show that agonist action for signaling uses the same binding site as used for transport. Our results provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the mechanism of action of transceptors. They indicate that signaling requires a ligand-induced specific conformational change that may be part of but does not require the complete transport cycle. PMID:19060912

  20. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Finnveden, Göran Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed.

  1. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-10-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  3. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-10-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  4. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  5. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation System launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of NASA's Advanced Space Transportation System plans, with a view to the support systems that must be evolved in order to implement such long-term mission requirements; these encompass space-based infrastructure for orbital transfer operations between LEO and GEO, and for operations from LEO to lunar orbit and to Mars. These mission requirements are addressed by the NASA Civil Needs Data Base in order to promote multiple applications. The requisite near-term lift capacity to LEO could be achieved through the development of the Shuttle-derived, unmanned Shuttle-C cargo launch system. Longer-term transportation studies are concerned with the Next Manned Transportation System and Space Transfer Vehicles.

  6. Transportable Vitrification System Demonstration on Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from the first demonstration of the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) on actual mixed waste. The TVS is a fully integrated, transportable system for the treatment of mixed and low-level radioactive wastes. The demonstration was conducted at Oak Ridge`s East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly known as the K-25 site. The purpose of the demonstration was to show that mixed wastes could be vitrified safely on a `field` scale using joule-heated melter technology and obtain information on system performance, waste form durability, air emissions, and costs.

  7. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  8. Monte Carlo Nucleon Meson Transport Code System.

    2000-11-17

    Version 00 NMTC/JAERI97 is an upgraded version of the code system NMTC/JAERI, which was developed in 1982 at JAERI and is based on the CCC-161/NMTC code system. NMTC/JAERI97 simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nucleon-meson transport processes.

  9. Alternative battery systems for transportation uses

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Thackeray

    2013-06-05

    Argonne Distinguished Fellow Michael Thackeray highlights the need for alternative battery systems for transportation uses. Such systems will not only need to be smaller, lighter and more energy dense, but also able to make electric vehicles more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles.

  10. Alternative battery systems for transportation uses

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Thackeray

    2012-07-25

    Argonne Distinguished Fellow Michael Thackeray highlights the need for alternative battery systems for transportation uses. Such systems will not only need to be smaller, lighter and more energy dense, but also able to make electric vehicles more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles.

  11. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: Application of a reactive transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    A reactive transport model based on one-dimensional transport and equilibrium chemistry is applied to synoptic data from an acid mine drainage stream. Model inputs include streamflow estimates based on tracer dilution, inflow chemistry based on synoptic sampling, and equilibrium constants describing acid/base, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption reactions. The dominant features of observed spatial profiles in pH and metal concentration are reproduced along the 3.5-km study reach by simulating the precipitation of Fe(III) and Al solid phases and the sorption of Cu, As, and Pb onto freshly precipitated iron-(III) oxides. Given this quantitative description of existing conditions, additional simulations are conducted to estimate the streamwater quality that could result from two hypothetical remediation plans. Both remediation plans involve the addition of CaCO3 to raise the pH of a small, acidic inflow from ???2.4 to ???7.0. This pH increase results in a reduced metal load that is routed downstream by the reactive transport model, thereby providing an estimate of post-remediation water quality. The first remediation plan assumes a closed system wherein inflow Fe(II) is not oxidized by the treatment system; under the second remediation plan, an open system is assumed, and Fe(II) is oxidized within the treatment system. Both plans increase instream pH and substantially reduce total and dissolved concentrations of Al, As, Cu, and Fe(II+III) at the terminus of the study reach. Dissolved Pb concentrations are reduced by ???18% under the first remediation plan due to sorption onto iron-(III) oxides within the treatment system and stream channel. In contrast, iron(III) oxides are limiting under the second remediation plan, and removal of dissolved Pb occurs primarily within the treatment system. This limitation results in an increase in dissolved Pb concentrations over existing conditions as additional downstream sources of Pb are not attenuated by

  12. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  13. The D-amino acid transport by the invertebrate SLC6 transporters KAAT1 and CAATCH1 from Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Vollero, Alessandra; Imperiali, Francesca G; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Margheritis, Eleonora; Peres, Antonio; Bossi, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The ability of the SLC6 family members, the insect neutral amino acid cotransporter KAAT1(K(+)-coupled amino acid transporter 1) and its homologous CAATCH1(cation anion activated amino acid transporter/channel), to transport D-amino acids has been investigated through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiological techniques. In the presence of D-isomers of leucine, serine, and proline, the msKAAT1 generates inward, transport-associated, currents with variable relative potencies, depending on the driving ion Na(+) or K(+). Higher concentrations of D-leucine (≥1 mmol/L) give rise to an anomalous response that suggests the existence of a second binding site with inhibitory action on the transport process. msCAATCH1 is also able to transport the D-amino acids tested, including D-leucine, whereas L-leucine acts as a blocker. A similar behavior is exhibited by the KAAT1 mutant S308T, confirming the relevance of the residue in this position in L-leucine binding and the different interaction of D-leucine with residues involved in transport mechanism. D-leucine and D-serine on various vertebrate orthologs B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) elicited only a very small current and singular behavior was not observed, indicating that it is specific of the insect neutral amino acid transporters. These findings highlight the relevance of D-amino acid absorption in the insect nutrition and metabolism and may provide new evidences in the molecular transport mechanism of SLC6 family. PMID:26884475

  14. A Robust Scalable Transportation System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew; DeLaurentis, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the 2005 Revolutionary System Concept for Aeronautics (RSCA) study entitled "A Robust, Scalable Transportation System Concept". The objective of the study was to generate, at a high-level of abstraction, characteristics of a new concept for the National Airspace System, or the new NAS, under which transportation goals such as increased throughput, delay reduction, and improved robustness could be realized. Since such an objective can be overwhelmingly complex if pursued at the lowest levels of detail, instead a System-of-Systems (SoS) approach was adopted to model alternative air transportation architectures at a high level. The SoS approach allows the consideration of not only the technical aspects of the NAS", but also incorporates policy, socio-economic, and alternative transportation system considerations into one architecture. While the representations of the individual systems are basic, the higher level approach allows for ways to optimize the SoS at the network level, determining the best topology (i.e. configuration of nodes and links). The final product (concept) is a set of rules of behavior and network structure that not only satisfies national transportation goals, but represents the high impact rules that accomplish those goals by getting the agents to "do the right thing" naturally. The novel combination of Agent Based Modeling and Network Theory provides the core analysis methodology in the System-of-Systems approach. Our method of approach is non-deterministic which means, fundamentally, it asks and answers different questions than deterministic models. The nondeterministic method is necessary primarily due to our marriage of human systems with technological ones in a partially unknown set of future worlds. Our goal is to understand and simulate how the SoS, human and technological components combined, evolve.

  15. Fatty acid transport protein 1 can compensate for fatty acid transport protein 4 in the developing mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meei-Hua; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 is one of a family of six FATPs that facilitate long- and very-long-chain fatty acid uptake. Mice lacking FATP4 are born with tight, thick skin and a defective barrier; they die neonatally because of dehydration and restricted movements. Mutations in SLC27A4, the gene encoding FATP4, cause ichthyosis prematurity syndrome (IPS), characterized by premature birth, respiratory distress, and edematous skin with severe ichthyotic scaling. Symptoms of surviving patients become mild, although atopic manifestations are common. We previously showed that suprabasal keratinocyte expression of a Fatp4 transgene in Fatp4 mutant skin rescues the lethality and ameliorates the skin phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that FATP1, the closest FATP4 homolog, can compensate for the lack of FATP4 in our mouse model of IPS, as it might do postnatally in IPS patients. Transgenic expression of FATP1 in suprabasal keratinocytes rescued the phenotype of Fatp4 mutants, and FATP1 sorted to the same intracellular organelles as endogenous FATP4. Thus, FATP1 and FATP4 likely have overlapping substrate specificities, enzymatic activities, and biological functions. These results suggest that increasing expression of FATP1 in suprabasal keratinocytes could normalize the skin of IPS patients and perhaps prevent the atopic manifestations. PMID:25184958

  16. Amyloid protein precursor stimulates excitatory amino acid transport. Implications for roles in neuroprotection and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masliah, E; Raber, J; Alford, M; Mallory, M; Mattson, M P; Yang, D; Wong, D; Mucke, L

    1998-05-15

    Excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate are required for the normal functioning of the central nervous system but can trigger excitotoxic neuronal injury if allowed to accumulate to abnormally high levels. Their extracellular levels are controlled primarily by transmitter uptake into astrocytes. Here, we demonstrate that the amyloid protein precursor may participate in the regulation of this important process. The amyloid protein precursor has been well conserved through evolution, and a number of studies indicate that it may function as an endogenous excitoprotectant. However, the mechanisms underlying this neuroprotective capacity remain largely unknown. At moderate levels of expression, human amyloid protein precursors increased glutamate/aspartate uptake in brains of transgenic mice, with the 751-amino acid isoform showing greater potency than the 695-amino acid isoform. Cerebral glutamate/aspartate transporter protein levels were higher in transgenic mice than in non-transgenic controls, whereas transporter mRNA levels were unchanged. Amyloid protein precursor-dependent stimulation of aspartate uptake by cultured primary astrocytes was associated with increases in protein kinase A and C activity and could be blocked by inhibitors of these kinases. The stimulation of astroglial excitatory amino acid transport by amyloid protein precursors could protect the brain against excitotoxicity and may play an important role in neurotransmission. PMID:9575214

  17. Mars transportation system - Architecture trade study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Malloy, John D.

    1992-07-01

    An advanced Mars base resupply transportation system utilizing nuclear thermal rockets, a split/sprint architecture, and conjunction class trajectories for the manned flight segments was studied to determine the impact of engine characteristics other than specific impulse. High engine thrust-to-weight ratios were found to offer significant performance improvements and engine clustering and shielding strategies were found to interrelate to the engine thrust-to-weight ratio in a complex manner. Performance tradeoffs of alternate abort mode and engine disposal strategies were assessed. The significant benefits of the use of indigenous Martian materials to support the transportation system were quantified.

  18. Acoustic system for material transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An object within a chamber is acoustically moved by applying wavelengths of different modes to the chamber to move the object between pressure wells formed by the modes. In one system, the object is placed in one end of the chamber while a resonant mode, applied along the length of the chamber, produces a pressure well at the location. The frequency is then switched to a second mode that produces a pressure well at the center of the chamber, to draw the object. When the object reaches the second pressure well and is still traveling towards the second end of the chamber, the acoustic frequency is again shifted to a third mode (which may equal the first model) that has a pressure well in the second end portion of the chamber, to draw the object. A heat source may be located near the second end of the chamber to heat the sample, and after the sample is heated it can be cooled by moving it in a corresponding manner back to the first end of the chamber. The transducers for levitating and moving the object may be all located at the cool first end of the chamber.

  19. The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W.; Hassberger, J.A.; Smith, C.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Peddicord, K.L.; Stroh, K.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-05-27

    The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) system is a development architecture for implementing a small nuclear power system, specifically aimed at meeting the growing energy needs of much of the developing world. It simultaneously provides very high standards for safety, proliferation resistance, ease and economy of installation, operation, and ultimate disposition. The STAR system accomplishes these objectives through a combination of modular design, factory manufacture, long lifetime without refueling, autonomous control, and high reliability.

  20. Enterobacteria modulate intestinal bile acid transport and homeostasis through apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (SLC10A2) expression.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hamatsu, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    In our study, ampicillin (AMP)-mediated decrease of enterobacteria caused increases in hepatic bile acid concentration through (at least in part) elevation of bile acid synthesis in C57BL/6N mice. We investigated the involvement of enterobacteria on intestinal bile acid absorption in AMP-treated mice in the present study. Fecal enterobacterial levels and fecal bile acid excretion rates were markedly decreased in mice treated with AMP (100 mg/kg) for 3 days, whereas bile acid concentrations in portal blood were significantly increased compared with those in mice treated with a vehicle. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (SLC10A2) mRNA levels and ileal SLC10A2 protein levels in brush-border membranes were significantly increased compared with those in mice treated with the vehicle. In AMP-treated mice, total bile acid levels were increased, whereas levels of enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and cholic acid were decreased in intestinal lumen. These phenomena were also observed in farnesoid X receptor-null mice treated with AMP for 3 days. Discontinuation of AMP administration after 3 days (vehicle administration for 4 days) increased levels of fecal enterobacteria, fecal bile acid excretion, and taurodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid in the intestinal lumen, whereas the discontinuation decreased ileal SLC10A2 expression and bile acid concentrations in the portal blood. Coadministration of taurodeoxycholic acid or cholic acid decreased ileal SLC10A2 expression in mice treated with AMP. These results suggest that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid biotransformation modulates intestinal bile acid transport and homeostasis through down-regulation of ileal SLC10A2 expression. PMID:20884752

  1. A Mars/phobos Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A transportation system will be necessary to support construction and operation of bases on Phobos and Mars beginning in the year 2020 or later. An approach to defining a network of vehicles and the types of vehicles which may be used in the system are presented. The network will provide a convenient, integrated means for transporting robotically constructed bases to Phobos and Mars. All the technology needed for the current plan is expected to be available for use at the projected date of cargo departure from the Earth system. The modular design of the transportation system provides easily implemented contingency plans, so that difficulties with any one vehicle will have a minimal effect on the progress of the total mission. The transportation network proposed consists of orbital vehicles and atmospheric entry vehicles. Initially, only orbital vehicles will participate in the robotic construction phase of the Phobos base. The Interplanetary Transfer Vehicle (ITV) will carry the base and construction equipment to Phobos where the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicles (OMV's) will participate in the initial construction of the base. When the Mars base is ready to be sent, one or more ITV's will be used to transport the atmospheric entry vehicles from Earth. These atmospheric vehicles are the One Way Landers (OWL's) and the Ascent/Descent Vehicles (ADV's). They will be used to carry the base components and/or construction equipment. The OMV's and the Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV's) will assist in carrying the atmospheric entry vehicles to low Martian orbit where the OWL's or ADV's will descent to the planet surface. The ADV's were proposed to accommodate expansion of the system. Additionally, a smaller version of the ADV class is capable of transporting personnel between Mars and Phobos.

  2. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 Facilitates the Blood-Brain Barrier Transport of Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijun; Scanlon, Martin J; Owada, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yui; Porter, Christopher J H; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-12-01

    The brain has a limited ability to synthesize the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from its omega-3 fatty acid precursors. Therefore, to maintain brain concentrations of this PUFA at physiological levels, plasma-derived DHA must be transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). While DHA is able to partition into the luminal membrane of brain endothelial cells, its low aqueous solubility likely limits its cytosolic transfer to the abluminal membrane, necessitating the requirement of an intracellular carrier protein to facilitate trafficking of this PUFA across the BBB. As the intracellular carrier protein fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is expressed at the human BBB, the current study assessed the putative role of FABP5 in the brain endothelial cell uptake and BBB transport of DHA in vitro and in vivo, respectively. hFAPB5 was recombinantly expressed and purified from Escherichia coli C41(DE3) cells and the binding affinity of DHA to hFABP5 assessed using isothermal titration calorimetry. The impact of FABP5 siRNA on uptake of (14)C-DHA into immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells was assessed. An in situ transcardiac perfusion method was optimized in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently used to compare the BBB influx rate (Kin) of (14)C-DHA between FABP5-deficient (FABP5(-/-)) and wild-type (FABP5(+/+)) C57BL/6 mice. DHA bound to hFABP5 with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 155 ± 8 nM (mean ± SEM). FABP5 siRNA transfection decreased hCMEC/D3 mRNA and protein expression of FABP5 by 53.2 ± 5.5% and 44.8 ± 13.7%, respectively, which was associated with a 14.1 ± 2.7% reduction in (14)C-DHA cellular uptake. By using optimized conditions for the in situ transcardiac perfusion (a 1 min preperfusion (10 mL/min) followed by perfusion of (14)C-DHA (1 min)), the Kin of (14)C-DHA was 0.04 ± 0.01 mL/g/s. Relative to FABP5(+/+) mice, the Kin of (14)C-DHA decreased 36.7 ± 12.4% in FABP5(-/-) mice

  3. Charged Amino Acids (R83, E567, D617, E625, R669, and K678) of CusA Are Required for Metal Ion Transport in the Cus Efflux System

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Chih-Chia; Long, Feng; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Reddy Bolla, Jani; Do, Sylvia V.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Yu, Edward W.

    2012-10-23

    Gram-negative bacteria expel various toxic chemicals via tripartite efflux pumps belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily. These pumps span both the inner and outer membranes of the cell. The three components of these tripartite systems are an inner-membrane, substrate-binding transporter (or pump); a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (or adaptor); and an outer-membrane-anchored channel. These three efflux proteins interact in the periplasmic space to form the three-part complexes. We previously presented the crystal structures of both the inner-membrane transporter CusA and membrane fusion protein CusB of the CusCBA tripartite efflux system from Escherichia coli. We also described the co-crystal structure of the CusBA adaptor-transporter, revealing that the trimeric CusA efflux pump assembles with six CusB protein molecules to form the complex CusB{sub 6}-CusA{sub 3}. We here report three different conformers of the crystal structures of CusBA-Cu(I), suggesting a mechanism on how Cu(I) binding initiates a sequence of conformational transitions in the transport cycle. Genetic analysis and transport assays indicate that charged residues, in addition to the methionine pairs and clusters, are essential for extruding metal ions out of the cell.

  4. Transportation systems analyses. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The principal objective is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform crew delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery and return, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include: the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationship between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. Conceptual studies of transportation elements contribute to the systems approach by identifying elements (such as ETO node and transfer/excursion vehicles) needed in current and planned transportation systems. These studies are also a mechanism to integrate the results of relevant parallel studies.

  5. Relative Rates of Amino Acid Import via the ABC Transporter GlnPQ Determine the Growth Performance of Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Fulyani, Faizah; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The GlnPQ transporter from Lactococcus lactis has the remarkable feature of having two substrate-binding domains (SBDs) fused to the N terminus of the transmembrane domain (TMD), and thus four SBDs are present in the homodimeric complex. Although X-ray structures and ligand binding data are available for both SBDs, little is known of how different amino acids compete with each other for transport via GlnPQ. Here we show GlnPQ has a broader substrate specificity than previously thought, with the ability to take up asparagine, glutamine, and glutamic acid, albeit via different routes and with different affinities. Asparagine and glutamine compete with each other at the level of binding to SBD1 and SBD2 (with differences in dissociation constant), but at the same time SBD1 and SBD2 compete with each other at the level of interaction with the translocator domain (with differences in affinity constant and rate of transport). Although glutamine transport via SBD1 is outcompeted by physiological concentrations of asparagine, SBD2 ensures high rates of import of the essential amino acid glutamine. Taken together, this study demonstrates that even in the presence of competing asparagine concentrations, GlnPQ has a high capacity to transport glutamine, which matches the high needs of the cell for glutamine and glutamate. IMPORTANCE GlnPQ is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter for glutamine, glutamic acid, and asparagine. The system is essential in various Gram-positive bacteria, including L. lactis and several pathogens. Here we show how the amino acids compete with each other for binding to the multiple SBDs of GlnPQ and how these SBDs compete with each other for substrate delivery to the transporter. Overall, our results show that GlnPQ has evolved to transport diverse substrates via different paths and to optimally acquire the abundant and essential amino acid glutamine. PMID:26553850

  6. Report membrane transport of lactic acid in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  7. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  8. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  9. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  10. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  11. Interaction of α-Lipoic Acid with the Human Na+/Multivitamin Transporter (hSMVT).

    PubMed

    Zehnpfennig, Britta; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Carlson, David A; Quick, Matthias

    2015-06-26

    The human Na(+)/multivitamin transporter (hSMVT) has been suggested to transport α-lipoic acid (LA), a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent used in therapeutic applications, e.g. in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy and Alzheimer disease. However, the molecular basis of the cellular delivery of LA and in particular the stereospecificity of the transport process are not well understood. Here, we expressed recombinant hSMVT in Pichia pastoris and used affinity chromatography to purify the detergent-solubilized protein followed by reconstitution of hSMVT in lipid bilayers. Using a combined approach encompassing radiolabeled LA transport and equilibrium binding studies in conjunction with the stabilized R-(+)- and S-(-)-enantiomers and the R,S-(+/-) racemic mixture of LA or lipoamide, we identified the biologically active form of LA, R-LA, to be the physiological substrate of hSMVT. Interaction of R-LA with hSMVT is strictly dependent on Na(+). Under equilibrium conditions, hSMVT can simultaneously bind ~2 molecules of R-LA in a biphasic binding isotherm with dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.9 and 7.4 μm. Transport of R-LA in the oocyte and reconstituted system is exclusively dependent on Na(+) and exhibits an affinity of ~3 μm. Measuring transport with known amounts of protein in proteoliposomes containing hSMVT in outside-out orientation yielded a catalytic turnover number (kcat) of about 1 s(-1), a value that is well in agreement with other Na(+)-coupled transporters. Our data suggest that hSMVT-mediated transport is highly specific for R-LA at our tested concentration range, a finding with wide ramifications for the use of LA in therapeutic applications. PMID:25971966

  12. Low energy beam transport system developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  13. Regulatory signals for intestinal amino acid transporters and peptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, R.P.; Kwan, W.W.; Diamond, J. )

    1988-08-01

    Dietary protein ultimately regulates many processes involved in protein digestion, but it is often unclear whether proteins themselves, peptides, or amino acids (AAs) are the proximate regulatory signal. Hence the authors compared several processes involved in protein digestion in mice adapted to one of three rations, identical except for containing 54% of either casein, a partial hydrolysate of casein, or a free AA mixture simulating a complete hydrolysate of casein. The authors measured brush-border uptakes of seven AAs that variously serve as substrates for four AA transporters, and brush-border and cytosolic activities of four peptidases. The three rations yielded essentially the same AA uptake rates. Peptidase activities tended to be lower on the AA ration than on the protein ration. In other studies, all three rations yielded the same rates of brush-border peptide uptake; protein is only modestly more effective than AAs at inducing synthesis of pancreatic proteases; and, depending on the animal species, protein is either much less or much more effective than AAs at stimulating release of cholecystokinin and hence of pancreatic enzymes. Thus the regulators of each process involved in protein digestion are not necessarily that process's substrate.

  14. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A heat transport system, method and composite material in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure.

  15. PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable Transport System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aherne, Michael; Davis, Phil; England, Matt; Gustavsson, Jake; Pankow, Steve; Sampaio, Chere; Savella, Phil

    2002-01-01

    The Plasma Accelerated Reusable Transport System (PARTS) is an unmanned cargo shuttle intended to ferry large payloads to and from Martian orbit using a highly efficient VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). The design of PARTS focuses on balancing cost and minimizing transit time for a chosen payload consisting of vehicles, satellites, and other components provided by interested parties.

  16. Tomorrows' Air Transportation System Breakout Series Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss tomorrow's air transportation system. Section of this presentation includes: chair comments; other general comments; surface congestion alleviation; runway productivity; enhanced arrival/departure tools; integrated airspace decision support tools; national traffic flow management, runway independent operations; ATM TFM weather; and terminal weather.

  17. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  18. Involvement of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter Lat2 in the Transport of 3,3′-Diiodothyronine across the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kinne, Anita; Wittner, Melanie; Wirth, Eva K.; Hinz, Katrin M.; Schülein, Ralf; Köhrle, Josef; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are transported across cell membranes by transmembrane transporter proteins, for example by members of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) and the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) families. LATs consist of a light chain (e.g. LAT2) and a heavy chain (CD98), which is essential for their cell surface expression and functionality. The specificity of Lat2 for thyroid hormones and their metabolites and its role in their transport was not fully clear. This fact motivated us to establish a cell system to elucidate the uptake of thyroid hormones and their metabolites by mouse Lat2. The coinjection of cRNA coding for Lat2 and CD98 into Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a markedly increased level of 3,3′-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,3′-T2) and to some extent also enhanced T3 transport. To gain insight into properties of thyroid hormones and their metabolites transported by Lat2, we inhibited 3,3′-T2 uptake by various iodothyronine derivatives. T1 and T2 derivatives as well as 2-aminobicyclo-[2, 2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid strongly competed with 3,3′-T2 uptake. In addition, we performed T2 uptake measurements with the thyroid hormone-specific transporter MCT8. For both Lat2 and MCT8, Km values in a low micromolar range were calculated. We demonstrated that oocytes are a suitable system for thyroid hormone transport studies mediated by Lat2. Our data indicates that Lat2 compared to other thyroid hormone transporters prefers 3,3′-T2 as the substrate. Thus, Lat2 might contribute to the availability of thyroid hormone by importing and/or exporting 3,3′-T2, which is generated either by T3 inactivation or by rapid deiodinase 1-mediated rT3 degradation. PMID:26601072

  19. Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1 extension: Transportation systems reference data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Transportation mass requirements are developed for various mission and transportation modes based on vehicle systems sized to fit the exact needs of each mission. The parametric data used to derive the mass requirements for each mission and transportation mode are presented to enable accommodation of possible changes in mode options or payload definitions. The vehicle sizing and functional requirements used to derive the parametric data are described.

  20. DTS: the NOAO Data Transport System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Michael J.

    2010-07-01

    The Data Transport System (DTS) provides automated, reliable, high-throughput data transfer between the telescopes, archives and pipeline processing systems used by the NOAO centers in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. DTS is implemented using an XML-RPC1 architecture to eliminate the need for persistent network connections between the sites, allowing each site to provide or consume services within the network only as needed. This architecture also permits remote control and monitoring of each site, and for language-independent client applications (e.g. a web interface to display transfer status or a compiled task to queue data for transport which is more tightly coupled with the acquisition system being used). The resulting system is a highly multi-threaded distributed application able to span a wide range of network environments and operational uses.

  1. Designing Novel Nanoformulations Targeting Glutamate Transporter Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: Implications in Treating Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Rao, PSS; Yallapu, Murali M.; Sari, Youssef; Fisher, Paul B.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic drug abuse is associated with elevated extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain reward regions. Deficit of glutamate clearance has been identified as a contributing factor that leads to enhanced glutamate concentration following extended drug abuse. Importantly, normalization of glutamate level through induction of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)/ excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) expression has been described in several in vivo studies. GLT1 upregulators including ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, have been effective in attenuating drug-seeking and drug-consumption behavior in rodent models. However, potential obstacles toward clinical translation of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators as treatment for drug addiction might include poor gastrointestinal absorption, serious peripheral adverse effects, and/or suboptimal CNS concentrations. Given the growing success of nanotechnology in targeting CNS ailments, nanoformulating known GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators for selective uptake across the blood brain barrier presents an ideal therapeutic approach for treating drug addiction. In this review, we summarize the results obtained with promising GLT1 (EAAT2) inducing compounds in animal models recapitulating drug addiction. Additionally, the various nanoformulations that can be employed for selectively increasing the CNS bioavailability of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators are discussed. Finally, the applicability of GLT1 (EAAT2) induction via central delivery of drug-loaded nanoformulations is described. PMID:26635971

  2. gamma-Glutamyl amino acids. Transport and conversion to 5-oxoproline in the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, R.J.; Meister, A.

    1985-06-25

    Transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids, a step in the proposed glutathione-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-mediated amino acid transport pathway, was examined in mouse kidney. The transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids was demonstrated in vitro in studies on kidney slices. Transport was followed by measuring uptake of /sup 35/S after incubation of the slices in media containing gamma-glutamyl methionine (/sup 35/S)sulfone. The experimental complication associated with extracellular conversion of the gamma-glutamyl amino acid to amino acid and uptake of the latter by slices was overcome by using 5-oxoproline formation (catalyzed by intracellular gamma-glutamyl-cyclotransferase) as an indicator of gamma-glutamyl amino acid transport. This method was also successfully applied to studies on transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids in vivo. Transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids in vitro and in vivo is inhibited by several inhibitors of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and also by high extracellular levels of glutathione. This seems to explain urinary excretion of gamma-glutamylcystine by humans with gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency and by mice treated with inhibitors of this enzyme. Mice depleted of glutathione by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (which inhibits glutathione synthesis) or by treatment with 2,6-dimethyl-2,5-heptadiene-4-one (which effectively interacts with tissue glutathione) exhibited significantly less transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids than did untreated controls. The findings suggest that intracellular glutathione functions in transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids. Evidence was also obtained for transport of gamma-glutamyl gamma-glutamylphenylalanine into kidney slices.

  3. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fire worthiness of air transport interiors was evaluated. The effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire is addressed. Modification of aircraft interior subsystem components which provide improvements in aircraft fire safety are examined. Three specific subsystem components, interior panels, seats and windows, offer the most immediate and highest payoff by modifying interior materials of existing aircrafts. It is shown that the new materials modifications reduce the fire hazards because of significant reduction in their characteristic flame spread, heat release, and smoke and toxic gas emissions.

  4. Space transportation systems for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the potential requirements, proposed configurations, inherent development problems, and technologies to be considered for future space transportation systems is presented. Such systems will include the improved Space Shuttle, new and derivative cargo launch vehicles, new propulsion systems, orbital transfer and maneuvering vehicles, and a second-generation Space Shuttle. It is concluded that more efficient and capable systems can be developed by placing strong emphasis on high reliability, safety, and improved ground and flight operations. These improvements can result from the introduction of advanced technologies and vehicles designed for operations and maintainability with the flexibility to adapt to mission needs.

  5. Physiologic hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein synthesis and enhances transport of selected amino acids in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Biolo, G; Declan Fleming, R Y; Wolfe, R R

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms of the anabolic effect of insulin on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers, using stable isotopic tracers of amino acids. Calculations of muscle protein synthesis, breakdown, and amino acid transport were based on data obtained with the leg arteriovenous catheterization and muscle biopsy. Insulin was infused (0.15 mU/min per 100 ml leg) into the femoral artery to increase femoral venous insulin concentration (from 10 +/- 2 to 77 +/- 9 microU/ml) with minimal systemic perturbations. Tissue concentrations of free essential amino acids decreased (P < 0.05) after insulin. The fractional synthesis rate of muscle protein (precursor-product approach) increased (P < 0.01) after insulin from 0.0401 +/- 0.0072 to 0.0677 +/- 0.0101%/h. Consistent with this observation, rates of utilization for protein synthesis of intracellular phenylalanine and lysine (arteriovenous balance approach) also increased from 40 +/- 8 to 59 +/- 8 (P < 0.05) and from 219 +/- 21 to 298 +/- 37 (P < 0.08) nmol/min per 100 ml leg, respectively. Release from protein breakdown of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine was not significantly modified by insulin. Local hyperinsulinemia increased (P < 0.05) the rates of inward transport of leucine, lysine, and alanine, from 164 +/- 22 to 200 +/- 25, from 126 +/- 11 to 221 +/- 30, and from 403 +/- 64 to 595 +/- 106 nmol/min per 100 ml leg, respectively. Transport of phenylalanine did not change significantly. We conclude that insulin promoted muscle anabolism, primarily by stimulating protein synthesis independently of any effect on transmembrane transport. Images PMID:7860765

  6. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, P.

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  7. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  8. Abundance of amino acid transporters involved in mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we demonstrated that the insulinand amino acid-induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated that members of the System A transporter (SNAT2), the System N transporter (SNAT3), the Sy...

  9. Characterizing MttA as a mitochondrial cis-aconitic acid transporter by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Matthias G; Punt, Peter J; Ram, Arthur F J; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial carrier protein MttA is involved in the biosynthesis of itaconic acid in Aspergillus terreus. In this paper, the transport specificity of MttA is analyzed making use of different metabolically engineered Aspergillus niger strains. Furthermore, the mitochondrial localization of this protein is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. It was found that MttA preferentially transports cis-aconitic acid over citric acid and does not transport itaconic acid. The expression of MttA in selected A. niger strains results in secretion of aconitic acid. MttA can be used in further strain engineering strategies to transport cis-aconitic acid to the cytosol to produce itaconic acid or related metabolites. The microbial production of aconitic acid (9g/L) is achieved in strains expressing this transport protein. Thus, metabolic engineering can be used for both the in vivo characterization of transport protein function like MttA and to make use of this protein by creating aconitic acid producing strains. PMID:26875555

  10. Plasmodesmata localizing proteins regulate transport and signaling during systemic acquired immunity in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants is mediated by the signaling molecules azelaic acid (AzA),glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), and salicylic acid (SA).Here, we show that AzA and G3P transport occurs via the symplastic route, which is regulated by channels known as plasmodesmata (PD). In contrast...

  11. Thermal protection systems for hypersonic transport vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, G.; Hinger, J.; Huchler, M.

    1990-07-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic transport vehicles are described and evaluated. During the flight through the atmosphere moderate to high aerodynamic heating rates with corresponding high surface temperatures are generated. Therefore, a reliable light-weight but effective TPS is required, that limits the heat transfer into the central fuselage with the liquid hydrogen tank and that prevents the penetration of the temperature peak during stage separation to the load carrying structure. The heat transfer modes in the insulation are solid conduction, gas convection and radiation. Thermal protection systems based on different phenomena to reduce the heat transfer, like vacuum shingles, inert gas filled shingles, microporous insulations and multiwall structures, are described. It is demonstrated that microporous and multiwall insulations are efficient, light weight and reliable TPSs for future hypersonic transportation systems.

  12. DTS: The NOAO Data Transport System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Semple, T.

    2014-05-01

    The NOAO Data Transport System (DTS) provides high-throughput, reliable, data transfer between telescopes, pipelines and archive centers located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. It is a distributed application using XML-RPC for command and control, and either parallel-TCP or UDT protocols for bulk data transport. The system is data-agnostic, allowing arbitrary files or directories to be moved using the same infrastructure. Data paths are configurable in the system by connecting nodes as the source or destination of data in a queue. Each leg of a data path may be configured independently based on the network environment between the sites. A queueing model is currently implemented to manage the automatic movement of data, a streaming model is planned to support arbitrarily large transfers (e.g. as in a disk recovery scenario) or to provide a 'pass-thru' interface to minize overheads. A web-based monitor allows anyone to get a graphical overview of the DTS system as it runs, operators will be able to control individual nodes in the system. Through careful tuning of the network paths DTS is able to achieve in excess of 80-percent of the nominal wire speed using only commodity networks, making it ideal for long-haul transport of large volumes of data.

  13. 360 degree vision system: opportunities in transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon

    2007-09-01

    Panoramic technologies are experiencing new and exciting opportunities in the transportation industries. The advantages of panoramic imagers are numerous: increased areas coverage with fewer cameras, imaging of multiple target simultaneously, instantaneous full horizon detection, easier integration of various applications on the same imager and others. This paper reports our work on panomorph optics and potential usage in transportation applications. The novel panomorph lens is a new type of high resolution panoramic imager perfectly suitable for the transportation industries. The panomorph lens uses optimization techniques to improve the performance of a customized optical system for specific applications. By adding a custom angle to pixel relation at the optical design stage, the optical system provides an ideal image coverage which is designed to reduce and optimize the processing. The optics can be customized for the visible, near infra-red (NIR) or infra-red (IR) wavebands. The panomorph lens is designed to optimize the cost per pixel which is particularly important in the IR. We discuss the use of the 360 vision system which can enhance on board collision avoidance systems, intelligent cruise controls and parking assistance. 360 panoramic vision systems might enable safer highways and significant reduction in casualties.

  14. Skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression is increased in young and older adults following resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Christopher S.; Glynn, Erin L.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Walker, Dillon K.; Gundermann, David M.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2011-01-01

    Amino acid transporters and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling are important contributors to muscle protein anabolism. Aging is associated with reduced mTORC1 signaling following resistance exercise, but the role of amino acid transporters is unknown. Young (n = 13; 28 ± 2 yr) and older (n = 13; 68 ± 2 yr) subjects performed a bout of resistance exercise. Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at basal and 3, 6, and 24 h postexercise and were analyzed for amino acid transporter mRNA and protein expression and regulators of amino acid transporter transcription utilizing real-time PCR and Western blotting. We found that basal amino acid transporter expression was similar in young and older adults (P > 0.05). Exercise increased L-type amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, and cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1 mRNA expression in both young and older adults (P < 0.05). L-type amino acid transporter 1 and CD98 protein increased only in younger adults (P < 0.05). eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α-subunit (S52) increased similarly in young and older adults postexercise (P < 0.05). Ribosomal protein S6 (S240/244) and activating transcription factor 4 nuclear protein expression tended to be higher in the young, while nuclear signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (Y705) was higher in the older subjects postexercise (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the rapid upregulation of amino acid transporter expression following resistance exercise may be regulated differently between the age groups, but involves a combination of mTORC1, activating transcription factor 4, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α-subunit, and STAT3. We propose an increase in amino acid transporter expression may contribute to enhanced amino acid sensitivity following exercise in young and older

  15. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  16. Transporter-targeted cholic acid-cytarabine conjugates for improved oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Dongpo; Shang, Lei; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2016-09-10

    Cytarabine has a poor oral absorption due to its rapid deamination and poor membrane permeability. Bile acid transporters are highly expressed both in enterocytes and hepatocytes and to increase the oral bioavailability and investigate the potential application of cytarabine for liver cancers, a transporter- recognizing prodrug strategy was applied to design and synthesize four conjugates of cytarabine with cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The anticancer activities against HepG2 cells were evaluated by MTT assay and the role of bile acid transporters during cellular transport was investigated in a competitive inhibition experiment. The in vitro and in vivo metabolic stabilities of these conjugates were studied in rat plasma and liver homogenates. Finally, an oral bioavailability study was conducted in rats. All the cholic acid-cytarabine conjugates (40μM) showed potent antiproliferative activities (up to 70%) against HepG2 cells after incubation for 48h. The addition of bile acids could markedly reduce the antitumor activities of these conjugates. The N(4)-ursodeoxycholic acid conjugate of cytarabine (compound 5) exhibited optimal stability (t1/2=90min) in vitro and a 3.9-fold prolonged half-life of cytarabine in vivo. More importantly, compound 5 increased the oral bioavailability 2-fold compared with cytarabine. The results of the present study suggest that the prodrug strategy based on the bile acid transporters is suitable for improving the oral absorption and the clinical application of cytarabine. PMID:27377011

  17. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section 862.1450....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base status... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section 862.1450....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base...

  20. Characterization of the Biotin Transport System in Saccharomyces cerevisiae1

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Thomas O.; Lichstein, Herman C.

    1969-01-01

    The characteristics of the biotin transport mechanism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in nonproliferating cells. Microbiological and radioisotope assays were employed to measure biotin uptake. The vitamin existed intracellularly in both free and bound forms. Free biotin was extracted by boiling water. Chromatography of the free extract showed it to consist entirely of d-biotin. Cellular bound biotin was released by treating cells with 6 n H2SO4. The rate of biotin uptake was linear with time for 10 min, reaching a maximum at about 20 min followed by a gradual loss of accumulated free vitamin from the cells. Biotin was not degraded or converted to vitamers during uptake. Transport was temperature- and pH-dependent, optimum conditions for uptake being 30 C and pH 4.0. Glucose markedly stimulated biotin transport. In its presence, large intracellular free-biotin concentration gradients were established. Iodoacetate inhibited the glucose stimulation of biotin uptake. The rate of vitamin transport increased in a linear fashion with increasing cell mass. The transport system was saturated with increasing concentrations of the vitamin. The apparent Km for uptake was 3.23 × 10−7m. Uptake of radioactive biotin was inhibited by unlabeled biotin and a number of analogues including homobiotin, desthiobiotin, oxybiotin, norbiotin, and biotin sulfone. Proline, hydroxyproline, and 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid did not inhibit uptake. Unlabeled biotin and desthiobiotin exchanged with accumulated intracellular 14C-biotin, whereas hydroxyproline did not. PMID:5354931

  1. Human L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): characterization of function and expression in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, O; Kanai, Y; Chairoungdua, A; Kim, D K; Segawa, H; Nii, T; Cha, S H; Matsuo, H; Fukushima, J; Fukasawa, Y; Tani, Y; Taketani, Y; Uchino, H; Kim, J Y; Inatomi, J; Okayasu, I; Miyamoto, K; Takeda, E; Goya, T; Endou, H

    2001-10-01

    System L is a major nutrient transport system responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. We previously identified a transporter (L-type amino acid transporter 1: LAT1) subserving system L in C6 rat glioma cells and demonstrated that LAT1 requires 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) for its functional expression. Since its oncofetal expression was suggested in the rat liver, it has been proposed that LAT1 plays a critical role in cell growth and proliferation. In the present study, we have examined the function of human LAT1 (hLAT1) and its expression in human tissues and tumor cell lines. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes with human 4F2hc (h4F2hc), hLAT1 transports large neutral amino acids with high affinity (K(m)= approximately 15- approximately 50 microM) and L-glutamine and L-asparagine with low affinity (K(m)= approximately 1.5- approximately 2 mM). hLAT1 also transports D-amino acids such as D-leucine and D-phenylalanine. In addition, we show that hLAT1 accepts an amino acid-related anti-cancer agent melphalan. When loaded intracellularly, L-leucine and L-glutamine but not L-alanine are effluxed by extracellular substrates, confirming that hLAT1 mediates an amino acid exchange. hLAT1 mRNA is highly expressed in the human fetal liver, bone marrow, placenta, testis and brain. We have found that, while all the tumor cell lines examined express hLAT1 messages, the expression of h4F2hc is varied particularly in leukemia cell lines. In Western blot analysis, hLAT1 and h4F2hc have been confirmed to be linked to each other via a disulfide bond in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. Finally, in in vitro translation, we show that hLAT1 is not a glycosylated protein even though an N-glycosylation site has been predicted in its extracellular loop, consistent with the property of the classical 4F2 light chain. The properties of the hLAT1/h4F2hc complex would support the roles of this transporter in providing cells with essential

  2. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  3. Potency of individual bile acids to regulate bile acid synthesis and transport genes in primary human hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Hong; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Lei, Xiaohong; Cui, Julia Yue; Ellis, Ewa; Strom, Stephen C; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate their own homeostasis, but the potency of individual bile acids is not known. This study examined the effects of cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on expression of BA synthesis and transport genes in human primary hepatocyte cultures. Hepatocytes were treated with the individual BAs at 10, 30, and 100μM for 48 h, and RNA was extracted for real-time PCR analysis. For the classic pathway of BA synthesis, BAs except for UDCA markedly suppressed CYP7A1 (70-95%), the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid synthesis, but only moderately (35%) down-regulated CYP8B1 at a high concentration of 100μM. BAs had minimal effects on mRNA of two enzymes of the alternative pathway of BA synthesis, namely CYP27A1 and CYP7B1. BAs increased the two major target genes of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), namely the small heterodimer partner (SHP) by fourfold, and markedly induced fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) over 100-fold. The BA uptake transporter Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide was unaffected, whereas the efflux transporter bile salt export pump was increased 15-fold and OSTα/β were increased 10-100-fold by BAs. The expression of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3; sixfold), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter G5 (ABCG5; sixfold), multidrug associated protein-2 (MRP2; twofold), and MRP3 (threefold) were also increased, albeit to lesser degrees. In general, CDCA was the most potent and effective BA in regulating these genes important for BA homeostasis, whereas DCA and CA were intermediate, LCA the least, and UDCA ineffective. PMID:25055961

  4. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  5. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work completed under the Human Transportation System Study. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems (e.g., Shuttle, Titan, etc. ) as well as proposed systems (e.g., PLS, Single-Stage-to-Orbit, etc.) to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  6. Increased ubiquitination and reduced plasma membrane trafficking of placental amino acid transporter SNAT-2 in human IUGR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Yung; Rosario, Fredrick J; Shehab, Majida Abu; Powell, Theresa L; Gupta, Madhulika B; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Placental amino acid transport is decreased in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We have shown that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling regulates system A amino acid transport by modulating the ubiquitination and plasma membrane trafficking of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT-2) in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. We hypothesize that IUGR is associated with (1) inhibition of placental mTORC1 and mTORC2 signalling pathways, (2) increased amino acid transporter ubiquitination in placental homogenates and (3) decreased protein expression of SNAT-2 in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane (MVM). To test this hypothesis, we collected placental tissue and isolated MVM from women with pregnancies complicated by IUGR (n=25) and gestational age-matched women with appropriately grown control infants (n=19, birth weights between the twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth percentiles). The activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2 was decreased whereas the protein expression of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2; +72%, P<0.0001) and the ubiquitination of SNAT-2 (+180%, P<0.05) were increased in homogenates of IUGR placentas. Furthermore, IUGR was associated with decreased system A amino acid transport activity (-72%, P<0.0001) and SNAT-1 (-42%, P<0.05) and SNAT-2 (-31%, P<0.05) protein expression in MVM. In summary, these findings are consistent with the possibility that decreased placental mTOR activity causes down-regulation of placental system A activity by shifting SNAT-2 trafficking towards proteasomal degradation, thereby contributing to decreased fetal amino acid availability and restricted fetal growth in IUGR. PMID:26374858

  7. 77 FR 24559 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... System National Advisory Council (MTSNAC) will hold a meeting to discuss recommendations to the Secretary on the integration of marine highways into the national transportation system and the development of... Maritime Administration Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council ACTION: National...

  8. Low energy beam transport system developments

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  9. Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

  10. The putative Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 9 is targeted to vesicles and may be involved in plant amino acid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huaiyu; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids are major primary metabolites. Their uptake, translocation, compartmentation, and re-mobilization require a diverse set of cellular transporters. Here, the broadly expressed gene product of CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 9 (CAT9) was identified as mainly localized to vesicular membranes that are involved in vacuolar trafficking, including those of the trans-Golgi network. In order to probe whether and how these compartments are involved in amino acid homeostasis, a loss-of-function cat9-1 mutant and ectopic over-expressor plants were isolated. Under restricted nitrogen supply in soil, cat9-1 showed a chlorotic phenotype, which was reversed in the over-expressors. The total soluble amino acid pools were affected in the mutants, but this was only significant under poor nitrogen supply. Upon nitrogen starvation, the soluble amino acid leaf pools were lower in the over-expressor, compared with cat9-1. Over-expression generally affected total soluble amino acid concentrations, slightly delayed development, and finally improved the survival upon severe nitrogen starvation. The results potentially identify a novel function of vesicular amino acid transport mediated by CAT9 in the cellular nitrogen-dependent amino acid homeostasis. PMID:25883600

  11. The putative Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 9 is targeted to vesicles and may be involved in plant amino acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huaiyu; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids are major primary metabolites. Their uptake, translocation, compartmentation, and re-mobilization require a diverse set of cellular transporters. Here, the broadly expressed gene product of CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 9 (CAT9) was identified as mainly localized to vesicular membranes that are involved in vacuolar trafficking, including those of the trans-Golgi network. In order to probe whether and how these compartments are involved in amino acid homeostasis, a loss-of-function cat9-1 mutant and ectopic over-expressor plants were isolated. Under restricted nitrogen supply in soil, cat9-1 showed a chlorotic phenotype, which was reversed in the over-expressors. The total soluble amino acid pools were affected in the mutants, but this was only significant under poor nitrogen supply. Upon nitrogen starvation, the soluble amino acid leaf pools were lower in the over-expressor, compared with cat9-1. Over-expression generally affected total soluble amino acid concentrations, slightly delayed development, and finally improved the survival upon severe nitrogen starvation. The results potentially identify a novel function of vesicular amino acid transport mediated by CAT9 in the cellular nitrogen-dependent amino acid homeostasis. PMID:25883600

  12. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, D.L.

    1987-04-28

    A heat transport system, method and composite material are disclosed in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure. 1 fig.

  13. Auxin Transport in Zea mays Coleoptiles II. Influence of Light on the Transport of Indoleacetic Acid-2-C.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S M; Gordon, S A

    1967-01-01

    The effect of bilateral irradiation with white light (1000 Meter Candle Sec) on the basipetal transport of auxin has been investigated. Illumination of either the intact shoot or the excised coleoptile tip of the Zea seedling, decreased the amount of diffusible auxin obtained from the tip, and decreased Avena curvature response to unilaterally applied indoleacetic acid. Irradiation of the intact Zea seedling did not affect the absorption of (14)C-labeled indoleacetic acid from an agar block subsequently placed on the decapitated coleoptile. However, light caused a significant decrease in the amount of labeled auxin basipetally transported, without affecting materially the velocity of that transport. These and other observations are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that the primary hormonal phenomenon in first-positive phototropism is a light-induced impairment in the basipetal transport of auxin. PMID:16656477

  14. Structural basis of the alternating-access mechanism in a bile acid transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Levin, Elena J.; Pan, Yaping; McCoy, Jason G.; Sharma, Ruchika; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned to the liver for resecretion. In humans, there are two Na+-dependent bile acid transporters involved in enterohepatic recirculation, the Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP; also known as SLC10A1) expressed in hepatocytes, and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; also known as SLC10A2) expressed on enterocytes in the terminal ileum. In recent years, ASBT has attracted much interest as a potential drug target for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia, because inhibition of ASBT reduces reabsorption of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. However, a lack of three-dimensional structures of bile acid transporters hampers our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and transport, and to interpret the wealth of existing functional data. The crystal structure of an ASBT homologue from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBTNM) in detergent was reported recently, showing the protein in an inward-open conformation bound to two Na+ and a taurocholic acid. However, the structural changes that bring bile acid and Na+ across the membrane are difficult to infer from a single structure. To understand the structural changes associated with the coupled transport of Na+ and bile acids, here we solved two structures of an ASBT homologue from Yersinia frederiksenii (ASBTYf) in a lipid environment, which reveal that a large rigid-body rotation of a substrate-binding domain gives the conserved `crossover' region, where two discontinuous helices cross each other, alternating accessibility from either side of the cell membrane. This result has implications

  15. Cargo transportation by airships: A systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Dalton, C.

    1976-01-01

    A systems engineering study of a lighter than air airship transportation system was conducted. The feasibility of the use of airships in hauling cargo was demonstrated. Social, legal, environmental and political factors were considered as well as the technical factors necessary to design an effective airship transportation system. In order to accomplish an effective airship transportation program two phases of implementation were recommended. Phase I would involve a fleet of rigid airships of 3.5 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying 25 tons of cargo internal to the helium-filled gas bag. The Phase I fleet would demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of modern-day airships while providing a training capability for the construction and operation of larger airships. The Phase II portion would be a fleet of rigid airships of 12 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying a cargo of 100 tons a distance of 2,000 miles at a cruising speed of 60 mph. An economic analysis is given for a variety of missions for both Phase I and Phase II airships.

  16. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P.

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  17. Amino acid absorption and homeostasis in mice lacking the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1.

    PubMed

    Nässl, Anna-Maria; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Fenselau, Henning; Marth, Mena Katharina; Kottra, Gabor; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-07-01

    The intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 mediates the uptake of di- and tripeptides derived from dietary protein breakdown into epithelial cells. Whereas the transporter appears to be essential to compensate for the reduced amino acid delivery in patients with mutations in amino acid transporter genes, such as in cystinuria or Hartnup disease, its physiological role in overall amino acid absorption is still not known. To assess the quantitative importance of PEPT1 in overall amino acid absorption and metabolism, PEPT1-deficient mice were studied by using brush border membrane vesicles, everted gut sacs, and Ussing chambers, as well as by transcriptome and proteome analysis of intestinal tissue samples. Neither gene expression nor proteome profiling nor functional analysis revealed evidence for any compensatory changes in the levels and/or function of transporters for free amino acids in the intestine. However, most plasma amino acid levels were increased in Pept1(-/-) compared with Pept1(+/+) animals, suggesting that amino acid handling is altered. Plasma appearance rates of (15)N-labeled amino acids determined after intragastric administration of a low dose of protein remained unchanged, whereas administration of a large protein load via gavage revealed marked differences in plasma appearance of selected amino acids. PEPT1 seems, therefore, important for overall amino acid absorption only after high dietary protein intake when amino acid transport processes are saturated and PEPT1 can provide additional absorption capacity. Since renal amino acid excretion remained unchanged, elevated basal concentrations of plasma amino acids in PEPT1-deficient animals seem to arise mainly from alterations in hepatic amino acid metabolism. PMID:21350187

  18. Identification of an abscisic acid transporter by functional screening using the receptor complex as a sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yuri; Hanada, Atsushi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Ichikawa, Takanari; Nakazawa, Miki; Matsui, Minami; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamiya, Yuji; Seo, Mitsunori

    2012-01-01

    Movement of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) within plants has been documented; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate ABA transport are not fully understood. By using a modified yeast two-hybrid system, we screened Arabidopsis cDNAs capable of inducing interactions between the ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR and PP2C protein phosphatase under low ABA concentrations. By using this approach, we identified four members of the NRT1/PTR family as candidates for ABA importers. Transport assays in yeast and insect cells demonstrated that at least one of the candidates ABA-IMPORTING TRANSPORTER (AIT) 1, which had been characterized as the low-affinity nitrate transporter NRT1.2, mediates cellular ABA uptake. Compared with WT, the ait1/nrt1.2 mutants were less sensitive to exogenously applied ABA during seed germination and/or postgermination growth, whereas overexpression of AIT1/NRT1.2 resulted in ABA hypersensitivity in the same conditions. Interestingly, the inflorescence stems of ait1/nrt1.2 had a lower surface temperature than those of the WT because of excess water loss from open stomata. We detected promoter activities of AIT1/NRT1.2 around vascular tissues in inflorescence stems, leaves, and roots. These data suggest that the function of AIT1/NRT1.2 as an ABA importer at the site of ABA biosynthesis is important for the regulation of stomatal aperture in inflorescence stems. PMID:22645333

  19. Next generation: In-space transportation system(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Fredrick; Redus, Jerry; Kelley, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the next generation In-Space Transportation System presents a unique challenge to the design of a propulsion system for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Never before have the requirements for long-life, multiple mission use, space basing, high reliability, man-rating, and minimum maintenance come together with performance in one system that must protect the lives of space travelers, support the mission logistics needs, and do so at an acceptable cost. The challenge that is presented is to quantify the bounds of these requirements. The issue is one of degree. The length of acceptable life in space, the time it takes for reuse to pay off, and the degree to which space basing is practical (full, partial, or expended) are the issues that determine the reusable bounds of a design and include dependability, contingency capabilities, resilency, and minimum dependence on a maintenance node in preparation for and during a mission. Missions to planet earth, other non-NASA missions, and planetary missions will provide important but less demanding requirements for the transportation systems of the future. The mission proposed for the SEI require a family of transportation vehicles to meet the requirements for establishing a permanent human presence on the Moon and eventually on Mars. Specialized vehicles are needed to accomplish the different phases of each mission. These large scale missions require assembly in space and will provide the greatest usage of the planned integrated transportation system. The current approach to defining the In-Space Transportation System for the SEI Moon missions with later Mars mission applications is presented. Several system development options, propulsion concepts, current/proposed activities are reviewed, and key propulsion design criteria, issues, and technology challenges for the next generation In-Space Transportation System(s) are outlined.

  20. High Energy Particle Transport Code System.

    2003-12-17

    Version 00 NMTC/JAM is an upgraded version of the code CCC-694/NMTC-JAERI97, which was developed in 1982 at JAERI and is based on the CCC-161/NMTC code system. NMTC/JAM simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nuclear meson transport processes. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM was extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code Jet-Aa Microscopic (JAM) for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation andmore » fission process, a new model, GEM, can be used to describe the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus. According to the extension of the applicable energy, the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data were upgraded. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field was implemented for beam transport calculations. Some new tally functions were added, and the format of input and output of data is more user friendly. These new calculation functions and utilities provide a tool to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than with the previous model. It implements an intranuclear cascade model taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects and the preequilibrium calculation model based on the exciton one. For treating the nucleon transport process, the nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. Moreover, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk is included as a new option for particle evaporation calculation. A geometry package based on the Combinatorial Geometry with multi-array system and the importance sampling technique is implemented in the code. Tally function is also employed for obtaining such physical quantities as neutron energy spectra, heat deposition and nuclide yield without editing a history file. The code can simulate both the primary spallation reaction and the

  1. Miniature Heat Transport System for Nanosatellite Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Donya M,

    1999-01-01

    The scientific understanding of key physical processes between the Sun and the Earth require simultaneous measurements from many vantage points in space. Nano-satellite technologies will enable a class of constellation missions for the NASA Space Science Sun-Earth Connections. This recent emphasis on the implementation of smaller satellites leads to a requirement for development of smaller subsystems in several areas. Key technologies under development include: advanced miniaturized chemical propulsion; miniaturized sensors; highly integrated, compact electronics; autonomous onboard and ground operations; miniatures low power tracking techniques for orbit determination; onboard RF communications capable of transmitting data to the ground from far distances; lightweight efficient solar array panels; lightweight, high output battery cells; lightweight yet strong composite materials for the nano-spacecraft and deployer-ship structures. These newer smaller systems may have higher power densities and higher thermal transport requirements than seen on previous small satellites. Furthermore, the small satellites may also have a requirement to maintain thermal control through extended earth shadows, possibly up to 8 hours long. Older thermal control technology, such as heaters, thermostats, and heat pipes, may not be sufficient to meet the requirements of these new systems. Conversely, a miniature two-phase heat transport system (Mini-HTS) such as a Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) or Loop Heat Pipe (LBP) is a viable alternative. A Mini-HTS can provide fine temperature control, thermal diode action, and a highly efficient means of heat transfer. The Mini-HTS would have power capabilities in the range of tens of watts or less and provide thermal control over typical spacecraft ranges. The Mini-HTS would allow the internal portion of the spacecraft to be thermally isolated from the external radiator, thus protecting the internal components from extreme cold temperatures during an

  2. Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.

  3. Corridor guided transport system utilizing permanent magnet levitation

    SciTech Connect

    Geraghty, J.J.; Poland, A.P.; Lombardi, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    The invention relates to a corridor guided transport system including a guided goods conveyance container utilizing permanent magnet levitation. The transport system of the invention eliminates the need for the wheel and track arrangement presently required by known and utilized conventional train systems and also required by some conventional magnetic levitation transport systems and, as a result, is safer to operate and maintain than either of these known transportation systems.

  4. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  5. An overview of European space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    With the completion of the launch rocket series Ariane 1 to 4, Europe will have reached the same capacity to transport commercial payloads as the USA has with the Space Shuttle and the kick stages which are presently operative. The near term development of these capacities would require Europe to develop a larger launch rocket, Araine 5. Further motivations for this rocket are access to manned spaceflight, the development of an European space station, and the demand for shuttle technology. Shuttle technology is the subject of research being done in France on the winged re-entry vehicle Hermes. Operation of the European space station Columbus will require development of an interorbital transport system to facilitate traffic between the various segments of the space station. All European space transportation systems will have to match their quality to that of the other countries involve in space flight. All areas of development are marked not only by possible cooperation but also by increased competition because of increasing commercialization of space flight.

  6. National Space Transportation System (NSTS) technology needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalter, David L.; Ulrich, Kimberly K.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is one of the Nation's most valuable resources, providing manned transportation to and from space in support of payloads and scientific research. The NSTS program is currently faced with the problem of hardware obsolescence, which could result in unacceptable schedule and cost impacts to the flight program. Obsolescence problems occur because certain components are no longer being manufactured or repair turnaround time is excessive. In order to achieve a long-term, reliable transportation system that can support manned access to space through 2010 and beyond, NASA must develop a strategic plan for a phased implementation of enhancements which will satisfy this long-term goal. The NSTS program has initiated the Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA) project with the following objectives: eliminate hardware obsolescence in critical areas, increase reliability and safety of the vehicle, decrease operational costs and turnaround time, and improve operational capability. The strategy for ASA will be to first meet the mandatory needs - keep the Shuttle flying. Non-mandatory changes that will improve operational capability and enhance performance will then be considered if funding is adequate. Upgrade packages should be developed to install within designated inspection periods, grouped in a systematic approach to reduce cost and schedule impacts, and allow the capability to provide a Block 2 Shuttle (Phase 3).

  7. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-08-17

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  8. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-12-21

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  9. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: application of a reactive transport model.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Robert L; Kimball, Briant A

    2002-03-01

    A reactive transport model based on one-dimensional transport and equilibrium chemistry is applied to synoptic data from an acid mine drainage stream. Model inputs include streamflow estimates based on tracer dilution, inflow chemistry based on synoptic sampling, and equilibrium constants describing acid/base, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption reactions. The dominant features of observed spatial profiles in pH and metal concentration are reproduced along the 3.5-km study reach by simulating the precipitation of Fe(III) and Al solid phases and the sorption of Cu, As, and Pb onto freshly precipitated iron(III) oxides. Given this quantitative description of existing conditions, additional simulations are conducted to estimate the streamwater quality that could result from two hypothetical remediation plans. Both remediation plans involve the addition of CaCO3 to raise the pH of a small, acidic inflow from approximately 2.4 to approximately 7.0. This pH increase results in a reduced metal load that is routed downstream by the reactive transport model, thereby providing an estimate of post-remediation water quality. The first remediation plan assumes a closed system wherein inflow Fe(II) is not oxidized by the treatment system; under the second remediation plan, an open system is assumed, and Fe(II) is oxidized within the treatment system. Both plans increase instream pH and substantially reduce total and dissolved concentrations of Al, As, Cu, and Fe(II+III) at the terminus of the study reach. Dissolved Pb concentrations are reduced by approximately 18% under the first remediation plan due to sorption onto iron(III) oxides within the treatment system and stream channel. In contrast, iron(III) oxides are limiting under the second remediation plan, and removal of dissolved Pb occurs primarily within the treatment system. This limitation results in an increase in dissolved Pb concentrations over existing conditions as additional downstream sources of

  10. Technological Support for Logistics Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujak, Andrzej; Śliwa, Zdzisław; Gębczyńska, Alicja

    The modern world is changing introducing robots, remotely controlled vehicles and other crewless means of transportation to reduce people's mistakes, as the main cause of incidents and crashes during traffic. New technologies are supporting operators and drivers, and according to some studies they can even replace them. Such programs as: AHS, UAH, IVBSS or MTVR are under development to improve traffic flow and its safety, to reduce traffic hazards and crashes. It is necessary to analyze such concepts and implement them boldly, including Polish logistics' companies, new programs, highways' system etc., as they will be applied in the future, so it is necessary to prepare logistics infrastructure ahead of time in order to capitalize on these improvements. The problem is quite urgent as transportation in the country must not be outdated to meet clients' expectations and to keep pace with competing foreign companies.

  11. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOEpatents

    Ludwig, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  12. Characteristics of the transport of ascorbic acid into leucocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Raghoebar, M.; Huisman, J.A.M.; van den Berg, W.B.; van Ginneken, C.A.M.

    1987-02-02

    The degree and the mode of association of (/sup 14/C)-ascorbic acid with leucocytes are examined. The degree of association of ascorbic acid with polymorphonuclear leucocytes (1-3 %) is dependent on cell type, extracellular concentration of ascorbic acid, incubation temperature, intactness of the cells and the extracellular pH. All experiments are performed according to strict protocols as these compounds are labile in aqueous solutions. Further it is noticed that in all experiments an outward gradient of leucocyte endogenic ascorbic acid exists. The results suggest that the association process comprises at least one saturable pathway. The activation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes by phorbol myristate acetate increases the accumulation of ascorbic acid threefold. 30 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Proton transport in triflic acid pentahydrate studied via ab initio path integral molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robin L; Paddison, Stephen J; Tuckerman, Mark E

    2011-06-16

    Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid hydrates provide a well-defined system to study proton dissociation and transport in perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, typically used as the electrolyte in hydrogen fuel cells, in the limit of minimal water. The triflic acid pentahydrate crystal (CF(3)SO(3)H·5H(2)O) is sufficiently aqueous that it contains an extended three-dimensional water network. Despite it being extended, however, long-range proton transport along the network is structurally unfavorable and would require considerable rearrangement. Nevertheless, the triflic acid pentahydrate crystal system can provide a clear picture of the preferred locations of local protonic defects in the water network, which provides insights about related structures in the disordered, low-hydration environment of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the proton defect is most likely to transfer to the closest water that has the expected presolvation and only contains water in its first solvation shell. Unlike the tetrahydrate of triflic acid (CF(3)SO(3)H·4H(2)O), there is no evidence of the proton preferentially transferring to a water molecule bridging two of the sulfonate groups. However, this could be an artifact of the crystal structure since the only such water molecule is separated from the proton by long O-O distances. Hydrogen bonding criteria, using the two-dimensional potential of mean force, are extracted. Radial distribution functions, free energy profiles, radii of gyration, and the root-mean-square displacement computed from ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations reveal that quantum effects do significantly extend the size of the protonic defect and increase the frequency of proton transfer events by nearly 15%. The calculated IR spectra confirm that the dominant protonic defect mostly exists as an Eigen cation but contains some Zundel ion characteristics. Chain lengths and ring sizes determined from the

  14. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Douglas

    2005-05-01

    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge--the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications--such as FEL driver accelerators--this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators [1]. Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR U pgrade FEL (which has an observed acceptance of 10% or more) and a compaction-managed mirror-bend achromat concept with an acceptance ranging from 50 to 150 MeV.

  15. Regulation of amino acid transporters in pluripotent cell populations in the embryo and in culture; novel roles for sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Tan, Boon Siang Nicholas; Rathjen, Peter D; Harvey, Alexandra J; Gardner, David K; Rathjen, Joy

    2016-08-01

    The developmental outcomes of preimplantation mammalian embryos are regulated directly by the surrounding microenvironment, and inappropriate concentrations of amino acids, or the loss of amino acid-sensing mechanisms, can be detrimental and impact further development. A specific role for l-proline in the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells, a cell population derived from the blastocyst, has been shown in culture. l-proline acts as a signalling molecule, exerting its effects through cell uptake and subsequent metabolism. Uptake in ES cells occurs predominantly through the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2, Slc38a2 (SNAT2). Dynamic expression of amino acid transporters has been shown in the early mammalian embryo, reflecting functional roles for amino acids in embryogenesis. The expression of SNAT2 and family member Slc38a1 (SNAT1) was determined in mouse embryos from the 2-cell stage through to the early post-implantation pre-gastrulation embryo. Key changes in expression were validated in cell culture models of development. Both transporters showed temporal dynamic expression patterns and changes in intracellular localisation as differentiation progressed. Changes in transporter expression likely reflect different amino acid requirements during development. Findings include the differential expression of SNAT1 in the inner and outer cells of the compacted morula and nuclear localisation of SNAT2 in the trophectoderm and placental lineages. Furthermore, SNAT2 expression was up-regulated in the epiblast prior to primitive ectoderm formation, an expression pattern consistent with a role for the transporter in later developmental decisions within the pluripotent lineage. We propose that the differential expression of SNAT2 in the epiblast provides evidence for an l-proline-mediated mechanism contributing to the regulation of embryonic development. PMID:27373508

  16. Essential amino acid transporter Lat4 (Slc43a2) is required for mouse development

    PubMed Central

    Guetg, Adriano; Mariotta, Luca; Bock, Lukas; Herzog, Brigitte; Fingerhut, Ralph; Camargo, Simone M R; Verrey, François

    2015-01-01

    side of small intestine enterocytes and kidney epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule. In the Xenopus oocyte expression system, Lat4 is shown to function as a uniporter with symmetric intracellular and extracellular apparent affinities for phenylalanine. Mice lacking Lat4 display a slight intrauterine growth restriction, postnatal malnutrition and early death, presumably as a result of defective amino acid (re)absorption. These results demonstrate the crucial role that the uniporter Lat4 plays for amino acid transport across cellular barriers and mouse development. PMID:25480797

  17. Transport of monocarboxylic acids at the blood-brain barrier: Studies with monolayers of primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaki, T.; Takakuwa, S.; Moritani, S.; Tsuji, A. )

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the transport of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) were studied by using primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. Concentration-dependent uptake of acetic acid was observed, and the kinetic parameters were estimated as follows: the Michaelis constant, Kt, was 3.41 {plus minus} 1.87 mM, the maximum uptake rate, Jmax, was 144.7 {plus minus} 55.7 nmol/mg of protein/min and the nonsaturable first-order rate constant, Kd, was 6.66 {plus minus} 1.98 microliters/mg of protein/min. At medium pH below 7.0, the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid increased markedly with decreasing medium pH, whereas pH-independent uptake was observed in the presence of 10 mM acetic acid. An energy requirement for (3H)acetic acid uptake was also demonstrated, because metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol and rotenone) reduced significantly the uptake rate (P less than .05). Carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a protonophore, inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid at medium pH of 5.0 and 6.0, whereas 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilben-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid did not. Several MCAs inhibited significantly the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids did not. The uptake of (3H)acetic acid was competitively inhibited by salicylic acid, with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 3.60 mM, suggesting a common transport system between acetic acid and salicylic acid. Moreover, at the medium pH of 7.4, salicylic acid and valproic acid inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid, demonstrating that the transport of MCA drugs could also be ascribed to the MCA transport system at the physiologic pH.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  19. Transport of hop bitter acids across intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cattoor, Ko; Bracke, Marc; Deforce, Dieter; De Keukeleire, Denis; Heyerick, Arne

    2010-04-14

    Several health-beneficial properties of hop bitter acids have been reported (inhibition of bone resorption and anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities); however, scientific data on the bioavailability of these compounds are lacking. As a first approach to study the bioavailability, the epithelial transport of hop alpha- and beta-acids across Caco-2 monolayers was investigated. Hop acids were added either to the apical or to the basolateral chamber and, at various time points, amounts transported to the receiving compartment were determined. The monolayer integrity control was performed by using marker compounds (atenolol and propranolol), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement, and determination of the fluorescein efflux. The TEER and fluorescein efflux confirmed the preservation of the monolayer integrity. The membrane permeability of the alpha-acids (apparent permeability coefficients for apical to basolateral transport (P(appAB)) ranged from 14 x 10(-6) to 41 x 10(-6) cm/s) was determined to be substantially higher than that of the beta-acids (P(appAB) values ranging from 0.9 x 10(-6) to 2.1 x 10(-6) cm/s). Notably, the beta-acids exhibited significantly different bidirectional P(app) values with efflux ratios around 10. The involvement of carrier-mediated transport for beta-acids (active efflux pathway by P-gp, BCRP, and/or MRP-2 type efflux pumps) could be confirmed by transport experiments with specific inhibitors (verapamil and indomethacin). It appears that alpha-acids are efficiently absorbed, whereas the permeability of beta-acids is low. Limiting factors in the absorption of beta-acids could involve P-gp and MRP-2 type efflux transporters and phase II metabolism. PMID:20329731

  20. Chemically generated convective transport in microfluidic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklyaev, Oleg; Das, Sambeeta; Altemose, Alicia; Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna; Sen, Ayusman

    High precision manipulation of small volumes of fluid, containing suspended micron sized objects like cells, viruses, and large molecules, is one of the main goals in designing modern lab-on-a-chip devices which can find a variety of chemical and biological applications. To transport the cargo toward sensing elements, typical microfluidic devices often use pressure driven flows. Here, we propose to use enzymatic chemical reactions which decompose reagent into less dense products and generate flows that can transport particles. Density variations that lead to flow in the assigned direction are created between the place where reagent is fed into the solution and the location where it is decomposed by enzymes attached to the surface of the microchannel. When the reagent is depleted, the fluid motion stops and particles sediment to the bottom. We demonstrate how the choice of chemicals, leading to specific reaction rates, can affect the transport properties. In particular, we show that the intensity of the fluid flow, the final location of cargo, and the time for cargo delivery are controlled by the amount and type of reagent in the system.

  1. Anomalous transport in ergodic lattice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar Lev, Yevgeny; Reichman, David R.

    Many-body localization transition is a peculiar dynamical transition between ergodic and non-ergodic phases, which may occur at any temperature and in any dimension. For temperatures below the transition the system is nonergodic and localized, such that conductivity strictly vanishes at the thermodynamic limit, while for temperatures above the transition the system is thermal and conductive. In this talk I will present a comprehensive study of the dynamical properties of the ergodic phase in one and two dimensional generic disordered and interacting systems, conducted using a combination of nonequilibrium diagrammatic techniques and numerically exact methods. I will show that the ergodic phase, which was expected to be diffusive, exhibits anomalous transport regime for nontrivial times and explain how our findings settle with phenomenological theoretical models. NSF-CHE-1644802.

  2. Role of organic acids in promoting colloidal transport of mercury from mine tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slowey, A.J.; Johnson, S.B.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors affect the transport of dissolved and paniculate mercury (Hg) from inoperative Hg mines, including the presence of organic acids in the rooting zone of vegetated mine waste. We examined the role of the two most common organic acids in soils (oxalic and citric acid) on Hg transport from such waste by pumping a mixed organic acid solution (pH 5.7) at 1 mL/min through Hg mine tailings columns. For the two total organic acid concentrations investigated (20 ??M and 1 mM), particle-associated Hg was mobilized, with the onset of paniculate Hg transport occurring later for the lower organic acid concentration. Chemical analyses of column effluent indicate that 98 wt % of Hg mobilized from the column was paniculate. Hg speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, showing that HgS minerals are dominant in the mobilized particles. Hg adsorbed to colloids is another likely mode of transport due to the abundance of Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, Fe-sulfides, alunite, and jarosite in the tailings to which Hg(II) adsorbs. Organic acids produced by plants are likely to enhance the transport of colloid-associated Hg from vegetated Hg mine tailings by dissolving cements to enable colloid release. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  3. Saenger space transportation system - Progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Kuczera, Heribert

    1992-10-01

    The first part of the Saenger System Definition Study within the German National Hypersonics Technology Program (1988 to 1992) was completed by mid-1990. This paper summarizes the progress made and the status of the project as of that milestone which was formally completed by the System Study Presentation in July 1990. For the second phase of the study (mid-1990 to end 1992) the original philosophy of different upper stages for manned space operations and for unmanned cargo/payloads transportation is being maintained, however, a winged unmanned Horus-C version has been found to be a better solution than the originally conceived expendable ballistic stage Cargus. The advantage of this twin-Horus Concept is the greater commonality of both upper stages as well as the new return capability of payloads up to 7 Mg. The maximum payload capability of the expendable stage was of course higher, but it is assumed that for larger payloads a complementary launch vehicle (i.e. Ariane 5) will be further available. The paper also presents new data about the Horus return flight trajectories as well as on the aerothermodynamic studies and experimental work. Finally, aspects of mission operations and economics are discussed which are of special importance for such an advanced reusable space transportation system.

  4. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  5. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-C National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the eleventh Shuttle flight and fifth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Also summarized are the significant problems that occurred during STS 41-C, and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight. The major objectives of flight STS 41-C were to successfully deploy the LDEF (long duration exposure facility) and retrieve, repair and redeploy the SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) spacecraft, and perform functions of IMAX and Cinema 360 cameras.

  6. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  7. Conceptual design of a Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and several major aerospace corporations the University of Minnesota has developed a scenario to place humans on Mars by the year 2016. The project took the form of a year-long design course in the senior design curricula at the University's Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department. Students worked with the instructor, teaching assistants and engineers in industry to develop a vehicle and the associated mission profile to fulfill the requirements of the Mars Transportation System. This report is a summary of the final design and the process though which the final product was developed.

  8. Future Intelligent Transportation Systems and Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Akio

    A road vehicle traffic contributes to the social improvement greatly, but it has big problems such as safety, congestion, environment, energy, elder people driving and adaptation to information society. ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is expected as a direction solving these. The intellectual function about a road vehicle traffic depended on most of human beings. ITS helps intellectual functions such as information sensing, situation recognition, judgment, planning and operation. A sensor detecting information is an important key in ITS. I describe expectation to a sensor in ITS.

  9. Progress toward an integrated advanced transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1989-01-01

    Long term mission and payload mass requirements have been inventoried in NASA's Civil Needs Data Base, thereby establishing a framework for the analysis of launch vehicle requirements as well as time-frame requirements for the availability of specific launch vehicle and orbit-transfer vehicle capabilities. The Next Manned Transportation System studies conducted within this framework focus on the definition of options for manned flight operations beyond current Space Shuttle capabilities. Also under way are Assured Crew Return Capability studies for the Space Station Freedom, and Space Transfer Vehicle studies for a space-based aerobraking spacecraft.

  10. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  11. A space transportation system operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a description of a computer program which permits assessment of the operational support requirements of space transportation systems functioning in both a ground- and space-based environment. The scenario depicted provides for the delivery of payloads from Earth to a space station and beyond using upper stages based at the station. Model results are scenario dependent and rely on the input definitions of delivery requirements, task times, and available resources. Output is in terms of flight rate capabilities, resource requirements, and facility utilization. A general program description, program listing, input requirements, and sample output are included.

  12. LHT1, a lysine- and histidine-specific amino acid transporter in arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Bush, D R

    1997-01-01

    We have identified a new amino acid transporter from the Arabidopsis thaliana expressed sequence tag cDNA collection by functional complementation of a yeast amino acid transport mutant. Transport analysis of the expressed protein in yeast shows that it is a high-affinity transporter for both lysine (Lys) and histidine with Michaelis constant values of 175 and 400 microM, respectively. This transporter (LHT1, lysine histidine transporter) has little affinity for arginine when measured directly in uptake experiments or indirectly with substrate competition. The cDNA is 1.7 kb with an open reading frame that codes for a protein with 446 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 50.5 kD. Hydropathy analysis shows that LHT1 is an integral membrane protein with 9 to 10 putative membrane-spanning domains. Southern-blot analysis suggests that LHT1 is a single-copy gene in the Arabidopsis genome. RNA gel-blot analysis shows that this transporter is present in all tissues, with the strongest expression in young leaves, flowers, and siliques. Wholemount, in situ hybridization revealed that expression is further localized on the surface of roots in young seedlings and in pollen. Overall, LHT1 belongs to a new class of amino acid transporter that is specific for Lys and histidine, and, given its substrate specificity, it has significant promise as a tool for improving the Lys content of Lys-deficient grains. PMID:9390441

  13. The urease inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid is transported by the urea pathway in rat terminal IMCD.

    PubMed

    Star, R A; Gillin, A D; Parikh, V J; Sands, J M

    1993-09-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), a urea analogue, is used clinically to dissolve struvite stones because it inhibits the urease produced by Proteus mirabilis. To be effective, the concentration of AHA must be high in the collecting duct system and final urine. Because AHA is structurally similar to urea, we investigated whether AHA is transported by the urea carrier found in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and the erythrocyte. We examined AHA transport under four conditions known to affect urea movement across the terminal IMCD, i.e., stimulation by vasopressin (AVP) and hyperosmolality, and inhibition by phloretin and urea analogues. The AHA permeability was determined with a 10 mM bath-to-lumen AHA gradient. AHA was measured by ultramicrocolorimetry. Addition of 1 nM AVP to the bath increased the AHA permeability of the perfused terminal IMCD. Increasing perfusate and bath osmolality from 290 to 690 mosmol/kgH2O (by adding NaCl) also increased tubule permeability to AHA. Addition of either 0.25 mM phloretin to the bath or 200 mM thiourea to the lumen reversibly inhibited the AVP-stimulated AHA permeability. AHA-induced osmotic lysis of erythrocytes was inhibited by phloretin or thionicotinamide; AHA inhibited the osmotic lysis induced by the urea analogue acetamide. Thus, in the rat terminal IMCD, both urea and AHA transport are stimulated by AVP and hyperosmolality, and both are inhibited by phloretin and thiourea. In erythrocytes, both urea and AHA transport are inhibited by phloretin or thionicotinamide. Thus AHA is transported by the urea carrier in the terminal IMCD and erythrocyte.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8214097

  14. Rotational hydrodynamic diffusion system to study mass transport across boundaries.

    PubMed

    Mamidi, Sai Sree; Meas, Bo; Farhat, Tarek R

    2008-11-01

    The design and operation of a new mass transport technique is presented. Rotational hydrodynamic diffusion system (RHDS) is a method that can be adapted for analytical laboratory analysis as well as industrial-scale separation and purification. Although RHDS is not an electrochemical technique, its concept is derived from hydrodynamic rotating disk electrode voltammetry. A diffusion advantage gained using the RHDS is higher flux of probe molecules across the boundary (e.g., membrane or porous media) with increased rotation rate compared to the static two-half-cell (THC) method. The separation concept of RHDS differs from pressurized, agitated, electrodialysis, and reversed osmosis systems in design and theory. The detection mechanism of the RHDS opens the possibility to study mass transport properties of a large variety of molecules using different types of ultrathin membranes. Therefore, the RHDS is a potential alternative to classical mass transport detection methods such as THC, impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic and rotating disk electrode voltammetry. Theoretical analysis on the rotational hydrodynamic flux is derived and compared to experimental flux measured using HCl, KCl, KNO 3, Ni(NO 3) 2, LiCl, camphor sulfonic acid, and K 3Fe(CN) 6 ionic solutions. Values of effective diffusion coefficients of salts across Nucleopore membranes of thickness 6.0 and 10 mum with pore size 0.1 and 0.2 mum, respectively, are presented and discussed. PMID:18844370

  15. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... systems operated by public airport operators, which provide designated public transportation and connect.... Public airports which operate fixed route transportation systems are subject to the requirements of this... part. (b) Fixed-route transportation systems operated by public airport operators between the...

  16. Maternal bile acid transporter deficiency promotes neonatal demise

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Fei; Wang, Yao; Pitre, Aaron; Fang, Zhong-ze; Frank, Matthew W.; Calabrese, Christopher; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Neale, Geoffrey; Frase, Sharon; Vogel, Peter; Rock, Charles O.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Schuetz, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is associated with adverse neonatal survival and is estimated to impact between 0.4 and 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Here we show that maternal cholestasis (due to Abcb11 deficiency) produces neonatal death among all offspring within 24 h of birth due to atelectasis-producing pulmonary hypoxia, which recapitulates the neonatal respiratory distress of human ICP. Neonates of Abcb11-deficient mothers have elevated pulmonary bile acids and altered pulmonary surfactant structure. Maternal absence of Nr1i2 superimposed on Abcb11 deficiency strongly reduces maternal serum bile acid concentrations and increases neonatal survival. We identify pulmonary bile acids as a key factor in the disruption of the structure of pulmonary surfactant in neonates of ICP. These findings have important implications for neonatal respiratory failure, especially when maternal bile acids are elevated during pregnancy, and highlight potential pathways and targets amenable to therapeutic intervention to ameliorate this condition. PMID:26416771

  17. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of low specific activity nitric acid. Revisison 1

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-05-16

    This is in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site to Portsmouth VA, Baltimore MD, and Port Elizabeth NJ.

  18. Regulation of amino acid transporter trafficking by mTORC1 in primary human trophoblast cells is mediated by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Changes in placental amino acid transfer directly contribute to altered fetal growth, which increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes for the development of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Placental amino acid transfer is critically dependent on the expression of specific transporters in the plasma membrane of the trophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating this process are largely unknown. Nedd4-2 is an ubiquitin ligase that catalyses the ubiquitination of proteins, resulting in proteasomal degradation. We hypothesized that inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) decreases amino acid uptake in primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells by activation of Nedd4-2, which increases transporter ubiquitination resulting in decreased transporter expression in the plasma membrane. mTORC 1 inhibition increased the expression of Nedd4-2, promoted ubiquitination and decreased the plasma membrane expression of SNAT2 (an isoform of the System A amino acid transporter) and LAT1 (a System L amino acid transporter isoform), resulting in decreased cellular amino acid uptake. Nedd4-2 silencing markedly increased the trafficking of SNAT2 and LAT1 to the plasma membrane, which stimulated cellular amino acid uptake. mTORC1 inhibition by silencing of raptor failed to decrease amino acid transport following Nedd4-2 silencing. In conclusion, we have identified a novel link between mTORC1 signalling and ubiquitination, a common posttranslational modification. Because placental mTORC1 is inhibited in fetal growth restriction and activated in fetal overgrowth, we propose that regulation of placental amino acid transporter ubiquitination by mTORC1 and Nedd4-2 constitutes a molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal fetal growth. PMID:26608079

  19. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.; Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command.

  20. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. Remediation of these sites requires extensive sampling to determine the extent of the contamination, to monitor clean-up and remediation progress, and for post-closure monitoring of facilities. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. Such systems would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of clean-up and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping and manpower associated with sample shipments. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  1. The importance of the excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3).

    PubMed

    Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden E; Underhill, Suzanne M

    2016-09-01

    The neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) is fairly ubiquitously expressed in the brain, though it does not necessarily maintain the same function everywhere. It is important in maintaining low local concentrations of glutamate, where its predominant post-synaptic localization can buffer nearby glutamate receptors and modulate excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. It is also the main neuronal cysteine uptake system acting as the rate-limiting factor for the synthesis of glutathione, a potent antioxidant, in EAAT3 expressing neurons, while on GABAergic neurons, it is important in supplying glutamate as a precursor for GABA synthesis. Several diseases implicate EAAT3, and modulation of this transporter could prove a useful therapeutic approach. Regulation of EAAT3 could be targeted at several points for functional modulation, including the level of transcription, trafficking and direct pharmacological modulation, and indeed, compounds and experimental treatments have been identified that regulate EAAT3 function at different stages, which together with observations of EAAT3 regulation in patients is giving us insight into the endogenous function of this transporter, as well as the consequences of altered function. This review summarizes work done on elucidating the role and regulation of EAAT3. PMID:27233497

  2. The organic anion transporter (OAT) family: a systems biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Sanjay K; Bush, Kevin T; Martovetsky, Gleb; Ahn, Sun-Young; Liu, Henry C; Richard, Erin; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The organic anion transporter (OAT) subfamily, which constitutes roughly half of the SLC22 (solute carrier 22) transporter family, has received a great deal of attention because of its role in handling of common drugs (antibiotics, antivirals, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), toxins (mercury, aristolochic acid), and nutrients (vitamins, flavonoids). Oats are expressed in many tissues, including kidney, liver, choroid plexus, olfactory mucosa, brain, retina, and placenta. Recent metabolomics and microarray data from Oat1 [Slc22a6, originally identified as NKT (novel kidney transporter)] and Oat3 (Slc22a8) knockouts, as well as systems biology studies, indicate that this pathway plays a central role in the metabolism and handling of gut microbiome metabolites as well as putative uremic toxins of kidney disease. Nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, such as Hnf4α and Hnf1α, appear to regulate the expression of certain Oats in conjunction with phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Some Oats have a strong selectivity for particular signaling molecules, including cyclic nucleotides, conjugated sex steroids, odorants, uric acid, and prostaglandins and/or their metabolites. According to the "Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis," which is elaborated in detail here, Oats may function in remote interorgan communication by regulating levels of signaling molecules and key metabolites in tissues and body fluids. Oats may also play a major role in interorganismal communication (via movement of small molecules across the intestine, placental barrier, into breast milk, and volatile odorants into the urine). The role of various Oat isoforms in systems physiology appears quite complex, and their ramifications are discussed in the context of remote sensing and signaling. PMID:25540139

  3. The Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) Family: A Systems Biology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Sanjay K.; Bush, Kevin T.; Martovetsky, Gleb; Ahn, Sun-Young; Liu, Henry C.; Richard, Erin; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The organic anion transporter (OAT) subfamily, which constitutes roughly half of the SLC22 (solute carrier 22) transporter family, has received a great deal of attention because of its role in handling of common drugs (antibiotics, antivirals, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), toxins (mercury, aristolochic acid), and nutrients (vitamins, flavonoids). Oats are expressed in many tissues, including kidney, liver, choroid plexus, olfactory mucosa, brain, retina, and placenta. Recent metabolomics and microarray data from Oat1 [Slc22a6, originally identified as NKT (novel kidney transporter)] and Oat3 (Slc22a8) knockouts, as well as systems biology studies, indicate that this pathway plays a central role in the metabolism and handling of gut microbiome metabolites as well as putative uremic toxins of kidney disease. Nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, such as Hnf4α and Hnf1α, appear to regulate the expression of certain Oats in conjunction with phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Some Oats have a strong selectivity for particular signaling molecules, including cyclic nucleotides, conjugated sex steroids, odorants, uric acid, and prostaglandins and/or their metabolites. According to the “Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis,” which is elaborated in detail here, Oats may function in remote interorgan communication by regulating levels of signaling molecules and key metabolites in tissues and body fluids. Oats may also play a major role in interorganismal communication (via movement of small molecules across the intestine, placental barrier, into breast milk, and volatile odorants into the urine). The role of various Oat isoforms in systems physiology appears quite complex, and their ramifications are discussed in the context of remote sensing and signaling. PMID:25540139

  4. Ion Transport Dynamics in Acid Variable Charge Subsoils

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nik; Sumner, Malcolm E.; Toma, Mitsuru

    2005-06-06

    This is a mini-review of the research work conducted by the authors with the objective of studying ion transport in variable charge subsoils collected from different areas around the world. An attempt is made in these studies to relate the unique behavior manifested during ionic transport in these subsoils with their mineralogical, physical and chemical properties, which are markedly different from those in soils from temperate regions. The variable charge subsoils have a relatively high salt sorption capacity and anion exchange capacity (AEC) that retards anions downward movement. The AEC correlates closely with the anion retardation coefficients. Ca2+ applied with gypsum in topsoil may be transported to the subsoil and may improve the subsoil chemical properties. These results may help in developing appropriate management strategies under a range of mineralogical, physical, and chemical conditions.

  5. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  6. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils, ground water and surface waters. This document describes the requirements for such a laboratory.

  7. Transport systems research vehicle color display system operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, Wesley C.; Johnson, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    A recent upgrade of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle operated by the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program Office at the NASA Langley Research Center has resulted in an all-glass panel in the research flight deck. Eight ARINC-D size CRT color displays make up the panel. A major goal of the display upgrade effort was ease of operation and maintenance of the hardware while maintaining versatility needed for flight research. Software is the key to this required versatility and will be the area demanding the most detailed technical design expertise. This document is is intended to serve as a single source of quick reference information needed for routine operation and system level maintenance. Detailed maintenance and modification of the display system will require specific design documentation and must be accomplished by individuals with specialized knowledge and experience.

  8. The SLC36 family of proton-coupled amino acid transporters and their potential role in drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, David T; Anderson, Catriona MH

    2011-01-01

    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) 36 family are involved in transmembrane movement of amino acids and derivatives. SLC36 consists of four members. SLC36A1 and SLC36A2 both function as H+-coupled amino acid symporters. SLC36A1 is expressed at the luminal surface of the small intestine but is also commonly found in lysosomes in many cell types (including neurones), suggesting that it is a multipurpose carrier with distinct roles in different cells including absorption in the small intestine and as an efflux pathway following intralysosomal protein breakdown. SLC36A1 has a relatively low affinity (Km 1–10 mM) for its substrates, which include zwitterionic amino and imino acids, heterocyclic amino acids and amino acid-based drugs and derivatives used experimentally and/or clinically to treat epilepsy, schizophrenia, bacterial infections, hyperglycaemia and cancer. SLC36A2 is expressed at the apical surface of the human renal proximal tubule where it functions in the reabsorption of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. SLC36A2 also transports amino acid derivatives but has a narrower substrate selectivity and higher affinity (Km 0.1–0.7 mM) than SLC36A1. Mutations in SLC36A2 lead to hyperglycinuria and iminoglycinuria. SLC36A3 is expressed only in testes and is an orphan transporter with no known function. SLC36A4 is widely distributed at the mRNA level and is a high-affinity (Km 2–3 µM) transporter for proline and tryptophan. We have much to learn about this family of transporters, but from current knowledge, it seems likely that their function will influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of amino acid-based drugs by mediating transport in both the small intestine and kidney. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Transporters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-7 PMID:21501141

  9. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system... Test Systems § 862.1509 Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify methylmalonic acid in...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system... Test Systems § 862.1509 Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify methylmalonic acid in...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system... Test Systems § 862.1509 Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify methylmalonic acid in...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system... Test Systems § 862.1509 Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify methylmalonic acid in...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1795 - Vanilmandelic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilmandelic acid test system. 862.1795 Section... Systems § 862.1795 Vanilmandelic acid test system. (a) Identification. A vanilmandelic acid test system is a device intended to measure vanilmandelic acid in urine. Measurements of vanilmandelic...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1795 - Vanilmandelic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilmandelic acid test system. 862.1795 Section... Systems § 862.1795 Vanilmandelic acid test system. (a) Identification. A vanilmandelic acid test system is a device intended to measure vanilmandelic acid in urine. Measurements of vanilmandelic...

  15. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  16. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  17. Characterization of the role of ABCG2 as a bile acid transporter in liver and placenta.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Alba G; Briz, Oscar; Romero, Marta R; Rosales, Ruben; Monte, Maria J; Vaquero, Javier; Macias, Rocio I R; Cassio, Doris; Marin, Jose J G

    2012-02-01

    ABCG2 is involved in epithelial transport/barrier functions. Here, we have investigated its ability to transport bile acids in liver and placenta. Cholylglycylamido fluorescein (CGamF) was exported by WIF-B9/R cells, which do not express the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Sensitivity to typical inhibitors suggested that CGamF export was mainly mediated by ABCG2. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells), coexpression of rat Oatp1a1 and human ABCG2 enhanced the uptake and efflux, respectively, of CGamF, cholic acid (CA), glycoCA (GCA), tauroCA, and taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate. The ability of ABCG2 to export these bile acids was confirmed by microinjecting them together with inulin in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing this pump. ABCG2-mediated bile acid transport was inhibited by estradiol 17β-d-glucuronide and fumitremorgin C. Placental barrier for bile acids accounted for <2-fold increase in fetal cholanemia despite >14-fold increased maternal cholanemia induced by obstructive cholestasis in pregnant rats. In rat placenta, the expression of Abcg2, which was much higher than that of Bsep, was not affected by short-term cholestasis. In pregnant rats, fumitremorgin C did not affect uptake/secretion of GCA by the liver but inhibited its fetal-maternal transfer. Compared with wild-type mice, obstructive cholestasis in pregnant Abcg2(-/-) knockout mice induced similar bile acid accumulation in maternal serum but higher accumulation in placenta, fetal serum, and liver. In conclusion, ABCG2 is able to transport bile acids. The importance of this function depends on the relative expression in the same epithelium of other bile acid exporters. Thus, ABCG2 may play a key role in bile acid transport in placenta, as BSEP does in liver. PMID:22096226

  18. Role for Ion Transport in Porcine Vocal Fold Epithelial Defense to Acid Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Erickson-Levendoski, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2012-01-01

    Objective The vocal fold epithelium is routinely exposed to gastric contents, including acid and pepsin, during laryngopharyngeal reflux events. The epithelium may possess intrinsic defenses to reflux. The first objective of the current study was to examine whether vocal fold epithelial ion transport is one potential mechanism of defense to gastric contents. The second objective was to determine whether ion transport in response to gastric contents is associated with the secretion of bicarbonate. Study Design Prospective design in excised porcine larynges. Setting Laboratory. Subjects and Methods Porcine vocal folds (N = 56) were exposed on the luminal surface to acid, pepsin, or sham challenges. Ion transport at baseline and following challenge exposure was measured using electrophysiological techniques. To examine specific ion transport mechanisms, vocal folds were pretreated with either a sodium channel blocker or bicarbonate channel blocker. Results Within 60 seconds of acid but not pepsin exposure, there was a significant increase in ion transport. This rapid increase in ion transport was transient and related to bicarbonate secretion. Conclusion The current data suggest that porcine vocal folds immediately increase bicarbonate secretion following exposure to acid. Bicarbonate secretion may act to neutralize acid. These findings contribute to the identification of the mechanisms underlying vocal fold defense to reflux and offer implications for the development of treatments for reflux-induced vocal fold injury. PMID:22086905

  19. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  20. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli inhibits ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter ASBT.

    PubMed

    Annaba, Fadi; Sarwar, Zaheer; Gill, Ravinder K; Ghosh, Amit; Saksena, Seema; Borthakur, Alip; Hecht, Gail A; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Alrefai, Waddah A

    2012-05-15

    Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for the absorption of bile acids from the intestine. A decrease in ASBT function and expression has been implicated in diarrhea associated with intestinal inflammation. Whether infection with pathogenic microorganisms such as the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) affect ASBT activity is not known. EPEC is a food-borne enteric pathogen that translocates bacterial effector molecules via type three secretion system (TTSS) into host cells and is a major cause of infantile diarrhea. We investigated the effects of EPEC infection on ileal ASBT function utilizing human intestinal Caco2 cells and HEK-293 cells stably transfected with ASBT-V5 fusion protein (2BT cells). ASBT activity was significantly inhibited following 60 min infection with EPEC but not with nonpathogenic E. coli. Mutations in bacterial escN, espA, espB, and espD, the genes encoding for the elements of bacterial TTSS, ablated EPEC inhibitory effect on ASBT function. Furthermore, mutation in the bacterial BFP gene encoding for bundle-forming pili abrogated the inhibition of ASBT by EPEC, indicating the essential role for bacterial aggregation and the early attachment. The inhibition by EPEC was associated with a significant decrease in the V(max) of the transporter and a reduction in the level of ASBT on the plasma membrane. The inhibition of ASBT by EPEC was blocked in the presence of protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. Our studies provide novel evidence for the alterations in the activity of ASBT by EPEC infection and suggest a possible effect for EPEC in influencing intestinal bile acid homeostasis. PMID:22403793

  1. Differential effects of cyclosporin A on transport of bile acids by rat hepatocytes: relationship to individual serum bile acid levels.

    PubMed

    Azer, S A; Stacey, N H

    1994-02-01

    Cyclosporin A treatment has been reported to induce hepatotoxicity marked by a rise in total serum bile acid and total bilirubin. The mechanism of cyclosporin A-induced hepatotoxicity seems to be related to interference with hepatocellular transport of these substrates although this remains to be fully substantiated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the hepatocellular uptake of the different bile acids, in the presence of cyclosporin A, is consistent with the changes in their respective individual serum bile acid concentrations. High-performance liquid chromatography has been used to assay individual serum bile acids in cyclosporin A-treated rats at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Control rats were treated with Cremophor (1 ml/kg/day). At the higher doses, cyclosporin A produced a significant increase in levels of cholic acid, taurocholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and deoxycholic acid compared with controls. Serum glycocholate was unaffected even at the highest dose. Inhibition of initial rate of uptake and accumulation of [14C]cholic acid, [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid, and [14C]deoxycholic acid by isolated rat hepatocytes was consistent with the changes in their respective serum bile acids. Coincubation of rat hepatocytes with unlabeled cholic acid (100 microM), the major serum bile acid in cyclosporin A-treated rats, showed a further inhibitory effect on [14C]cholic acid and [14C]deoxycholic acid accumulation. The initial rate of uptake of [14C]glycocholate was also inhibited. However, accumulation of glycocholic acid did not show significant changes at the longer incubation times (2-30 min). In addition, coincubation of rat hepatocytes with unlabeled cholic acid (100 microM) plus cyclosporin A did not induce any inhibition of glycocholate accumulation. Together, these differences provide an explanation for the unchanged serum levels of glycocholate. In conclusion, the changes in individual serum bile acids in cyclosporin A

  2. Myosin 1b Regulates Amino Acid Transport by Associating Transporters with the Apical Plasma Membrane of Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Komaba, Shigeru; Coluccio, Lynne M.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATers) in the brush border of the apical plasma membrane (APM) of renal proximal tubule (PT) cells mediate amino acid transport (AAT). We found that the membrane-associated class I myosin myosin 1b (Myo1b) localized at the apical brush border membrane of PTs. In opossum kidney (OK) 3B/2 epithelial cells, which are derived from PTs, expressed rat Myo1b-GFP colocalized in patched microvilli with expressed mouse V5-tagged SIT1 (SIT1-V5), which mediates neutral amino acid transport in OK cells. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of opossum Myo1b-specific shRNA resulted in knockdown (kd) of Myo1b expression, less SIT1-V5 at the APM as determined by localization studies, and a decrease in neutral AAT as determined by radioactive uptake assays. Myo1b kd had no effect on Pi transport or noticeable change in microvilli structure as determined by rhodamine phalloidin staining. The studies are the first to define a physiological role for Myo1b, that of regulating renal AAT by modulating the association of AATers with the APM. PMID:26361046

  3. Convective heat transport in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1986-08-01

    Most geothermal systems under exploitation for direct use or electrical power production are of the hydrothermal type, where heat is transferred essentially by convection in the reservoir, conduction being secondary. In geothermal systems, buoyancy effects are generally important, but often the fluid and heat flow patterns are largely controlled by geologic features (e.g., faults, fractures, continuity of layers) and location of recharge and discharge zones. During exploitation, these flow patterns can drastically change in response to pressure and temperature declines, and changes in recharge/discharge patterns. Convective circulation models of several geothermal systems, before and after start of fluid production, are described, with emphasis on different characteristics of the systems and the effects of exploitation on their evolution. Convective heat transport in geothermal fields is discussed, taking into consideration (1) major geologic features; (2) temperature-dependent rock and fluid properties; (3) fracture- versus porous-medium characteristics; (4) single- versus two-phase reservoir systems; and (5) the presence of noncondensible gases.

  4. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  5. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Decision making in early transportation planning must be responsive to complex value systems representing various policies and objectives. The assessment of alternative transportation concepts during the early initial phases of the system life cycle, when supportive research and technology development activities are defined, requires estimates of transportation, environmental, and socio-economic impacts throughout the system life cycle, which is a period of some 40 or 50 years. A unified methodological framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is described and is extended to include the comparison of long term transportation trends arising from implementation of the various R & D programs. The attributes of existing and future transportation systems are reviewed in order to establish measures for comparison, define value functions, and attribute weightings needed for comparing alternative policy actions for furthering transportation goals. Comparison criteria definitions and an illustrative example are included.

  6. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  7. Modulation of the carrier-mediated transport of the Tyr-MIF-1 across the blood-brain barrier by essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    Banks, W A; Kastin, A J

    1986-12-01

    There is evidence that the carrier-mediated system capable of transporting small, N-tyrosinated peptides [e.g., Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 (N-Tyr-MIF-1) and enkephalins] across the blood-brain barrier is modulated by intraventricularly administered leucine. This raises the possibility that the toxicity of amino acids on the central nervous system may be mediated in part by alterations in blood-brain barrier function. We further examined this action of leucine and extended the investigation to include other essential amino acids. High doses of leucine (30 nM and 100 nM/mouse intraventricularly) were found to inhibit significantly transport of iodinated Tyr-MIF-1 out of the brain. Less consistently, a low dose of leucine (1.0 nM/mouse) stimulated transport. Kinetic analysis indicated that leucine produced an uncompetitive type of modulation, probably interacting with the carrier-ligand complex. Among the other amino acids studied, D-leucine inhibited transport at both 1 nM and 100 nM/mouse, but stimulated transport at 0.1 nM/mouse. The only other significant changes occurred at the high (100 nM) dose of arginine, which stimulated, and methionine, which inhibited, transport. The possibility is proposed that derangements in amino acid metabolism might produce some of their effects on the central nervous system by modulating the blood-brain barrier transport systems for peptides and possibly other substances. PMID:2879030

  8. The solute carrier family 10 (SLC10): beyond bile acid transport

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tatiana Claro; Polli, James E.; Swaan, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    The solute carrier (SLC) family 10 (SLC10) comprises influx transporters of bile acids, steroidal hormones, various drugs, and several other substrates. Because the seminal transporters of this family, namely, sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP; SLC10A1) and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2), were primarily bile acid transporters, the term “sodium bile salt cotransporting family” was used for the SLC10 family. However, this notion became obsolete with the finding of other SLC10 members that do not transport bile acids. For example, the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter (SOAT; SLC10A6) transports primarily sulfated steroids. Moreover, NTCP was shown to also transport steroids and xenobiotics, including HMG-CoA inhibitors (statins). The SLC10 family contains four additional members, namely, P3 (SLC10A3; SLC10A3), P4 (SLC10A4; SLC10A4), P5 (SLC10A5; SLC10A5) and SLC10A7 (SLC10A7), several of which were unknown or considered hypothetical until approximately a decade ago. While their substrate specificity remains undetermined, great progress has been made towards their characterization in recent years. SLC10A4 may participate in vesicular storage or exocytosis of neurotransmitters or mastocyte mediators, whereas SLC10A5 and SLC10A7 may be involved in solute transport and SLC10A3 may have a role as a housekeeping protein. Finally, the newly found role of bile acids in glucose and energy homeostasis, via the TGR5 receptor, sheds new light on the clinical relevance of ASBT and NTCP. The present mini-review provides a brief summary of recent progress on members of the SLC10 family. PMID:23506869

  9. PARAMETRIC METHODOLOGIES OF CLOUD VERTICAL TRANSPORT FOR ACID DEPOSITION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A CUmulus VENTing (CUVENT) cloud module has been developed that calculates the vertical flux of mass from the boundary layer to the cloud layer by an ensemble of nonprecipitating subgrid-scale air mass clouds. This model will be integrated into the Regional Acid Deposition Model ...

  10. Riboflavin transport in the central nervous system. Characterization and effects of drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spector, R

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of riboflavin transport to the transport of other substances including drugs in rabbit choroid plexus, the anatomical locus of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and brain cells were studied in vivo and in vitro. In vitro, the ability of rabbit choroid plexus to transport riboflavin from the medium (cerebrospinal fluid surface) through the choroid plexus epithelial cells into the extracellular and vascular spaces of the choroid plexus was documented using fluorescence microscopy. These studies provided further evidence that riboflavin is transported from cerebrospinal fluid to blood via the choroid plexus. The transport of [14C]riboflavin by the isolated choroid plexus was inhibited by thiol agents, ouabain, theophylline, various flavins (lumiflavin and lumichrome > sugar containing flavins), and cyclic organic acids including penicillin and fluorescein. Riboflavin inhibited [14C]penicillin transport competitively and the inhibition constant (K1) for riboflavin equaled the concentration of riboflavin at which the saturable transport system for riboflavin is 50% saturated (KT). These and other data suggest that riboflavin, penicillin, and possibly fluorescein are transported by the same transport system in choroid plexus. In vivo, the intra-ventricular injection or riboflavin and [14C]penicillin inhibited [14C]penicillin transport from cerebrospinal fluid. In vitro, various flavins (riboflavin > other sugar-containing flavins > lumiflavin > lumichrome) inhibited [14C]riboflavin accumulation by brain slices. These studies support the notions that: (a) riboflavin accumulation by choroid plexus (active transport) is quite different from that in brain cells (facilitated diffusion and intracellular trapping), and (b) therapeutically important cyclic organic acids (e.g., penicillin) are transported fom cerebrospinal fluid by the riboflavin transport system in choroid plexus. Images PMID:7419721

  11. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  12. Role of ion transporters in the bile acid-induced esophageal injury.

    PubMed

    Laczkó, Dorottya; Rosztóczy, András; Birkás, Klaudia; Katona, Máté; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Tiszlavicz, László; Róka, Richárd; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter; Venglovecz, Viktória

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is considered to be the most severe complication of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which the prolonged, repetitive episodes of combined acidic and biliary reflux result in the replacement of the squamous esophageal lining by columnar epithelium. Therefore, the acid-extruding mechanisms of esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) may play an important role in the defense. Our aim was to identify the presence of acid/base transporters on EECs and to investigate the effect of bile acids on their expressions and functions. Human EEC lines (CP-A and CP-D) were acutely exposed to bile acid cocktail (BAC) and the changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured by microfluorometry. mRNA and protein expression of ion transporters was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We have identified the presence of a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter (NBC), and a Cl(-)-dependent HCO3 (-) secretory mechanism in CP-A and CP-D cells. Acute administration of BAC stimulated HCO3 (-) secretion in both cell lines and the NHE activity in CP-D cells by an inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium release. Chronic administration of BAC to EECs increased the expression of ion transporters compared with nontreated cells. A similar expression pattern was observed in biopsy samples from BE compared with normal epithelium. We have shown that acute administration of bile acids differently alters ion transport mechanisms of EECs, whereas chronic exposure to bile acids increases the expression of acid/base transporters. We speculate that these adaptive processes of EECs represent an important mucosal defense against the bile acid-induced epithelial injury. PMID:27198194

  13. Simulation framework for intelligent transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.; Doss, E.; Hanebutte, U.; Tentner, A.

    1996-10-01

    A simulation framework has been developed for a large-scale, comprehensive, scaleable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The simulator is designed for running on parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems, but can run on standalone workstations for smaller simulations. The simulator currently models instrumented smart vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units capable of optimal route planning and Traffic Management Centers (TMC). The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide two-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces to support human-factors studies. Realistic modeling of variations of the posted driving speed are based on human factors studies that take into consideration weather, road conditions, driver personality and behavior, and vehicle type. The prototype has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers but is designed to run on parallel computers, such as ANL`s IBM SP-2, for large-scale problems. A novel feature of the approach is that vehicles are represented by autonomous computer processes which exchange messages with other processes. The vehicles have a behavior model which governs route selection and driving behavior, and can react to external traffic events much like real vehicles. With this approach, the simulation is scaleable to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.

  14. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  15. Code System To Analyze Radiological Impact From Radwaste Transportation.

    1988-05-01

    Version 00 RADSHIP-2 is a computer code system used to analyze the environmental impact of radwaste transportation in Taiwan. The specific transport scheme including the land transport by truck and sea transport by ship or barge were considered in the analysis for normal transport and transport accident conditions. The code combines meteorological, population, health physics, transportation, packaging and material factors and has the capability to obtain the results of the expected annual population radiation exposure,more » the expected number of annual latent cancer fatalities and the annual probability of a given number of early fatalities.« less

  16. Space transportation system solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, fail-safe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system has completed the major portion of qualification and verification tests and is prepared to be cleared for the first Shuttle flight (STS-1). Substantiation data will include analytical and test data.

  17. Space Transportation System solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, failsafe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system completed the required qualification and verification tests and is certified for the intended application. Substantiation data include analytical and test data.

  18. Amino acid transport by membrane vesicles of an obligate anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed Central

    Driessen, A J; Ubbink-Kok, T; Konings, W N

    1988-01-01

    Membrane vesicles were isolated from the obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. Beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase was inserted in these membrane vesicles by membrane fusion by using the freeze-thaw sonication technique (A. J. M. Driessen, W. de Vrij, and W. N. Konings, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:7555-7559, 1985) to accommodate them with a functional proton motive force-generating system. With ascorbate-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine-cytochrome c as the electron donor, a proton motive force (delta p) of -80 to -120 mV was generated in these fused membranes. This delta p drove the accumulation of leucine and lysine up to 40- and 100-fold, respectively. High transport activities were observed in fused membranes containing Escherichia coli lipids, whereas the transport activities in fused membranes containing mainly soybean lipids or phosphatidylcholine were low. It is suggested that branched-chain amino acids and lysine were taken up by separate systems. The effects of the ionophores nigericin and valinomycin indicated that lysine and leucine were translocated in symport with a proton. PMID:2828326

  19. Plasmalemmal and Vesicular γ-Aminobutyric Acid Transporter Expression in the Developing Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    GUO, CHENYING; STELLA, SALVATORE L.; HIRANO, ARLENE A.; BRECHA, NICHOLAS C.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmalemmal and vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters influence neurotransmission by regulating high-affinity GABA uptake and GABA release into the synaptic cleft and extracellular space. Postnatal expression of the plasmalemmal GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1), GAT-3, and the vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT) were evaluated in the developing mouse retina by using immunohistochemistry with affinity-purified antibodies. Weak transporter immunoreactivity was observed in the inner retina at postnatal day 0 (P0). GAT-1 immunostaining at P0 and at older ages was in amacrine and displaced amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), respectively, and in their processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). At P10, weak GAT-1 immunostaining was in Müller cell processes. GAT-3 immunostaining at P0 and older ages was in amacrine cells and their processes, as well as in Müller cells and their processes that extended radially across the retina. At P10, Müller cell somata were observed in the middle of the INL. VGAT immunostaining was present at P0 and older ages in amacrine cells in the INL as well as processes in the IPL. At P5, weak VGAT immunostaining was also observed in horizontal cell somata and processes. By P15, the GAT and VGAT immunostaining patterns appear similar to the adult immunostaining patterns; they reached adult levels by about P20. These findings demonstrate that GABA uptake and release are initially established in the inner retina during the first postnatal week and that these systems subsequently mature in the outer retina during the second postnatal week. PMID:18975268

  20. Up-regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter I mediates ethanol sensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, J-H; Ma, Y-H; Yang, N; Mei, Z-T; Zhang, M-H; Fei, J; Guo, L-H

    2004-01-01

    Ethanol is among the most widely abused drugs in the world. Chronic ethanol consumption leads to ethanol tolerance and addiction, and impairs learning and memory. Na+/Cl- dependent GABA transporters play an important role in controlling the concentration of GABA in the synaptic cleft, and thus they control the intensity and duration of synaptic transmission of GABA. It has been suggested that GABAergic system is involved in ethanol consumption, tolerance and addiction, because chronic ethanol consumption alters the expression of GABAA receptors and drugs on GABA receptors affect ethanol actions. The results of the present study reveal that that activity of GABA transporters in mouse brain after 15-min acute ethanol injection or after chronic ethanol consumption is increased. Moreover, mice pre-injected with a competitive or a noncompetitive antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) showed high sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol. In contrast, transgenic mice overexpressing GAT1 displayed low sensitivity to ethanol, as shown by the righting reflex test. Mice overexpressing GAT1 survived a lethal dose of ethanol (9 g/kg, i.p.) longer, maintained locomotor activity longer after a sub-lethal dose (1.75 g/kg, i.p.) and exhibited a higher median lethal dose than wild-type littermates. These results suggest that GAT1 plays an important role in sensitivity to ethanol, and might be a therapeutic target for alcoholism prevention and treatment. Acute and chronic ethanol administration resulted in the increase of GABA transporter function. Use of GAT1 selective inhibitors and GAT1 overexpressing mice thus demonstrate that GAT1 should be an important protein mediating sensitivity to ethanol in mice. PMID:14751274

  1. Safety awareness continuity in transportation and space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macidull, John C.

    The paper discusses safety awareness in transportation and space systems, the roles of definitions, statistics and accident investigation in relation to transportation safety using examples of naval and commercial aircraft historical data, and the Space Shuttle Challenger investigation.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid in neural signaling systems.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid has been conserved in neural signalling systems in the cephalopods, fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, mammals, primates and humans. This extreme conservation, despite wide genomic changes over 500 million years, testifies to a uniqueness of this molecule in the brain. The brain selectively incorporates docosahexaenoic acid and its rate of incorporation into the developing brain has been shown to be greater than ten times more efficient than its synthesis from the omega 3 fatty acids of land plant origin. Data has now been published demonstrating a significant influence of dietary omega 3 fatty acids on neural gene expression. As docosahexaenoic acid is the only omega 3 fatty acid in the brain, it is likely that it is the ligand involved. The selective uptake, requirement for function and stimulation of gene expression would have conferred an advantage to a primate which separated from the chimpanzees in the forests and woodlands and sought a different ecological niche. In view of the paucity of docosahexaenoic acid in the land food chain it is likely that the advantage would have been gained from a lacustrine or marine coastal habitat with access to food rich in docosahexaenoic acid and the accessory micronutrients, such as iodine, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium, of importance in brain development and protection against peroxidation. Land agricultural development has, in recent time, come to dominate the human food chain. The decline in use and availability of aquatic resources is not considered important by Langdon (2006) as he considers the resource was not needed for human evolution and can be replaced from the terrestrial food chain. This notion is not supported by the biochemistry nor the molecular biology. He misses the point that the shoreline hypothesis is not just dependent on docosahexaenoic acid but also on the other accessory nutrients specifically required by the brain. Moreover he neglects the basic principle of Darwinian

  3. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  4. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1993-09-28

    A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell and receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and uses water and air for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor. 3 figures.

  5. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Krumpelt, Michael; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion system for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and water and air and for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel with water and air in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775....1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to measure uric acid in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  7. Evidence of Two Functionally Distinct Ornithine Decarboxylation Systems in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low-molecular-weight organic bases whose presence in food can result in health problems. The biosynthesis of biogenic amines in fermented foods mostly proceeds through amino acid decarboxylation carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but not all systems leading to biogenic amine production by LAB have been thoroughly characterized. Here, putative ornithine decarboxylation pathways consisting of a putative ornithine decarboxylase and an amino acid transporter were identified in LAB by strain collection screening and database searches. The decarboxylases were produced in heterologous hosts and purified and characterized in vitro, whereas transporters were heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis and functionally characterized in vivo. Amino acid decarboxylation by whole cells of the original hosts was determined as well. We concluded that two distinct types of ornithine decarboxylation systems exist in LAB. One is composed of an ornithine decarboxylase coupled to an ornithine/putrescine transmembrane exchanger. Their combined activities results in the extracellular release of putrescine. This typical amino acid decarboxylation system is present in only a few LAB strains and may contribute to metabolic energy production and/or pH homeostasis. The second system is widespread among LAB. It is composed of a decarboxylase active on ornithine and l-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) and a transporter that mediates unidirectional transport of ornithine into the cytoplasm. Diamines that result from this second system are retained within the cytosol. PMID:22247134

  8. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  9. Coupling of hydrologic transport and chemical reactions in a stream affected by acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.A.; Broshears, R.E.; Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, examined the coupling of hydrologic transport to chemical reactions affecting metal concentrations. Injection of LiCl as a conservative tracer was used to determine discharge and residence time along a 1497-m reach. Transport of metals downstream from inflows of acidic, metal-rich water was evaluated based on synoptic samples of metal concentrations and the hydrologic characteristics of the stream. Transport of SO4 and Mn was generally conservative, but in the subreaches most affected by acidic inflows, transport was reactive. Both 0.1-??m filtered and particulate Fe were reactive over most of the stream reach. Filtered Al partitioned to the particulate phase in response to high instream concentrations. Simulations that accounted for the removal of SO4, Mn, Fe, and Al with first-order reactions reproduced the steady-state profiles. The calculated rate constants for net removal used in the simulations embody several processes that occur on a stream-reach scale. The comparison between rates of hydrologie transport and chemical reactions indicates that reactions are only important over short distances in the stream near the acidic inflows, where reactions occur on a comparable time scale with hydrologic transport and thus affect metal concentrations.

  10. Proton-dependent glutamine uptake by aphid bacteriocyte amino acid transporter ApGLNT1.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Wilson, Alex C C; Luetje, Charles W

    2015-10-01

    Aphids house large populations of the gammaproteobacterial symbiont Buchnera aphidicola in specialized bacteriocyte cells. The combined biosynthetic capability of the holobiont (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Buchnera) is sufficient for biosynthesis of all twenty protein coding amino acids, including amino acids that animals alone cannot synthesize; and that are present at low concentrations in A. pisum's plant phloem sap diet. Collaborative holobiont amino acid biosynthesis depends on glutamine import into bacteriocytes, which serves as a nitrogen-rich amino donor for biosynthesis of other amino acids. Recently, we characterized A. pisum glutamine transporter 1 (ApGLNT1), a member of the amino acid/auxin permease family, as the dominant bacteriocyte plasma membrane glutamine transporter. Here we show ApGLNT1 to be structurally and functionally related to mammalian proton-dependent amino acid transporters (PATs 1-4). Using functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, combined with two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we demonstrate that ApGLNT1 is electrogenic and that glutamine induces large inward currents. ApGLNT1 glutamine induced currents are dependent on external glutamine concentration, proton (H+) gradient across the membrane, and membrane potential. Based on these transport properties, ApGLNT1-mediated glutamine uptake into A. pisum bacteriocytes can be regulated by changes in either proton gradients across the plasma membrane or membrane potential. PMID:26028424

  11. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    Background In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Methods Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. Results For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Conclusions Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans. PMID:26356420

  12. Defective canalicular transport and toxicity of dietary ursodeoxycholic acid in the abcb11-/- mouse: transport and gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renxue; Liu, Lin; Sheps, Jonathan A; Forrest, Dana; Hofmann, Alan F; Hagey, Lee R; Ling, Victor

    2013-08-15

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP), encoded by the abcb11 gene, is the major canalicular transporter of bile acids from the hepatocyte. BSEP malfunction in humans causes bile acid retention and progressive liver injury, ultimately leading to end-stage liver failure. The natural, hydrophilic, bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is efficacious in the treatment of cholestatic conditions, such as primary biliary cirrhosis and cholestasis of pregnancy. The beneficial effects of UDCA include promoting bile flow, reducing hepatic inflammation, preventing apoptosis, and maintaining mitochondrial integrity in hepatocytes. However, the role of BSEP in mediating UDCA efficacy is not known. Here, we used abcb11 knockout mice (abcb11-/-) to test the effects of acute and chronic UDCA administration on biliary secretion, bile acid composition, liver histology, and liver gene expression. Acutely infused UDCA, or its taurine conjugate (TUDC), was taken up by the liver but retained, with negligible biliary output, in abcb11-/- mice. Feeding UDCA to abcb11-/- mice led to weight loss, retention of bile acids, elevated liver enzymes, and histological damage to the liver. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that genes encoding Mdr1a and Mdr1b (canalicular) as well as Mrp4 (basolateral) transporters were upregulated in abcb11-/- mice. We concluded that infusion of UDCA and TUDC failed to induce bile flow in abcb11-/- mice. UDCA fed to abcb11-/- mice caused liver damage and the appearance of biliary tetra- and penta-hydroxy bile acids. Supplementation with UDCA in the absence of Bsep caused adverse effects in abcb11-/- mice. PMID:23764895

  13. Isolation of a spontaneous CHO amino acid transport mutant by a combination of tritium suicide and replica plating

    SciTech Connect

    Dantzig, A.H.; Slayman, C.W.; Adelberg, E.A.

    1982-07-01

    A spontaneous transport mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells, CHY-1, was isolated by a combination of (/sup 3/H)proline suicide and replica plating. The mutant took up less tritium than the parent, resulting in a lower killing rate during storage. Transport by four separate amino acid transport systems (A, ASC, L, Ly+) was examined. The CHY-1 mutant exhibited normal uptake via the ASC, L, and Ly+ systems. By contrast, uptake of the most specific substrate of the A system, 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, was significantly reduced at low, but not high, concentrations, due to a 3.5-fold increase in Km and a 1.5-fold increase in Vmax. Taken together, these data suggest that the CHY-1 mutation may be in the structural gene coding for the A transport protein. The tritium suicide procedure is discussed, and general equations are derived to predict the maximum storage time for the survival of one mutant cell and the optimum size of the cell population for maximum mutant enrichment.

  14. Argonne simulation framework for intelligent transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.; Doss, E.; Hanebutte, U.; Canfield, T.; Brown-VanHoozer, A.; Tentner, A.

    1996-04-01

    A simulation framework has been developed which defines a high-level architecture for a large-scale, comprehensive, scalable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The simulator is designed to run on parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems; however, a version for a stand alone workstation is also available. The ITS simulator includes an Expert Driver Model (EDM) of instrumented ``smart`` vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units. The EDM is capable of performing optimal route planning and communicating with Traffic Management Centers (TMC). A dynamic road map data base is sued for optimum route planning, where the data is updated periodically to reflect any changes in road or weather conditions. The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide 2-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces that includes human-factors studies to support safety and operational research. Realistic modeling of variations of the posted driving speed are based on human factor studies that take into consideration weather, road conditions, driver`s personality and behavior and vehicle type. The simulator has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers, but is designed to run on ANL`s IBM SP-X parallel computer system for large scale problems. A novel feature of the developed simulator is that vehicles will be represented by autonomous computer processes, each with a behavior model which performs independent route selection and reacts to external traffic events much like real vehicles. Vehicle processes interact with each other and with ITS components by exchanging messages. With this approach, one will be able to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.

  15. The Fate and Transport of Glyphosate and its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA), in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scribner, E.; Meyer, M. T.

    2006-05-01

    Since 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the fate and transport of glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in surface water, and more recently in tile-drain flow, soil, and wet deposition. According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sources, glyphosate is among the world's most widely used herbicides. In 2004, glyphosate usage estimates indicated that between 103 and 113 million pounds were applied annually to crops in the United States. The use of glyphosate over a wide geographic area suggests that this herbicide might be a potential concern for air, water, and soil quality as well as measured in high concentrations in streams; therefore, it is important to monitor its fate and transport in ground-water/surface-water systems. National, regional, and field-scale studies conducted by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment and Toxic Substance Hydrology Programs have studied the fate and transport of glyphosate in overland flow, tile- drain flow, surface water, soil, and wet-deposition samples. The samples were analyzed for glyphosate and AMPA by using derivatization and online solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS methods developed by the USGS Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas. During spring, summer, and fall 2002 runoff periods in 50 Midwestern streams, glyphosate was detected at or above the 0.10 micrograms per liter detection limit in 35, 41, and 31 percent of samples, respectively. AMPA was detected in 53, 82, and 75 percent of samples, respectively. Results of 128 samples from a field study showed that glyphosate was transported as a narrow high- concentration pulse during the first period of runoff after application and that the concentration of glyphosate in runoff was greater than the concentration of AMPA. In tile-drain flow, glyphosate and AMPA were transported in a broad low-concentration pulse during these same

  16. Computational modelling of placental amino acid transfer as an integrated system.

    PubMed

    Panitchob, N; Widdows, K L; Crocker, I P; Johnstone, E D; Please, C P; Sibley, C P; Glazier, J D; Lewis, R M; Sengers, B G

    2016-07-01

    Placental amino acid transfer is essential for fetal development and its impairment is associated with poor fetal growth. Amino acid transfer is mediated by a broad array of specific plasma membrane transporters with overlapping substrate specificity. However, it is not fully understood how these different transporters work together to mediate net flux across the placenta. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop a new computational model to describe how human placental amino acid transfer functions as an integrated system. Amino acid transfer from mother to fetus requires transport across the two plasma membranes of the placental syncytiotrophoblast, each of which contains a distinct complement of transporter proteins. A compartmental modelling approach was combined with a carrier based modelling framework to represent the kinetics of the individual accumulative, exchange and facilitative classes of transporters on each plasma membrane. The model successfully captured the principal features of transplacental transfer. Modelling results clearly demonstrate how modulating transporter activity and conditions such as phenylketonuria, can increase the transfer of certain groups of amino acids, but that this comes at the cost of decreasing the transfer of others, which has implications for developing clinical treatment options in the placenta and other transporting epithelia. PMID:27045077

  17. Proton Solvation and Transport in Aqueous and Biomolecular Systems

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jessica M. J.; Maupin, C. Mark; Chen, Hanning; Petersen, Matt K.; Xu, Jiancong; Wu, Yujie; Voth, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    The excess proton in aqueous media plays a pivotal role in many fundamental chemical (e.g., acid-base chemistry) and biological (e.g., bioenergetics and enzyme catalysis) processes. Understanding the hydrated proton is, therefore, crucial for chemistry, biology, and materials sciences. Although well studied for over 200 years, excess proton solvation and transport remains to this day mysterious, surprising, and perhaps even misunderstood. In this feature article various efforts to address this problem through computer modeling and simulation will be described. Applications of computer simulations to a number of important and interesting systems will be presented, highlighting the roles of charge delocalization and Grotthuss shuttling, a phenomenon unique in many ways to the excess proton in water. PMID:17429993

  18. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  19. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  20. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The 515-41B National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the sixth operational Shuttle flight and fourth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Since this flight was the first to land at Kennedy Space Center, the vehicle was towed directly to the OPF (Orbiter Processing Facility) where preparations for flight STS-41C, scheduled for early April 1984, began immediately. The significant problems that occurred during STS-41B are summarized and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight is given. None of the problems will affect the STS 41C flight. The major objectives of flight STS-41B were to successfully deploy the Westar satellite and the Indonesian Communications Satellite-B2 (PALAPA-B2); to evaluate the MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) support for EVA (Extravehicular Activities); to exercise the MFR (Manipulator Foot Restraint); to demonstrate a closed loop rendezvous; and to operate the M.R (Monodisperse Latex Reactor), the ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) and the IEF (Isoelectric Focusing) in cabin experiments; and to obtain photographs with the Cinema 360 Cameras.

  1. Advanced space transportation systems, BARGOUZIN booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Marco; Louaas, Eric; Prel, Yves; Kostromin, Sergey; Panichkin, Nickolay; Sumin, Yuriy; Osin, Mikhail; Iranzo-Greus, David; Rigault, Michel; Beaurain, André; Couteau, Jean-Noël

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of Advanced Space Transportation Systems Studies sponsored by CNES in 2006, a study called "BARGOUZIN" was performed by a joint team led by ASTRIUM ST and TSNIIMASH. Beyond these leaders, the team comprised MOLNIYA, DASSAULT AVIATION and SNECMA as subcontractors. The "BARGOUZIN" concept is a liquid fuelled fly-back booster (LFBB), mounted on the ARIANE 5 central core stage in place of the current solid rocket booster. The main originality of the concept lies in the fact that the "BARGOUZIN" features a cluster of VULCAIN II engines, similar to the one mounted on the central core stage of ARIANE 5. An astute permutation strategy, between the booster engines and central core engine is expected to lead to significant cost reductions. The following aspects were addressed during the preliminary system study: engine number per booster trade-off/abort scenario analysis, aerodynamic consolidation, engine reliability, ascent controllability, ground interfaces separation sequence analysis, programmatics. These topics will be briefly presented and synthesized in this paper, giving an overview of the credibility of the concept.

  2. NANONIS TRAMEA - A Quantum Transport Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampen, Thorsten; Thissen, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver; Pioda, Alessandro

    Nanonis Tramea is a quantum leap with respect to increased speed for transport measurements taking research onto a new level. Measurements which took several hours in the past can now be done in minutes without compromising signal quality. Tramea uses its fast, high-resolution, high-precision and ultra-low-noise outputs and inputs to generate and acquire up to 20000 data points per second on 24 channels in parallel. This is not only up to 1000 x faster than typical measurement systems but it is also time deterministic with highest precision. Here, the time separation between points is constant so that artefacts caused by unequal point spacings in non-deterministic measurement systems are avoided. The emphasis here is the real-time relation. Tramea comes with a built-in interface which allows for control of the instruments' basic functions from any programming environment. For users requiring more functionality and higher speeds a full-featured LabVIEW-based programming interface or scripting module are available as add-on modules. Due to the modularity and flexibility of the hardware and software architecture of Tramea upgrades with standardized add-on modules are possible. Non-standard requests can still be handled by the various programming options.

  3. Sex-dependent activity of the spinal excitatory amino acid transporter: Role of estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Felice, Valeria D; Golubeva, Anna V; Cryan, John F; O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2016-10-01

    Females are more likely to experience visceral pain than males, yet mechanisms underlying this sex bias are not fully elucidated. Moreover, pain sensitivity can change throughout the menstrual cycle. Alterations in the glutamatergic system have been implicated in several pain-disorders; however, whether these are sex-dependent is unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate sex differences in the spinal cord glutamate uptake and how it varies across the estrous cycle. The activity of the glutamate transporters, excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) was assessed using an ex vivo aspartate radioactive uptake assay in the lumbosacral spinal cord in Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. The gene expression of EAATs, glutamate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B and the estrogen receptors ERα & ERβ in the spinal cord were also analyzed. EAAT activity was lower in females, particularly during the estrus phase, and this was the only cycle stage that was responsive to the pharmacological effects of the EAATs activator riluzole. Interestingly, EAAT1 mRNA expression was lower in high-estrogen and high-ERα states compared to diestrus in females. We conclude that the Spinal EAAT activity in females is different to that in males, and varies across the estrous cycle. Furthermore, the expression levels of estrogen receptors also showed a cycle-dependent pattern that may affect EAATs function and expression. PMID:27471194

  4. Hepatic transport of bile acid and effect of conjugation.

    PubMed

    Kitani, K

    1995-06-01

    Biliary transport of bile salts was investigated by measuring: 1) biliary transport maxima values (Tm) for different conjugated bile salts; and 2) biliary excretion of unconjugated bile salts relative to their conjugates under the continuous i.v. infusion of various unconjugated bile salts. The order of Tm values found in the rat of both sexes was tauro (and glyco) ursodeoxycholate (TUDC, GUDC), tauro alpha- and beta-muricholate (T alpha-MC, T beta-MC) > taurocholate(TC) > taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC), while in female hamsters it was TC > TCDC > TUDC. The differences in the Tm order between rats and hamsters cast doubt on the currently proposed view that the apparent Tm values of bile salts are primarily determined by their physical-chemical properties (detergent property in particular). The biliary excretion of unconjugated bile salts was most efficient with ursocholate (UC) and alpha-MC followed by beta-MC, with UDC (and probably 7 ketolithocholate) being the least efficient for excretion. Thus, while for some bile salts such as cholate and UC, the amidation is not a prerequisite to their efficient excretion, for other bile salts such as UDC, the amidation is an excellent mechanism for facilitating the biliary excretion. In an attempt to explain the above order for the efficacy of the biliary excretion of unconjugated bile salts on the basis of their physical-chemical properties, we must remember that unlike rats, the biliary excretion of dehydrocholate and cholate in dogs is more limited than their respective taurine conjugates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8541581

  5. The role of EPA`s Acid Rain Division in the Ozone Transport Commission`s NOx budget program

    SciTech Connect

    Schary, C.; Culligan, K.

    1997-12-31

    The Ozone Transport Commission`s (OTC) Nitrogen Oxides (NO{sub x}) Budget Program will implement the emissions reduction goal of the 1994 Memorandum of Understanding between its twelve member states and the District of Columbia. The program will achieve its significant NO{sub x} reductions from electric utilities and industrial boilers using a {open_quotes}cap-and-trade{close_quotes} approach modeled after the US Environmental Protection Agency`s sulfur dioxide emissions trading under the Acid Rain Program. The similarity of the two programs has led to the development of an important partnership between the OTC states and EPA`s Acid Rain Division, Over the past two years, Acid Rain Program staff have shared their technical expertise and assisted extensively in the development of the program`s rules. Leveraging the investment EPA made in the systems used to run the Acid Rain Program, the OTC states have asked the Acid Rain Division to administer the data systems for them, and together are working to expand its existing Emissions Tracking System and to modify a clone of the sulfur dioxide Allowance Tracking System, to fulfill the unique requirements of the NO{sub x} Budget Program. This partnership is an important example of the new type of cooperation and sharing of expertise and resources that should develop between EPA and states as they launch multi-state programs to address regional pollution problems that defy a single-state solution.

  6. Differences in neutral amino acid and glucose transport between brush border and basolateral plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, U; Sigrist-Nelson, K; Ammann, E; Murer, H

    1976-12-01

    A comparison of L-valine and D-glucose transport was carried out with vesicles of plasma membrane isolated either from the luminal (brush border) or from the contra-luminal (basolateral) region of small intestinal epithelial cells. The existence of transport systems for both non-electrolytes was demonstrated by stereospecificity and saturability of uptake, as well as tracer coupling. Transport of L-valine and D-glucose differs markedly in the two types of plasma membrane with respect to stimulation by Na+. The presence of Na+ stimulated initial L-valine and D-glucose uptake in brush border, but not in basolateral membrane. Moreover, an electro-chemical Na+ gradient, oriented with the lower potential on the inside, supported accumulation of the non-electrolytes above medium concentration only in the brush border membrane. L-Valine and D-glucose transport also were saturated at lower concentrations in brush border (10-20 mM) than in basolateral plasma membranes (30-50 mM). A third difference between the two membranes was found in the effectiveness of known inhibitors of D-glucose transport. In brush border membranes phlorizin was more potent than phloretin and 2', 3', 4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxy chalcone and cytochalasin B did not inhibit at all. In contrast, with the basolateral plasma membranes the order of potency was changed to phloretin = 2',3',4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxy chalcone greater than cytochalasin B greater than phlorizin. These results indicate the presence of different types of transport systems for monosaccharides and neutral amino acids in the luminal and contra-luminal region of the plasma membrane. Active transepithelial transport can be explained on the basis of the different properties of the non-electrolyte transport systems in the two cellular regions and an electro-chemical Na+ gradient that is dependent on cellular metabolism. PMID:137908

  7. Identification of a Third Osmoprotectant Transport System, the OsmU System, in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Frossard, Stephen M.; Khan, Aftab A.; Warrick, Eric C.; Gately, Jonathan M.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Oldham, Michael L.; Sanders, David Avram

    2012-01-01

    The growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants lacking the ProP and ProU osmoprotectant transport systems is stimulated by glycine betaine in high-osmolarity media, suggesting that this organism has an additional osmoprotectant transport system. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genome of this organism contains a hitherto-unidentified operon, designated osmU, consisting of four genes whose products show high similarity to ABC-type transport systems for osmoprotectants in other bacteria. The osmU operon was inactivated by a site-directed deletion, which abolished the ability of glycine betaine to alleviate the inhibitory effect of high osmolarity and eliminated the accumulation of [14C]glycine betaine and [14C]choline-O-sulfate in high-osmolarity media in a strain lacking the ProP and ProU systems. Although the OsmU system can take up glycine betaine and choline-O-sulfate, these two osmoprotectants are recognized at low affinity by this transporter, suggesting that there might be more efficient substrates that are yet to be discovered. The transcription of osmU is induced 23-fold by osmotic stress (0.3 M NaCl). The osmU operon is present in the genomes of a number of Enterobacteriaceae, and orthologs of the OsmU system can be recognized in a wide variety of Bacteria and Archaea. The structure of the periplasmic binding protein component of this transporter, OsmX, was modeled on the crystallographic structure of the glycine betaine-binding protein ProX of Archaeoglobus fulgidus; the resultant model indicated that the amino acids that constitute substrate-binding site, including an “aromatic cage” made up of four tyrosines, are conserved between these two proteins. PMID:22609924

  8. Aminoaciduria and altered renal expression of luminal amino acid transporters in mice lacking novel gene collectrin.

    PubMed

    Malakauskas, Sandra M; Quan, Hui; Fields, Timothy A; McCall, Shannon J; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Kourany, Wissam M; Frey, Campbell W; Le, Thu H

    2007-02-01

    Defects in renal proximal tubule transport manifest in a number of human diseases. Although variable in clinical presentation, disorders such as Hartnup disease, Dent's disease, and Fanconi syndrome are characterized by wasting of solutes commonly recovered by the proximal tubule. One common feature of these disorders is aminoaciduria. There are distinct classes of amino acid transporters located in the apical and basal membranes of the proximal tubules that reabsorb >95% of filtered amino acids, yet few details are known about their regulation. We present our physiological characterization of a mouse line with targeted deletion of the gene collectrin that is highly expressed in the kidney. Collectrin-deficient mice display a reduced urinary concentrating capacity due to enhanced solute clearance resulting from profound aminoaciduria. The aminoaciduria is generalized, characterized by loss of nearly every amino acid, and results in marked crystalluria. Furthermore, in the kidney, collectrin-deficient mice have decreased plasma membrane populations of amino acid transporter subtypes B(0)AT1, rBAT, and b(0,+)AT, as well as altered cellular distribution of EAAC1. Our data suggest that collectrin is a novel mediator of renal amino acid transport and may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of a number of human disease correlates. PMID:16985211

  9. Road transportable analytical laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Remediation of DOE contaminated areas requires extensive sampling and analysis. Reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site a full range of analyses meeting high levels of quality assurance and control, would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of cleanup and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping, and manpower associated with sample shipments. Goals of RTAL are to meet the needs of DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. The system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or together, to meet specific site needs: radioanalytical lab, organic chemical analysis lab, inorganic chemical analysis lab, aquatic biomonitoring lab, field analytical lab, robotics base station, decontamination/sample screening module, and operations control center. Goal of this integrated system is a sample throughput of 20 samples/day, providing a full range of accurate analyses on each sample within 16 h (after sample preparation), compared with the 45- day turnaround time in commercial laboratories. A prototype RTAL consisting of 5 modules was built and demonstrated at Fernald(FEMP)`s OU-1 Waste Pits, during the 1st-3rd quarters of FY96 (including the `96 Blizzard). All performance and operational goals were met or exceeded: as many as 50 sample analyses/day were achieved, depending on the procedure, sample turnaround times were 50-67% less than FEMP`s best times, and RTAL costs were projected to be 30% less than FEMP costs for large volume analyses in fixed laboratories.

  10. Transport and metabolism of fumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic glucose-limited chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mihir V; van Mastrigt, Oscar; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2016-04-01

    Currently, research is being focused on the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid and other relevant organic acids from renewable feedstocks via fermentation, preferably at low pH for better product recovery. However, at low pH a large fraction of the extracellular acid is present in the undissociated form, which is lipophilic and can diffuse into the cell. There have been no studies done on the impact of high extracellular concentrations of fumaric acid under aerobic conditions in S. cerevisiae, which is a relevant issue to study for industrial-scale production. In this work we studied the uptake and metabolism of fumaric acid in S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a cultivation pH of 3.0 (pH < pK). Steady states were achieved with different extracellular levels of fumaric acid, obtained by adding different amounts of fumaric acid to the feed medium. The experiments were carried out with the wild-type S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D and an engineered S. cerevisiae ADIS 244 expressing a heterologous dicarboxylic acid transporter (DCT-02) from Aspergillus niger, to examine whether it would be capable of exporting fumaric acid. We observed that fumaric acid entered the cells most likely via passive diffusion of the undissociated form. Approximately two-thirds of the fumaric acid in the feed was metabolized together with glucose. From metabolic flux analysis, an increased ATP dissipation was observed only at high intracellular concentrations of fumarate, possibly due to the export of fumarate via an ABC transporter. The implications of our results for the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26683700

  11. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  12. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  13. Integrated mass transportation system study/definition/implementation program definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, R. K.; Deptula, D. A.; Yorke, G. G.

    1975-01-01

    Specific actions needed to plan and effect transportation system improvements are identified within the constraints of limited financial, energy and land use resources, and diverse community requirements. A specific program is described which would develop the necessary generalized methodology for devising improved transportation systems and evaluate them against specific criteria for intermodal and intramodal optimization. A consistent, generalized method is provided for study and evaluation of transportation system improvements.

  14. The importance of glutamate, glycine, and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transport and regulation in manganese, mercury and lead neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Fitsanakis, Vanessa A.; Aschner, Michael . E-mail: michael.aschner@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-05-01

    Historically, amino acids were studied in the context of their importance in protein synthesis. In the 1950s, the focus of research shifted as amino acids were recognized as putative neurotransmitters. Today, many amino acids are considered important neurochemicals. Although many amino acids play a role in neurotransmission, glutamate (Glu), glycine (Gly), and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are among the more prevalent and better understood. Glu, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, and Gly and GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitters, in the central nervous system, are known to be tightly regulated. Prolonged exposure to environmental toxicants, such as manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb), however, can lead to dysregulation of these neurochemicals and subsequent neurotoxicity. While the ability of these metals to disrupt the regulation of Glu, Gly and GABA have been studied, few articles have examined the collective role of these amino acids in the respective metal's mechanism of toxicity. For each of the neurotransmitters above, we will provide a brief synopsis of their regulatory function, including the importance of transport and re-uptake in maintaining their optimal function. Additionally, the review will address the hypothesis that aberrant homeostasis of any of these amino acids, or a combination of the three, plays a role in the neurotoxicity of Mn, Hg, or Pb.

  15. Concept of Integrated Information Systems of Rail Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siergiejczyk, Mirosław; Gago, Stanisław

    This paper will present a need to create integrated information systems of the rail transport and their links with other means of public transportation. IT standards will be discussed that are expected to create the integrated information systems of the rail transport. Also the main tasks will be presented of centralized information systems, the concept of their architecture, business processes and their implementation as well as the proposed measures to secure data. A method shall be proposed to implement a system to inform participants of rail transport in Polish conditions.

  16. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25616451

  17. Transport and Metabolism of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Scott A.; Foster, Kenneth R.; Reid, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Transport and metabolism of [2,3-14C] 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) from roots to shoots in 4-day-old sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings were studied. [14C]ACC was detected in, and 14C2H4 was evolved from, shoots 0.5 hours after [14C]ACC was supplied to roots. Ethylene emanation from the shoots returned to normal levels after 6 hours. The roots showed a similar pattern, although at 24 hours ethylene emanation was still slightly higher than in those plants that did not receive ACC. [14C]N-malonyl-ACC (MACC) was detected in both tissues at all times sampled. [14C]MACC levels surpassed [14C]ACC levels in the shoot at 2 hours, whereas [14C]MACC levels in the root remained below [14C]ACC levels until 6 hours, after which they were higher. Thin-layer chromatography analysis identified [14C] ACC in 1-hour shoot extracts, and [14C]MACC was identified in root tissues at 1 and 12 hours after treatment. [14C]ACC and [14C] MACC in the xylem sap of treated seedlings were identified by thin-layer chromatography. Xylem transport of [14C]ACC in treated seedlings, and transport of ACC in untreated seedlings, was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some evidence for the presence of [14C]MACC in xylem sap in [14C]ACC-treated seedlings is presented. A substantial amount of radioactivity in both ACC and MACC fractions was detected leaking from the roots over 24 hours. A second radiolabeled volatile compound was trapped in a CO2-trapping solution but not in mercuric perchlorate. Levels of this compound were highest after the peak of ACC levels and before peak MACC levels in both tissues, suggesting that an alternate pathway of ACC metabolism was operating in this system. PMID:16668342

  18. A Functional-Phylogenetic Classification System for Transmembrane Solute Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive classification system for transmembrane molecular transporters has been developed and recently approved by the transport panel of the nomenclature committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This system is based on (i) transporter class and subclass (mode of transport and energy coupling mechanism), (ii) protein phylogenetic family and subfamily, and (iii) substrate specificity. Almost all of the more than 250 identified families of transporters include members that function exclusively in transport. Channels (115 families), secondary active transporters (uniporters, symporters, and antiporters) (78 families), primary active transporters (23 families), group translocators (6 families), and transport proteins of ill-defined function or of unknown mechanism (51 families) constitute distinct categories. Transport mode and energy coupling prove to be relatively immutable characteristics and therefore provide primary bases for classification. Phylogenetic grouping reflects structure, function, mechanism, and often substrate specificity and therefore provides a reliable secondary basis for classification. Substrate specificity and polarity of transport prove to be more readily altered during evolutionary history and therefore provide a tertiary basis for classification. With very few exceptions, a phylogenetic family of transporters includes members that function by a single transport mode and energy coupling mechanism, although a variety of substrates may be transported, sometimes with either inwardly or outwardly directed polarity. In this review, I provide cross-referencing of well-characterized constituent transporters according to (i) transport mode, (ii) energy coupling mechanism, (iii) phylogenetic grouping, and (iv) substrates transported. The structural features and distribution of recognized family members throughout the living world are also evaluated. The tabulations should facilitate familial and functional

  19. Transportation system requirements document. Revision 1 DCN01. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The original Transportation System Requirements Document described the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of that document was to define the system-level requirements. These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presented an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. This revision of the document contains only the pages that have been modified.

  20. Gymnemic acids inhibit sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Dawid, Corinna; Kottra, Gabor; Daniel, Hannelore; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-06-25

    To evaluate the activity of botanicals used in Chinese Traditional Medicine as hypoglycemic agents for diabetes type II prevention and/or treatment, extracts prepared from 26 medicinal herbs were screened for their inhibitory activity on sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) by using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording of glucose uptake in Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with cRNA for SGLT1. Showing by far the strongest SGLT1 inhibitory effect, the phytochemicals extracted from Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schult were located by means of activity-guided fractionation and identified as 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-2-tigloyl-22-O-2-tigloyl gymnemagenin (1) and 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-2-methylbutyryl-22-O-2-tigloyl gymnemagenin (2) by means of LC-MS/MS, UPLC-TOF/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments. Both saponins exhibited low IC50 values of 5.97 (1) and 0.17 μM (2), the latter of which was in the same range as found for the high-affinity inhibitor phlorizin (0.21 μM). As SGLT1 is found in high levels in brush-border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells, these findings demonstrate for the first time the potential of these saponins for inhibiting electrogenic glucose uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24856809

  1. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  2. Nucleic acid detection systems for enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rotbart, H A

    1991-01-01

    The enteroviruses comprise nearly 70 human pathogens responsible for a wide array of diseases including poliomyelitis, meningitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis. Current diagnostic tests for the enteroviruses are limited in their use by the slow growth, or failure to grow, of certain serotypes in culture, the antigenic diversity among the serotypes, and the low titer of virus in certain clinical specimens. Within the past 6 years, applications of molecular cloning techniques, in vitro transcription vectors, automated nucleic acid synthesis, and the polymerase chain reaction have resulted in significant progress toward nucleic acid-based detection systems for the enteroviruses that take advantage of conserved genomic sequences across many, if not all, serotypes. Similar approaches to the study of enteroviral pathogenesis have already produced dramatic advances in our understanding of how these important viruses cause their diverse clinical spectra. PMID:1649002

  3. Monocarboxylate Transporter-Mediated Transport of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wing Ki; Felmlee, Melanie A.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) and to evaluate intestinal transport of the MCT substrates γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and d-lactate in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The presence of mRNA for MCT1, 2, 3, and 4 was observed in Caco-2 cells. The uptake of both GHB and d-lactate in Caco-2 cells was demonstrated to be pH- and concentration-dependent and sodium-independent. The uptake of GHB and d-lactate was best described by a Michaelis-Menten equation with passive diffusion (GHB: Km = 17.6 ± 10.5 mM, Vmax = 17.3 ± 11.7 nmol/min/mg, and P = 0.38 ± 0.15 μl/min/mg; and d-lactate: Km = 6.0 ± 2.9 mM, Vmax = 35.0 ± 18.4 nmol/min/mg, and P = 1.3 ± 0.6 μl/min/mg). The uptake of GHB and d-lactate was significantly decreased by the known MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and the MCT substrates GHB and d-lactate but not by the organic cation tetraethylammonium chloride. Directional flux studies with both GHB and d-lactate suggested the involvement of carrier-mediated transport with the permeability in the apical to basolateral direction higher than that in the basolateral to apical direction. These findings confirm the presence of MCT1–4 in Caco-2 cells and demonstrate GHB and d-lactate transport characteristics consistent with proton-dependent MCT-mediated transport. PMID:19952290

  4. Proton transport in triflic acid hydrates studied via path integral car-parrinello molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robin L; Paddison, Stephen J; Tuckerman, Mark E

    2009-12-31

    The mono-, di-, and tetrahydrates of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, which contain characteristic H(3)O(+), H(5)O(2)(+), and H(9)O(4)(+) structures, provide model systems for understanding proton transport in materials with high perfluorosulfonic acid density such as perfluorosulfonic acid membranes commonly employed in hydrogen fuel cells. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that protons in these solids are predisposed to transfer to the water most strongly bound to sulfonate groups via a Grotthuss-type mechanism, but quickly return to the most solvated defect structure either due to the lack of a nearby species to stabilize the new defect or a preference for the proton to be maximally hydrated. Path integral molecular dynamics of the mono- and dihydrate reveal significant quantum effects that facilitate proton transfer to the "presolvated" water or SO(3)(-) in the first solvation shell and increase the Zundel character of all the defects. These trends are quantified in free energy profiles for each bonding environment. Hydrogen bonding criteria for HOH-OH(2) and HOH-O(3)S are extracted from the two-dimensional potential of mean force. The quantum radial distribution function, radius of gyration, and root-mean-square displacement position correlation function show that the protonic charge is distributed over two or more water molecules. Metastable structural defects with one excess proton shared between two sulfonate groups and another Zundel or Eigen type cation defect are found for the mono- and dihydrate but not for the tetrahydrate crystal. Results for the tetrahydrate native crystal exhibit minor differences at 210 and 250 K. IR spectra are calculated for all native and stable defect structures. Graph theory techniques are used to characterize the chain lengths and ring sizes in the hydrogen bond network. Low conductivities when limited water is present may be attributable to trapping of protons between SO(3)(-) groups and the increased

  5. Chronic intermittent psychological stress promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by impairing bile acid absorption in mice

    PubMed Central

    Silvennoinen, Reija; Quesada, Helena; Kareinen, Ilona; Julve, Josep; Kaipiainen, Leena; Gylling, Helena; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress. PMID:25969465

  6. Chronic intermittent psychological stress promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by impairing bile acid absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Reija; Quesada, Helena; Kareinen, Ilona; Julve, Josep; Kaipiainen, Leena; Gylling, Helena; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-05-11

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress. PMID:25969465

  7. Highly reusable space transportation system study

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    To significantly increase demand for launch services by stimulating existing and planned markets as well as enabling new markets, the cost to orbit needs to be reduced a factor of ten below projected Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) goals. This will place the recurring operations cost around {dollar_sign}200 per payload pound to low earth orbit (LEO). Methods for reducing the cost include: increasing relative vehicle performance, increasing vehicle reusability, and decreasing recurring operations. A study was conducted for NASA in support of its Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) initiative to identify for further assessment and development, those launch strategies that hold the greatest potential with respect to meeting this goal. During this study a number of candidate strategies were evaluated associated with access to space. Both technical and cost trades were performed, and concluded that there are two airbreathing propulsion concepts utilizing launch assist that appear promising in achieving the HRST-cost goals. These concepts employ both turbine based combine cycle (TBCC) and rocket based combine cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. The launch assist selected uses electromagnetic propulsion and a guideway to provide both delta velocity and altitude. A first order investigation of system level requirements associated with HRST launch assist for a magnetically launched vehicle including guideway concept and requirements as well as magnetic levitation and propulsion concepts and requirements were also conducted. This study concluded that the HRST goals of total recurring operations cost of {dollar_sign}200 per payload pound to Low Earth Orbit based on a ten year operational period were feasible if the required technology was matured. The most promising concept to achieve these goals is based on a RBCC powered vehicle with electromagnetic launch assist. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. A Segway RMP-based robotic transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Kogut, Greg; Barua, Ripan; Burmeister, Aaron; Pezeshkian, Narek; Powell, Darren; Farrington, Nathan; Wimmer, Matt; Cicchetto, Brett; Heng, Chana; Ramirez, Velia

    2004-12-01

    In the area of logistics, there currently is a capability gap between the one-ton Army robotic Multifunction Utility/Logistics and Equipment (MULE) vehicle and a soldier"s backpack. The Unmanned Systems Branch at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SPAWAR Systems Center, or SSC), San Diego, with the assistance of a group of interns from nearby High Tech High School, has demonstrated enabling technologies for a solution that fills this gap. A small robotic transport system has been developed based on the Segway Robotic Mobility Platform (RMP). We have demonstrated teleoperated control of this robotic transport system, and conducted two demonstrations of autonomous behaviors. Both demonstrations involved a robotic transporter following a human leader. In the first demonstration, the transporter used a vision system running a continuously adaptive mean-shift filter to track and follow a human. In the second demonstration, the separation between leader and follower was significantly increased using Global Positioning System (GPS) information. The track of the human leader, with a GPS unit in his backpack, was sent wirelessly to the transporter, also equipped with a GPS unit. The robotic transporter traced the path of the human leader by following these GPS breadcrumbs. We have additionally demonstrated a robotic medical patient transport capability by using the Segway RMP to power a mock-up of the Life Support for Trauma and Transport (LSTAT) patient care platform, on a standard NATO litter carrier. This paper describes the development of our demonstration robotic transport system and the various experiments conducted.

  9. Influence of Verapamil and Cyclosporin A on bile acid metabolism and transport in rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Barth, Astrid; Braun, Jerome; Müller, Dieter

    2006-08-01

    Verapamil (V) is a specific inhibitor of the P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane. Cyclosporin A (CsA) as an essential immunosuppressive drug has potentially cholestatic adverse effects on the liver, but increases the expression of mdr1. In precision-cut liver slices from 34- to 40-day-old male Wistar rats 26 individual free and conjugated bile acids (BAs) as markers of hepatic transport and synthesis function were analysed after 4 h incubation with V (100 microM) or CsA (5 microM) in Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Some slices were loaded with cholic acid (CA 5 microM) or tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (T-UDCA 5 microM) to investigate the V and CsA effects under conditions of BA supplementation. BAs were determined in tissue and medium by HPLC with postcolumn derivatisation and fluorescence detection. V and CsA, influencing different targets in BA transport, enhanced slice concentrations of T- and glyco- (G-) conjugated CA only when exogenous CA was given additionally. This BA accumulation in tissue is more reflected at decreased medium concentrations of these BAs after V and CsA incubations. Both V and CsA also inhibited CA uptake into the slices. The acidic chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) synthesis pathway is disturbed: T- and G-CDCA concentrations are diminished in slices and medium after V and CsA incubations. T-UDCA plus V or CsA enhanced not only its own slice concentration but also the concentration of the trihydroxylated tauro-muricholic acid (T-beta-MCA), reflecting the conversion of the accumulated dihydroxylated T-UDCA into the T-beta-MCA. The similar effects of V and CsA on BA transport and metabolism can be explained by mdr1 mediated disturbances of cellular ATP transport rather than by inhibition of individual BA transporters. PMID:16793245

  10. Amino Acid Sensing by mTORC1: Intracellular Transporters Mark the Spot.

    PubMed

    Goberdhan, Deborah C I; Wilson, Clive; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-04-12

    Cell metabolism and growth are matched to nutrient availability via the amino-acid-regulated mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Transporters have emerged as important amino acid sensors controlling mTOR recruitment and activation at the surface of multiple intracellular compartments. Classically, this has involved late endosomes and lysosomes, but now, in a recent twist, also the Golgi apparatus. Here we propose a model in which specific amino acids in assorted compartments activate different mTORC1 complexes, which may have distinct drug sensitivities and functions. We will discuss the implications of this for mTORC1 function in health and disease. PMID:27076075

  11. D-cycloserine transport in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells: mediation by a H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, D. T.; Armstrong, G.; Hirst, B. H.; Simmons, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    1. The ability of D-cycloserine to act as a substrate for H+/amino acid symport has been tested in epithelial layers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells. 2. In Na(+)-free media with the apical bathing media held at pH 6.0, D-cycloserine (20 mM) is an effective inhibitor of net transepithelial transport (Jnet) of L-alanine (100 microM) and its accumulation (across the apical membrane) in a similar manner to amino acid substrates (L-alanine, beta-alanine, L-proline and glycine). In contrast L-valine was ineffective as an inhibitor for H+/amino acid symport. Both inhibition of L-alanine Jnet and its accumulation by D-cycloserine were dose-dependent, maximal inhibition being achieved by 5-10 mM. 3. Both D-cycloserine and known substrates for H+/amino acid symport stimulated an inward short circuit current (Isc) when voltage-clamped monolayers of Caco-2 epithelia, mounted in Ussing chambers, were exposed to apical substrate in Na(+)-free media, with apical pH held at 6.0. The D-cycloserine dependent increase in Isc was dose-dependent with an apparent Km = 15.8 +/- 2.0 (mean +/- s.e. mean) mM, and Vmax = 373 +/- 21 nmol cm-2h-1. 4. D-Cycloserine (20 mM) induced a prompt acidification of Caco-2 cell cytosol when superfused at the apical surface in both Na+ and Na(+)-free conditions. Cytosolic acidification in response to D-cycloserine was dependent upon superfusate pH, being attenuated at pH 8 and enhanced in acidic media. 5. The increment in Isc with 20 mM D-cycloserine was non-additive with other amino acid substrates for H+/amino acid symport. PMID:8548174

  12. Effects of endotoxin exposure on cationic amino acid transporter function in ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Megan F; Reade, Michael C; Boyd, C A R; Young, J Duncan

    2003-03-01

    Rodent models of sepsis differ from clinical human disease in that humans make substantially less whole-body nitric oxide and have different cellular responses to endotoxin. Sheep, when exposed to endotoxin, behave in a manner more similar to humans. Many studies of rodent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to endotoxin demonstrate increased cationic amino acid transporter function (particularly through the y+ transporter) to supply arginine substrate to upregulated nitric oxide synthase. Whether this is true in sheep is not known. We have studied cationic amino acid transport in sheep PBMCs stimulated with endotoxin, using labelled lysine. PBMCs stimulated both in vitro and in vivo show an initial reduction in total and y+ lysine transport (after 1-2 h exposure to endotoxin): a previously undescribed effect of endotoxin. In in vitro activated cells, the reduction in y+ transport was prevented by the lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA), and the phospholipase inhibitor 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPAB), but not cyclohexamide or a number of other inhibitors of intracellular second-messenger pathways. In contrast after 14 h incubation, the expected increase in total and y+ lysine transport was seen. The increase in y+ transport could be prevented by cyclohexamide, dexamethasone, ibuprofen, the protein kinase C inhibitor sphingosine, NDGA and 4-BPAB. These results suggest that in response to endotoxin exposure there is an initial decrease in y+ activity mediated by a lipoxygenase product, followed by a substantial increase in y+ activity mediated by the products of either cyclo-oxygenase or lipoxygenase. Cyclo-oxygenase and/or lipoxygenase inhibition might be useful in reducing arginine transport, and hence nitric oxide production, in these cells. PMID:12621525

  13. Hartnup disorder is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19.

    PubMed

    Seow, Heng F; Bröer, Stefan; Bröer, Angelika; Bailey, Charles G; Potter, Simon J; Cavanaugh, Juleen A; Rasko, John E J

    2004-09-01

    Hartnup disorder (OMIM 234500) is an autosomal recessive abnormality of renal and gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport noted for its clinical variability. We localized a gene causing Hartnup disorder to chromosome 5p15.33 and cloned a new gene, SLC6A19, in this region. SLC6A19 is a sodium-dependent and chloride-independent neutral amino acid transporter, expressed predominately in kidney and intestine, with properties of system B(0). We identified six mutations in SLC6A19 that cosegregated with disease in the predicted recessive manner, with most affected individuals being compound heterozygotes. The disease-causing mutations that we tested reduced neutral amino acid transport function in vitro. Population frequencies for the most common mutated SLC6A19 alleles are 0.007 for 517G --> A and 0.001 for 718C --> T. Our findings indicate that SLC6A19 is the long-sought gene that is mutated in Hartnup disorder; its identification provides the opportunity to examine the inconsistent multisystemic features of this disorder. PMID:15286788

  14. Influence of organic acids on the transport of heavy metals in soil.

    PubMed

    Schwab, A P; Zhu, D S; Banks, M K

    2008-06-01

    Vegetation historically has been an important part of reclamation of sites contaminated with metals, whether the objective was to stabilize the metals or remove them through phytoremediation. Understanding the impact of organic acids typically found in the rhizosphere would contribute to our knowledge of the impact of plants in contaminated environments. Heavy metal transport in soils in the presence of simple organic acids was assessed in two laboratory studies. In the first study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to investigate Zn, Cd, and Pb movement in a sandy loam soil as affected by soluble organic acids in the rhizosphere. Many of these organic acids enhanced heavy metal movement. For organic acid concentrations of 10mM, citric acid had the highest R(f) values (frontal distance moved by metal divided by frontal distance moved by the solution) for Zn, followed by malic, tartaric, fumaric, and glutaric acids. Citric acid also has the highest R(f) value for Cd movement followed by fumaric acid. Citric acid and tartaric acid enhanced Pb transport to the greatest degree. For most organic acids studied, R(f) values followed the trend Zn>Cd>Pb. Citric acid (10mM) increased R(f) values of Zn and Cd by approximately three times relative to water. In the second study, small soil columns were used to test the impact of simple organic acids on Zn, Cd, and Pb leaching in soils. Citric acid greatly enhanced Zn and Cd movement in soils but had little influence on Pb movement. The Zn and Cd in the effluents from columns treated with 10mM citric acid attained influent metal concentrations by the end of the experiment, but effluent metal concentrations were much less than influent concentrations for citrate <10mM. Exchangeable Zn in the soil columns was about 40% of total Zn, and approximately 80% total Cd was in exchangeable form. Nearly all of the Pb retained by the soil columns was exchangeable. PMID:18482743

  15. Substrate-specific effects of pirinixic acid derivatives on ABCB1-mediated drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Wurglics, Mario; Aniceto, Natália; Dittrich, Michaela; Zettl, Heiko; Wiese, Michael; Wass, Mark; Ghafourian, Taravat; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2016-01-01

    Pirinixic acid derivatives, a new class of drug candidates for a range of diseases, interfere with targets including PPARα, PPARγ, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and microsomal prostaglandin and E2 synthase-1 (mPGES1). Since 5-LO, mPGES1, PPARα, and PPARγ represent potential anti-cancer drug targets, we here investigated the effects of 39 pirinixic acid derivatives on prostate cancer (PC-3) and neuroblastoma (UKF-NB-3) cell viability and, subsequently, the effects of selected compounds on drug-resistant neuroblastoma cells. Few compounds affected cancer cell viability in low micromolar concentrations but there was no correlation between the anti-cancer effects and the effects on 5-LO, mPGES1, PPARα, or PPARγ. Most strikingly, pirinixic acid derivatives interfered with drug transport by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 in a drug-specific fashion. LP117, the compound that exerted the strongest effect on ABCB1, interfered in the investigated concentrations of up to 2μM with the ABCB1-mediated transport of vincristine, vinorelbine, actinomycin D, paclitaxel, and calcein-AM but not of doxorubicin, rhodamine 123, or JC-1. In silico docking studies identified differences in the interaction profiles of the investigated ABCB1 substrates with the known ABCB1 binding sites that may explain the substrate-specific effects of LP117. Thus, pirinixic acid derivatives may offer potential as drug-specific modulators of ABCB1-mediated drug transport. PMID:26887049

  16. MODULATION OF HEALTH AND PRODUCTION BY ORAL BETA-GLUCAN AND ASCORBIC ACID AFTER TRANSPORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeast cell-wall Beta-glucan works synergistically with ascorbic acid to enhance growth of neonatal calves in indoor, raised crates. Objectives of this study were to determine 1) if this combination of dietary supplements would improve neonatal calves' stress responses to transport, 2) production an...

  17. Substrate-specific effects of pirinixic acid derivatives on ABCB1-mediated drug transport.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Wurglics, Mario; Aniceto, Natália; Dittrich, Michaela; Zettl, Heiko; Wiese, Michael; Wass, Mark; Ghafourian, Taravat; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2016-03-01

    Pirinixic acid derivatives, a new class of drug candidates for a range of diseases, interfere with targets including PPARα, PPARγ, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and microsomal prostaglandin and E2 synthase-1 (mPGES1). Since 5-LO, mPGES1, PPARα, and PPARγ represent potential anti-cancer drug targets, we here investigated the effects of 39 pirinixic acid derivatives on prostate cancer (PC-3) and neuroblastoma (UKF-NB-3) cell viability and, subsequently, the effects of selected compounds on drug-resistant neuroblastoma cells. Few compounds affected cancer cell viability in low micromolar concentrations but there was no correlation between the anti-cancer effects and the effects on 5-LO, mPGES1, PPARα, or PPARγ. Most strikingly, pirinixic acid derivatives interfered with drug transport by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 in a drug-specific fashion. LP117, the compound that exerted the strongest effect on ABCB1, interfered in the investigated concentrations of up to 2μM with the ABCB1-mediated transport of vincristine, vinorelbine, actinomycin D, paclitaxel, and calcein-AM but not of doxorubicin, rhodamine 123, or JC-1. In silico docking studies identified differences in the interaction profiles of the investigated ABCB1 substrates with the known ABCB1 binding sites that may explain the substrate-specific effects of LP117. Thus, pirinixic acid derivatives may offer potential as drug-specific modulators of ABCB1-mediated drug transport. PMID:26887049

  18. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  19. Intestinal peptidases form functional complexes with the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, Stephen J.; Bröer, Angelika; O'Mara, Megan L.; Bröer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The brush-border membrane of the small intestine and kidney proximal tubule are the major sites for the absorption and re-absorption of nutrients in the body respectively. Transport of amino acids is mediated through the action of numerous secondary active transporters. In the mouse, neutral amino acids are transported by B0AT1 [broad neutral (0) amino acid transporter 1; SLC6A19 (solute carrier family 6 member 19)] in the intestine and by B0AT1 and B0AT3 (SLC6A18) in the kidney. Immunoprecipitation and Blue native electrophoresis of intestinal brush-border membrane proteins revealed that B0AT1 forms complexes with two peptidases, APN (aminopeptidase N/CD13) and ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). Physiological characterization of B0AT1 expressed together with these peptidases in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that APN increased the substrate affinity of the transporter up to 2.5-fold and also increased its surface expression (Vmax). Peptide competition experiments, in silico modelling and site-directed mutagenesis of APN suggest that the catalytic site of the peptidase is involved in the observed changes of B0AT1 apparent substrate affinity, possibly by increasing the local substrate concentration. These results provide evidence for the existence of B0AT1-containing digestive complexes in the brush-border membrane, interacting differentially with various peptidases, and responding to the dynamic needs of nutrient absorption in the intestine and kidney. PMID:22677001

  20. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37{degrees}C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by (14C)CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  1. Charge transport and structural dynamics in carboxylic-acid-based deep eutectic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Philip J; Cosby, Tyler; Holt, Adam P; Benson, Roberto S; Sangoro, Joshua R

    2014-08-01

    Charge transport and structural dynamics in the 1:2 mol ratio mixture of lidocaine and decanoic acid (LID-DA), a model deep eutectic mixture (DEM), have been characterized over a wide temperature range using broad-band dielectric spectroscopy and depolarized dynamic light scattering. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed to assess the degree of proton transfer between the neutral parent molecules. From our detailed analysis of the dielectric spectra, we have determined that this carboxylic-acid-based DEM is approximately 25% ionic at room temperature. Furthermore, we have found that the characteristic diffusion rate of mobile charge carriers is practically identical to the rate of structural relaxation at all measured temperatures, indicating that fast proton transport does not occur in LID-DA. Our results demonstrate that while LID-DA exhibits the thermal characteristics of a DEM, its charge transport properties resemble those of a protic ionic liquid. PMID:25025600

  2. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  3. Inhibition of ileal bile acid transporter: An emerging therapeutic strategy for chronic idiopathic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Mosińska, Paula; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic constipation is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that encompasses a wide profile of symptoms. Current treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation are of limited value; therefore, a novel strategy is necessary with an increased effectiveness and safety. Recently, the inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter has become a promising target for constipation-associated diseases. Enhanced delivery of bile acids into the colon achieves an accelerated colonic transit, increased stool frequency, and relief of constipation-related symptoms. This article provides insight into the mechanism of action of ileal bile acid transporter inhibitors and discusses their potential clinical use for pharmacotherapy of constipation in chronic idiopathic constipation. PMID:26139989

  4. Transport in small and/or random systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lax, M.

    1987-05-14

    This report discusses: transport in small systems; electron-phonon interactions in quantum wells; noise in small systems; laser propagation in the atmosphere; laser-aerosol interactions; transport properties of carriers in semiconductor quantum wells; light transmission in a particulate medium; and laser generation of shock waves in droplets. (LSP)

  5. Deep space mission integration with the space transportation system. [Galileo mission using Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Galileo mission is the first interplanetary mission scheduled to use the Space Transportation System (STS). Therefore, Galileo is the trailblazer for mission integration of a deep space mission with the STS. A short overview of the Galileo mission is presented as background for the discussion of the mission integration effort. The components of the STS and the mission integration system are defined, documentation requirements explained, the work of the Flight Design Working Group described, and several examples of the types of problems dealt with are given. The steps of mission integration are shown from introducing requirements into the system to resolving conflicts that arise between the payload project and the STS operator. Conclusions are drawn from the Galileo mission integration effort to aid future payload projects in working with the STS.

  6. High specificity in response of the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter to derivatives of pantothenic acid.

    PubMed

    Chirapu, Srinivas Reddy; Rotter, Charles J; Miller, Emily L; Varma, Manthena V; Dow, Robert L; Finn, M G

    2013-01-01

    Essential nutrients are attractive targets for the transport of biologically active agents across cell membranes, since many are substrates for active cellular importation pathways. The sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) is among the best characterized of these, and biotin derivatives have been its most popular targets. We have surveyed 45 derivatives of pantothenic acid, another substrate of SMVT, long known as a competitive inhibitor of biotin transport. Variations of the β-alanyl fragment of pantothenate were uniformly rejected by the transporter, including derivatives with very similar steric and acidic characteristics to the natural substrate. The secondary hydroxyl of the 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol (pantoyl) fragment was the only position at which potential linkers could be attached while retaining activity as an inhibitor of biotin uptake and a substrate for sodium-dependent transport. However, triazole conjugates to several drug-like cargo motifs were not accepted as substrates by human SMVT in cell culture. Two compounds were observed which did not inhibit biotin uptake but were themselves transported in a sodium-dependent fashion, suggesting more complex behavior than expected. These studies represent the most extensive examination to date of pantothenate as an anchor for SMVT-mediated drug delivery, showing that this route requires further investigation before being judged promising. PMID:23578027

  7. Modeling the simultaneous transport of two acid gases in tertiary amines with reversible reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghawas, H.A.; Sandall, O.C.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for the simultaneous mass transfer of two acid gases in tertiary amines accompanied by reversible chemical reactions. The model has been applied to the industrially important system of simultaneous absorption or desorption of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S in aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). In most applications the treated gas must be virtually free of H/sub 2/S; however, it is often not necessary or economical to remove substantial amounts of CO/sub 2/. Hence, selective removal of H/sub 2/S from gas streams such as natural or synthetic gases which contain CO/sub 2/ is desirable. In this research a film theory model describing the simultaneous diffusion and reversible reaction of two gases into reactive liquid has been used to predict the mass transfer enhancement factors of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S in aqueous MDEA solutions. The resulting unstable two point boundary value problem has been solved numerically for a range of the dimensionless parameters that characterize an important application for this system. In studying the simultaneous transport of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S, it is found that the reversibility of the reactions, under certain conditions, causes desorption to take place although absorption would be expected on the basis of overall driving forces. This showed that not only enhancement factors larger but also smaller than unity and even negative values are possible.

  8. A strategy for the study of cerebral amino acid transport using iodine-123-labeled amino acid radiopharmaceutical: 3-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, K.; Fujibayashi, Y.; Saji, H.; Yonekura, Y.; Konishi, J.; Kubodera, A.; Yokoyama, A. )

    1991-05-01

    We examined the brain accumulation of iodine-123-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine ({sup 123}I-L-AMT) in mice and rats. I-L-AMT showed high brain accumulation in mice, and in rats; rat brain uptake index exceeded that of {sup 14}C-L-tyrosine. The brain uptake index and the brain slice studies indicated the affinity of I-L-AMT for carrier-mediated and stereoselective active transport systems, respectively; both operating across the blood-brain barrier and cell membranes of the brain. The tissue homogenate analysis revealed that most of the accumulated radioactivity belonged to intact I-L-AMT, an indication of its stability. Thus, {sup 123}I-L-AMT appears to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for the selective measurement of cerebral amino acid transport.

  9. 25. VIEW FOURTH FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW FOURTH FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT TOP MAIN WOOD AND STEEL BEAM SUPPORT SYSTEM, NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  10. Information Transport Systems at IBM's Corporate Technical Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Ralph E.; Pryzdial, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the facilities and major networks of IBM's Corporate Technical Institute state-of-the-art residential campus at Thornwood, New York. Explains the operations and components of its information transport system and the capabilities of its cabling system. (ML)

  11. Molecular Switch Controlling the Binding of Anionic Bile Acid Conjugates to Human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Rana; Acharya, Chayan; Tririya, Gasirat; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Polli, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) may serve as a prodrug target for oral drug absorption. Synthetic, biological, NMR and computational approaches identified the structure-activity relationships of mono- and dianionic bile acid conjugates for hASBT binding. Experimental data combined with a conformationally-sampled pharmacophore/QSAR modeling approach (CSP-SAR) predicted that dianionic substituents with intramolecular hydrogen bonding between hydroxyls on the cholane skeleton and the acid group on the conjugate's aromatic ring increased conjugate hydrophobicity and improved binding affinity. Notably, the model predicted the presence of a conformational molecular switch, where shifting the carboxylate substituent on an aromatic ring by a single position controlled binding affinity. Model validation was performed by effectively shifting the spatial location of the carboxylate by inserting a methylene adjacent to the aromatic ring, resulting in the predicted alteration in binding affinity. This work illustrates conformation as a determinant of ligand binding affinity to a biological transporter. PMID:20504026

  12. Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

    2010-01-01

    A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near

  13. Transport processes in biological systems: Tumoral cells and human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    The entropy generation approach has been developed for the analysis of complex systems, with particular regards to biological systems, in order to evaluate their stationary states. The entropy generation is related to the transport processes related to exergy flows. Moreover, cancer can be described as an open complex dynamic and self-organizing system. Consequently, it is used as an example useful to evaluate the different thermo-chemical quantities of the transport processes in normal and in tumoral cells systems.

  14. Experimental Study and Reactive Transport Modeling of Boric Acid Leaching of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabalan, R. T.; Chiang, K.-T. K.

    2013-07-01

    Borated water leakage through spent fuel pools (SFPs) at pressurized water reactors is a concern because it could cause corrosion of reinforcement steel in the concrete structure, compromise the integrity of the structure, or cause unmonitored releases of contaminated water to the environment. Experimental data indicate that pH is a critical parameter that determines the corrosion susceptibility of rebar in borated water and the degree of concrete degradation by boric acid leaching. In this study, reactive transport modeling of concrete leaching by borated water was performed to provide information on the solution pH in the concrete crack or matrix and the degree of concrete degradation at different locations of an SFP concrete structure exposed to borated water. Simulations up to 100 years were performed using different boric acid concentrations, crack apertures, and solution flow rates. Concrete cylinders were immersed in boric acid solutions for several months and the mineralogical changes and boric acid penetration in the concrete cylinder were evaluated as a function of time. The depths of concrete leaching by boric acid solution derived from the reactive transport simulations were compared with the measured boric acid penetration depth.

  15. Environmental fate and transport modeling for perfluorooctanoic acid emitted from the Washington Works Facility in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Verónica M; Ryan, P Barry; Detwiler, Russell; Sanders, Brett; Steenland, Kyle; Bartell, Scott M

    2011-02-15

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been detected in environmental samples in Ohio and West Virginia near the Washington Works Plant in Parkersburg, West Virginia. This paper describes retrospective fate and transport modeling of PFOA concentrations in local air, surface water, groundwater, and six municipal water systems based on estimates of historic emission rates from the facility, physicochemical properties of PFOA, and local geologic and meteorological data beginning in 1951. We linked several environmental fate and transport modeling systems to model PFOA air dispersion, transit through the vadose zone, surface water transport, and groundwater flow and transport. These include AERMOD, PRZM-3, BreZo, MODFLOW, and MT3DMS. Several thousand PFOA measurements in municipal well water have been collected in this region since 1998. Our linked modeling system performs better than expected, predicting water concentrations within a factor of 2.1 of the average observed water concentration for each of the six municipal water districts after adjusting the organic carbon partition coefficient to fit the observed data. After model calibration, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for predicted versus observed water concentrations is 0.87. These models may be useful for estimating past and future public well water PFOA concentrations in this region. PMID:21226527

  16. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on the expression of peroxisomal ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Sabrina; Skrzypski, Jérémy; Courvoisier, Anne; Gondcaille, Catherine; Bonnetain, Franck; André, Agnès; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Bellenger, Sandrine; Bellenger, Jérôme; Narce, Michel; Savary, Stéphane

    2008-10-01

    Peroxisomal ABC transporters encoded by the ABCD genes are thought to participate in the import of specific fatty acids in the peroxisomal matrix. ABCD1 deficiency is associated with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most frequent peroxisomal disorder which is characterized by the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). ABCD2 (the closest homolog of ABCD1) and ABCD3 have been shown to have partial functional redundancy with ABCD1; only when overexpressed, they can compensate for VLCFA accumulation. Other lipids, for instance polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), should be possible candidate substrates for the ABCD2 and ABCD3 gene products, ALDRP and PMP70 respectively. Moreover, PUFA, which are known regulators of gene expression, could therefore represent potent inducers of the ABCD genes. To test this hypothesis, littermates of n-3-deficient rats were subjected to an n-3-deficient diet or equilibrated diets containing ALA (alpha-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3) as unique source of n-3 fatty acids or ALA plus DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3) at two different doses. We analyzed the expression of peroxisomal ABC transporters and of the peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase gene 1 (Acox1) in adrenals, brain and liver. Whatever the diet, we did not observe any difference in gene expression in adrenals and brain. However, the hepatic expression level of Abcd2 and Abcd3 genes was found to be significantly higher in the n-3-deficient rats than in the rats fed the ALA diet or the DHA supplemented diets. This was accompanied by important changes in hepatic fatty acid composition. In summary, the hepatic expression of Abcd2 and Abcd3 but not of Abcd1 and Abcd4 appears to be highly sensitive towards dietary PUFA. This difference could be linked to the substrate specificity of the peroxisomal ABC transporters and a specific involvement of Abcd2 and Abcd3 in PUFA metabolism. PMID:18585430

  17. Transport of indoleacetic acid in intact corn coleoptiles. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, K.E.; Briggs, W.R. )

    1990-10-01

    We have characterized the transport of ({sup 3}H)indoleacetic acid (IAA) in intact corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. We have used a wide range of concentrations of added IAA (28 femtomoles to 100 picomoles taken up over 60 minutes). The shape of the transport curve varies with the concentration of added IAA, although the rate of movement of the observed front of tracer is invariant with concentration. At the lowest concentration of tracer used, the labeled IAA in the transport stream is not detectably metabolized or immobilized, curvature does not develop as a result of tracer application, and normal phototropic and gravitropic responsiveness are not affected. Therefore we believe we are observing the transport of true tracer quantities of labeled auxin at this lowest concentration.

  18. Fatty acid oxidation: systems analysis and applications.

    PubMed

    Cintolesi, Angela; Rodríguez-Moyá, María; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are essential components of cellular structure and energy-generating routes in living organisms. They exist in a variety of chemical configurations and functionalities and are catabolized by different oxidative routes, according to their structure. α- and ω-Oxidation are minor routes that occur only in eukaryotes, while β-oxidation is the major degradation route in eukaroytes and prokaryotes. These pathways have been characterized and engineered from different perspectives for industrial and biomedical applications. The severity of FA oxidation disorders in humans initially guided the study of FA metabolism at a molecular-level. On the other hand, recent advances in metabolic engineering and systems biology have powered the study of FA biosynthetic and catabolic routes in microorganisms at a systems-level. Several studies have proposed these pathways as platforms for the production of fuels and chemicals from biorenewable sources. The lower complexity of microbial systems has allowed a more comprehensive study of FA metabolism and has opened opportunities for a wider range of applications. Still, there is a need for techniques that facilitate the translation of high-throughput data from microorganisms to more complex eukaryotic systems in order to aid the development of diagnostic and treatment strategies for FA oxidation disorders. In addition, further systems biology analyses on human systems could also provide valuable insights on oxidation disorders. This article presents a comparison of the three main FA oxidative routes, systems biology analyses that have been used to study FA metabolism, and engineering efforts performed on microbial systems. PMID:23661533

  19. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Evidence of carrier mediated transport of ascorbic acid through mammalian cornea.

    PubMed

    Singla, Shivali; Majumdar, D K; Goyal, Sachin; Khilnani, Gurudas

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the transport of ascorbic acid, a water soluble molecule, through a predominantly lipophilic cornea. Thus in-vitro permeation of ascorbic acid from aqueous drops through freshly excised mammalian cornea was studied. Aqueous isotonic ophthalmic solutions of ascorbic acid of different concentrations (0.125% w/v to 2% w/v) (pH 5.4) were made. Further 1.0% w/v or 0.5% w/v ascorbic acid solution containing NaCl or dextrose as tonicity modifiers or Na(+)K(+)-ATPase inhibitors were also made. Permeation characteristics of drug were evaluated by putting 1 ml formulation on freshly excised cornea fixed between donor and receptor compartments of an all-glass modified Franz diffusion cell and measuring the drug permeated in the receptor by spectrophotometry at 265 nm, after 120 min. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test or paired t-test. Increase in drug concentration in the formulation resulted in an increase in the quantity permeated but after a certain level increase in permeation with increase in concentration was minimal. Aqueous drops made isotonic with dextrose showed decreased permeation through paired cornea compared with aqueous drops made isotonic with NaCl from 1% w/v ascorbic acid solution suggesting likely involvement of Na(+) co-transporter but there was decreased permeation through 0.5% w/v ascorbic acid solution made isotonic with NaCl as compared to solution made isotonic with dextrose. Further aqueous drops containing Na(+)K(+)-ATPase inhibitor {MAG-Mono Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate (25 μmol)} showed decreased corneal permeation from 0.5% w/v ascorbic acid solution but there was not significant decrease from 1% ascorbic acid solution since MAG is a competitive inhibitor of ascorbic acid. Aqueous drops containing Na(+)K(+)-ATPase inhibitor {MAG (50 μmol) or Ouabain (1 mmol)} showed decreased corneal permeation of ascorbic acid compared with control

  1. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  2. Normal and impaired charge transport in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John H.; Villagrán, Martha Y. Suárez; Maric, Sladjana; Briggs, James M.

    2015-03-01

    We examine the physics behind some of the causes (e.g., hole migration and localization that cause incorrect base pairing in DNA) and effects (due to amino acid replacements affecting mitochondrial charge transport) of disease-implicated point mutations, with emphasis on mutations affecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). First we discuss hole transport and localization in DNA, including some of our quantum mechanical modeling results, as they relate to certain mutations in cancer. Next, we give an overview of electron and proton transport in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and how such transport can become impaired by mutations implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and other major illnesses. In particular, we report on our molecular dynamics (MD) studies of a leucine→arginine amino acid replacement in ATP synthase, encoded by the T→G point mutation at locus 8993 of mtDNA. This mutation causes Leigh syndrome, a devastating maternally inherited neuromuscular disorder, and has been found to trigger rapid tumor growth in prostate cancer cell lines. Our MD results suggest, for the first time, that this mutation adversely affects water channels that transport protons to and from the c-ring of the rotary motor ATP synthase, thus impairing the ability of the motor to produce ATP. Finally, we discuss possible future research topics for biological physics, such as mitochondrial complex I, a large proton-pumping machine whose physics remains poorly understood.

  3. Control of machine functions or transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, M.D.; Lee, M.J.; Jaeger, J.; King, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer code, COMFORT, has been developed at SLAC for on-line calculation of the strengths of magnetic elements in an electron storage ring or transport beam line, subject to first order fitting constraints on the ring or beam line parameters. This code can also be used off-line as an interactive lattice or beam line design tool.

  4. Effects of chemical oxidants on perfluoroalkyl acid transport in one-dimensional porous media columns.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica R; Siegrist, Robert L; McCray, John E; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation approach that is often used to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with fuels and chlorinated solvents. At many aqueous film-forming foam-impacted sites, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can also be present at concentrations warranting concern. Laboratory experiments were completed using flow-through one-dimensional columns to improve our understanding of how ISCO (i.e., activated persulfate, permanganate, or catalyzed hydrogen peroxide) could affect the fate and transport of PFAAs in saturated porous media. While the resultant data suggest that standard ISCO is not a viable remediation strategy for PFAA decomposition, substantial changes in PFAA transport were observed upon and following the application of ISCO. In general, activated persulfate decreased PFAA transport, while permanganate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide increased PFAA transport. PFAA sorption increased in the presence of increased aqueous polyvalent cation concentrations or decreased pH. The changes in contaminant mobility were greater than what would be predicted on the basis of aqueous chemistry considerations alone, suggesting that the application of ISCO results in changes to the porous media matrix (e.g., soil organic matter quality) that also influence transport. The application of ISCO is likely to result in changes in PFAA transport, where the direction (increased or decreased transport) and magnitude are dependent on PFAA characteristics, oxidant characteristics, and site-specific factors. PMID:25621878

  5. Inhibition of Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporters Suppresses Kynurenic Acid Production Via Inhibition of Kynurenine Uptake in Rodent Brain.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Airi; Kuroki, Yusuke; Urata, Tomomi; Mori, Noriyuki; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increases of brain KYNA levels are involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, and regulation of KYNA production has become a new target for treatment of these diseases. Kynurenine (KYN), the immediate precursor of KYNA, is transported into astrocytes via large neutral amino acid transporters (LATs). In the present study, the effect of LATs regulation on KYN uptake and KYNA production was investigated in vitro and in vivo using an LATs inhibitor, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). In the in vitro study, cortical slices of rat brain were incubated with a physiological concentration of KYN and 3 µmol/L-3 mmol/L BCH. BCH inhibited KYNA production and KYN uptake in a dose-dependent manner, and their IC50 values were 90.7 and 97.4 µmol/L, respectively. In the in vivo study, mice were administered KYN (50 mg/kg BW) orally and BCH (200 mg/kg BW) intravenously. Administration of KYN increased brain KYN and KYNA levels compared with the mice treated with vehicle, whereas additional administration of BCH suppressed KYN-induced elevations in KYN and KYNA levels to 50 and 70 % in the brain. These results suggest that inhibition of LATs prevented the increase of KYNA production via blockade of KYN uptake in the brain in vitro and in vivo. LATs can be a target to modulate brain function by regulation of KYNA production in the brain. PMID:27161376

  6. Membrane Transporters and Folate Homeostasis; Intestinal Absorption, Transport into Systemic Compartments and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rongbao; Matherly, Larry H.; Goldman, I. David

    2013-01-01

    Folates, the generic term for the family of B vitamins, are derived entirely from dietary sources, and are key one-carbon donors required for de novo nucleotide and methionine synthesis. These highly hydrophilic molecules utilize genetically distinct and functionally diverse transport systems to enter cells: the reduced folate carrier (RFC), the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), and the folate receptors. Each plays a unique role in mediating folate transport across epithelia and into systemic tissues. With the recent discovery of the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption, and the clarification of the genetic basis for the autosomal recessive disorder, hereditary folate malabsorption, involving loss-of-function mutations in PCFT protein, it is now possible to piece together how these folate transporters contribute, both individually and collectively, to folate homeostasis in humans. This review focuses on the physiological roles of these major folate transporters with a brief consideration of their impact on the pharmacological activities of antifolates. PMID:19173758

  7. The role of L-type amino acid transporters in the uptake of glyphosate across mammalian epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Li, Gao; Wang, Zhuoyi; Si, Luqin; He, Sijie; Cai, Jialing; Huang, Jiangeng; Donovan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide due to its broad spectrum of activity and reported low toxicity to humans. Glyphosate has an amino acid-like structure that is highly polar and shows low bioavailability following oral ingestion and low systemic toxicity following intravenous exposures. Spray applications of glyphosate in agricultural or residential settings can result in topical or inhalation exposures to the herbicide. Limited systemic exposure to glyphosate occurs following skin contact, and pulmonary exposure has also been reported to be low. The results of nasal inhalation exposures, however, have not been evaluated. To investigate the mechanisms of glyphosate absorption across epithelial tissues, the permeation of glyphosate across Caco-2 cells, a gastrointestinal epithelium model, was compared with permeation across nasal respiratory and olfactory tissues excised from cows. Saturable glyphosate uptake was seen in all three tissues, indicating the activity of epithelial transporters. The uptake was shown to be ATP and Na(+) independent, and glyphosate permeability could be significantly reduced by the inclusion of competitive amino acids or specific LAT1/LAT2 transporter inhibitors. The pattern of inhibition of glyphosate permeability across Caco-2 and nasal mucosal tissues suggests that LAT1/2 play major roles in the transport of this amino-acid-like herbicide. Enhanced uptake into the epithelial cells at barrier mucosae, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, may result in more significant local and systemic effects than predicted from glyphosate's passive permeability, and enhanced uptake by the olfactory mucosa may result in further CNS disposition, potentially increasing the risk for brain-related toxicities. PMID:26701683

  8. Selective cytotoxicity of a system L specific amino acid nitrogen mustard.

    PubMed

    Haines, D R; Fuller, R W; Ahmad, S; Vistica, D T; Marquez, V E

    1987-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of DL-2-amino-7-bis[(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and DL-2-amino-5-bis[(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-napthoic+ ++ acid were accomplished. The correct assignment of the site of attachment of the bis(2-chloroethyl)amino side chain was ascertained by selective proton decoupling of the 13C NMR spectra performed on the corresponding nitrospirohydantoin precursors 2 and 3, which were obtained from the nitration of beta-tetralone hydantoin. The two target compounds 6 and 7 were designed as tumor-specific agents capable of being selectively transported into tumor cells by the leucine-preferring transport system (system L). Inhibition analysis of the initial rate of transport of the system L specific substrate 2-amino-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) by 6 and 7 indicated that the 7-substituted isomer 6 was an extremely potent competitive inhibitor of that transport system in murine L1210 leukemic cells (Ki = 0.2 microM). Evaluation of the selectivity of this compound indicated that it possessed enhanced in vitro antitumor activity and reduced myelosuppressive activity when compared to its prototype amino acid nitrogen mustard, L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM). In addition to being more selectively toxic to tumor cells, this compound differs from L-PAM in having a 2-3-fold shorter half-life (t1/2). PMID:3820226

  9. A 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Ruan, Sheng-Siang; Wu, Kuan-Hung

    2014-02-10

    A 10-Gbps optical worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and spatial light modulator (SLM) with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulating signal is proposed. With the assistance of equalizer and low noise amplifier (LNA) at the receiving site, good bit error rate (BER) performance, clear constellation map, and clear eye diagram are achieved in the proposed systems. An optical WiMAX transport system, transmitting 16-QAM-OFDM signal over a 6-m free-space link, with a data rate of 10 Gbps is successfully demonstrated. Such a 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system would be attractive for providing services including Internet and telecommunication services. Our proposed system is suitable for the free-space lightwave transport system in visible light communication (VLC) application. PMID:24663567

  10. Transport of fatty acids and monoacylglycerols in white and brown adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Scow, R O; Blanchette-Mackie, E J

    1991-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids (FA) and 2-monoacylglycerols (MG) are produced by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) from plasma triacylglycerols (TG) in capillaries of adipose tissue and transported to adipocytes for TG synthesis. It is widely proposed FA may be transported in cells by FA-binding protein. Mode of transport of MG has received little attention. Our findings in tissues and model membranes indicate that FA (as 1:1 acid-soaps) and MG can be transported in vivo by lateral movement in an interfacial continuum (IFC) of the outer leaflets of plasma and intracellular membranes of capillary endothelium and adipocytes. We postulate that FA and MG enter the IFC in capillaries and flow in the IFC across endothelium and extracellular space to sites in adipocytes where MG are hydrolyzed by MG-lipase (MGL) to FA and glycerol, and FA are esterified in endoplasmic reticulum or transferred to inner mitochondrial membrane for oxidation. FA and MG produced by hormone-sensitive lipase also enter the IFC. These MG flow in the IFC to sites of MGL activity, and the FA flow in the IFC to capillaries for transport to other tissues by albumin, or to mitochondria for heat production. PMID:1959050

  11. Structural basis for amino acid export by DMT superfamily transporter YddG.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hirotoshi; Doki, Shintaro; Takemoto, Mizuki; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Fukui, Keita; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Tabuchi, Eri; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Koichi; Dohmae, Naoshi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-06-16

    The drug/metabolite transporter (DMT) superfamily is a large group of membrane transporters ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and includes exporters for a remarkably wide range of substrates, such as toxic compounds and metabolites. YddG is a bacterial DMT protein that expels aromatic amino acids and exogenous toxic compounds, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis. Here we present structural and functional analyses of YddG. Using liposome-based analyses, we show that Escherichia coli and Starkeya novella YddG export various amino acids. The crystal structure of S. novella YddG at 2.4 Å resolution reveals a new membrane transporter topology, with ten transmembrane segments in an outward-facing state. The overall structure is basket-shaped, with a large substrate-binding cavity at the centre of the molecule, and is composed of inverted structural repeats related by two-fold pseudo-symmetry. On the basis of this intramolecular symmetry, we propose a structural model for the inward-facing state and a mechanism of the conformational change for substrate transport, which we confirmed by biochemical analyses. These findings provide a structural basis for the mechanism of transport of DMT superfamily proteins. PMID:27281193

  12. Nuclear reactor heat transport system component low friction support system

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1980-01-01

    A support column for a heavy component of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor heat transport system which will deflect when the pipes leading coolant to and from the heavy component expand or contract due to temperature changes includes a vertically disposed pipe, the pipe being connected to the heavy component by two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles and the pipe being supported through two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles, each of the cylindrical surfaces bearing on a flat and horizontal surface.

  13. Conceptual Design of a Mars Surface Transportation System (MSTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Chad; Gomez, Alex; Muniz, Rick; Musson, Dave

    1999-01-01

    We have proposed a design for a Mars Surface Transportation System. The design will support multi-range and multi-purpose scientific/exploratory activities for extended periods. Several assumptions were made before developing a desiun: 1. This system is to be deployed early in a series of piloted landings on the planet surface. 2. A Mars surface base has already been established. 3. A transport system to and from Mars already exists. 4. The capacity to transport this proposed system exists within the current transport design. 5. Facilities exist at this base for the supply of fuel and other consumables. 6. Medical facilities are a component of the main base. 7. The surface conditions of Mars are known and are.accurate. It was decided that the transportation system design should support a crew of two for up to four weeks away from the primary base. In order to support multiple mission requirements, the system is modular and m multi-configurable, The main structural aspects of the design are: 1. An inflatable habitat module. 2. Independently powered and remotely controllable wheel trucks to allow multiple configurations and ease of system assembly. 3. Parabolic space trusses for hi-h structural stability with low overall system mass. In addition to these design aspects, new and existing concepts for control systems, power, radiation protection, and crew safety have been incorporated into the transportation system design.

  14. Electrical Power Systems for NASA's Space Transportation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Maus, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) lead center for space transportation systems development. These systems include earth to orbit launch vehicles, as well as vehicles for orbital transfer and deep space missions. The tasks for these systems include research, technology maturation, design, development, and integration of space transportation and propulsion systems. One of the key elements in any transportation system is the electrical power system (EPS). Every transportation system has to have some form of electrical power and the EPS for each of these systems tends to be as varied and unique as the missions they are supporting. The Preliminary Design Office (PD) at MSFC is tasked to perform feasibility analyses and preliminary design studies for new projects, particularly in the space transportation systems area. All major subsystems, including electrical power, are included in each of these studies. Three example systems being evaluated in PD at this time are the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) system, the Human Mission to Mars (HMM) study, and a tether based flight experiment called the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). These three systems are in various stages of definition in the study phase.

  15. New functions of the chloroplast Preprotein and Amino acid Transporter (PRAT) family members in protein import.

    PubMed

    Rossig, Claudia; Reinbothe, Christiane; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells contain distinct compartments such as the nucleus, the endomembrane system comprising the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, vacuoles, as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts. All of these compartments are surrounded by 1 or 2 limiting membranes and need to import proteins from the cytosol. Previous work led to the conclusion that mitochondria and chloroplasts use structurally different protein import machineries in their outer and inner membranes for the uptake of cytosolic precursor proteins. Our most recent data show that there is some unexpected overlap. Three members of the family of preprotein and amino acid transporters, PRAT, were identified in chloroplasts that mediate the uptake of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner plastid envelope membrane. By analogy, mitochondria contain with TIM22 a related PRAT protein that is involved in the import of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts thus make use of similar import mechanisms to deliver some of their proteins to their final place. Because single homologs of HP20- and HP30-like proteins are present in algae such as Chlamydomonas, Ostreococcus, and Volvox, which diverged from land plants approximately 1 billion years ago, it is likely that the discovered PRAT-mediated mechanism of protein translocation evolved concomitantly with the secondary endosymbiotic event that gave rise to green plants. PMID:24476934

  16. Insulin-induced phospho-oligosaccharide stimulates amino acid transport in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Varela, I; Avila, M; Mato, J M; Hue, L

    1990-01-01

    The ability of the insulin-induced phospho-oligosaccharide to stimulate amino acid transport was studied in isolated rat hepatocytes. At low alpha-aminoisobutyric acid concentrations (0.1 mM), both 100 nM-insulin and 10 microM-phospho-oligosaccharide doubled amino acid uptake after 2 h of incubation. This stimulation was prevented by 0.1 mM-cycloheximide or 5 micrograms of actinomycin D/ml, indicating that the phospho-oligosaccharide, like insulin, was acting via the synthesis of a high-affinity transport component. The effects of the phospho-oligosaccharide and of insulin were blocked by Ins2P (2.5 mM), but not by myo-inositol, inositol hexaphosphoric acid or several monosaccharides such as mannose, glucosamine and galactose. Both the temporal effect on amino acid entry and the extent of stimulation of this process by the phospho-oligosaccharide indicate that this molecule mimics, and may mediate, some of the long-term actions of insulin. However, the effects of phospho-oligosaccharide and insulin were not exactly the same, since the effect of insulin, but not of the phospho-oligosaccharide, was additive with that of glucagon. PMID:2185744

  17. Lysophosphatidic Acid signaling in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Yung, Yun C; Stoddard, Nicole C; Mirendil, Hope; Chun, Jerold

    2015-02-18

    The brain is composed of many lipids with varied forms that serve not only as structural components but also as essential signaling molecules. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an important bioactive lipid species that is part of the lysophospholipid (LP) family. LPA is primarily derived from membrane phospholipids and signals through six cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), LPA1-6. These receptors are expressed on most cell types within central and peripheral nervous tissues and have been functionally linked to many neural processes and pathways. This Review covers a current understanding of LPA signaling in the nervous system, with particular focus on the relevance of LPA to both physiological and diseased states. PMID:25695267

  18. Retinoic Acid in the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Lagos, Karina; Benson, Micah J.; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2013-01-01

    On occasion, emerging scientific fields intersect and great discoveries result. In the last decade, the discovery of regulatory T cells (Treg) in immunity has revolutionized our understanding of how the immune system is controlled. Intersecting the rapidly emerging field of Treg function, has been the discovery that retinoic acid (RA) controls both the homing and differentiation of Treg. Instantly, the wealth and breadth of knowledge of the molecular basis for RA action, its receptors, and how it controls cellular differentiation can and will be exploited to understand its profound effects on Treg. Historically, vitamin A deprivation and repletion and RA agonists have been shown to profoundly affect immunity. Now these findings can be interpreted in light of the revelations that RA controls leukocyte homing and Treg function. PMID:19076350

  19. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  20. Sodium-dependent transport of neutral amino acids by whole cells and membrane vesicles of Streptococcus bovis, a ruminal bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J B; Strobel, H J; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

    1988-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1 cells were able to transport serine, threonine, or alanine, but only when they were incubated in sodium buffers. If glucose-energized cells were washed in potassium phosphate and suspended in potassium phosphate buffer, there was no detectable uptake. Cells deenergized with 2-deoxyglucose and incubated in sodium phosphate buffer were still able to transport serine, and this result indicated that the chemical sodium gradient was capable of driving transport. However, when the deenergized cells were treated with valinomycin and diluted into sodium phosphate to create both an artificial membrane potential and a chemical sodium gradient, rates of serine uptake were fivefold greater than in cells having only a sodium gradient. If deenergized cells were preloaded with sodium (no membrane potential or sodium gradient), there was little serine transport. Nigericin and monensin, ionophores capable of reversing sodium gradients across membranes, strongly inhibited sodium-dependent uptake of the three amino acids. Membrane vesicles loaded with potassium and diluted into either lithium or choline chloride were unable to transport serine, but rapid uptake was evident if sodium chloride was added to the assay mixture. Serine transport had an extremely poor affinity for sodium, and more than 30 mM was needed for half-maximal rates of uptake. Serine transport was inhibited by an excess of threonine, but an excess of alanine had little effect. Results indicated that S. bovis had separate sodium symport systems for serine or threonine and alanine, and either the membrane potential or chemical sodium gradient could drive uptake. PMID:3136141

  1. A low earth orbit skyhook tether transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design concept of a structure, called the Skyhook Tether Transportation System (STTS) which may be used to transport mass to higher or lower orbits or to capture objects from higher or lower orbits. An analysis is presented for the possibility of the STTS to perform the function of transporting masses suborbitally, capturing the objects, and then releasing them to a higher orbit, the GEO, the moon, or for an escape. It is shown that, although the possibility of such a system is limited by the tether strength, even a modest system can yield considerable benefits in propellant savings if it is used in combination with chemical propulsion.

  2. Heating and Cooling System Design for a Modern Transportable Container

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Jason E.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been tasked with the design of a modern transportable container (MTC) for use in high reliability transportation environments. The container is required to transport cargo capable of generating its own heat and operate under the United States’ climatic extremes. In response to these requirements, active heating and cooling is necessary to maintain a controlled environment inside the container. The following thesis project documents the design of an active heating, active cooling, and combined active heating and cooling system (now referred to as active heating and cooling systems) through computational thermal analyses, scoping of commercial system options, and mechanical integration with the container’s structure.

  3. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of ribosomes in a eukaryotic system: Is there a facilitated transport process

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna-Gupta, A.; Ware, V.C. )

    1989-03-01

    The authors have examined the kinetics of the process by which ribosomes are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm using Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected into the germinal vesicle with radiolabeled ribosomes or ribosomal subunits from X. laevis, Tetrahymena thermophila, or Escherichia coli. Microinjected eukaryotic mature ribosomes are redistributed into the oocyte cytoplasm by an apparent carrier-mediated transport process that exhibits saturation kinetics as increasing amounts of ribosomes are injected. T. thermophila ribosomes are competent to traverse the Xenopus nuclear envelope, suggesting that the basic mechanism underlying ribosome transport is evolutionarily conserved. Microinjected E. coli ribosomes are not transported in this system, indicating that prokaryotic ribosomes lack the signals required for transport. Surprisingly, coinjected small (40S) and large (60S) subunits from T. thermophila are transported significantly faster than individual subunits. These observations support a facilitated transport model for the translocation of ribosomal subunits as separate units across the nuclear envelope whereby the transport rate of 60S or 40S subunits is enhanced by the presence of the partner subunit. Although the basic features of the transport mechanism have been preserved through evolution, other aspects of the process may be mediated through species-specific interactions. They hypothesize that a species-specific nuclear 40S-60S subunit association may expedite the transport of individual subunits across the nuclear envelope.

  4. Genome expansion and differential expression of amino acid transporters at the aphid/Buchnera symbiotic interface.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Duncan, Rebecca P; Shigenobu, Shuji; Wilson, Alex C C

    2011-11-01

    In insects, some of the most ecologically important symbioses are nutritional symbioses that provide hosts with novel traits and thereby facilitate exploitation of otherwise inaccessible niches. One such symbiosis is the ancient obligate intracellular symbiosis of aphids with the γ-proteobacteria, Buchnera aphidicola. Although the nutritional basis of the aphid/Buchnera symbiosis is well understood, the processes and structures that mediate the intimate interactions of symbiotic partners remain uncharacterized. Here, using a de novo approach, we characterize the complement of 40 amino acid polyamine organocation (APC) superfamily member amino acid transporters (AATs) encoded in the genome of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We find that the A. pisum APC superfamily is characterized by extensive gene duplications such that A. pisum has more APC superfamily transporters than other fully sequenced insects, including a ten paralog aphid-specific expansion of the APC transporter slimfast. Detailed expression analysis of 17 transporters selected on the basis of their phylogenetic relationship to five AATs identified in an earlier bacteriocyte expressed sequence tag study distinguished a subset of eight transporters that have been recruited for amino acid transport in bacteriocyte cells at the symbiotic interface. These eight transporters include transporters that are highly expressed and/or highly enriched in bacteriocytes and intriguingly, the four AATs that show bacteriocyte-enriched expression are all members of gene family expansions, whereas three of the four that are highly expressed but not enriched in bacteriocytes retain one-to-one orthology with transporters in other genomes. Finally, analysis of evolutionary rates within the large A. pisum slimfast expansion demonstrated increased rates of molecular evolution coinciding with two major shifts in expression: 1) a loss of gut expression and possibly a gain of bacteriocyte expression and 2) loss of expression

  5. A Numbering System for MFS Transporter Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna; Sands, Zara A.; Biggin, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) is one of the largest classes of secondary active transporters and is widely expressed in many domains of life. It is characterized by a common 12-transmembrane helix motif that allows the selective transport of a vast range of diverse substrates across the membrane. MFS transporters play a central role in many physiological processes and are increasingly recognized as potential drug targets. Despite intensive efforts, there are still only a handful of crystal structures and therefore homology modeling is likely to be a necessary process for providing models to interpret experiments for many years to come. However, the diversity of sequences and the multiple conformational states these proteins can exist in makes the process significantly more complicated, especially for sequences for which there is very little sequence identity to known templates. Inspired by the approach adopted many years ago for GPCRs, we have analyzed the large number of MFS sequences now available alongside the current structural information to propose a series of conserved contact points that can provide additional guidance for the homology modeling process. To enable cross-comparison across MFS models we also present a numbering scheme that can be used to provide a point of reference within each of the 12 transmembrane regions. PMID:27314000

  6. Conceptual design of an RTG Facility Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Stephen J.; Gentzlinger, Robert C.; Lujan, Richard E.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of an Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Facility Transportation System which is part of the overall RTG Transportation System has been completed and is described in detail. The Facility Transportation System serves to provide locomotion, cooling, shock protection and data acquisition for the RTG package during loading and unloading sequences. The RTG Facility Transportation System consists of a Transporter Subsystem, a Package Cooling Subsystem, and a Shock Limiting Transit Device Subsystem. The Transporter Subsystem is a uniquely designed welded steel cart combined with a pneumatically-driven hand tug for locomotion. The Package Cooling Subsystem provides five kilowatts of active liquid cooling via an on-board refrigeration system. The Shock limiting Transit Device Subsystem consists of a consumable honeycomb transit frame which provides shock protection for the 3855 kg (8500 LB) RTG package. These subsystems have been combined into an integrated system which will facilitate the unloading and loading of the RTG, of the Transport Trailer as well as meet ALARA radiation Package into and out exposure guidelines.

  7. Conceptual design of an RTG Facility Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.J.; Gentzlinger, R.C.; Lujan, R.E.

    1994-06-03

    The conceptual design of an Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Facility Transportation System which is part of the overall RTG Transportation System has been completed and is described in detail. The Facility Transportation System serves to provide locomotion, cooling, shock protection and data acquisition for the RTG package during loading and unloading sequences. The RTG Facility Transportation System consists of a Transporter Subsystem, a Package Cooling Subsystem, and a Shock Limiting Transit Device Subsystem. The Transporter Subsystem is a uniquely designed welded steel cart combined with a pneumatically-driven hand tug for locomotion. The Package Cooling Subsystem provides five kilowatts of active liquid cooling via an on-board refrigeration system. The Shock limiting Transit Device Subsystem consists of a consumable honeycomb transit frame which provides shock protection for the 3855 kg (8500 LB) RTG package. These subsystems have been combined into an integrated system which will facilitate the unloading and loading of the RTG , of the Transport Trailer as well as meet ALARA radiation Package into and out exposure guidelines.