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Sample records for acid transporter family

  1. Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes

  2. The solute carrier family 10 (SLC10): beyond bile acid transport

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tatiana Claro; Polli, James E.; Swaan, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    The solute carrier (SLC) family 10 (SLC10) comprises influx transporters of bile acids, steroidal hormones, various drugs, and several other substrates. Because the seminal transporters of this family, namely, sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP; SLC10A1) and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2), were primarily bile acid transporters, the term “sodium bile salt cotransporting family” was used for the SLC10 family. However, this notion became obsolete with the finding of other SLC10 members that do not transport bile acids. For example, the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter (SOAT; SLC10A6) transports primarily sulfated steroids. Moreover, NTCP was shown to also transport steroids and xenobiotics, including HMG-CoA inhibitors (statins). The SLC10 family contains four additional members, namely, P3 (SLC10A3; SLC10A3), P4 (SLC10A4; SLC10A4), P5 (SLC10A5; SLC10A5) and SLC10A7 (SLC10A7), several of which were unknown or considered hypothetical until approximately a decade ago. While their substrate specificity remains undetermined, great progress has been made towards their characterization in recent years. SLC10A4 may participate in vesicular storage or exocytosis of neurotransmitters or mastocyte mediators, whereas SLC10A5 and SLC10A7 may be involved in solute transport and SLC10A3 may have a role as a housekeeping protein. Finally, the newly found role of bile acids in glucose and energy homeostasis, via the TGR5 receptor, sheds new light on the clinical relevance of ASBT and NTCP. The present mini-review provides a brief summary of recent progress on members of the SLC10 family. PMID:23506869

  3. The glutamate and neutral amino acid transporter family: physiological and pharmacological implications.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hediger, Matthias A

    2003-10-31

    The solute carrier family 1 (SLC1) is composed of five high affinity glutamate transporters, which exhibit the properties of the previously described system XAG-, as well as two Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporters with characteristics of the so-called "ASC" (alanine, serine and cysteine). The SLC1 family members are structurally similar, with almost identical hydropathy profiles and predicted membrane topologies. The transporters have eight transmembrane domains and a structure reminiscent of a pore loop between the seventh and eighth domains [Neuron 21 (1998) 623]. However, each of these transporters exhibits distinct functional properties. Glutamate transporters mediate transport of L-Glu, L-Asp and D-Asp, accompanied by the cotransport of 3 Na+ and one 1 H+, and the countertransport of 1 K+, whereas ASC transporters mediate Na+-dependent exchange of small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Cys and Thr. Given the high concentrating capacity provided by the unique ion coupling pattern of glutamate transporters, they play crucial roles in protecting neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). The regulation and manipulation of their function is a critical issue in the pathogenesis and treatment of CNS disorders involving glutamate excitotoxicity. Loss of function of the glial glutamate transporter GLT1 (SLC1A2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), resulting in damage of adjacent motor neurons. The importance of glial glutamate transporters in protecting neurons from extracellular glutamate was further demonstrated in studies of the slc1A2 glutamate transporter knockout mouse. The findings suggest that therapeutic upregulation of GLT1 may be beneficial in a variety of pathological conditions. Selective inhibition of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 (SLC1A1) but not the glial glutamate transporters may be of therapeutic interest, allowing blockage of glutamate exit from

  4. The SLC36 family of proton-coupled amino acid transporters and their potential role in drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, David T; Anderson, Catriona MH

    2011-01-01

    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) 36 family are involved in transmembrane movement of amino acids and derivatives. SLC36 consists of four members. SLC36A1 and SLC36A2 both function as H+-coupled amino acid symporters. SLC36A1 is expressed at the luminal surface of the small intestine but is also commonly found in lysosomes in many cell types (including neurones), suggesting that it is a multipurpose carrier with distinct roles in different cells including absorption in the small intestine and as an efflux pathway following intralysosomal protein breakdown. SLC36A1 has a relatively low affinity (Km 1–10 mM) for its substrates, which include zwitterionic amino and imino acids, heterocyclic amino acids and amino acid-based drugs and derivatives used experimentally and/or clinically to treat epilepsy, schizophrenia, bacterial infections, hyperglycaemia and cancer. SLC36A2 is expressed at the apical surface of the human renal proximal tubule where it functions in the reabsorption of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. SLC36A2 also transports amino acid derivatives but has a narrower substrate selectivity and higher affinity (Km 0.1–0.7 mM) than SLC36A1. Mutations in SLC36A2 lead to hyperglycinuria and iminoglycinuria. SLC36A3 is expressed only in testes and is an orphan transporter with no known function. SLC36A4 is widely distributed at the mRNA level and is a high-affinity (Km 2–3 µM) transporter for proline and tryptophan. We have much to learn about this family of transporters, but from current knowledge, it seems likely that their function will influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of amino acid-based drugs by mediating transport in both the small intestine and kidney. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Transporters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-7 PMID:21501141

  5. The human gene SLC25A29, of solute carrier family 25, encodes a mitochondrial transporter of basic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Vito; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Longo, Antonella; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-05-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport carboxylates, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. In this work, a member of this family, SLC25A29, previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine- or ornithine-like carrier, has been thoroughly characterized biochemically. The SLC25A29 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A29 transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were not transported by SLC25A29. This carrier catalyzed substantial uniport besides a counter-exchange transport, exhibited a high transport affinity for arginine and lysine, and was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis and amino acid degradation. PMID:24652292

  6. New functions of the chloroplast Preprotein and Amino acid Transporter (PRAT) family members in protein import.

    PubMed

    Rossig, Claudia; Reinbothe, Christiane; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells contain distinct compartments such as the nucleus, the endomembrane system comprising the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, vacuoles, as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts. All of these compartments are surrounded by 1 or 2 limiting membranes and need to import proteins from the cytosol. Previous work led to the conclusion that mitochondria and chloroplasts use structurally different protein import machineries in their outer and inner membranes for the uptake of cytosolic precursor proteins. Our most recent data show that there is some unexpected overlap. Three members of the family of preprotein and amino acid transporters, PRAT, were identified in chloroplasts that mediate the uptake of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner plastid envelope membrane. By analogy, mitochondria contain with TIM22 a related PRAT protein that is involved in the import of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts thus make use of similar import mechanisms to deliver some of their proteins to their final place. Because single homologs of HP20- and HP30-like proteins are present in algae such as Chlamydomonas, Ostreococcus, and Volvox, which diverged from land plants approximately 1 billion years ago, it is likely that the discovered PRAT-mediated mechanism of protein translocation evolved concomitantly with the secondary endosymbiotic event that gave rise to green plants. PMID:24476934

  7. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  8. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of Amino Acid Transporter Gene Family in Glycine Max

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Yu; Ren, Ren; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Han, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Qi-Ying; Ke, Dan-Xia; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) play important roles in transporting amino acid across cellular membranes and are essential for plant growth and development. To date, the AAT gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.) has not been characterized. In this study, we identified 189 AAT genes from the entire soybean genomic sequence, and classified them into 12 distinct subfamilies based upon their sequence composition and phylogenetic positions. To further investigate the functions of these genes, we analyzed the chromosome distributions, gene structures, duplication patterns, phylogenetic tree, tissue expression patterns of the 189 AAT genes in soybean. We found that a large number of AAT genes in soybean were expanded via gene duplication, 46 and 36 GmAAT genes were WGD/segmental and tandemly duplicated, respectively. Further comprehensive analyses of the expression profiles of GmAAT genes in various stages of vegetative and reproductive development showed that soybean AAT genes exhibited preferential or distinct expression patterns among different tissues. Overall, our study provides a framework for further analysis of the biological functions of AAT genes in either soybean or other crops. PMID:27148336

  9. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of Amino Acid Transporter Gene Family in Glycine Max.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Yu; Ren, Ren; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Han, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Qi-Ying; Ke, Dan-Xia; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) play important roles in transporting amino acid across cellular membranes and are essential for plant growth and development. To date, the AAT gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.) has not been characterized. In this study, we identified 189 AAT genes from the entire soybean genomic sequence, and classified them into 12 distinct subfamilies based upon their sequence composition and phylogenetic positions. To further investigate the functions of these genes, we analyzed the chromosome distributions, gene structures, duplication patterns, phylogenetic tree, tissue expression patterns of the 189 AAT genes in soybean. We found that a large number of AAT genes in soybean were expanded via gene duplication, 46 and 36 GmAAT genes were WGD/segmental and tandemly duplicated, respectively. Further comprehensive analyses of the expression profiles of GmAAT genes in various stages of vegetative and reproductive development showed that soybean AAT genes exhibited preferential or distinct expression patterns among different tissues. Overall, our study provides a framework for further analysis of the biological functions of AAT genes in either soybean or other crops. PMID:27148336

  10. Structural Features of the Glutamate Transporter Family

    PubMed Central

    Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Konings, Wil N.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    1999-01-01

    Neuronal and glial glutamate transporters remove the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft and thus prevent neurotoxicity. The proteins belong to a large and widespread family of secondary transporters, including bacterial glutamate, serine, and C4-dicarboxylate transporters; mammalian neutral-amino-acid transporters; and an increasing number of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic proteins that have not yet been functionally characterized. Sixty members of the glutamate transporter family were found in the databases on the basis of sequence homology. The amino acid sequences of the carriers have diverged enormously. Homology between the members of the family is most apparent in a stretch of approximately 150 residues in the C-terminal part of the proteins. This region contains four reasonably well-conserved sequence motifs, all of which have been suggested to be part of the translocation pore or substrate binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal stretch revealed the presence of five subfamilies with characterized members: (i) the eukaryotic glutamate transporters, (ii) the bacterial glutamate transporters, (iii) the eukaryotic neutral-amino-acid transporters, (iv) the bacterial C4-dicarboxylate transporters, and (v) the bacterial serine transporters. A number of other subfamilies that do not contain characterized members have been defined. In contrast to their amino acid sequences, the hydropathy profiles of the members of the family are extremely well conserved. Analysis of the hydropathy profiles has suggested that the glutamate transporters have a global structure that is unique among secondary transporters. Experimentally, the unique structure of the transporters was recently confirmed by membrane topology studies. Although there is still controversy about part of the topology, the most likely model predicts the presence of eight membrane-spanning α-helices and a loop-pore structure which is unique among secondary

  11. The concentrative nucleoside transporter family, SLC28.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer H; Owen, Ryan P; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2004-02-01

    The SLC28 family consists of three subtypes of sodium-dependent, concentrative nucleoside transporters, CNT1, CNT2, and CNT3 (SLC28A1, SLC28A2, and SLC28A3, respectively), that transport both naturally occurring nucleosides and synthetic nucleoside analogs used in the treatment of various diseases. These subtypes differ in their substrate specificities: CNT1 is pyrimidine-nucleoside preferring, CNT2 is purine-nucleoside preferring, and CNT3 transports both pyrimidine and purine nucleosides. Recent studies have identified key amino acid residues that are determinants of pyrimidine and purine specificity of CNT1 and CNT2. The tissue distributions of the CNTs vary: CNT1 is localized primarily in epithelia, whereas CNT2 and CNT3 have more generalized distributions. Nucleoside transporters in the SLC28 and SLC29 families play critical roles in nucleoside salvage pathways where they mediate the first step of nucleotide biosynthesis. In addition, these transporters work in concert to terminate adenosine signaling. SLC28 family members are crucial determinants of response to a variety of anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs, as they modulate the entry of these analogs into target tissues. Further, this family is involved in the absorption and disposition of many nucleoside analogs. Several CNT single nucleoside polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified, but have yet to be characterized. PMID:12856181

  12. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  13. Jobs in Transportation. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of transportation. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of transportation. Chapter 2 describes jobs in water transportation, and chapter 3 deals with rail transportation,…

  14. [Inherited amino acid transport disorders].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Y; Tada, K

    1992-07-01

    Disorders due to inherited amino acids transport defect are reviewed. The disorders were categorized into three types of transport defects, namely, brush-border membrane of epithelial cells of small intestine and kidney tubules (Hartnup disease, blue diaper syndrome, cystinuria, iminoglycinuria and lysine malabsorption syndrome), basolateral membrane (lysinuric protein intolerance) and membrane of intracellular organelles (cystinosis and hyperornitinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome). Pathogenesis, clinical feature, laboratory findings, diagnosis, genetics and treatment of these disorders are described, briefly. There is not much data for the transport systems themselves, so that further investigation in molecular and gene levels for transport systems is necessary to clarify the characteristics of the transport and heterogeneity of phenotypes in inherited amino acids transport disorders. PMID:1404888

  15. The phagosomal nutrient transporter (Pht) family.

    PubMed

    Chen, Derek E; Podell, Sheila; Sauer, John-Demian; Swanson, Michele S; Saier, Milton H

    2008-01-01

    Phagosomal transporters (Phts), required for intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila, comprise a novel family of multispanning alpha-helical proteins within the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). The members of this family derive exclusively from bacteria. Multiple paralogues are present in a restricted group of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, but single members were also found in Chlamydia and Cyanobacteria. Their protein sequences were aligned, yielding a phylogenetic tree showing the relations of the proteins to each other. Topological analyses revealed a probable 12 alpha-helical transmembrane segment (TMS) topology. Motif identification and statistical analyses provided convincing evidence that these proteins arose from a six TMS precursor by intragenic duplication. The phylogenetic tree revealed some potential orthologous relationships, suggestive of common function. However, several probable examples of lateral transfer of the encoding genetic material between bacteria were identified and analysed. The Pht family most closely resembles a smaller MFS family (the UMF9 family) with no functionally characterized members. However, the UMF9 family occurs in a broader range of prokaryotic organism types, including Archaea. These two families differ in that organisms bearing members of the Pht family often have numerous paralogues, whereas organisms bearing members of the UMF9 family never have more than two. This work serves to characterize two novel families within the MFS and provides compelling evidence for horizontal transfer of some of the family members. PMID:18174124

  16. ATP-Dependent Binding Cassette Transporter G Family Member 16 Increases Plant Tolerance to Abscisic Acid and Assists in Basal Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae DC30001[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hao; Peng, Yanhui; Meckes, Nicole; Allen, Sara; Stewart, C. Neal; Traw, M. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been shown previously to perceive bacteria on the leaf surface and respond by closing their stomata. The virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000) responds by secreting a virulence factor, coronatine, which blocks the functioning of guard cells and forces stomata to reopen. After it is inside the leaf, PstDC3000 has been shown to up-regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and thereby suppress salicylic acid-dependent resistance. Some wild plants exhibit resistance to PstDC3000, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this resistance remain unknown. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify an ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter gene (ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that contributes to wild plant resistance to PstDC3000. Through microarray analysis and β-glucuronidase reporter lines, we showed that the gene is up-regulated by ABA, bacterial infection, and coronatine. We also used a green fluorescent protein fusion protein and found that transporter is more likely to localize on plasma membranes than in cell walls. Transferred DNA insertion lines exhibited consistent defective tolerance of exogenous ABA and reduced resistance to infection by PstDC3000. Our conclusion is that ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16 is involved in ABA tolerance and contributes to plant resistance against PstDC3000. This is one of the first examples, to our knowledge, of ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter involvement in plant resistance to infection by a bacterial pathogen. It also suggests a possible mechanism by which plants reduce the deleterious effects of ABA hijacking during pathogen attack. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of basal resistance in Arabidopsis and offer unique ABA-related targets for improving the innate resistance of plants to bacterial infection. PMID:25146567

  17. Sialic acid acquisition in bacteria-one substrate, many transporters.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gavin H

    2016-06-15

    The sialic acids are a family of 9-carbon sugar acids found predominantly on the cell-surface glycans of humans and other animals within the Deuterostomes and are also used in the biology of a wide range of bacteria that often live in association with these animals. For many bacteria sialic acids are simply a convenient source of food, whereas for some pathogens they are also used in immune evasion strategies. Many bacteria that use sialic acids derive them from the environment and so are dependent on sialic acid uptake. In this mini-review I will describe the discovery and characterization of bacterial sialic acids transporters, revealing that they have evolved multiple times across multiple diverse families of transporters, including the ATP-binding cassette (ABC), tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP), major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and sodium solute symporter (SSS) transporter families. In addition there is evidence for protein-mediated transport of sialic acids across the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria, which can be coupled to periplasmic processing of different sialic acids to the most common form, β-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) that is most frequently taken up into the cell. PMID:27284039

  18. The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Llinares, Elisa; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; André, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The limiting membrane of lysosomes in animal cells and that of the vacuole in yeast include a wide variety of transporters, but little is known about how these proteins reach their destination membrane. The mammalian PQLC2 protein catalyzes efflux of basic amino acids from the lysosome, and the similar Ypq1, −2, and −3 proteins of yeast perform an equivalent function at the vacuole. We here show that the Ypq proteins are delivered to the vacuolar membrane via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) trafficking pathway, which requires the AP-3 adaptor complex. When traffic via this pathway is deficient, the Ypq proteins pass through endosomes from where Ypq1 and Ypq2 properly reach the vacuolar membrane whereas Ypq3 is missorted to the vacuolar lumen via the multivesicular body pathway. When produced in yeast, PQLC2 also reaches the vacuolar membrane via the ALP pathway, but tends to sort to the vacuolar lumen if AP-3 is defective. Finally, in HeLa cells, inhibiting the synthesis of an AP-3 subunit also impairs sorting of PQLC2 to lysosomes. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved AP-3-dependent trafficking pathway for proper delivery of basic amino acid exporters to the yeast vacuole and to lysosomes of human cells. PMID:26577948

  19. Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Longo, Nicola; Frigeni, Marta; Pasquali, Marzia

    2016-10-01

    Carnitine is essential for the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent β-oxidation. It can be synthesized by the body or assumed with the diet from meat and dairy products. Defects in carnitine biosynthesis do not routinely result in low plasma carnitine levels. Carnitine is accumulated by the cells and retained by kidneys using OCTN2, a high affinity organic cation transporter specific for carnitine. Defects in the OCTN2 carnitine transporter results in autosomal recessive primary carnitine deficiency characterized by decreased intracellular carnitine accumulation, increased losses of carnitine in the urine, and low serum carnitine levels. Patients can present early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy, or later in life with skeletal and cardiac myopathy or sudden death from cardiac arrhythmia, usually triggered by fasting or catabolic state. This disease responds to oral carnitine that, in pharmacological doses, enters cells using the amino acid transporter B(0,+). Primary carnitine deficiency can be suspected from the clinical presentation or identified by low levels of free carnitine (C0) in the newborn screening. Some adult patients have been diagnosed following the birth of an unaffected child with very low carnitine levels in the newborn screening. The diagnosis is confirmed by measuring low carnitine uptake in the patients' fibroblasts or by DNA sequencing of the SLC22A5 gene encoding the OCTN2 carnitine transporter. Some mutations are specific for certain ethnic backgrounds, but the majority are private and identified only in individual families. Although the genotype usually does not correlate with metabolic or cardiac involvement in primary carnitine deficiency, patients presenting as adults tend to have at least one missense mutation retaining residual activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler

  20. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine-histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  1. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine–histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  2. Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder.

    PubMed

    Bröer, Angelika; Klingel, Karin; Kowalczuk, Sonja; Rasko, John E J; Cavanaugh, Juleen; Bröer, Stefan

    2004-06-01

    Resorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine is mediated by transporters, which prefer groups of amino acids with similar physico-chemical properties. It is generally assumed that most neutral amino acids are transported across the apical membrane of epithelial cells by system B(0). Here we have characterized a novel member of the Na(+)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (B(0)AT1) isolated from mouse kidney, which shows all properties of system B(0). Flux experiments showed that the transporter is Na(+)-dependent, electrogenic, and actively transports most neutral amino acids but not anionic or cationic amino acids. Superfusion of mB(0)AT1-expressing oocytes with neutral amino acids generated inward currents, which were proportional to the fluxes observed with labeled amino acids. In situ hybridization showed strong expression in intestinal microvilli and in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Expression of mouse B(0)AT1 was restricted to kidney, intestine, and skin. It is generally assumed that mutations of the system B(0) transporter underlie autosomal recessive Hartnup disorder. In support of this notion mB(0)AT1 is located on mouse chromosome 13 in a region syntenic to human chromosome 5p15, the locus of Hartnup disorder. Thus, the human homologue of this transporter is an excellent functional and positional candidate for Hartnup disorder. PMID:15044460

  3. Amino Acid Transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kay, W. W.; Gronlund, Audrey F.

    1969-01-01

    Properties of the transport systems for amino acids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. Exogenous 14C-labeled amino acids were shown to equilibrate with the internal native amino acid pool prior to incorporation into protein. When added at low external concentrations, the majority of the amino acids examined entered the protein of the cell unaltered. The rates of amino acid transport, established at low concentrations with 18 commonly occurring amino acids, varied as much as 40-fold. The transport process became saturated at high external amino acid concentrations, was temperature-sensitive, and was inhibited by sodium azide and iodoacetamide. Intracellular to extracellular amino acid ratios of 100- to 300-fold were maintained during exponential growth of the population in a glucose minimal medium. When the medium became depleted of glucose, neither extracellular nor intracellular amino acids could be detected. PMID:4974392

  4. The SLC4 Family of Bicarbonate (HCO3−) Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Michael F.; Chen, An-Ping; Parker, Mark D.; Boron, Walter F.

    2012-01-01

    The SLC4 family consists of ten genes (SLC4A1-5; SLC4A7-11). All encode integral membrane proteins with very similar hydropathy plots—consistent with 10 – 14 transmembrane segments. Nine SLC4 members encode proteins that transport HCO3− (or a related species, such as CO3=) across the plasma membrane. Functionally, eight of these proteins fall into two major groups: three Cl-HCO3 exchangers (AE1 – 3) and five Na+-coupled HCO3− transporters (NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NBCn2, NDCBE). Two of the Na+ - coupled transporters (NBCe1, NBCe2) are electrogenic; the other three Na+-coupled HCO3− transporters and all three AEs are electroneutral. In addition, two other SLC4 members (AE4, SLC4A9 and BTR1, SLC4A11) do not yet have a firmly established function. Most, though not all, SLC4 members are functionally inhibited by 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DIDS). SLC4 proteins play important roles many modes of acid-base homeostasis: the carriage of CO2 by erythrocytes, the transport of H+ or HCO3− by several epithelia, as well as the regulation of cell volume and intracellular pH. PMID:23506864

  5. Na+ Interactions with the Neutral Amino Acid Transporter ASCT1*

    PubMed Central

    Scopelliti, Amanda J.; Heinzelmann, Germano; Kuyucak, Serdar; Ryan, Renae M.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The alanine, serine, cysteine transporters (ASCTs) belong to the solute carrier family 1A (SLC1A), which also includes the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and the prokaryotic aspartate transporter GltPh. Acidic amino acid transport by the EAATs is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions and one proton, and the counter-transport of one K+ ion. In contrast, neutral amino acid exchange by the ASCTs does not require protons or the counter-transport of K+ ions and the number of Na+ ions required is not well established. One property common to SLC1A family members is a substrate-activated anion conductance. We have investigated the number and location of Na+ ions required by ASCT1 by mutating residues in ASCT1 that correspond to residues in the EAATs and GltPh that are involved in Na+ binding. Mutations to all three proposed Na+ sites influence the binding of substrate and/or Na+, or the rate of substrate exchange. A G422S mutation near the Na2 site reduced Na+ affinity, without affecting the rate of exchange. D467T and D467A mutations in the Na1 site reduce Na+ and substrate affinity and also the rate of substrate exchange. T124A and D380A mutations in the Na3 site selectively reduce the affinity for Na+ and the rate of substrate exchange without affecting substrate affinity. In many of the mutants that reduce the rate of substrate transport the amplitudes of the substrate-activated anion conductances are not substantially affected indicating altered ion dependence for channel activation compared with substrate exchange. PMID:24808181

  6. Phylogenetic relationships within cation transporter families of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mäser, P; Thomine, S; Schroeder, J I; Ward, J M; Hirschi, K; Sze, H; Talke, I N; Amtmann, A; Maathuis, F J; Sanders, D; Harper, J F; Tchieu, J; Gribskov, M; Persans, M W; Salt, D E; Kim, S A; Guerinot, M L

    2001-08-01

    Uptake and translocation of cationic nutrients play essential roles in physiological processes including plant growth, nutrition, signal transduction, and development. Approximately 5% of the Arabidopsis genome appears to encode membrane transport proteins. These proteins are classified in 46 unique families containing approximately 880 members. In addition, several hundred putative transporters have not yet been assigned to families. In this paper, we have analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of over 150 cation transport proteins. This analysis has focused on cation transporter gene families for which initial characterizations have been achieved for individual members, including potassium transporters and channels, sodium transporters, calcium antiporters, cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, cation diffusion facilitator proteins, natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMP), and Zn-regulated transporter Fe-regulated transporter-like proteins. Phylogenetic trees of each family define the evolutionary relationships of the members to each other. These families contain numerous members, indicating diverse functions in vivo. Closely related isoforms and separate subfamilies exist within many of these gene families, indicating possible redundancies and specialized functions. To facilitate their further study, the PlantsT database (http://plantst.sdsc.edu) has been created that includes alignments of the analyzed cation transporters and their chromosomal locations. PMID:11500563

  7. Family Transportation: To Be or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Albert H.; Hill, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes North Dakota's family transportation program, which subsidizes parent-provided transportation as an alternative to school bus transportation. Reports on surveys of administrator and parent attitudes. Discusses potential cost savings and potential problems with insurance, tardiness, and increased student parking. (SV)

  8. Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1 to 9, breast cancer resistance protein, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G members 5 and 8, are responsible for the unidirectional export of endogenous and exogenous substances. Other efflux transporters [ATPase copper-transporting β polypeptide (ATP7B) and ATPase class I type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1) as well as organic solute transporters (OST) α and β] also play major roles in the transport of some endogenous chemicals across biological membranes. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of these transporters (both rodent and human) with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and substrate preferences. Because uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in multiple cell types, the roles of transporters in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidneys, intestine, brain, heart, placenta, mammary glands, immune cells, and testes are discussed. Attention is also placed upon a variety of regulatory

  9. Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Karpen, Saul J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their classical roles as detergents to aid in the process of digestion, bile acids have been identified as important signaling molecules that function through various nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors to regulate a myriad of cellular and molecular functions across both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways. Signaling via these pathways will vary depending on the tissue and the concentration and chemical structure of the bile acid species. Important determinants of the size and composition of the bile acid pool are their efficient enterohepatic recirculation, their host and microbial metabolism, and the homeostatic feedback mechanisms connecting hepatocytes, enterocytes, and the luminal microbiota. This review focuses on the mammalian intestine, discussing the physiology of bile acid transport, the metabolism of bile acids in the gut, and new developments in our understanding of how intestinal metabolism, particularly by the gut microbiota, affects bile acid signaling. PMID:25210150

  10. The organic anion transporter (OAT) family: a systems biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Sanjay K; Bush, Kevin T; Martovetsky, Gleb; Ahn, Sun-Young; Liu, Henry C; Richard, Erin; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The organic anion transporter (OAT) subfamily, which constitutes roughly half of the SLC22 (solute carrier 22) transporter family, has received a great deal of attention because of its role in handling of common drugs (antibiotics, antivirals, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), toxins (mercury, aristolochic acid), and nutrients (vitamins, flavonoids). Oats are expressed in many tissues, including kidney, liver, choroid plexus, olfactory mucosa, brain, retina, and placenta. Recent metabolomics and microarray data from Oat1 [Slc22a6, originally identified as NKT (novel kidney transporter)] and Oat3 (Slc22a8) knockouts, as well as systems biology studies, indicate that this pathway plays a central role in the metabolism and handling of gut microbiome metabolites as well as putative uremic toxins of kidney disease. Nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, such as Hnf4α and Hnf1α, appear to regulate the expression of certain Oats in conjunction with phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Some Oats have a strong selectivity for particular signaling molecules, including cyclic nucleotides, conjugated sex steroids, odorants, uric acid, and prostaglandins and/or their metabolites. According to the "Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis," which is elaborated in detail here, Oats may function in remote interorgan communication by regulating levels of signaling molecules and key metabolites in tissues and body fluids. Oats may also play a major role in interorganismal communication (via movement of small molecules across the intestine, placental barrier, into breast milk, and volatile odorants into the urine). The role of various Oat isoforms in systems physiology appears quite complex, and their ramifications are discussed in the context of remote sensing and signaling. PMID:25540139

  11. The Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) Family: A Systems Biology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Sanjay K.; Bush, Kevin T.; Martovetsky, Gleb; Ahn, Sun-Young; Liu, Henry C.; Richard, Erin; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The organic anion transporter (OAT) subfamily, which constitutes roughly half of the SLC22 (solute carrier 22) transporter family, has received a great deal of attention because of its role in handling of common drugs (antibiotics, antivirals, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), toxins (mercury, aristolochic acid), and nutrients (vitamins, flavonoids). Oats are expressed in many tissues, including kidney, liver, choroid plexus, olfactory mucosa, brain, retina, and placenta. Recent metabolomics and microarray data from Oat1 [Slc22a6, originally identified as NKT (novel kidney transporter)] and Oat3 (Slc22a8) knockouts, as well as systems biology studies, indicate that this pathway plays a central role in the metabolism and handling of gut microbiome metabolites as well as putative uremic toxins of kidney disease. Nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, such as Hnf4α and Hnf1α, appear to regulate the expression of certain Oats in conjunction with phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Some Oats have a strong selectivity for particular signaling molecules, including cyclic nucleotides, conjugated sex steroids, odorants, uric acid, and prostaglandins and/or their metabolites. According to the “Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis,” which is elaborated in detail here, Oats may function in remote interorgan communication by regulating levels of signaling molecules and key metabolites in tissues and body fluids. Oats may also play a major role in interorganismal communication (via movement of small molecules across the intestine, placental barrier, into breast milk, and volatile odorants into the urine). The role of various Oat isoforms in systems physiology appears quite complex, and their ramifications are discussed in the context of remote sensing and signaling. PMID:25540139

  12. Role of family D ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCD) in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hlaváč, Viktor; Souček, Pavel

    2015-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, belonging to the family D, are expressed in peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum or lysosomes. ABCD transporters play a role in transport of lipids, bile acids and vitamin B12 and associate with peroxisomal disorders. ABCD1 performs transport of coenzyme A esters of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in peroxisomes and a number of mutations in ABCD1 gene were linked to an X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy (X-ALD). The role of ABCD transporters in tumour growth has not been studied in detail, but there is some evidence that ABCDs levels differ between undifferentiated stem or tumour cells and differentiated cells suggesting a possible link to tumorigenesis. In this mini-review, we discuss the available information about the role of ABCD transporters in cancer. PMID:26517907

  13. Modeling Electrical Transport through Nucleic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianqing

    Nucleic acids play a vital role in many biological systems and activities. In recent years, engineers and scientists have been interested in studying their electrical properties. The motivation for these studies stems from the following facts: (1) the bases, which form the building blocks of nucleic acids, have unique ionization potentials. Further, nucleic acids are one of the few nanomaterials that can be reproducibly manufactured with a high degree of accuracy (though admittedly their placement at desired locations remains a challenge). As a result, designed strands with specific sequences may offer unique device properties; (2) electrical methods offer potential for sequencing nucleic acids based on a single molecule; (3) electrical methods for disease detection based on the current flowing through nucleic acids are beginning to be demonstrated. While experiments in the above mentioned areas is promising, a deeper understanding of the electrical current flow through the nucleic acids needs to be developed. The modeling of current flowing in these molecules is complex because: (1) they are based on atomic scale contacts between nucleic acids and metal, which cannot be reproducibly built; (2) the conductivity of nucleic acids is easily influenced by the environment, which is constantly changing; and (3) the nucleic acids by themselves are floppy. This thesis focuses on the modeling of electrical transport through nucleic acids that are connected to two metal electrodes at nanoscale. We first develop a decoherent transport model for the double-stranded helix based on the Landauer-Buttiker framework. This model is rationalized by comparison with an experiment that measured the conductance of four different DNA strands. The developed model is then used to study the: (1) potential to make barriers and wells for quantum transport using specifically engineered sequences; (2) change in the electrical properties of a specific DNA strand with and without methylation; (3

  14. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion. PMID:25915115

  15. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion. PMID:25915115

  16. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  17. Abscisic Acid Transport in Human Erythrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Guida, Lucrezia; Millo, Enrico; Fresia, Chiara; Turco, Emilia; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in the response to environmental stress. Recently, ABA has been shown to be present and active also in mammals, where it stimulates the functional activity of innate immune cells, of mesenchymal and hemopoietic stem cells, and insulin-releasing pancreatic β-cells. LANCL2, the ABA receptor in mammalian cells, is a peripheral membrane protein that localizes at the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Here we investigated the mechanism enabling ABA transport across the plasmamembrane of human red blood cells (RBC). Both influx and efflux of [3H]ABA occur across intact RBC, as detected by radiometric and chromatographic methods. ABA binds specifically to Band 3 (the RBC anion transporter), as determined by labeling of RBC membranes with biotinylated ABA. Proteoliposomes reconstituted with human purified Band 3 transport [3H]ABA and [35S]sulfate, and ABA transport is sensitive to the specific Band 3 inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid. Once inside RBC, ABA stimulates ATP release through the LANCL2-mediated activation of adenylate cyclase. As ATP released from RBC is known to exert a vasodilator response, these results suggest a role for plasma ABA in the regulation of vascular tone. PMID:25847240

  18. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.

  19. The D-amino acid transport by the invertebrate SLC6 transporters KAAT1 and CAATCH1 from Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Vollero, Alessandra; Imperiali, Francesca G; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Margheritis, Eleonora; Peres, Antonio; Bossi, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The ability of the SLC6 family members, the insect neutral amino acid cotransporter KAAT1(K(+)-coupled amino acid transporter 1) and its homologous CAATCH1(cation anion activated amino acid transporter/channel), to transport D-amino acids has been investigated through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiological techniques. In the presence of D-isomers of leucine, serine, and proline, the msKAAT1 generates inward, transport-associated, currents with variable relative potencies, depending on the driving ion Na(+) or K(+). Higher concentrations of D-leucine (≥1 mmol/L) give rise to an anomalous response that suggests the existence of a second binding site with inhibitory action on the transport process. msCAATCH1 is also able to transport the D-amino acids tested, including D-leucine, whereas L-leucine acts as a blocker. A similar behavior is exhibited by the KAAT1 mutant S308T, confirming the relevance of the residue in this position in L-leucine binding and the different interaction of D-leucine with residues involved in transport mechanism. D-leucine and D-serine on various vertebrate orthologs B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) elicited only a very small current and singular behavior was not observed, indicating that it is specific of the insect neutral amino acid transporters. These findings highlight the relevance of D-amino acid absorption in the insect nutrition and metabolism and may provide new evidences in the molecular transport mechanism of SLC6 family. PMID:26884475

  20. Mitochondrial transporters for ornithine and related amino acids: a review.

    PubMed

    Monné, Magnus; Miniero, Daniela Valeria; Daddabbo, Lucia; Palmieri, Luigi; Porcelli, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2015-09-01

    Among the members of the mitochondrial carrier family, there are transporters that catalyze the translocation of ornithine and related substrates, such as arginine, homoarginine, lysine, histidine, and citrulline, across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial carriers ORC1, ORC2, and SLC25A29 from Homo sapiens, BAC1 and BAC2 from Arabidopsis thaliana, and Ort1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been biochemically characterized by transport assays in liposomes. All of them transport ornithine and amino acids with side chains terminating at least with one amine. There are, however, marked differences in their substrate specificities including their affinity for ornithine (KM values in the mM to μM range). These differences are most likely reflected by minor differences in the substrate binding sites of these carriers. The physiological role of the above-mentioned mitochondrial carriers is to link several metabolic pathways that take place partly in the cytosol and partly in the mitochondrial matrix and to provide basic amino acids for mitochondrial translation. In the liver, human ORC1 catalyzes the citrulline/ornithine exchange across the mitochondrial inner membrane, which is required for the urea cycle. Human ORC1, ORC2, and SLC25A29 are likely to be involved in the biosynthesis and transport of arginine, which can be used as a precursor for the synthesis of NO, agmatine, polyamines, creatine, glutamine, glutamate, and proline, as well as in the degradation of basic amino acids. BAC1 and BAC2 are implicated in some processes similar to those of their human counterparts and in nitrogen and amino acid metabolism linked to stress conditions and the development of plants. Ort1p is involved in the biosynthesis of arginine and polyamines in yeast. PMID:26002808

  1. Proton-associated sucrose transport of mammalian solute carrier family 45: an analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bartölke, Rabea; Heinisch, Jürgen J; Wieczorek, Helmut; Vitavska, Olga

    2014-12-01

    The members of the solute carrier 45 (SLC45) family have been implicated in the regulation of glucose homoeostasis in the brain (SLC45A1), with skin and hair pigmentation (SLC45A2), and with prostate cancer and myelination (SLC45A3). However, apart from SLC45A1, a proton-associated glucose transporter, the function of these proteins is still largely unknown, although sequence similarities to plant sucrose transporters mark them as a putative sucrose transporter family. Heterologous expression of the three members SLC45A2, SLC45A3 and SLC45A4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that they are indeed sucrose transporters. [(14)C]Sucrose-uptake measurements revealed intermediate transport affinities with Km values of approximately 5 mM. Transport activities were best under slightly acidic conditions and were inhibited by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, demonstrating an H(+)-coupled transport mechanism. Na(+), on the other hand, had no effect on sucrose transport. Competitive inhibition assays indicated a possible transport also of glucose and fructose. Real-time PCR of mouse tissues confirmed mRNA expression of SLC45A2 in eyes and skin and of SLC45A3 primarily in the prostate, but also in other tissues, whereas SLC45A4 showed a predominantly ubiquitous expression. Altogether the results provide new insights into the physiological significance of SLC45 family members and challenge existing concepts of mammalian sugar transport, as they (i) transport a disaccharide, and (ii) perform secondary active transport in a proton-dependent manner. PMID:25164149

  2. The 2-Hydroxycarboxylate Transporter Family: Physiology, Structure, and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Iwona; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2005-01-01

    The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family is a family of secondary transporters found exclusively in the bacterial kingdom. They function in the metabolism of the di- and tricarboxylates malate and citrate, mostly in fermentative pathways involving decarboxylation of malate or oxaloacetate. These pathways are found in the class Bacillales of the low-CG gram-positive bacteria and in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The pathways have evolved into a remarkable diversity in terms of the combinations of enzymes and transporters that built the pathways and of energy conservation mechanisms. The transporter family includes H+ and Na+ symporters and precursor/product exchangers. The proteins consist of a bundle of 11 transmembrane helices formed from two homologous domains containing five transmembrane segments each, plus one additional segment at the N terminus. The two domains have opposite orientations in the membrane and contain a pore-loop or reentrant loop structure between the fourth and fifth transmembrane segments. The two pore-loops enter the membrane from opposite sides and are believed to be part of the translocation site. The binding site is located asymmetrically in the membrane, close to the interface of membrane and cytoplasm. The binding site in the translocation pore is believed to be alternatively exposed to the internal and external media. The proposed structure of the 2HCT transporters is different from any known structure of a membrane protein and represents a new structural class of secondary transporters. PMID:16339740

  3. Boramino acid as a marker for amino acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Haojun; Chen, Kai; Shao, Yihan; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) are a series of integral channels for uphill cellular uptake of nutrients and neurotransmitters. Abnormal expression of AATs is often associated with cancer, addiction, and multiple mental diseases. Although methods to evaluate in vivo expression of AATs would be highly useful, efforts to develop them have been hampered by a lack of appropriate tracers. We describe a new class of AA mimics—boramino acids (BAAs)—that can serve as general imaging probes for AATs. The structure of a BAA is identical to that of the corresponding natural AA, except for an exotic replacement of the carboxylate with -BF3−. Cellular studies demonstrate strong AAT-mediated cell uptake, and animal studies show high tumor-specific accumulation, suggesting that BAAs hold great promise for the development of new imaging probes and smart AAT-targeting drugs. PMID:26601275

  4. Characterization of a New Family of Metal Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Lou Geurinot; David Eide

    2002-04-29

    Metal ions are critical nutrients, yet overaccumulation of these same metals can also be toxic. To maintain appropriate intracellular levels, cells require specific metal uptake systems that are subject to precise homeostatic regulation. The long-range goal of our research is to define the molecular mechanism(s) and regulation of metal ion uptake in eukaryotic cells. Integrating genetic, molecular biological and biochemical approaches, we have examined these processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both are proven model systems for studying fundamental cellular processes. Our work has focused on the ZIP family of metal transporters which we identified; this family has representatives in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. IRT, one of the founding members of the ZIP family, is an essential cation transporter that is expressed in the epidermal cells of iron deficient plant roots and is responsible for uptake of iron from the soil. We now know that there are 15 ZIP genes in the Arabidopsis and the similarities among their encoded gene products. The ZIP family members display different substrate specificities for metals and different tissue distributions in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the family members respond differentially to metal deficiencies. For example, IRT1, ZIP6 and ZIP9 mRNA are expressed mainly in the roots of iron deficient plants whereas ZIP4 responds to both iron and zinc deficiency. Work in both yeast and Arabidopsis has addressed substrate specificity as well as how these transporters are regulated in response to metal availability

  5. Apical transporters for neutral amino acids: physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Bröer, Stefan

    2008-04-01

    Absorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine involves a variety of transporters for different groups of amino acids. This is illustrated by inherited disorders of amino acid absorption, such as Hartnup disorder, cystinuria, iminoglycinuria, dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, and lysinuric protein intolerance, affecting separate groups of amino acids. Recent advances in the molecular identification of apical neutral amino acid transporters has shed a light on the molecular basis of Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria. PMID:18400692

  6. Electrogenicity of Na(+)-coupled bile acid transporters.

    PubMed Central

    Weinman, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    The Na(+)-bile acid cotransporters NTCP and ASBT are largely responsible for the Na(+)-dependent bile acid uptake in hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells, respectively. This review discusses the experimental methods available for demonstrating electrogenicity and examines the accumulating evidence that coupled transport by each of these bile acid transporters is electrogenic. The evidence includes measurements of transport-associated currents by patch clamp electrophysiological techniques, as well as direct measurement of fluorescent bile acid transport rates in whole cell patch clamped, voltage clamped cells. The results support a Na+:bile acid coupling stoichiometry of 2:1. PMID:9626753

  7. Characterization of a New Family of Metal Transport Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Guerinot, Mary Lou; Eide, David

    1999-06-01

    Soils at many DOE sites are contaminated with metals and radionuclides. Such soils obviously pose a risk to human and animal health. Unlike organic wastes, which can be metabolized, metals are immutable and cannot be degraded into harmless constituents. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to remove toxic materials from soil and water, may prove to be an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for cleaning up metal contaminated sites. The success of phytoremediation will rely on the availability of plants that absorb, translocate, and tolerate the contaminating metals. However, before we can engineer such plants, we need more basic information on how plants acquire metals. An important long term goal of our research program is to understand how metals such as zinc, cadmium and iron are transported across membranes. Our research is focused on a new family of metal transporters, which we have identified through combined studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We have identified a family of 24 presumptive metal transport genes in a variety of organisms including yeast, trypanosomes, plants, nematodes, and humans. This family, which we have designated the ''ZIP'' genes, provides a rich source of material with which to undertake studies on metal transport in eukar

  8. Structure and Function of SLC4 Family HCO3- Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Jichun; Chen, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The solute carrier SLC4 family consists of 10 members, nine of which are HCO3- transporters, including three Na+-independent Cl−/HCO3- exchangers AE1, AE2, and AE3, five Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NBCn2, and NDCBE, as well as “AE4” whose Na+-dependence remains controversial. The SLC4 HCO3- transporters play critical roles in pH regulation and transepithelial movement of electrolytes with a broad range of demonstrated physiological relevances. Dysfunctions of these transporters are associated with a series of human diseases. During the past decades, tremendous amount of effort has been undertaken to investigate the topological organization of the SLC4 transporters in the plasma membrane. Based upon the proposed topology models, mutational and functional studies have identified important structural elements likely involved in the ion translocation by the SLC4 transporters. In the present article, we review the advances during the past decades in understanding the structure and function of the SLC4 transporters. PMID:26648873

  9. Characterization of a new family of metal transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Guerinot, Mary L.; Dide, David

    1999-12-31

    Metal ions are critical nutrients, yet overaccumulation of these same metals can also be toxic. To maintain appropriate intracellular levels, cells require specific metal uptake systems that are subject to precise homeostatic regulation. The long-range goal of our research is to define the molecular mechanism(s) and regulation of metal ion uptake in eukaryotic cells. Integrating genetic, molecular biological and biochemical approaches, we have examined these processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both are proven model systems for studying fundamental cellular processes. Our work has focused on the ZIP family of metal transporters which we identified; this family has representatives in bacteria, fungi,plants and animals. IRT1, one of the founding members of the ZIP family, is an essential cation transporter that is expressed in the epidermal cells of iron deficient plant roots and is responsible for uptake of iron from the soil. We now know that t here are 15 ZIP genes in the Arabidopsis genome which can be divided into four different classes, based on their intron/exon arrangements and the similarities among their encoded gene products. The ZIP family members display different substrate specificities for metals and different tissue distributions in Arabidopsis.Moreover, the family members respond differentially to metal deficiencies. For example, IRT1, ZIP6 and ZIP9 mRNA are expressed mainly in the roots of iron deficient plants whereas ZIP4 responds to both iron and zinc deficiency. Work in both yeast and Arabidopsis has addressed substrate specificity as well as how these transporters are regulated in response to metal availability. Our project was broken down into four specific aims. Significant progress was made on all four aims. I have listed the publications which have resulted under the relevant specific aim.

  10. Structure and evolution of the plant cation diffusion facilitator family of ion transporters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family are integral membrane divalent cation transporters that transport metal ions out of the cytoplasm either into the extracellular space or into internal compartments such as the vacuole. The spectrum of cations known to be transported by proteins of the CDF family include Zn, Fe, Co, Cd, and Mn. Members of this family have been identified in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea, and in sequenced plant genomes. CDF families range in size from nine members in Selaginella moellendorffii to 19 members in Populus trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the CDF family has expanded within plants, but a definitive plant CDF family phylogeny has not been constructed. Results Representative CDF members were annotated from diverse genomes across the Viridiplantae and Rhodophyta lineages and used to identify phylogenetic relationships within the CDF family. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CDF amino acid sequence data supports organizing land plant CDF family sequences into 7 groups. The origin of the 7 groups predates the emergence of land plants. Among these, 5 of the 7 groups are likely to have originated at the base of the tree of life, and 2 of 7 groups appear to be derived from a duplication event prior to or coincident with land plant evolution. Within land plants, local expansion continues within select groups, while several groups are strictly maintained as one gene copy per genome. Conclusions Defining the CDF gene family phylogeny contributes to our understanding of this family in several ways. First, when embarking upon functional studies of the members, defining primary groups improves the predictive power of functional assignment of orthologous/paralogous genes and aids in hypothesis generation. Second, defining groups will allow a group-specific sequence motif to be generated that will help define future CDF family sequences and aid in functional motif identification, which currently is

  11. Discovery of a multigene family of aquaporin silicon transporters in the primitive plant Equisetum arvense.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Caroline; Rémus-Borel, Wilfried; Vivancos, Julien; Labbé, Caroline; Belzile, François; Bélanger, Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Plants benefit greatly from silicon (Si) absorption provided that they contain Si transporters. The latter have recently been identified in the roots of some higher plants known to accumulate high concentrations of Si, and all share a high level of sequence identity. In this study, we searched for transporters in the primitive vascular plant Equisetum arvense (horsetail), which is a valuable but neglected model plant for the study of Si absorption, as it has one of the highest Si concentrations in the plant kingdom. Our initial attempts to identify Si transporters based on sequence homology with transporters from higher plants proved unsuccessful, suggesting a divergent structure or property in horsetail transporters. Subsequently, through sequencing of the horsetail root transcriptome and a search using amino acid sequences conserved in plant aquaporins, we were able to identify a multigene family of aquaporin Si transporters. Comparison of known functional domains and phylogenetic analysis of sequences revealed that the horsetail proteins belong to a different group than higher-plant Si transporters. In particular, the newly identified proteins contain a STAR pore as opposed to the GSGR pore common to all previously identified Si transporters. In order to determine its functionality, the proteins were heterologously expressed in both Xenopus oocytes and Arabidopsis, and the results showed that the horsetail proteins are extremely efficient a transporting Si. These findings offer new insights into the elusive properties of Si and its absorption by plants. PMID:22712876

  12. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  13. Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There exist four fundamentally different classes of membrane-bound transport proteins: ion channels; transporters; aquaporins; and ATP-powered pumps. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an example of ATP-dependent pumps. ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in all prokaryotes, as well as plants, fungi, yeast and animals. These pumps can move substrates in (influx) or out (efflux) of cells. In mammals, ABC transporters are expressed predominantly in the liver, intestine, blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, placenta and kidney. ABC proteins transport a number of endogenous substrates, including inorganic anions, metal ions, peptides, amino acids, sugars and a large number of hydrophobic compounds and metabolites across the plasma membrane, and also across intracellular membranes. The human genome contains 49 ABC genes, arranged in eight subfamilies and named via divergent evolution. That ABC genes are important is underscored by the fact that mutations in at least I I of these genes are already known to cause severe inherited diseases (eg cystic fibrosis and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy [X-ALD]). ABC transporters also participate in the movement of most drugs and their metabolites across cell surface and cellular organelle membranes; thus, defects in these genes can be important in terms of cancer therapy, pharmacokinetics and innumerable pharmacogenetic disorders. PMID:19403462

  14. Novel Lactate Transporters from Carboxylic Acid-Producing Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  15. Structural Determinants for Transport Across the Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Using C-24 Bile Acid Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Rana; Acharya, Chayan; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Polli, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The human apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) re-absorbs gram quantities of bile acid daily and is a potential prodrug target to increase oral drug absorption. In the absence of a high resolution hASBT crystal structure, 3D-QSAR modeling may prove beneficial in designing prodrug targets to hASBT. The objective was to derive a conformationally sampled pharmacophore 3D–QSAR (CSP-SAR) model for the uptake of bile acid conjugates by hASBT. A series of bile acid conjugates of glutamyl chenodeoxycholate were evaluated in terms of Km and normalized Vmax(normVmax) using hASBT-MDCK cells. All mono-anionic conjugates were potent substrates. Dianions, cations and zwitterions, which bound with a high affinity, were not substrates. CSP-SAR models were derived using structural and physicochemical descriptors, and evaluated via cross-validation. The best CSP-SAR model for Km included two structural and two physiochemical descriptors, where substrate hydrophobicity enhanced affinity. A best CSP-SAR model for Km/normVmax employed one structural and three physicochemical descriptors, also indicating hydrophobicity enhanced efficiency. Overall, the bile acid C-24 region accommodated a range of substituted anilines, provided a single negative charge was present near C-24. In comparing uptake findings to prior inhibition results, increased hydrophobicity enhanced activity, with dianions and zwitterions hindering activity. PMID:20939504

  16. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. 805.735-8 Section 805.735-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed...

  17. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. 805.735-8 Section 805.735-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed...

  18. The Nitrate Transporter (NRT) Gene Family in Poplar

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Euring, Dejuan; Volmer, Katharina; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate is an important nutrient required for plant growth. It also acts as a signal regulating plant development. Nitrate is actively taken up and transported by nitrate transporters (NRT), which form a large family with many members and distinct functions. In contrast to Arabidopsis and rice there is little information about the NRT family in woody plants such as Populus. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus NRT family was performed. Sixty-eight PtNRT1/PTR, 6 PtNRT2, and 5 PtNRT3 genes were identified in the P. trichocarpa genome. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the genes of the NRT family are divided into three clades: NRT1/PTR with four subclades, NRT2, and NRT3. Topological analysis indicated that all members of PtNRT1/PTR and PtNRT2 have 8 to 12 trans-membrane domains, whereas the PtNRT3 proteins have no or up to two trans-membrane domains. Four PtNRT3 members were predicted as secreted proteins. Microarray analyses revealed tissue-specific expression patterns of PtNRT genes with distinct clusters of NRTs for roots, for the elongation zone of the apical stem segment and the developing xylem and a further cluster for leaves, bark and wood. A comparison of different poplar species (P. trichocarpa, P. tremula, P. euphratica, P. fremontii x P. angustifolia, and P. x canescens) showed that the tissue-specific patterns of the NRT genes varied to some extent with species. Bioinformatic analysis of putative cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of PtNRT family retrieved motifs suggesting the regulation of the NRT genes by N metabolism, by energy and carbon metabolism, and by phytohormones and stress. Multivariate analysis suggested that the combination and abundance of motifs in distinct promoters may lead to tissue-specificity. Our genome wide analysis of the PtNRT genes provides a valuable basis for functional analysis towards understanding the role of nitrate transporters for tree growth. PMID:23977227

  19. The ABC transporter gene family of Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Armin; Cunningham, Phil; Dean, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background The large gene superfamily of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters encodes membrane proteins involved in trafficking processes across biological membranes and further essential cell biological functions. ABC transporters are evolutionary ancient and involved in the biochemical defence against toxicants. We report here a genome-wide survey of ABC proteins of Daphnia pulex, providing for the first time information on ABC proteins in crustacea, a primarily aquatic arthropod subphylum of high ecological and economical importance. Results We identified 64 ABC proteins in the Daphnia genome, which possesses members of all current ABC subfamilies A to H. To unravel phylogenetic relationships, ABC proteins of Daphnia were compared to those from yeast, worm, fruit fly and human. A high conservation of Daphnia of ABC transporters was observed for proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes, including the mitochondrial half transporters of the ABCB subfamily, which function in iron metabolism and transport of Fe/S protein precursors, and the members of subfamilies ABCD, ABCE and ABCF, which have roles in very long chain fatty acid transport, initiation of gene transcription and protein translation, respectively. A number of Daphnia proteins showed one-to-one orthologous relationships to Drosophila ABC proteins including the sulfonyl urea receptor (SUR), the ecdysone transporter ET23, and the eye pigment precursor transporter scarlet. As the fruit fly, Daphnia lacked homologues to the TAP protein, which plays a role in antigene processing, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which functions as a chloride channel. Daphnia showed two proteins homologous to MDR (multidrug resistance) P-glycoproteins (ABCB subfamily) and six proteins homologous to MRPs (multidrug resistance-associated proteins) (ABCC subfamily). However, lineage specific gene duplications in the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies complicated the inference of function. A

  20. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in regulating asymmetric auxin distribution in multiple developmental processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue differentiation and tropic responses. All PIN proteins have a similar structure with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains separated by a central hydrophilic domain. The structure of the hydrophobic domains is well conserved. The hydrophilic domain is more divergent and it determines eight groups within the protein family. The activity of PIN proteins is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, protein stability, subcellular localization and transport activity. Different endogenous and environmental signals can modulate PIN activity and thus modulate auxin-distribution-dependent development. A large group of PIN proteins, including the most ancient members known from mosses, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and they regulate the subcellular compartmentalization of auxin and thus auxin metabolism. Further work is needed to establish the physiological importance of this unexpected mode of auxin homeostasis regulation. Furthermore, the evolution of PIN-based transport, PIN protein structure and more detailed biochemical characterization of the transport function are important topics for further studies. PMID:20053306

  1. Conserved methionine dictates substrate preference in Nramp-family divalent metal transporters.

    PubMed

    Bozzi, Aaron T; Bane, Lukas B; Weihofen, Wilhelm A; McCabe, Anne L; Singharoy, Abhishek; Chipot, Christophe J; Schulten, Klaus; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-09-13

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family transporters catalyze uptake of essential divalent transition metals like iron and manganese. To discriminate against abundant competitors, the Nramp metal-binding site should favor softer transition metals, which interact either covalently or ionically with coordinating molecules, over hard calcium and magnesium, which interact mainly ionically. The metal-binding site contains an unusual, but conserved, methionine, and its sulfur coordinates transition metal substrates, suggesting a vital role in their transport. Using a bacterial Nramp model system, we show that, surprisingly, this conserved methionine is dispensable for transport of the physiological manganese substrate and similar divalents iron and cobalt, with several small amino acid replacements still enabling robust uptake. Moreover, the methionine sulfur's presence makes the toxic metal cadmium a preferred substrate. However, a methionine-to-alanine substitution enables transport of calcium and magnesium. Thus, the putative evolutionary pressure to maintain the Nramp metal-binding methionine likely exists because it-more effectively than any other amino acid-increases selectivity for low-abundance transition metal transport in the presence of high-abundance divalents like calcium and magnesium. PMID:27573840

  2. Amino acid transporters: roles in amino acid sensing and signalling in animal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Russell; Taylor, Peter M; Hundal, Harinder S

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid availability regulates cellular physiology by modulating gene expression and signal transduction pathways. However, although the signalling intermediates between nutrient availability and altered gene expression have become increasingly well documented, how eukaryotic cells sense the presence of either a nutritionally rich or deprived medium is still uncertain. From recent studies it appears that the intracellular amino acid pool size is particularly important in regulating translational effectors, thus, regulated transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane represents a means by which the cellular response to amino acids could be controlled. Furthermore, evidence from studies with transportable amino acid analogues has demonstrated that flux through amino acid transporters may act as an initiator of nutritional signalling. This evidence, coupled with the substrate selectivity and sensitivity to nutrient availability classically associated with amino acid transporters, plus the recent discovery of transporter-associated signalling proteins, demonstrates a potential role for nutrient transporters as initiators of cellular nutrient signalling. Here, we review the evidence supporting the idea that distinct amino acid "receptors" function to detect and transmit certain nutrient stimuli in higher eukaryotes. In particular, we focus on the role that amino acid transporters may play in the sensing of amino acid levels, both directly as initiators of nutrient signalling and indirectly as regulators of external amino acid access to intracellular receptor/signalling mechanisms. PMID:12879880

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of the Soybean (Glycine max) GmLAX Auxin Transporter Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chenglin; Wang, Yongqin; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in regulation of plant growth and development as well as plant responses to abiotic stresses. This is mainly achieved through its uneven distribution in plant via a polar auxin transport process. Auxin transporters are major players in polar auxin transport. The AUXIN RESISTENT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX/LAX) auxin influx carriers belong to the amino acid permease family of proton-driven transporters and function in the uptake of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In this study, genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the soybean AUX/LAX (GmLAX) gene family, including phylogenic relationships, chromosome localization, and gene structure, was carried out. A total of 15 GmLAX genes, including seven duplicated gene pairs, were identified in the soybean genome. They were distributed on 10 chromosomes. Despite their higher percentage identities at the protein level, GmLAXs exhibited versatile tissue-specific expression patterns, indicating coordinated functioning during plant growth and development. Most GmLAXs were responsive to drought and dehydration stresses and auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) stimuli, in a tissue- and/or time point- sensitive mode. Several GmLAX members were involved in responding to salt stress. Sequence analysis revealed that promoters of GmLAXs contained different combinations of stress-related cis-regulatory elements. These studies suggest that the soybean GmLAXs were under control of a very complex regulatory network, responding to various internal and external signals. This study helps to identity candidate GmLAXs for further analysis of their roles in soybean development and adaption to adverse environments. PMID:27014306

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of the Soybean (Glycine max) GmLAX Auxin Transporter Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chenglin; Wang, Yongqin; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in regulation of plant growth and development as well as plant responses to abiotic stresses. This is mainly achieved through its uneven distribution in plant via a polar auxin transport process. Auxin transporters are major players in polar auxin transport. The AUXIN RESISTENT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX/LAX) auxin influx carriers belong to the amino acid permease family of proton-driven transporters and function in the uptake of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In this study, genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the soybean AUX/LAX (GmLAX) gene family, including phylogenic relationships, chromosome localization, and gene structure, was carried out. A total of 15 GmLAX genes, including seven duplicated gene pairs, were identified in the soybean genome. They were distributed on 10 chromosomes. Despite their higher percentage identities at the protein level, GmLAXs exhibited versatile tissue-specific expression patterns, indicating coordinated functioning during plant growth and development. Most GmLAXs were responsive to drought and dehydration stresses and auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) stimuli, in a tissue- and/or time point- sensitive mode. Several GmLAX members were involved in responding to salt stress. Sequence analysis revealed that promoters of GmLAXs contained different combinations of stress-related cis-regulatory elements. These studies suggest that the soybean GmLAXs were under control of a very complex regulatory network, responding to various internal and external signals. This study helps to identity candidate GmLAXs for further analysis of their roles in soybean development and adaption to adverse environments. PMID:27014306

  5. Fatty acid transport protein 1 can compensate for fatty acid transport protein 4 in the developing mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meei-Hua; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 is one of a family of six FATPs that facilitate long- and very-long-chain fatty acid uptake. Mice lacking FATP4 are born with tight, thick skin and a defective barrier; they die neonatally because of dehydration and restricted movements. Mutations in SLC27A4, the gene encoding FATP4, cause ichthyosis prematurity syndrome (IPS), characterized by premature birth, respiratory distress, and edematous skin with severe ichthyotic scaling. Symptoms of surviving patients become mild, although atopic manifestations are common. We previously showed that suprabasal keratinocyte expression of a Fatp4 transgene in Fatp4 mutant skin rescues the lethality and ameliorates the skin phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that FATP1, the closest FATP4 homolog, can compensate for the lack of FATP4 in our mouse model of IPS, as it might do postnatally in IPS patients. Transgenic expression of FATP1 in suprabasal keratinocytes rescued the phenotype of Fatp4 mutants, and FATP1 sorted to the same intracellular organelles as endogenous FATP4. Thus, FATP1 and FATP4 likely have overlapping substrate specificities, enzymatic activities, and biological functions. These results suggest that increasing expression of FATP1 in suprabasal keratinocytes could normalize the skin of IPS patients and perhaps prevent the atopic manifestations. PMID:25184958

  6. Identification and application of keto acids transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Peiran; Madzak, Catherine; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Production of organic acids by microorganisms is of great importance for obtaining building-block chemicals from sustainable biomass. Extracellular accumulation of organic acids involved a series of transporters, which play important roles in the accumulation of specific organic acid while lack of systematic demonstration in eukaryotic microorganisms. To circumvent accumulation of by-product, efforts have being orchestrated to carboxylate transport mechanism for potential clue in Yarrowia lipolytica WSH-Z06. Six endogenous putative transporter genes, YALI0B19470g, YALI0C15488g, YALI0C21406g, YALI0D24607g, YALI0D20108g and YALI0E32901g, were identified. Transport characteristics and substrate specificities were further investigated using a carboxylate-transport-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. These transporters were expressed in Y. lipolytica WSH-Z06 to assess their roles in regulating extracellular keto acids accumulation. In a Y. lipolytica T1 line over expressing YALI0B19470g, α-ketoglutarate accumulated to 46.7 g·L(-1), whereas the concentration of pyruvate decreased to 12.3 g·L(-1). Systematic identification of these keto acids transporters would provide clues to further improve the accumulation of specific organic acids with higher efficiency in eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:25633653

  7. Identification and application of keto acids transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Peiran; Madzak, Catherine; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Production of organic acids by microorganisms is of great importance for obtaining building-block chemicals from sustainable biomass. Extracellular accumulation of organic acids involved a series of transporters, which play important roles in the accumulation of specific organic acid while lack of systematic demonstration in eukaryotic microorganisms. To circumvent accumulation of by-product, efforts have being orchestrated to carboxylate transport mechanism for potential clue in Yarrowia lipolytica WSH-Z06. Six endogenous putative transporter genes, YALI0B19470g, YALI0C15488g, YALI0C21406g, YALI0D24607g, YALI0D20108g and YALI0E32901g, were identified. Transport characteristics and substrate specificities were further investigated using a carboxylate-transport-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. These transporters were expressed in Y. lipolytica WSH-Z06 to assess their roles in regulating extracellular keto acids accumulation. In a Y. lipolytica T1 line over expressing YALI0B19470g, α-ketoglutarate accumulated to 46.7 g·L−1, whereas the concentration of pyruvate decreased to 12.3 g·L−1. Systematic identification of these keto acids transporters would provide clues to further improve the accumulation of specific organic acids with higher efficiency in eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:25633653

  8. Transport, metabolism, and effect of chronic feeding of lagodeoxycholic acid. A new, natural bile acid.

    PubMed

    Schmassmann, A; Angellotti, M A; Clerici, C; Hofmann, A F; Ton-Nu, H T; Schteingart, C D; Marcus, S N; Hagey, L R; Rossi, S S; Aigner, A

    1990-10-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7 beta-hydroxy epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, is more hydrophilic and less hepatotoxic than chenodeoxycholic acid. Because "lagodeoxycholic acid," the 12 beta-hydroxy epimer of deoxycholic acid, is also more hydrophilic than deoxycholic acid, it was hypothesized that it should also be less hepatotoxic than deoxycholic acid. To test this, lagodeoxycholic acid was synthesized, and its transport and metabolism were examined in the rat, rabbit, and hamster. The taurine conjugate of lagodeoxycholic acid was moderately well transported by the perfused rat ileum (Tmax = 2 mumol/min.kg). In rats and hamsters with biliary fistulas, the taurine conjugate of lagodeoxycholic acid was well transported by the liver with a Tmax greater than 20 mumol/min.kg; for the taurine conjugate of deoxycholic acid, doses infused at a rate greater than 2.5 mumol/min.kg are known to cause cholestasis and death. Hepatic biotransformation of lagodeoxycholic acid in the rabbit was limited to conjugation with glycine; in the hamster, lagodeoxycholic acid was conjugated with glycine or taurine; in addition, 7-hydroxylation occurred to a slight extent (approximately 10%). When lagodeoxycholic acid was instilled in the rabbit colon, it was absorbed as such although within hours it was progressively epimerized by bacteria to deoxycholic acid. When injected intravenously and allowed to circulate enterohepatically, lagodeoxycholic acid was largely epimerized to deoxycholic acid in 24 hours. Surgical creation of a distal ileostomy abolished epimerization in the rabbit, indicating that exposure to colonic bacterial enzymes was required for the epimerization. Lagodeoxycholic acid was administered for 3 weeks at a dose of 180 mumol/day (0.1% by weight of a chow diet; 2-4 times the endogenous bile acid synthesis rate); other groups received identical doses of deoxycholic acid (hamster) or cholyltaurine, a known precursor of deoxycholic acid (rabbit). After 3 weeks of

  9. Characterization of zinc transport by divalent metal transporters of the ZIP family from the model legume medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand how plants from the Fabaceae family maintain zinc (Zn) homeostasis, we have characterized the kinetics of the Zn transporting proteins from the ZIP family of divalent metal transporters in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MtZIP1, MtZIP5, and MtZIP6 were the only members from this ...

  10. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions. PMID:26721276

  11. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters.

    PubMed

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a-d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a-c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots. PMID:22639639

  12. Sialic Acid Transport Contributes to Pneumococcal Colonization ▿

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Carolyn; Burnaugh, Amanda M.; Woodiga, Shireen A.; King, Samantha J.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia and meningitis. Airway colonization is a necessary precursor to disease, but little is known about how the bacteria establish and maintain colonization. Carbohydrates are required as a carbon source for pneumococcal growth and, therefore, for colonization. Free carbohydrates are not readily available in the naso-oropharynx; however, N- and O-linked glycans are common in the airway. Sialic acid is the most common terminal modification on N- and O-linked glycans and is likely encountered frequently by S. pneumoniae in the airway. Here we demonstrate that sialic acid supports pneumococcal growth when provided as a sole carbon source. Growth on sialic acid requires import into the bacterium. Three genetic regions have been proposed to encode pneumococcal sialic acid transporters: one sodium solute symporter and two ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Data demonstrate that one of these, satABC, is required for transport of sialic acid. A satABC mutant displayed significantly reduced growth on both sialic acid and the human glycoprotein alpha-1. The importance of satABC for growth on human glycoprotein suggests that sialic acid transport may be important in vivo. Indeed, the satABC mutant was significantly reduced in colonization of the murine upper respiratory tract. This work demonstrates that S. pneumoniae is able to use sialic acid as a sole carbon source and that utilization of sialic acid is likely important during pneumococcal colonization. PMID:21189320

  13. Regulation of renal amino acid transporters during metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Moret, Caroline; Dave, Mital H; Schulz, Nicole; Jiang, Jean X; Verrey, Francois; Wagner, Carsten A

    2007-02-01

    The kidney plays a major role in acid-base homeostasis by adapting the excretion of acid equivalents to dietary intake and metabolism. Urinary acid excretion is mediated by the secretion of protons and titratable acids, particularly ammonia. NH(3) is synthesized in proximal tubule cells from glutamine taken up via specific amino acid transporters. We tested whether kidney amino acid transporters are regulated in mice in which metabolic acidosis was induced with NH(4)Cl. Blood gas and urine analysis confirmed metabolic acidosis. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantify the mRNAs of 16 amino acid transporters. The mRNA of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was quantified as positive control for the regulation and that of GAPDH, as internal standard. In acidosis, the mRNA of kidney system N amino acid transporter SNAT3 (SLC38A3/SN1) showed a strong induction similar to that of PEPCK, whereas all other tested mRNAs encoding glutamine or glutamate transporters were unchanged or reduced in abundance. At the protein level, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry demonstrated an increased abundance of SNAT3 and reduced expression of the basolateral cationic amino acid/neutral amino acid exchanger subunit y(+)-LAT1 (SLC7A7). SNAT3 was localized to the basolateral membrane of the late proximal tubule S3 segment in control animals, whereas its expression was extended to the earlier S2 segment of the proximal tubule during acidosis. Our results suggest that the selective regulation of SNAT3 and y(+)LAT1 expression may serve a major role in the renal adaptation to acid secretion and thus for systemic acid-base balance. PMID:17003226

  14. Regulation of amino acid transporters in pluripotent cell populations in the embryo and in culture; novel roles for sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Tan, Boon Siang Nicholas; Rathjen, Peter D; Harvey, Alexandra J; Gardner, David K; Rathjen, Joy

    2016-08-01

    The developmental outcomes of preimplantation mammalian embryos are regulated directly by the surrounding microenvironment, and inappropriate concentrations of amino acids, or the loss of amino acid-sensing mechanisms, can be detrimental and impact further development. A specific role for l-proline in the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells, a cell population derived from the blastocyst, has been shown in culture. l-proline acts as a signalling molecule, exerting its effects through cell uptake and subsequent metabolism. Uptake in ES cells occurs predominantly through the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2, Slc38a2 (SNAT2). Dynamic expression of amino acid transporters has been shown in the early mammalian embryo, reflecting functional roles for amino acids in embryogenesis. The expression of SNAT2 and family member Slc38a1 (SNAT1) was determined in mouse embryos from the 2-cell stage through to the early post-implantation pre-gastrulation embryo. Key changes in expression were validated in cell culture models of development. Both transporters showed temporal dynamic expression patterns and changes in intracellular localisation as differentiation progressed. Changes in transporter expression likely reflect different amino acid requirements during development. Findings include the differential expression of SNAT1 in the inner and outer cells of the compacted morula and nuclear localisation of SNAT2 in the trophectoderm and placental lineages. Furthermore, SNAT2 expression was up-regulated in the epiblast prior to primitive ectoderm formation, an expression pattern consistent with a role for the transporter in later developmental decisions within the pluripotent lineage. We propose that the differential expression of SNAT2 in the epiblast provides evidence for an l-proline-mediated mechanism contributing to the regulation of embryonic development. PMID:27373508

  15. Neutral amino acid transport in epithelial cells and its malfunction in Hartnup disorder.

    PubMed

    Bröer, S; Cavanaugh, J A; Rasko, J E J

    2005-02-01

    Hartnup disorder is an autosomal recessive abnormality of renal and gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport. A corresponding transport activity has been characterized in kidney and intestinal cells and named system B(0). The failure to resorb amino acids in this disorder is thought to be compensated by a protein-rich diet. However, in combination with a poor diet and other factors, more severe symptoms can develop in Hartnup patients, including a photosensitive pellagra-like skin rash, cerebellar ataxia and other neurological symptoms. Homozygosity mapping in a Japanese family and linkage analysis on six Australian pedigrees placed the Hartnup disorder gene at a locus on chromosome 5p15. This fine mapping facilitated a candidate gene approach within the interval, which resulted in the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (B(0)AT1, SLC6A19) from mouse and human kidney, which shows all properties of system B(0). Flux experiments and electrophysiological recording showed that the transporter is Na(+) dependent and Cl(-) independent, electrogenic and actively transports most neutral amino acids. In situ hybridization showed strong expression in intestinal villi and in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Expression of B(0)AT1 was restricted to kidney, intestine and skin. A total of ten mutations have been identified in SLC6A19 that co-segregate with disease in the predicted recessive manner, with the majority of affected individuals being compound heterozygotes. These mutations lead to altered neutral amino acid transport function compared to the wild-type allele in vitro. One of the mutations occurs in members of the original Hartnup family described in 1956, thereby defining SLC6A19 as the 'Hartnup'-gene. PMID:15667315

  16. Past and Present Insights on Alpha-linolenic Acid and the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Family.

    PubMed

    Stark, Aliza H; Reifen, Ram; Crawford, Michael A

    2016-10-25

    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the parent essential fatty acid of the omega-3 family. This family includes docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which has been conserved in neural signaling systems in the cephalopods, fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, mammals, primates, and humans. This extreme conservation, in spite of wide genomic changes of over 500 million years, testifies to the uniqueness of this molecule in the brain and affirms the importance of omega-3 fatty acids. While DHA and its close precursor, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), have received much attention by the research community, ALA, as the precursor of both, has been considered of little interest. There are many papers on ALA requirements in experimental animals. Unlike humans, rats and mice can readily convert ALA to EPA and DHA, so it is unclear whether the effect is solely due to the conversion products or to ALA itself. The intrinsic role of ALA has yet to be defined. This paper will discuss both recent and historical findings related to this distinctive group of fatty acids, and will highlight the physiological significance of the omega-3 family. PMID:25774650

  17. The AID/APOBEC family of nucleic acid mutators

    PubMed Central

    Conticello, Silvestro G

    2008-01-01

    The AID/APOBECs, a group of cytidine deaminases, represent a somewhat unusual protein family that can insert mutations in DNA and RNA as a result of their ability to deaminate cytidine to uridine. The ancestral AID/APOBECs originated from a branch of the zinc-dependent deaminase superfamily at the beginning of the vertebrate radiation. Other members of the family have arisen in mammals and present a history of complex gene duplications and positive selection. All AID/APOBECs have a characteristic zinc-coordination motif, which forms the core of the catalytic site. The crystal structure of human APOBEC2 shows remarkable similarities to that of the bacterial tRNA-editing enzyme TadA, which suggests a conserved mechanism by which polynucleotides are recognized and deaminated. The AID/APOBECs seem to have diverse roles. AID and the APOBEC3s are DNA mutators, acting in antigen-driven antibody diversification processes and in an innate defense system against retroviruses, respectively. APOBEC1 edits the mRNA for apolipoprotein B, a protein involved in lipid transport. A detailed understanding of the biological roles of the family is still some way off, however, and the functions of some members of the family are completely unknown. Given their ability to mutate DNA, a role for the AID/APOBECs in the onset of cancer has been proposed. PMID:18598372

  18. Circulating hydroxy fatty acids in familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed Central

    Aisen, P S; Haines, K A; Given, W; Abramson, S B; Pras, M; Serhan, C; Hamberg, M; Samuelsson, B; Weissmann, G

    1985-01-01

    Episodes of fever, serositis, and arthritis in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) suggested circulating mediators of acute inflammation (e.g., neutrophil activation). The mean serum neutrophil-aggregating activity of 51 FMF patients was 2.5 +/- 0.2 cm2/min, compared to 1.0 +/- 0.1 cm2/min in 20 normal controls (P less than 0.0002). Lipid extracts of FMF sera retained neutrophil-aggregating activity and had UV absorbance peaks at 269 and 279 nm, indicating the presence of lipids with a conjugated triene structure. Chromatography of extracts yielded peaks that were coeluted with reference dihydroxyicosatetraenoic acids, had UV absorbance peaks at 259, 269, and 279 nm, and possessed neutrophil-aggregating activity. The presence of leukotriene B4 was excluded by chromatography following methyl-esterification. Monohydroxy compounds identified in FMF extracts by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry included 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid, and 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids. Hydroxy acids were present in 19 of 31 FMF sera and absent in extracts of sera from 8 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus, 7 with fever from infection, and 12 normal controls. The finding of circulating mono- and dihydroxy fatty acids in FMF suggests that defects in the formation or elimination of these compounds might play a role in the pathogenesis of FMF. PMID:3919389

  19. Acid aerosol transport episodes in Toronto, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.D. . Inst. of Environmental Medicine); Waldman, J. )

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the pollution data collected during a 1986 field study in order to assess the nature and sources of acidic aerosols in the Toronto metropolitan area during this period. Through the examination of the continuous and filter aerosol data, isobaric back-trajectories of air masses, weather maps, and available trace element data, assessment are made of the character and possible sources of acid aerosols in this Southern Ontario city.

  20. Molecular evolutionary analysis of the high-affinity K+ transporter gene family in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Hua, C; Zhou, F; Zhang, B-J; Cai, X-N; Chen, Q-Z; Wang, R-L

    2016-01-01

    The high-affinity K(+) transporter (HKT) family comprises a group of multifunctional cation transporters widely distributed in organisms ranging from Bacteria to Eukarya. In angiosperms, the HKT family consists primarily of nine types, whose evolutionary relationships are not fully understood. The available sequences from 31 plant species were used to perform a comprehensive evolutionary analysis, including an examination of selection pressure and estimating phylogenetic tree and gene duplication events. Our results show that a gene duplication in the HKT1;5/HKT1;4 cluster might have led to the divergence of the HKT1;5 and HKT1;4 subfamilies. Additionally, maximum likelihood analysis revealed that the HKT family has undergone a strong purifying selection. An analysis of the amino acids provided strong statistical evidence for a functional divergence between subfamilies 1 and 2. Our study was the first to provide evidence of this functional divergence between these two subfamilies. Analysis of co-evolution in HKT identified 25 co-evolved groups. These findings expanded our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms driving functional diversification of HKT proteins. PMID:27525850

  1. Evolutionary Descent of Prion Genes from the ZIP Family of Metal Ion Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Ehsani, Sepehr; Watts, Joel C.; Westaway, David; Wille, Holger

    2009-01-01

    In the more than twenty years since its discovery, both the phylogenetic origin and cellular function of the prion protein (PrP) have remained enigmatic. Insights into a possible function of PrP may be obtained through the characterization of its molecular neighborhood in cells. Quantitative interactome data demonstrated the spatial proximity of two metal ion transporters of the ZIP family, ZIP6 and ZIP10, to mammalian prion proteins in vivo. A subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed the unexpected presence of a PrP-like amino acid sequence within the N-terminal, extracellular domain of a distinct sub-branch of the ZIP protein family that includes ZIP5, ZIP6 and ZIP10. Additional structural threading and orthologous sequence alignment analyses argued that the prion gene family is phylogenetically derived from a ZIP-like ancestral molecule. The level of sequence homology and the presence of prion protein genes in most chordate species place the split from the ZIP-like ancestor gene at the base of the chordate lineage. This relationship explains structural and functional features found within mammalian prion proteins as elements of an ancient involvement in the transmembrane transport of divalent cations. The phylogenetic and spatial connection to ZIP proteins is expected to open new avenues of research to elucidate the biology of the prion protein in health and disease. PMID:19784368

  2. Proton-dependent glutamine uptake by aphid bacteriocyte amino acid transporter ApGLNT1.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Wilson, Alex C C; Luetje, Charles W

    2015-10-01

    Aphids house large populations of the gammaproteobacterial symbiont Buchnera aphidicola in specialized bacteriocyte cells. The combined biosynthetic capability of the holobiont (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Buchnera) is sufficient for biosynthesis of all twenty protein coding amino acids, including amino acids that animals alone cannot synthesize; and that are present at low concentrations in A. pisum's plant phloem sap diet. Collaborative holobiont amino acid biosynthesis depends on glutamine import into bacteriocytes, which serves as a nitrogen-rich amino donor for biosynthesis of other amino acids. Recently, we characterized A. pisum glutamine transporter 1 (ApGLNT1), a member of the amino acid/auxin permease family, as the dominant bacteriocyte plasma membrane glutamine transporter. Here we show ApGLNT1 to be structurally and functionally related to mammalian proton-dependent amino acid transporters (PATs 1-4). Using functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, combined with two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we demonstrate that ApGLNT1 is electrogenic and that glutamine induces large inward currents. ApGLNT1 glutamine induced currents are dependent on external glutamine concentration, proton (H+) gradient across the membrane, and membrane potential. Based on these transport properties, ApGLNT1-mediated glutamine uptake into A. pisum bacteriocytes can be regulated by changes in either proton gradients across the plasma membrane or membrane potential. PMID:26028424

  3. Physiological Adaptation to the Loss of Amino Acid Transport Ability

    PubMed Central

    DeBusk, Ruth M.; Ogilvie-Villa, Susan

    1982-01-01

    A strain of Neurospora crassa devoid of constitutive amino acid transport ability can utilize arginine as the sole nitrogen source. Nitrogen starvation, presence of arginine, and mutational inactivation of the general permease are key factors in signaling production of an extracellular enzyme which removes the alpha-amino group from the amino acid. PMID:6214547

  4. Nucleic acids encoding metal uptake transporters and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Antosiewicz, Danuta M.; Schachtman, Daniel P.; Clemens, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides LCT1 nucleic acids which encode metal ion uptake transporters. The invention also provides methods of modulating heavy metal and alkali metal uptake in plants. The methods involve producing transgenic plants comprising a recombinant expression cassette containing an LCT1 nucleic acid linked to a plant promoter.

  5. Familial orthostatic tachycardia due to norepinephrine transporter deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Flattem, N.; Tellioglu, T.; Carson, R.; Garland, E.; Shannon, J. R.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Blakely, R. D.; Biaggioni, I.

    2001-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) or postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a syndrome primarily affecting young females, and is characterized by lightheadedness, palpitations, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope primarily occurring with upright posture and being relieved by lying down. There is typically tachycardia and raised plasma norepinephrine levels on upright posture, but little or no orthostatic hypotension. The pathophysiology of OI is believed to be very heterogeneous. Most studies of the syndrome have focused on abnormalities in norepinephrine release. Here the hypothesis that abnormal norepinephrine transporter (NET) function might contribute to the pathophysiology in some patients with OI was tested. In a proband with significant orthostatic symptoms and tachycardia, disproportionately elevated plasma norepinephrine with standing, impaired systemic, and local clearance of infused tritiated norepinephrine, impaired tyramine responsiveness, and a dissociation between stimulated plasma norepinephrine and DHPG elevation were found. Studies of NET gene structure in the proband revealed a coding mutation that converts a highly conserved transmembrane domain Ala residue to Pro. Analysis of the protein produced by the mutant cDNA in transfected cells demonstrated greater than 98% reduction in activity relative to normal. NE, DHPG/NE, and heart rate correlated with the mutant allele in this family. CONCLUSION: These results represent the first identification of a specific genetic defect in OI and the first disease linked to a coding alteration in a Na+/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter. Identification of this mechanism may facilitate our understanding of genetic causes of OI and lead to the development of more effective therapeutic modalities.

  6. Acid aerosol transport episodes in Toronto, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.D.; Waldman, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    Authors used recently developed equipment to continuously monitor levels of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 4/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentrations in the ambient air outside Toronto, Ontario. These data were combined with 48-hour isobaric air mass back-trajectories ending in Toronto on each of the four days with highest acid (and sulfate) aerosol levels. The air masses with highest acid levels were found to have first passed over the SO/sub 2/ source region of the U.S. and then across the Great Lakes to Toronto. The role of ammonia as a modulator of aerosol acidity for eastern U.S. cities but not for Toronto (where the Great Lakes serve as ammonia sinks) is also discussed.

  7. Transport of D-serine via the amino acid transporter ATB(0,+) expressed in the colon.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takahiro; Huang, Wei; Nakanishi, Takeo; Bridges, Christy C; Smith, Sylvia B; Prasad, Puttur D; Ganapathy, Malliga E; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2002-02-22

    D-Serine, synthesized endogenously in the brain, is an important modulator of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Since colonic bacteria produce D-serine, we asked the question whether there are transport mechanisms in the colon that might make this exogenously produced D-serine available to the host. Here we identify for the first time an amino acid transporter in the intestine for high-affinity active transport of D-serine. This transporter, called ATB(0,+), is a Na(+)- and Cl(-)-coupled transporter for L-enantiomers of neutral and cationic amino acids. Here we demonstrate that ATB(0,+) is also capable of mediating the Na(+)- and Cl(-)-coupled transport of D-serine. The affinity of ATB(0,+) for L-serine and D-serine is similar, the K(t) value for the two enantiomers being approximately 150 microM. In addition to D-serine, ATB(0,+) transports D-alanine, D-methionine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan. However, several other neutral and cationic amino acids that are transportable substrates for ATB(0,+) as L-enantiomers are not transported when presented as D-enantiomers. ATB(0,+) is expressed in the intestinal tract, interestingly not in the proximal intestine but in the distal intestine. Expression is most predominant in the colon where the transporter is localized to the luminal membrane of colonocytes, making this transporter uniquely suitable for absorption of bacteria-derived D-serine. PMID:11846403

  8. Alternate mechanism for amino acid entry into Neurospora crassa: extracellular deamination and subsequent keto acid transport.

    PubMed Central

    DeBusk, R M; Brown, D T; DeBusk, A G; Penderghast, R D

    1981-01-01

    The growth of the pm nbg mutant strain of Neurospora crassa was inhibited by the amino acid analog para-fluorophenylalanine despite the fact that none of the three constitutive amino acid permeases is functional in this strain. This observation led to the detection of both a deaminase which was released into the growth medium in response to para-fluorophenylalanine and a keto acid transport system which allowed entry of the resulting keto acid into the cell. The transported keto acid was recovered in cellular protein, suggesting its regeneration as the amino acid. The cooperative activity of these two systems represents an additional mechanism for the intracellular accumulation of amino acids, which is distinct from the known amino acid permeases. Images PMID:6452443

  9. Targeting Hyaluronic Acid Family for Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lokeshwar, Vinata B.; Mirza, Summan; Jordan, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid or hyaluronan (HA) is perhaps one of the most uncomplicated large polymers that regulates several normal physiological processes and, at the same time, contributes to the manifestation of a variety of chronic and acute diseases, including cancer. Members of the HA signaling pathway (HA synthases, HA receptors, and HYAL-1 hyaluronidase) have been experimentally shown to promote tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis, and hence each of them is a potential target for cancer therapy. Furthermore, as these members are also overexpressed in a variety of carcinomas, targeting of the HA family is clinically relevant. A variety of targeted approaches have been developed to target various HA family members, including small-molecule inhibitors and antibody and vaccine therapies. These treatment approaches inhibit HA-mediated intracellular signaling that promotes tumor cell proliferation, motility, and invasion, as well as induction of endothelial cell functions. Being nontoxic, nonimmunogenic, and versatile for modifications, HA has been used in nanoparticle preparations for the targeted delivery of chemotherapy drugs and other anticancer compounds to tumor cells through interaction with cell-surface HA receptors. This review discusses basic and clinical translational aspects of targeting each HA family member and respective treatment approaches that have been described in the literature. PMID:25081525

  10. Collectrin and ACE2 in renal and intestinal amino acid transport.

    PubMed

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R

    2011-01-01

    Neutral amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family are expressed at the apical membrane of kidney and/or small intestine, where they (re-)absorb amino acids into the body. In this review we present the results concerning the dependence of their apical expression with their association to partner proteins. We will in particular focus on the situation of B0AT1 and B0AT3, that associate with members of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), namely Tmem27 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), in a tissue specific manner. The role of this association in relation to the formation of a functional unit related to Na+ or amino acid transport will be assessed. We will conclude with some remarks concerning the relevance of this association to Hartnup disorder, where some mutations have been shown to differentially interact with the partner proteins. PMID:21814048

  11. Hartnup disorder: polymorphisms identified in the neutral amino acid transporter SLC1A5.

    PubMed

    Potter, S J; Lu, A; Wilcken, B; Green, K; Rasko, J E J

    2002-10-01

    Hartnup disorder is an inborn error of renal and gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport. The cloning and functional characterization of the 'system B0' neutral amino acid transporter SLC1A5 led to it being proposed as a candidate gene for Hartnup disorder. Linkage analysis performed at 19q13.3, the chromosomal position of SLC1A5, was suggestive of an association with the Hartnup phenotype in some families. However, SLC1A5 was not linked to the Hartnup phenotype in other families. Linkage analysis also excluded an alternative candidate region at 11q13 implicated by a putative mouse model for Hartnup disorder. Sequencing of the coding region of SLC1A5 in Hartnup patients revealed two coding region polymorphisms. These mutations did not alter the predicted amino acid sequence of SLC1A5 and were considered unlikely to play a role in Hartnup disorder. There were no mutations in splice sites flanking each exon. Quantitative RT-PCR of SLC1A5 messenger RNA in affected and unaffected subjects did not support systemic differences in expression as an explanation for Hartnup disorder. In the six unrelated Hartnup pedigrees studied, examination of linkage at 19q13.3, polymorphisms in the coding sequence and quantitation of expression of SLC1A5 did not suffice to explain the defect in neutral amino acid transport. PMID:12555937

  12. Transport Function of Rice Amino Acid Permeases (AAPs).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Margaret R; Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M

    2015-07-01

    The transport function of four rice (Oryza sativa) amino acid permeases (AAPs), OsAAP1 (Os07g04180), OsAAP3 (Os06g36180), OsAAP7 (Os05g34980) and OsAAP16 (Os12g08090), was analyzed by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiology. OsAAP1, OsAAP7 and OsAAP16 functioned, similarly to Arabidopsis AAPs, as general amino acid permeases. OsAAP3 had a distinct substrate specificity compared with other rice or Arabidopsis AAPs. OsAAP3 transported the basic amino acids lysine and arginine well but selected against aromatic amino acids. The transport of basic amino acids was further analyzed for OsAAP1 and OsAAP3, and the results support the transport of both neutral and positively charged forms of basic amino acids by the rice AAPs. Cellular localization using the tandem enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter pHusion showed that OsAAP1 and OsAAP3 localized to the plasma membrane after transient expression in onion epidermal cells or stable expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:25907566

  13. Inhibition of 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid transport by amphipathic drugs.

    PubMed

    Branda, R F; Nelson, N L

    1981-01-01

    Numerous chemically unrelated drugs after the membrane transport of folate compounds. To investigate drug structure-activity relationships, we measured the effect of amphipathic drugs (that is, compounds with polar-apolar character) on 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid permeability of human erythrocytes. All drugs tested were inhibitory, but only compounds that exist at least partially in the anionic form were highly active. Ethacrynic acid, sulfinpyrazone, phenylbutazone, sulfasalazine, and furosemide were effective transport inhibitors in micromolar concentrations. In contrast, compounds that are capable of forming cations at physiologic pH, such as chlorpromazine, procaine, tetracaine, and papaverine, were inhibitory only in millimolar concentrations or caused hemolysis before major inhibition was seen. Inhibitory activity correlated with drug dissociation constant (r = 0.87). A double-reciprocal plot analysis of drug effect on 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid transport showed changes in both Km and Vmax (indicating a mixture of competitive and noncompetitive inhibition) by ethacrynic acid, sulfasalazine, and phlorizin. Inhibitory activity of a series of eight phenoxyacetic derivatives, including ethacrynic acid, correlated highly with measurements of liposolubility (r = 0.87) but only weakly with the Hammet substituent constant (r = 0.56). These results suggest that the effect of amphipathic drugs on 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid transport is influenced by drug pKa and by the presence of hydrophobic substituents, but is relatively independent of electron-attracting groups. PMID:6926815

  14. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) Gene Family Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding. PMID:25310287

  15. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) gene family revisited.

    PubMed

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding. PMID:25310287

  16. Transported acid aerosols measured in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Gerald J.; Spengler, John D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Allen, George A.; Raizenne, Mark; Stern, Bonnie

    During the period 29 June 1986-9 August 1986, a field health study assessing the acute health effects of air pollutants on children was conducted at a summer girls' camp on the northern shore of Lake Erie in SW Ontario. Continuous air pollution measurements of SO 2, O 3, NO x, particulate sulfates, light scattering, and meteorological measurements including temperature, dew point, and wind speed and direction were made. Twelve-hour integrated samples of size fractioned particles were also obtained using dichotomous samplers and Harvard impactors equipped with an ammonia denuder for subsequent hydrogen ion determination. Particulate samples were analyzed for trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and Neutron Activation, and for organic and elemental carbon by a thermal/optical technique. The measured aerosol was periodically very acidic with observed 12-h averaged H + concentrations in the range < 10-560 nmoles m -3. The aerosol H + appeared to represent the net strong acidity after H 2SO 4 reaction with NH 3(g). Average daytime concentrations were higher than night-time for aerosol H +, sulfate, fine mass and ozone. Prolonged episodes of atmospheric acidity, sulfate, and ozone were associated with air masses arriving at the measurement site from the west and from the southwest over Lake Erie. Sulfate concentrations measured at the lakeshore camp were more than twice those measured at inland sites during extreme pollution episodes. The concentration gradient observed with onshore flow was potentially due to enhanced deposition near the lakeshore caused by discontinuities in the meteorological fields in this region.

  17. 75 FR 47677 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Gainesville Midland Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Gainesville...) have jointly filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for a corporate family.... The purpose of the transaction is to simplify the corporate structure and reduce overhead costs...

  18. L-type amino acid transport and cancer: targeting the mTORC1 pathway to inhibit neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Holst, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) family are Na+-independent transporters, which deliver neutral amino acids into cells. The four LATs, LAT1 (SLC7A5), LAT2 (SLC7A8), LAT3 (SLC43A1) and LAT4 (SLC43A2), are responsible for the majority of cellular leucine uptake. They show increased expression in many cancers, and are critical for control of protein translation and cell growth through the mTORC1 pathway. The increased transporter expression observed in cancers is regulated by transcriptional pathways such as hormone receptors, c-myc and nutrient starvation responses. We review the expression and function of the LAT family in cancer, as well as the recent development of specific inhibitors targeting LAT1 or LAT3. These LAT family inhibitors may be useful adjuvant therapeutics in multiple cancers. PMID:26101697

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease alters intestinal bile acid transporter expression.

    PubMed

    Jahnel, Jörg; Fickert, Peter; Hauer, Almuthe C; Högenauer, Christoph; Avian, Alexander; Trauner, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BAs) critically depends on absorption of BA in the terminal ileum and colon, which can be affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Diarrhea in IBD is believed to result in part from BA malabsorption (BAM). We explored whether IBD alters mRNA expression of key intestinal BA transporters, BA detoxifying systems, and nuclear receptors that regulate BA transport and detoxification. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, mucosal biopsy specimens from the terminal ileum in Crohn's disease (CD) patients and from the descending colon in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were assessed for mRNA expression. Levels were compared with healthy controls. The main ileal BA uptake transporter, the apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter, was downregulated in active CD and UC and in CD in remission. Other significant changes such as repression of breast cancer-related protein and sulphotransferase 2A1 were seen only during active disease. In UC, pancolitis (but not exclusively left-sided colitis) was associated with altered expression of major BA transporters [multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3), MRP4, multidrug resistance gene 1, organic solute transporter α/β] and nuclear receptors (pregnane X receptor, vitamin D receptor) in the descending colon. UC pancolitis leads to broad changes and CD ileitis to selective changes in intestinal BA transporter expression. Early medical manipulation of intestinal BA transporters may help prevent BAM. PMID:24965812

  20. Primordial transport of sugars and amino acids via Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, William; Rau, Aruna

    1981-09-01

    Experimental support is given for a model concerning the origin of a primordial transport system. The model is based on the facilitated diffusion of amino acids stimulated by aliphatic aldehyde carriers and sugars stimulated by aliphatic amine carriers. The lipid-soluble diffusing species is the Schiff base. The possible role of this simple transport system in the origin of an early protocell is discussed.

  1. Renal Transport of Uric Acid: Evolving Concepts and Uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Bobulescu, Ion Alexandru; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its role as a metabolic waste product, uric acid has been proposed to be an important molecule with multiple functions in human physiology and pathophysiology and may be linked to human diseases beyond nephrolithiasis and gout. Uric acid homeostasis is determined by the balance between production, intestinal secretion, and renal excretion. The kidney is an important regulator of circulating uric acid levels, by reabsorbing around 90% of filtered urate, while being responsible for 60–70% of total body uric acid excretion. Defective renal handling of urate is a frequent pathophysiologic factor underpinning hyperuricemia and gout. In spite of tremendous advances over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms of renal urate transport are still incompletely understood. Many transport proteins are candidate participants in urate handling, with URAT1 and GLUT9 being the best characterized to date. Understanding these transporters is increasingly important for the practicing clinician as new research unveils their physiology, importance in drug action, and genetic association with uric acid levels in human populations. The future may see the introduction of new drugs that specifically act on individual renal urate transporters for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:23089270

  2. Intestinal peptidases form functional complexes with the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, Stephen J.; Bröer, Angelika; O'Mara, Megan L.; Bröer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The brush-border membrane of the small intestine and kidney proximal tubule are the major sites for the absorption and re-absorption of nutrients in the body respectively. Transport of amino acids is mediated through the action of numerous secondary active transporters. In the mouse, neutral amino acids are transported by B0AT1 [broad neutral (0) amino acid transporter 1; SLC6A19 (solute carrier family 6 member 19)] in the intestine and by B0AT1 and B0AT3 (SLC6A18) in the kidney. Immunoprecipitation and Blue native electrophoresis of intestinal brush-border membrane proteins revealed that B0AT1 forms complexes with two peptidases, APN (aminopeptidase N/CD13) and ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). Physiological characterization of B0AT1 expressed together with these peptidases in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that APN increased the substrate affinity of the transporter up to 2.5-fold and also increased its surface expression (Vmax). Peptide competition experiments, in silico modelling and site-directed mutagenesis of APN suggest that the catalytic site of the peptidase is involved in the observed changes of B0AT1 apparent substrate affinity, possibly by increasing the local substrate concentration. These results provide evidence for the existence of B0AT1-containing digestive complexes in the brush-border membrane, interacting differentially with various peptidases, and responding to the dynamic needs of nutrient absorption in the intestine and kidney. PMID:22677001

  3. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Giudetti, Anna M; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  4. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Giudetti, Anna M.; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V.; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  5. Neutral amino acid transport in bovine articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Barker, G A; Wilkins, R J; Golding, S; Ellory, J C

    1999-02-01

    1. The sodium-dependent amino acid transport systems responsible for proline, glycine and glutamine transport, together with the sodium-independent systems for leucine and tryptophan, have been investigated in isolated bovine chondrocytes by inhibition studies and ion replacement. Each system was characterized kinetically. 2. Transport via system A was identified using the system-specific analogue alpha-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as an inhibitor of proline, glycine and glutamine transport. 3. Uptake of proline, glycine and glutamine via system ASC was identified by inhibition with alanine or serine. 4. System Gly was identified by the inhibition of glycine transport with excess sarcosine (a substrate for system Gly) whilst systems A and ASC were inhibited. This system, having a very limited substrate specificity and tissue distribution, was also shown to be Na+ and Cl- dependent. Evidence for expression of the system Gly component GLYT-1 was obtained using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). 5. System N, also of narrow substrate specificity and tissue distribution, was shown to be present in chondrocytes. Na+-dependent glutamine uptake was inhibited by high concentrations of histidine (a substrate of system N) in the presence of excess MeAIB and serine. 6. System L was identified using the system specific analogue 2-aminobicyclo(2,2, 1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) and D-leucine as inhibitors of leucine and tryptophan transport. 7. The presence of system T was tested by using leucine, tryptophan and tyrosine inhibition. It was concluded that this system was absent in the chondrocyte. 8. Kinetic analysis showed the Na+-independent chondrocyte L system to have apparent affinities for leucine and tryptophan of 125 +/- 27 and 36 +/- 11 microM, respectively. 9. Transport of the essential amino acids leucine and tryptophan into bovine chondrocytes occurs only by the Na+-independent system L, but with a higher affinity than the

  6. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: Structure/function relationships and relevance to human health.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body’s homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7 and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologues. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological intervention.

  7. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: structure/function relationships and relevance to human health

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body's homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7, and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologs. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological intervention

  8. Acid-base transport in pancreas—new challenges

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ivana; Haanes, Kristian A.; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+) and base (HCO−3) transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges of transporting acid and bases across epithelia and effectively regulating their intracellular pH. In this review, we will make use of comparative physiology to enlighten the cellular mechanisms of pancreatic HCO−3 and fluid secretion, which is still challenging physiologists. Some of the novel transporters to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H+-K+-ATPases), as well as the calcium-activated K+ and Cl− channels, such as KCa3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signaling, fine-tune, and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport contributes to pancreatic diseases including cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, and cancer. PMID:24391597

  9. Energetics of low affinity amino acid transport into brain slices.

    PubMed

    Banay-Schwartz, M; Teller, D N; Lajtha, A

    1976-01-01

    It appears possible to dissect and study some of the potential energy sources for amino acid transport in brain slices despite the apparent complexity of the tissue in comparison to that of isolated bacterial vesicles23. The uptake capability of the tissue may be inadvertently damaged in some experimental protocols so that very special controls must be used to ensure that the treatment did not somehow inactivate the very mechanism that thereafter will be tested. We have presented some evidence that brain slice amino acid transport may not be obligatorily linked to glycolysis, ATP levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, K+ levels or direction of flux, or to Na+ flux. However, the energy source linkage for different amino acids appears to be rather specific, so that further generalizations are difficult to sustain. For instance, the incubation media and conditions we describe here were experimentally adjusted to maximize uptake of D-glu or alpha-AIB in the absence of glucose, or in lowered K+ or Na+. Therefore, these procedures, the results of which directly challenge some common assumptions regarding the energy basis for active transport in brain slices, probably will not be universally extensible to all other actively transported amino acids. PMID:782193

  10. Transport of amino acids and nucleic acid precursors in malarial parasites

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, I. W.

    1977-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that exogenously supplied amino acids are transferred into the malaria-infected cell, where they are incorporated into proteins. Most amino acids appear to enter the cell by facilitated or simple diffusion; however, the high distribution ratios seen in Plasmodium knowlesi-infected cells are difficult to explain on this basis. The changes (leakiness) observed in amino acid transport in P. lophurae infected cells are probably the result of ATP depletion in the host cell as well as the elaboration of plasmodial substances. Depletion of isoleucine, methionine, and cysteine from the medium strikingly depresses the in vitro growth of P. knowlesi. The degree of amino acid incorporation into the malaria-infected cell is not correlated with the amount of a particular amino acid in the host cell haemoglobin, the decline of that amino acid in the plasma of infected animals, or the ratio of free amino acids of the erythrocyte to those of the plasma. In erythrocyte-“free” P. lophurae, carrier-mediated transport is apparently limited to a small number of amino acids; all others seem to enter by simple diffusion. Malaria-infected erythrocytes transport exogenously supplied purines at substantially higher rates than uninfected red cells. The preferred purines are adenosine, hypoxanthine, and inosine. The only pyrimidine incorporated is orotic acid. Thymidine, cytidine, and uridine do not readily enter the red cell, and incorporation does not take place because the parasites lack the appropriate enzyme for conversion to nucleotides. Erythrocyte-“free” P. berghei and P. lophurae take up purines and orotic acid. It has been suggested that in vivo the preferred purines are hypoxanthine and inosine, and that the transport locus for erythrocytes is specific for 6-oxopurines. Similar results of purine incorporation are reported for the insect stages of P. cynomolgi and P. berghei, although transport studies have not been carried out. PMID:338180

  11. Sodium-coupled sugar and amino acid transport in an acidic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, G A; Clay, L P

    1988-01-01

    1. Nutrient transport mechanisms of lobster hepatopancreatic epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) are strongly influenced by the acidic nature of the tubular lumen. 2. Sodium-dependent glucose uptake by BBMV was electrogenic and was stimulated at low pH by reducing sugar transport Ki, without affecting JM. 3. Glutamate was largely transported in zwitterionic form at pH 4.0 by an electrically silent cotransport mechanism with both Na and Cl. 4. Increased H+ concentration tripled the apparent membrane permeability to glutamate as well as the amino acid transport JM. 5. At pH 4.0 leucine was transported as a cation by two dissimilar carrier systems: a Na-independent process shared by polar amino acids, and an electroneutral Na-2Cl-dependent mechanism shared with non-polar amino acids. 6. A model is proposed for hepatopancreatic BBMV at acidic pH which employs ionic chemical gradients and membrane potential as nutrient transport driving forces. PMID:2902970

  12. Fatty Acid and Lipid Transport in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Nannan; Xu, Changcheng; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) and lipids are essential - not only as membrane constituents but also for growth and development. In plants and algae, FAs are synthesized in plastids and to a large extent transported to the endoplasmic reticulum for modification and lipid assembly. Subsequently, lipophilic compounds are distributed within the cell, and thus are transported across most membrane systems. Membrane-intrinsic transporters and proteins for cellular FA/lipid transfer therefore represent key components for delivery and dissemination. In addition to highlighting their role in lipid homeostasis and plant performance, different transport mechanisms for land plants and green algae - in the model systems Arabidopsis thaliana, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - are compared, thereby providing a current perspective on protein-mediated FA and lipid trafficking in photosynthetic cells. PMID:26616197

  13. Cation-halide transport through peptide pores containing aminopicolinic acid.

    PubMed

    Basak, Debajyoti; Sridhar, Sucheta; Bera, Amal K; Madhavan, Nandita

    2016-05-18

    Synthetic pores that selectively transport ions of biological significance through membranes could be potentially used in medical diagnostics or therapeutics. Herein, we report cation-selective octapeptide pores derived from alanine and aminopicolinic acid. The ion transport mechanism through the pores has been established to be a cation-chloride symport. The cation-chloride co-transport is biologically essential for the efficient functioning of the central nervous system and has been implicated in diseases such as epilepsy. The pores formed in synthetic lipid bilayers do not exhibit any closing events. The ease of synthesis as well as infinite lifetimes of these pores provides scope for modifying their transport behaviour to develop sensors. PMID:27137995

  14. Tonoplast- and Plasma Membrane-Localized Aquaporin-Family Transporters in Blue Hydrangea Sepals of Aluminum Hyperaccumulating Plant

    PubMed Central

    Negishi, Takashi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kanai, Masatake; Mano, Shoji; Nishimura, Mikio; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) is tolerant of acidic soils in which toxicity generally arises from the presence of the soluble aluminum (Al) ion. When hydrangea is cultivated in acidic soil, its resulting blue sepal color is caused by the Al complex formation of anthocyanin. The concentration of vacuolar Al in blue sepal cells can reach levels in excess of approximately 15 mM, suggesting the existence of an Al-transport and/or storage system. However, until now, no Al transporter has been identified in Al hyperaccumulating plants, animals or microorganisms. To identify the transporter being responsible for Al hyperaccumulation, we prepared a cDNA library from blue sepals according to the sepal maturation stage, and then selected candidate genes using a microarray analysis and an in silico study. Here, we identified the vacuolar and plasma membrane-localized Al transporters genes vacuolar Al transporter (VALT) and plasma membrane Al transporter 1 (PALT1), respectively, which are both members of the aquaporin family. The localization of each protein was confirmed by the transient co-expression of the genes. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblotting results indicated that VALT and PALT1 are highly expressed in sepal tissue. The overexpression of VALT and PALT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana conferred Al-tolerance and Al-sensitivity, respectively. PMID:22952644

  15. [Enhancers on the transmembrane transport of chlorogenic acid].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Deng, Sheng-Qi; Jiang, Xue-Hua; Wang, Ling-Ling; Xiao, Yu

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the influence of the difference enhancers on the transport mechanism of chlorogenic acid (CGA) across Caco-2 cells model, a RP-HPLC method was adopted to detect the concentrations of CGA. At the concentrations of 20 to 80 microg x mL(-1), the difference of absorption rate constants (K(a)) was not statistically significant. At the concentrations of 40 and 20 microg x mL(-1), the ratios of apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of the apical to basolateral and the basolateral to apical were 1.14 and 1.18, respectively. With the effect of enhancers K(a) and P(app) increased, the absorption half-life (T1/2) decreased. CGA passed through the Caco-2 cell membrane mainly by passive transport. It showed that monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) could be involved in the across membrane transport process of CGA. Borneol had no effect on the cell membrane transport processes. The order of increasing absorption of CGA caused by the enhancers was sodium lauryl sulphate > sodium taurocholate > carbomer. PMID:24761618

  16. Late endosomal membranes rich in lysobisphosphatidic acid regulate cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Beuchat, M H; Lindsay, M; Frias, S; Palmiter, R D; Sakuraba, H; Parton, R G; Gruenberg, J

    1999-06-01

    The fate of free cholesterol released after endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins remains obscure. Here we report that late endosomes have a pivotal role in intracellular cholesterol transport. We find that in the genetic disease Niemann-Pick type C (NPC), and in drug-treated cells that mimic NPC, cholesterol accumulates in late endosomes and sorting of the lysosomal enzyme receptor is impaired. Our results show that the characteristic network of lysobisphosphatidic acid-rich membranes contained within multivesicular late endosomes regulates cholesterol transport, presumably by acting as a collection and distribution device. The results also suggest that similar endosomal defects accompany the anti-phospholipid syndrome and NPC. PMID:10559883

  17. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  18. Uptake of aristolochic acid I into Caco-2 cells by monocarboxylic acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Endo, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The uptake mechanism of aristolochic acid I (AAI) was investigated using Caco-2 cells cultured on dishes and permeable membranes. The uptake of AAI from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells cultured on a dish was rapid, and a decrease in the pH of the incubation medium significantly increased uptake. Incubation at low temperature (4°C) and treatment with sodium azide (a metabolic inhibitor) or carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a protonophore) significantly inhibited the AAI uptake. Coincubation with L-lactic acid or benzoic acid, typical substrates for the proton-linked monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs), significantly decreased the AAI uptake, as did coincubation with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (an inhibitor of MCTs). Dixon plotting revealed the competitive inhibition of benzoic acid on the AAI uptake. To confirm the AAI uptake via MCTs, the apical-to-basolateral transport of AAI was investigated using the Caco-2 cells cultured on the permeable membranes. The transport of AAI at pH 6.0 was markedly higher than that at pH 7.4, and was significantly decreased by coincubation with benzoic acid. These results suggest that the uptake of AAI from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells is mediated mainly by MCTs along with benzoic acid. PMID:25177030

  19. The permease homologue Ssy1p controls the expression of amino acid and peptide transporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Didion, T; Regenberg, B; Jørgensen, M U; Kielland-Brandt, M C; Andersen, H A

    1998-02-01

    Amino acid transporters of the yeast plasma membrane (permeases) belong to a family of integral membrane proteins with pronounced structural similarity. We present evidence that a member of this family, encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) YDR160w (SSY1), is required for the expression of a set of transporter genes. Thus, deletion of the SSY1 gene causes loss of leucine-inducible transcription of the amino acid permease genes BAP2, TAT1 and BAP3 (ORF YDR046c) and the peptide transporter, PTR2. D-leucine can generate the signal without entering the cell. We propose that Ssy1p is situated in the plasma membrane and is involved in sensing leucine in the medium. PMID:9489675

  20. The involvement of L-type amino acid transporters in theanine transport.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sachiko; Kimura, Toru; Tachiki, Takashi; Anzai, Naohiko; Sakurai, Takuya; Ushimaru, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    L-Theanine has favorable physiological effects in terms of human health, but the mechanisms that transport it to its target organs or cells are not completely defined. To identify the major transport mechanisms of L-theanine, we screened for candidate transporters of L-3H-theanine in several mammal cell lines that intrinsically express multiple transporters with various specificities. All of the cells tested, T24, HepG2, COS1, 293A, Neuro2a, and HuH7, absorbed L-3H-theanine. Uptake was significantly inhibited by the addition of L-leucine and by a specific inhibitor of the system L transport system, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). L-3H-Theanine uptake occurred mostly independently of Na+. These results indicate that L-theanine was taken up via a system L like transport system in all of the cells tested. Additionally, in experiments using cells stably expressing two system L isoforms, LAT1 and LAT2, we found that the two isoforms mediated L-theanine transport to similar extents. Taken together, our results indicate that L-theanine is transported mostly via the system L transport pathway and its isoforms. PMID:23221699

  1. Structural insights into thyroid hormone transport mechanisms of the L-type amino acid transporter 2.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katrin M; Meyer, Katja; Kinne, Anita; Schülein, Ralf; Köhrle, Josef; Krause, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are transported across cell membranes by different transmembrane transporter proteins. In previous studies, we showed marked 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2) but moderate T3 uptake by the L-type amino acid transporter 2 (Lat2). We have now studied the structure-function relationships of this transporter and TH-like molecules. Our Lat2 homology model is based on 2 crystal structures of the homologous 12-transmembrane helix transporters arginine/agmatine antiporter and amino acid/polyamine/organocation transporter. Model-driven mutagenesis of residues lining an extracellular recognition site and a TH-traversing channel identified 9 sensitive residues. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes as expression system, we found that side chain shortening (N51S, N133S, N248S, and Y130A) expanded the channel and increased 3,3'-T2 transport. Side chain enlargements (T140F, Y130R, and I137M) decreased 3,3'-T2 uptake, indicating channel obstructions. The opposite results with mutations maintaining (F242W) or impairing (F242V) uptake suggest that F242 may have a gating function. Competitive inhibition studies of 14 TH-like compounds revealed that recognition by Lat2 requires amino and carboxylic acid groups. The size of the adjacent hydrophobic group is restricted. Bulky substituents in positions 3 and 5 of the tyrosine ring are allowed. The phenolic ring may be enlarged, provided that the whole molecule is flexible enough to fit into the distinctly shaped TH-traversing channel of Lat2. Taken together, the next Lat2 features were identified 1) TH recognition site; 2) TH-traversing channel in the center of Lat2; and 3) switch site that potentially facilitates intracellular substrate release. Together with identified substrate features, these data help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and role of Lat2 in T2 transport. PMID:25945809

  2. Identification and characterization of a novel copper transporter gene family TaCT1 in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoxun; Fan, Renchun; Li, Libin; Wei, Bo; Li, Guoliang; Gu, Liqing; Wang, Xianping; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-07-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and copper transporter plays a pivotal role for keeping copper homeostasis. However, little is known about copper transporters in wheat. Here, we report a novel copper transporter gene family, TaCT1, in common wheat. Three TaCT1 homoeologous genes were isolated and assigned to group 5 chromosomes. Each of the TaCT1 genes (TaCT1-5A, -5B or -5D) possesses 12 transmembrane domains. TaCT1 genes exhibited higher transcript levels in leaf than in root, culm and spikelet. Excess copper down-regulated the transcript levels of TaCT1 and copper deficiency-induced TaCT1 expression. Subcellular experiments localized the TaCT1 to the Golgi apparatus. Yeast expression experiments and virus-induced gene silencing analysis indicated that the TaCT1 functioned in copper transport. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that three amino acid residues, Met(35), Met(38) and Cys(365), are required for TaCT1 function. Phylogenetic and functional analyses suggested that homologous genes shared high similarity with TaCT1 may exist exclusively in monocot plants. Our work reveals a novel wheat gene family encoding major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type copper transporters, and provides evidence for their functional involvement in promoting copper uptake and keeping copper homeostasis in common wheat. PMID:24372025

  3. Abscisic acid transporters cooperate to control seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Yim, Sojeong; Choi, Hyunju; Kim, Areum; Lee, Keun Pyo; Lopez-Molina, Luis; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process that has to be tightly controlled to avoid germination under unfavourable conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential repressor of seed germination. In Arabidopsis, it has been shown that the endosperm, a single cell layer surrounding the embryo, synthesizes and continuously releases ABA towards the embryo. The mechanism of ABA transport from the endosperm to the embryo was hitherto unknown. Here we show that four AtABCG transporters act in concert to deliver ABA from the endosperm to the embryo: AtABCG25 and AtABCG31 export ABA from the endosperm, whereas AtABCG30 and AtABCG40 import ABA into the embryo. Thus, this work establishes that radicle extension and subsequent embryonic growth are suppressed by the coordinated activity of multiple ABA transporters expressed in different tissues. PMID:26334616

  4. Topological and segmental phylogenetic analyses of the anion exchanger (band 3) family of transporters.

    PubMed

    Espanol, M J; Saier, M H

    1995-01-01

    Eleven sequenced anion exchanger (AE; band 3) proteins, including five AE1, four AE2 and two AE3 proteins, comprise the anion exchanger family (AEF) of homologous proteins. Eliminating the rat and rabbit proteins that are nearly identical to the corresponding mouse proteins, seven dissimilar members of this family were selected for study, divided into N-terminal, central and C-terminal segments (designated segments 0, 1 and 2, respectively) and analysed separately for sequence similarity and phylogenetic relatedness. Segments 0 are variable in length and sequence, are essentially lacking in some of the members of the AEF, and are not demonstrably homologous in other members of the family. All segments 1 and 2 are homologous, but they exhibit widely differing degrees of sequence divergence. Segments 2 are highly conserved in all AEF proteins. Segments 1 of the AE2 and AE3 proteins are as conserved as are segments 2, but segments 1 of the AE1 proteins have diverged from each other and from the AE2 and AE3 segments 1 much more than have segments 2 of these same proteins. The distributions of various types of amino acid residues in the putative transmembrane helical spanners of the seven dissimilar members of the AEF, based on a modification of the 14-spanner model of Wang et al. (1994) was determined, and this distribution was compared with those of other transmembrane transport proteins of known structure (bacterial rhodopsins, outer membrane porins of Gram-negative bacteria and bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7795710

  5. Families of Quasilocal Conservation Laws and Quantum Spin Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosen, Tomaž; Ilievski, Enej

    2013-08-01

    For fundamental integrable quantum chains with deformed symmetries we outline a general procedure for defining a continuous family of quasilocal operators whose time derivative is supported near the two boundary sites only. The program is implemented for a spin 1/2 XXZ chain, resulting in improved rigorous estimates for the high temperature spin Drude weight.

  6. Transport in Halobacterium Halobium: Light-Induced Cation-Gradients, Amino Acid Transport Kinetics, and Properties of Transport Carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    Cell envelope vesicles prepared from H. halobium contain bacteriorhodopsin and upon illumination protons are ejected. Coupled to the proton motive force is the efflux of Na(+). Measurements of Na-22 flux, exterior pH change, and membrane potential, Delta(psi) (with the dye 3,3'-dipentyloxadicarbocyanine) indicate that the means of Na(+) transport is sodium/proton exchange. The kinetics of the pH changes and other evidence suggests that the antiport is electrogenic (H(+)/Na(++ greater than 1). The resulting large chemical gradient for Na(+) (outside much greater than inside), as well as the membrane potential, will drive the transport of 18 amino acids. The I9th, glutamate, is unique in that its accumulation is indifferent to Delta(psi): this amino acid is transported only when a chemical gradient for Na(+) is present. Thus, when more and more NaCl is included in the vesicles glutamate transport proceeds with longer and longer lags. After illumination the gradient of H+() collapses within 1 min, while the large Na(+) gradient and glutamate transporting activity persists for 10- 15 min, indicating that proton motive force is not necessary for transport. A chemical gradient of Na(+), arranged by suspending vesicles loaded with KCl in NaCl, drives glutamate transport in the dark without other sources of energy, with V(sub max) and K(sub m) comparable to light-induced transport. These and other lines of evidence suggest that the transport of glutamate is facilitated by symport with Na(+), in an electrically neutral fashion, so that only the chemical component of the Na(+) gradient is a driving force.

  7. Aluminum in acidic surface waters: chemistry, transport, and effects.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, C T

    1985-01-01

    Ecologically significant concentrations of Al have been reported in surface waters draining "acid-sensitive" watersheds that are receiving elevated inputs of acidic deposition. It has been hypothesized that mineral acids from atmospheric deposition have remobilized Al previously precipitated within the soil during soil development. This Al is then thought to be transported to adjacent surface waters. Dissolved mononuclear Al occurs as aquo Al, as well as OH-, F-, SO4(2-), and organic complexes. Although past investigations have often ignored non-hydroxide complexes of Al, it appears that organic and F complexes are the predominant forms of Al in dilute (low ionic strength) acidic surface waters. The concentration of inorganic forms of Al increases exponentially with decreases in solution pH. This response is similar to the theoretical pH dependent solubility of Al mineral phases. The concentration of organic forms of Al, however, is strongly correlated with variations in organic carbon concentration of surface waters rather than pH. Elevated concentrations of Al in dilute acidic waters are of interest because: Al is an important pH buffer; Al may influence the cycling of important elements like P, organic carbon, and trace metals; and Al is potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. An understanding of the aqueous speciation of Al is essential for an evaluation of these processes. PMID:3935428

  8. Magnetic helicity transport in the advective gauge family

    SciTech Connect

    Candelaresi, Simon; Brandenburg, Axel; Hubbard, Alexander; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2011-01-15

    Magnetic helicity fluxes are investigated in a family of gauges in which the contribution from ideal magnetohydrodynamics takes the form of a purely advective flux. Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in this advective gauge family exhibit instabilities triggered by the build-up of unphysical irrotational contributions to the magnetic vector potential. As a remedy, the vector potential is evolved in a numerically well behaved gauge, from which the advective vector potential is obtained by a gauge transformation. In the kinematic regime, the magnetic helicity density evolves similarly to a passive scalar when resistivity is small and turbulent mixing is mild, i.e., when the fluid Reynolds number is not too large. In the dynamical regime, resistive contributions to the magnetic helicity flux in the advective gauge are found to be significant owing to the development of small length scales in the irrotational part of the magnetic vector potential.

  9. Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long N; Ma, Dongliang; Shui, Guanghou; Wong, Peiyan; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wenk, Markus R; Goh, Eyleen L K; Silver, David L

    2014-05-22

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for normal brain growth and cognitive function. Consistent with its importance in the brain, DHA is highly enriched in brain phospholipids. Despite being an abundant fatty acid in brain phospholipids, DHA cannot be de novo synthesized in brain and must be imported across the blood-brain barrier, but mechanisms for DHA uptake in brain have remained enigmatic. Here we identify a member of the major facilitator superfamily--Mfsd2a (previously an orphan transporter)--as the major transporter for DHA uptake into brain. Mfsd2a is found to be expressed exclusively in endothelium of the blood-brain barrier of micro-vessels. Lipidomic analysis indicates that Mfsd2a-deficient (Mfsd2a-knockout) mice show markedly reduced levels of DHA in brain accompanied by neuronal cell loss in hippocampus and cerebellum, as well as cognitive deficits and severe anxiety, and microcephaly. Unexpectedly, cell-based studies indicate that Mfsd2a transports DHA in the form of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not unesterified fatty acid, in a sodium-dependent manner. Notably, Mfsd2a transports common plasma LPCs carrying long-chain fatty acids such LPC oleate and LPC palmitate, but not LPCs with less than a 14-carbon acyl chain. Moreover, we determine that the phosphor-zwitterionic headgroup of LPC is critical for transport. Importantly, Mfsd2a-knockout mice have markedly reduced uptake of labelled LPC DHA, and other LPCs, from plasma into brain, demonstrating that Mfsd2a is required for brain uptake of DHA. Our findings reveal an unexpected essential physiological role of plasma-derived LPCs in brain growth and function. PMID:24828044

  10. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum. PMID:20528920

  11. The ABC gene family in arthropods: comparative genomics and role in insecticide transport and resistance.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority of ABC proteins function as primary-active transporters that bind and hydrolyze ATP while transporting a large diversity of substrates across lipid membranes. Although extremely well studied in vertebrates for their role in drug resistance, less is known about the role of this family in the transport of endogenous and exogenous substances in arthropods. The ABC families of five insect species, a crustacean and a chelicerate have been annotated in some detail. We conducted a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the seven arthropod and human ABC protein subfamilies, to infer orthologous relationships that might suggest conserved function. Most orthologous relationships were found in the ABCB half transporter, ABCD, ABCE and ABCF subfamilies, but specific expansions within species and lineages are frequently observed and discussed. We next surveyed the role of ABC transporters in the transport of xenobiotics/plant allelochemicals and their involvement in insecticide resistance. The involvement of ABC transporters in xenobiotic resistance in arthropods is historically not well documented, but an increasing number of studies using unbiased differential gene expression analysis now points to their importance. We give an overview of methods that can be used to link ABC transporters to resistance. ABC proteins have also recently been implicated in the mode of action and resistance to Bt toxins in Lepidoptera. Given the enormous interest in Bt toxicology in transgenic crops, such findings will provide an impetus to further reveal the role of ABC transporters in arthropods. PMID:24291285

  12. Regulation of hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Bsep expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Buckley, David; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2007-12-01

    Sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and bile salt export pump (Bsep) are two key transporters for hepatic bile acid uptake and excretion. Alterations in Ntcp and Bsep expression have been reported in pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effects of age, gender, and various chemicals on the regulation of these two transporters were characterized in mice. Ntcp and Bsep mRNA levels in mouse liver were low in the fetus, but increased to its highest expression at parturition. After birth, mouse Ntcp and Bsep mRNA decreased by more than 50%, and then gradually increased to adult levels by day 30. Expression of mouse Ntcp mRNA and protein exhibit higher levels in female than male livers. No gender difference exists in BSEP/Bsep expression in human and mouse livers. Hormone replacements conducted in gonadectomized, hypophysectomized, and lit/lit mice indicate that female-predominant Ntcp expression in mouse liver is due to the inhibitory effect of male-pattern GH secretion, but not sex hormones. Ntcp and Bsep expression are in general resistant to induction by a large battery of microsomal enzyme inducers. Administration of cholestyramine increased Ntcp, whereas chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) increased Bsep mRNA expression. In conclusion, mouse Ntcp and Bsep are regulated by age, gender, cholestyramine, and bile acid, but resistant to induction by most microsomal enzyme inducers. PMID:17897632

  13. MATE Transporter-Dependent Export of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides.

    PubMed

    Dobritzsch, Melanie; Lübken, Tilo; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Gorzolka, Karin; Blum, Elke; Matern, Andreas; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Böttcher, Christoph; Dräger, Birgit; Rosahl, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to successfully prevent colonization by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), depends on multilayered defense responses. To address the role of surface-localized secondary metabolites for entry control, droplets of a P. infestans zoospore suspension, incubated on Arabidopsis leaves, were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling. The hydroxycinnamic acid amide coumaroylagmatine was among the metabolites secreted into the inoculum. In vitro assays revealed an inhibitory activity of coumaroylagmatine on P. infestans spore germination. Mutant analyses suggested a requirement of the p-coumaroyl-CoA:agmatine N4-p-coumaroyl transferase ACT for the biosynthesis and of the MATE transporter DTX18 for the extracellular accumulation of coumaroylagmatine. The host plant potato is not able to efficiently secrete coumaroylagmatine. This inability is overcome in transgenic potato plants expressing the two Arabidopsis genes ACT and DTX18. These plants secrete agmatine and putrescine conjugates to high levels, indicating that DTX18 is a hydroxycinnamic acid amide transporter with a distinct specificity. The export of hydroxycinnamic acid amides correlates with a decreased ability of P. infestans spores to germinate, suggesting a contribution of secreted antimicrobial compounds to pathogen defense at the leaf surface. PMID:26744218

  14. The ABCG family of membrane-associated transporters: you don't have to be big to be mighty.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Ian D; Haider, Ameena J; Gelissen, Ingrid C

    2011-12-01

    Along with many other mammalian ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, members of the ABCG group are involved in the regulated transport of hydrophobic compounds across cellular membranes. In humans, five ABCG family members have been identified, encoding proteins ranging from 638 to 678 amino acids in length. All five have been the subject of intensive investigation to better understand their physiological roles, expression patterns, interactions with substrates and inhibitors, and regulation at both the transcript and protein level. The principal substrates for at least four of the ABCG proteins are endogenous and dietary lipids, with ABCG1 implicated in particular in the export of cholesterol, and ABCG5 and G8 forming a functional heterodimer responsible for plant sterol elimination from the body. ABCG2 has a much broader substrate specificity and its ability to transport numerous diverse pharmaceuticals has implications for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMETOx) profile of these compounds. ABCG2 is one of at least three so-called multidrug resistant ABC transporters expressed in humans, and its activity is associated with decreased efficacy of anti-cancer agents in several carcinomas. In addition to its role in cancer, ABCG2 also plays a role in the normal physiological transport of urate and haem, the implications of which are described. We summarize here data on all five human ABCG transporters and provide a current perspective on their roles in human health and disease. PMID:21175590

  15. 78 FR 73584 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Buffalo... 1180.2(d)(3) for a corporate family transaction pursuant to which BR&P would be merged into CSXT... a transaction within a corporate family of the type specifically exempted from prior review...

  16. Genome expansion and differential expression of amino acid transporters at the aphid/Buchnera symbiotic interface.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Duncan, Rebecca P; Shigenobu, Shuji; Wilson, Alex C C

    2011-11-01

    In insects, some of the most ecologically important symbioses are nutritional symbioses that provide hosts with novel traits and thereby facilitate exploitation of otherwise inaccessible niches. One such symbiosis is the ancient obligate intracellular symbiosis of aphids with the γ-proteobacteria, Buchnera aphidicola. Although the nutritional basis of the aphid/Buchnera symbiosis is well understood, the processes and structures that mediate the intimate interactions of symbiotic partners remain uncharacterized. Here, using a de novo approach, we characterize the complement of 40 amino acid polyamine organocation (APC) superfamily member amino acid transporters (AATs) encoded in the genome of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We find that the A. pisum APC superfamily is characterized by extensive gene duplications such that A. pisum has more APC superfamily transporters than other fully sequenced insects, including a ten paralog aphid-specific expansion of the APC transporter slimfast. Detailed expression analysis of 17 transporters selected on the basis of their phylogenetic relationship to five AATs identified in an earlier bacteriocyte expressed sequence tag study distinguished a subset of eight transporters that have been recruited for amino acid transport in bacteriocyte cells at the symbiotic interface. These eight transporters include transporters that are highly expressed and/or highly enriched in bacteriocytes and intriguingly, the four AATs that show bacteriocyte-enriched expression are all members of gene family expansions, whereas three of the four that are highly expressed but not enriched in bacteriocytes retain one-to-one orthology with transporters in other genomes. Finally, analysis of evolutionary rates within the large A. pisum slimfast expansion demonstrated increased rates of molecular evolution coinciding with two major shifts in expression: 1) a loss of gut expression and possibly a gain of bacteriocyte expression and 2) loss of expression

  17. Molecular mechanisms of reduced glutathione transport: role of the MRP/CFTR/ABCC and OATP/SLC21A families of membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ballatori, Nazzareno . E-mail: Ned_Ballatori@urmc.rochester.edu; Hammond, Christine L.; Cunningham, Jennifer B.; Krance, Suzanne M.; Marchan, Rosemarie

    2005-05-01

    The initial step in reduced glutathione (GSH) turnover in all mammalian cells is its transport across the plasma membrane into the extracellular space; however, the mechanisms of GSH transport are not clearly defined. GSH export is required for the delivery of its constituent amino acids to other tissues, detoxification of drugs, metals, and other reactive compounds of both endogenous and exogenous origin, protection against oxidant stress, and secretion of hepatic bile. Recent studies indicate that some members of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP/CFTR or ABCC) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, as well as some members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP or SLC21A) family of transporters contribute to this process. In particular, five of the 12 members of the MRP/CFTR family appear to mediate GSH export from cells namely, MRP1, MRP2, MRP4, MRP5, and CFTR. Additionally, two members of the OATP family, rat Oatp1 and Oatp2, have been identified as GSH transporters. For the Oatp1 transporter, efflux of GSH may provide the driving force for the uptake of extracellular substrates. In humans, OATP-B and OATP8 do not appear to transport GSH; however, other members of this family have yet to be characterized in regards to GSH transport. In yeast, the ABC proteins Ycf1p and Bpt1p transport GSH from the cytosol into the vacuole, whereas Hgt1p mediates GSH uptake across the plasma membrane. Because transport is a key step in GSH homeostasis and is intimately linked to its biological functions, GSH export proteins are likely to modulate essential cellular functions.

  18. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  19. Choline inhibition of amino acid transport in preimplantation mouse blastocysts

    SciTech Connect

    Campione, A.L.; Haghighat, N.; Gorman, J.; Van Winkle, L.J.

    1987-05-01

    Addition of 70 mM choline chloride to Brinster's medium (140 mM Na/sup +/) inhibited uptake of approx. 1 ..mu..M (/sup 3/H)glycine, leucine, lysine and alanine in blastocysts by about 50% each during a five-minute incubation period at 37/sup 0/C, whereas 70 mM LiCl, sodium acetate and NaCl or 140 mM mannitol had no effect. They attribute the apparent linear relationship between Gly transport in blastocysts and the square of the (Na/sup +/), observed when choline was substituted for Na/sup +/ in Brinster's medium, to concomitant, concentration-dependent enhancement and inhibition of transport by Na/sup +/ and choline, respectively. As expected, Gly uptake and the (Na/sup +/) were linearly related up to 116 mM Na/sup +/, when Na/sup +/ was replaced with Li/sup +/. The rates of Na/sup +/-independent Gly and Ala uptake were <5% and <2% of the total, respectively, and similar when either Li/sup +/ or choline replaced Na/sup +/. Therefore, neither Li/sup +/ nor choline appears to substitute for Na/sup +/ in supporting Na/sup +/-dependent transport in blastocysts. Na/sup +/-independent Leu uptake was 20 times faster than Gly or Ala uptake and appeared to be inhibited by choline in blastocysts since it was about 37% slower when choline instead of Li/sup +/ was substituted for Na/sup +/. In contrast to blastocysts, choline had no effect on amino acid transport in cleavage-stage mouse embryos. The unexpected sensitivity of transport to choline in blastocysts underscores the importance of testing the effects of this substance when it is used to replace Na/sup +/ in new transport studies.

  20. Transport and metabolism of glycolic acid by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the excretion of glycolate from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the conditions affecting glycolate synthesis and metabolism were investigated. Although glycolate is synthesized only in the light, the metabolism occurs in the light and dark with greater metabolism in the light due to refixation of photorespiratory CO/sub 2/. The amount of internal glycolate will affect the metabolism of externally added glycolate. When glycolate synthesis exceeds the metabolic capacity, glycolate is excreted from the cell. The transport of glycolate into the cells occurs very rapidly. Equilibrium is achieved at 4/sup 0/C within the time cells are pelleted by the silicone oil centrifugation technique through a layer of (/sup 14/C) glycolate. Glycolate uptake does not show the same time, temperature and pH dependencies as diffusion of benzoate. Uptake can be inhibited by treatment of cells with N-ethylmaleimide and stimulated in the presence of valino-mycin/KCl. Acetate and lactate are taken up as quickly as glycolate. The hypothesis was made that glycolate is transported by a protein carrier that transports monocarboxylic acids. The equilibrium concentration of glycolate is dependent on the cell density, implying that there may be a large number of transporter sites and that uptake is limited by substrate availability.

  1. Perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) atmospheric formation and transport to the Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike-thackray, C.; Selin, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are highly persistent and toxic environmental contaminants that have been found in remote locations such as the Arctic, far from emission sources. These persistent organic pollutants are emitted directly to the atmosphere as well as being produced by the degradation of precursor compounds in the atmosphere, but recent trends towards increasing precursor emissions and decreasing direct emissions raise the importance of production in the atmosphere. Our work aims to improve understanding of the atmospheric degradation of fluorotelomer precursor compounds to form the long-chain PFCAs PFOA (C8) and PFNA (C9).Using the atmospheric chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, which uses assimilated meteorology to simulate the atmospheric transport of trace gas species, we investigate the interaction of the atmospheric formation of PFCAs and the atmospheric transport of their precursor species. Our simulations are a first application of the GEOS-Chem framework to PFCA chemistry. We highlight the importance of the spatial and temporal variability of background atmospheric chemical conditions experienced during transport. We find that yields and formation times of PFOA and PFNA respond differently and strongly to the photochemical conditions of the atmosphere, such as the abundance of NO, HO2, and other photochemical species.

  2. Family resemblances: A common fold for some dimeric ion-coupled secondary transporters

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane transporter proteins catalyze the passage of a broad range of solutes across cell membranes, allowing the uptake and efflux of crucial compounds. Because of the difficulty of expressing, purifying, and crystallizing integral membrane proteins, relatively few transporter structures have been elucidated to date. Although every membrane transporter has unique characteristics, structural and mechanistic similarities between evolutionarily diverse transporters have been identified. Here, we compare two recently reported structures of membrane proteins that act as antimicrobial efflux pumps, namely MtrF from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and YdaH from Alcanivorax borkumensis, both with each other and with the previously published structure of a sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter from Vibrio cholerae, VcINDY. MtrF and YdaH belong to the p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate transporter (AbgT) family and have been reported as having architectures distinct from those of all other families of transporters. However, our comparative analysis reveals a similar structural arrangement in all three proteins, with highly conserved secondary structure elements. Despite their differences in biological function, the overall “design principle” of MtrF and YdaH appears to be almost identical to that of VcINDY, with a dimeric quaternary structure, helical hairpins, and clear boundaries between the transport and scaffold domains. This observation demonstrates once more that the same secondary transporter architecture can be exploited for multiple distinct transport modes, including cotransport and antiport. Based on our comparisons, we detected conserved motifs in the substrate-binding region and predict specific residues likely to be involved in cation or substrate binding. These findings should prove useful for the future characterization of the transport mechanisms of these families of secondary active transporters. PMID:26503722

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family in three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Xu, Yongyu; Cui, Feng

    2016-09-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family functions in the ATP-dependent transportation of various substrates across biological membranes. ABC proteins participate in various biological processes and insecticide resistance in insects, and are divided into eight subfamilies (A-H). Mosquitoes are important vectors of human diseases, but the mechanism by which the ABC transporter family evolves in mosquitoes is unknown. In this study, we classified and compared the ABC transporter families of three mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. The three mosquitoes have 55, 69, and 70 ABC genes, respectively. The C. p. quinquefasciatus had approximately 40% and 65% expansion in the ABCG subfamily, mainly in ABCG1/G4, compared with the two other mosquito species. The ABCB, ABCD, ABCE, and ABCF subfamilies were conserved in the three mosquito species. The C. p. quinquefasciatus transcriptomes during development showed that the ABCG and ABCC genes were mainly highly expressed at the egg and pupal stages. The pigment-transport relative brown, white, and scarlet, as well as the ABCF subfamily, were highly expressed at the egg stage. The highly expressed genes in larvae included three ABCA3 genes. The majority of the highly expressed genes in adults were ABCG1/4 genes. These results provided insights into the evolution of the ABC transporter family in mosquitoes. PMID:27521922

  4. The SLC30 family of zinc transporters – a review of current understanding of their biological and pathophysiological roles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two families of zinc transporters involved in zinc homeostasis in the body, the SLC30 (ZnT, zinc transporter,) and SLC39 (ZIP, ZRT1 and IRT-like protein). The two zinc transporter family members function in opposite directions to maintain cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnT proteins are require...

  5. The proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family: structure, function and regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Halestrap, A P; Price, N T

    1999-01-01

    Monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate play a central role in cellular metabolism and metabolic communication between tissues. Essential to these roles is their rapid transport across the plasma membrane, which is catalysed by a recently identified family of proton-linked monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Nine MCT-related sequences have so far been identified in mammals, each having a different tissue distribution, whereas six related proteins can be recognized in Caenorhabditis elegans and 4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Direct demonstration of proton-linked lactate and pyruvate transport has been demonstrated for mammalian MCT1-MCT4, but only for MCT1 and MCT2 have detailed analyses of substrate and inhibitor kinetics been described following heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. MCT1 is ubiquitously expressed, but is especially prominent in heart and red muscle, where it is up-regulated in response to increased work, suggesting a special role in lactic acid oxidation. By contrast, MCT4 is most evident in white muscle and other cells with a high glycolytic rate, such as tumour cells and white blood cells, suggesting it is expressed where lactic acid efflux predominates. MCT2 has a ten-fold higher affinity for substrates than MCT1 and MCT4 and is found in cells where rapid uptake at low substrate concentrations may be required, including the proximal kidney tubules, neurons and sperm tails. MCT3 is uniquely expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium. The mechanisms involved in regulating the expression of different MCT isoforms remain to be established. However, there is evidence for alternative splicing of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions and the use of alternative promoters for some isoforms. In addition, MCT1 and MCT4 have been shown to interact specifically with OX-47 (CD147), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily with a single transmembrane helix. This interaction appears to assist MCT expression at the cell surface. There is still

  6. Amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (slc6a19) and ancillary protein: impact on function.

    PubMed

    Margheritis, Eleonora; Imperiali, Francesca Guia; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Vollero, Alessandra; Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Girardello, Rossana; Bossi, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids play an important role in the metabolism of all organisms. Their epithelial re-absorption is due to specific transport proteins, such as B(0)AT1, a Na(+)-coupled neutral amino acid symporter belonging to the solute carrier 6 family. Here, a recently cloned fish orthologue, from the intestine of Salmo salar, was electrophysiologically characterized with the two-electrode voltage clamp technique, in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing the transporter. Substrate specificity, apparent affinities and the ionic dependence of the transport mechanism were determined in the presence of specific collectrin. Results demonstrated that like the human, but differently from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) orthologue, salmon B(0)AT1 needs to be associated with partner proteins to be correctly expressed at the oocyte plasma membrane. Cloning of sea bass collectrin and comparison of membrane expression and functionality of the B(0)AT1 orthologue transporters allowed a deeper investigation on the role of their interactions. The parameters acquired by electrophysiological and immunolocalization experiments in the mammalian and fish transporters contributed to highlight the dynamic of relations and impacts on transport function of the ancillary proteins. The comparative characterization of the physiological parameters of amino acid transporters with auxiliary proteins can help the comprehension of the regulatory mechanism of essential nutrient absorption. PMID:27255547

  7. Proton-assisted amino acid transporters are conserved regulators of proliferation and amino acid-dependent mTORC1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Heublein, S; Kazi, S; Ögmundsdóttir, M H; Attwood, E V; Kala, S; Boyd, C A R; Wilson, C; Goberdhan, D C I

    2011-01-01

    The PI3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and downstream mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling cascades promote normal growth and are frequently hyperactivated in tumour cells. mTORC1 is also regulated by local nutrients, particularly amino acids, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Unexpectedly, members of the proton-assisted amino acid transporter (PAT or SLC36) family emerged from in vivo genetic screens in Drosophila as transporters with uniquely potent effects on mTORC1-mediated growth. Here we show the two human PATs that are widely expressed in normal tissues and cancer cell lines, PAT1 and PAT4, behave similarly to fly PATs when expressed in Drosophila. siRNA knockdown reveals that these molecules are required for activation of mTORC1 targets and for proliferation in human MCF-7 breast cancer and HEK-293 embryonic kidney cell lines. Furthermore, activation of mTORC1 in starved HEK-293 cells stimulated by amino acids requires PAT1 and PAT4, and is elevated in PAT1-overexpressing cells. Importantly, in HEK-293 cells, PAT1 is highly concentrated in intracellular compartments, including endosomes, where mTOR shuttles upon amino acid stimulation. Our data are therefore consistent with a model in which PATs modulate mTORC1's activity not by transporting amino acids into the cell, but by modulating the intracellular response to amino acids. PMID:20498635

  8. Unraveling fatty acid transport and activation mechanisms in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thévenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid (FA) transport and activation have been extensively studied in the model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae but have rarely been examined in oleaginous yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica. Because the latter begins to be used in biodiesel production, understanding its FA transport and activation mechanisms is essential. We found that Y. lipolytica has FA transport and activation proteins similar to those of S. cerevisiae (Faa1p, Pxa1p, Pxa2p, Ant1p) but mechanism of FA peroxisomal transport and activation differs greatly with that of S. cerevisiae. While the ScPxa1p/ScPxa2p heterodimer is essential for growth on long-chain FAs, ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 is not impaired for growth on FAs. Meanwhile, ScAnt1p and YlAnt1p are both essential for yeast growth on medium-chain FAs, suggesting they function similarly. Interestingly, we found that the ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 ΔYlant1 mutant was unable to grow on short-, medium-, or long-chain FAs, suggesting that YlPxa1p, YlPxa2p, and YlAnt1p belong to two different FA degradation pathways. We also found that YlFaa1p is involved in FA storage in lipid bodies and that FA remobilization largely depended on YlFat1p, YlPxa1p and YlPxa2p. This study is the first to comprehensively examine FA intracellular transport and activation in oleaginous yeast. PMID:25887939

  9. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the amino acid transporter superfamily in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Haoli; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Li, Silu; Gao, Junpeng; Ma, Yuling; Zhao, Qin; Chen, Qin

    2016-10-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) are integral membrane proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of amino acids and play important roles in various physiological processes of plants. However, there has not yet been a genome-wide overview of the StAAT gene family to date and only StAAP1 has been previously studied in potato. In this paper, a total of 72 StAATs were identified using a series of bioinformatics searches and classified into 12 subfamilies based on their phylogenetic relationship with known Arabidopsis and rice AATs. Chromosomal localization revealed their distribution on all 12 chromosomes. Nearly one-third of StAAT genes (23 of 72) were derived from gene duplication, among which tandem duplication made the greatest contribution to the expansion of the StAAT family. Motif analysis showed that the same subfamily had similar conserved motifs in both numbers and varieties. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing data was used to analyze the expression patterns of StAAT genes and was verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expression of StAAT genes exhibited both abundant and tissue-specific expression patterns, which might be connected to their functional roles in long- and short-distance transport. This study provided a comprehensive survey of the StAAT gene family, and could serve as a theoretical foundation for the further functional identification and utilization of family members. PMID:27289266

  10. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins. PMID:27284054

  11. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355

  12. Regulation of hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Bsep expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xingguo; Buckley, David; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and bile salt export pump (Bsep) are two key transporters for hepatic bile acid uptake and excretion. Alterations in Ntcp and Bsep expression have been reported in pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effects of age, gender, and various chemicals on the regulation of these two transporters were characterized in mice. Ntcp and Bsep mRNA levels in mouse liver were low in the fetus, but increased to its highest expression at parturition. After birth, mouse Ntcp and Bsep mRNA decreased by more than 50%, and then gradually increased to adult levels by day 30. Expression of mouse Ntcp mRNA and protein exhibit higher levels in female than male livers, which is consistent with the trend of human NTCP mRNA expression between men and women. No gender difference exists in BSEP/Bsep expression in human and mouse livers. Hormone replacements conducted in gonadectomized, hypophysectomized, and lit/lit mice indicate that female-predominant Ntcp expression in mouse liver is due to the inhibitory effect of male-pattern GH secretion, but not sex hormones. Ntcp and Bsep expression are in general resistant to induction by a large battery of microsomal enzyme inducers. Administration of cholestyramine increased Ntcp, whereas chenodeoxycholic acid increased Bsep mRNA expression. In silico analysis indicates that female-predominant mouse and human Ntcp/NTCP expression may be due to GH. In conclusion, mouse Ntcp and Bsep are regulated by age, gender, cholestyramine, and bile acid, but resistant to induction by most microsomal enzyme inducers. PMID:17897632

  13. Involvement of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter Lat2 in the Transport of 3,3′-Diiodothyronine across the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kinne, Anita; Wittner, Melanie; Wirth, Eva K.; Hinz, Katrin M.; Schülein, Ralf; Köhrle, Josef; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are transported across cell membranes by transmembrane transporter proteins, for example by members of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) and the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) families. LATs consist of a light chain (e.g. LAT2) and a heavy chain (CD98), which is essential for their cell surface expression and functionality. The specificity of Lat2 for thyroid hormones and their metabolites and its role in their transport was not fully clear. This fact motivated us to establish a cell system to elucidate the uptake of thyroid hormones and their metabolites by mouse Lat2. The coinjection of cRNA coding for Lat2 and CD98 into Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a markedly increased level of 3,3′-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,3′-T2) and to some extent also enhanced T3 transport. To gain insight into properties of thyroid hormones and their metabolites transported by Lat2, we inhibited 3,3′-T2 uptake by various iodothyronine derivatives. T1 and T2 derivatives as well as 2-aminobicyclo-[2, 2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid strongly competed with 3,3′-T2 uptake. In addition, we performed T2 uptake measurements with the thyroid hormone-specific transporter MCT8. For both Lat2 and MCT8, Km values in a low micromolar range were calculated. We demonstrated that oocytes are a suitable system for thyroid hormone transport studies mediated by Lat2. Our data indicates that Lat2 compared to other thyroid hormone transporters prefers 3,3′-T2 as the substrate. Thus, Lat2 might contribute to the availability of thyroid hormone by importing and/or exporting 3,3′-T2, which is generated either by T3 inactivation or by rapid deiodinase 1-mediated rT3 degradation. PMID:26601072

  14. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  15. A Plasma Membrane Association Module in Yeast Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-07-29

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in silico analyses and mutational studies we found that the C-terminal sequences of Gap1, Bap2, Hip1, Tat1, Tat2, Mmp1, Sam3, Agp1, and Gnp1 are about 50 residues long, associate with the PM, and have features that discriminate them from the termini of organellar amino acid transporters. We show that this sequence (named PMasseq) contains an amphipathic α-helix and the FWC signature, which is palmitoylated by palmitoyltransferase Pfa4. Variations of PMasseq, found in different AAPs, lead to different mobilities and localization patterns, whereas the disruption of the sequence has an adverse effect on cell viability. We propose that PMasseq modulates the function and localization of AAPs along the PM. PMasseq is one of the most complex protein signals for plasma membrane association across species and can be used as a delivery vehicle for the PM. PMID:27226538

  16. Identification of an abscisic acid transporter by functional screening using the receptor complex as a sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yuri; Hanada, Atsushi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Ichikawa, Takanari; Nakazawa, Miki; Matsui, Minami; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamiya, Yuji; Seo, Mitsunori

    2012-01-01

    Movement of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) within plants has been documented; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate ABA transport are not fully understood. By using a modified yeast two-hybrid system, we screened Arabidopsis cDNAs capable of inducing interactions between the ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR and PP2C protein phosphatase under low ABA concentrations. By using this approach, we identified four members of the NRT1/PTR family as candidates for ABA importers. Transport assays in yeast and insect cells demonstrated that at least one of the candidates ABA-IMPORTING TRANSPORTER (AIT) 1, which had been characterized as the low-affinity nitrate transporter NRT1.2, mediates cellular ABA uptake. Compared with WT, the ait1/nrt1.2 mutants were less sensitive to exogenously applied ABA during seed germination and/or postgermination growth, whereas overexpression of AIT1/NRT1.2 resulted in ABA hypersensitivity in the same conditions. Interestingly, the inflorescence stems of ait1/nrt1.2 had a lower surface temperature than those of the WT because of excess water loss from open stomata. We detected promoter activities of AIT1/NRT1.2 around vascular tissues in inflorescence stems, leaves, and roots. These data suggest that the function of AIT1/NRT1.2 as an ABA importer at the site of ABA biosynthesis is important for the regulation of stomatal aperture in inflorescence stems. PMID:22645333

  17. Heteromeric amino acid transporters. In search of the molecular bases of transport cycle mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palacín, Manuel; Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Rosell, Albert

    2016-06-15

    Heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are relevant targets for structural studies. On the one hand, HATs are involved in inherited and acquired human pathologies. On the other hand, these molecules are the only known examples of solute transporters composed of two subunits (heavy and light) linked by a disulfide bridge. Unfortunately, structural knowledge of HATs is scarce and limited to the atomic structure of the ectodomain of a heavy subunit (human 4F2hc-ED) and distant prokaryotic homologues of the light subunits that share a LeuT-fold. Recent data on human 4F2hc/LAT2 at nanometer resolution revealed 4F2hc-ED positioned on top of the external loops of the light subunit LAT2. Improved resolution of the structure of HATs, combined with conformational studies, is essential to establish the structural bases for light subunit recognition and to evaluate the functional relevance of heavy and light subunit interactions for the amino acid transport cycle. PMID:27284037

  18. Peptide and amino acid metabolism is controlled by an OmpR-family response regulator in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Bäuerl, Christine; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    A Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain defective in an OmpR-family response regulator encoded by LCABL_18980 (PrcR, RR11), showed enhanced proteolytic activity caused by overexpression of the gene encoding the proteinase PrtP. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that, in addition to prtP expression, PrcR regulates genes encoding peptide and amino acid transporters, intracellular peptidases and amino acid biosynthetic pathways, among others. Binding of PrcR to twelve promoter regions of both upregulated and downregulated genes, including its own promoter, was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays showing that PrcR can act as a transcriptional repressor or activator. Phosphorylation of PrcR increased its DNA binding activity and this effect was abolished after replacement of the phosphorylatable residue Asp-52 by alanine. Comparison of the transcript levels in cells grown in the presence or absence of tryptone in the growth medium revealed that PrcR activity responded to the presence of a complex amino acid source in the growth medium. We conclude that the PrcR plays a major role in the control of the peptide and amino acid metabolism in L. casei BL23. Orthologous prcR genes are present in most members of the Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae families. We hypothesize that they play a similar role in these bacterial groups. PMID:26711440

  19. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Taro Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  20. ABC transporter AtABCG25 is involved in abscisic acid transport and responses

    PubMed Central

    Kuromori, Takashi; Miyaji, Takaaki; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; Shimizu, Hidetada; Sugimoto, Eriko; Kamiya, Asako; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important phytohormones involved in abiotic stress responses, seed maturation, germination, and senescence. ABA is predominantly produced in vascular tissues and exerts hormonal responses in various cells, including guard cells. Although ABA responses require extrusion of ABA from ABA-producing cells in an intercellular ABA signaling pathway, the transport mechanisms of ABA through the plasma membrane remain unknown. Here we isolated an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, AtABCG25, from Arabidopsis by genetically screening for ABA sensitivity. AtABCG25 was expressed mainly in vascular tissues. The fluorescent protein-fused AtABCG25 was localized at the plasma membrane in plant cells. In membrane vesicles derived from AtABCG25-expressing insect cells, AtABCG25 exhibited ATP-dependent ABA transport. The AtABCG25-overexpressing plants showed higher leaf temperatures, implying an influence on stomatal regulation. These results strongly suggest that AtABCG25 is an exporter of ABA and is involved in the intercellular ABA signaling pathway. The presence of the ABA transport mechanism sheds light on the active control of multicellular ABA responses to environmental stresses among plant cells. PMID:20133881

  1. Structure of a prokaryotic fumarate transporter reveals the architecture of the SLC26 family.

    PubMed

    Geertsma, Eric R; Chang, Yung-Ning; Shaik, Farooque R; Neldner, Yvonne; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Dutzler, Raimund

    2015-10-01

    The SLC26 family of membrane proteins combines a variety of functions within a conserved molecular scaffold. Its members, besides coupled anion transporters and channels, include the motor protein Prestin, which confers electromotility to cochlear outer hair cells. To gain insight into the architecture of this protein family, we characterized the structure and function of SLC26Dg, a facilitator of proton-coupled fumarate symport, from the bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis. Its modular structure combines a transmembrane unit and a cytoplasmic STAS domain. The membrane-inserted domain consists of two intertwined inverted repeats of seven transmembrane segments each and resembles the fold of the unrelated transporter UraA. It shows an inward-facing, ligand-free conformation with a potential substrate-binding site at the interface between two helix termini at the center of the membrane. This structure defines the common framework for the diverse functional behavior of the SLC26 family. PMID:26367249

  2. Impact of Microbial Growth on Subsurface Perfluoroalkyl Acid Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, T. S.; Higgins, C. P.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The fate and transport of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the presence of active microbial communities has not been widely investigated. These emerging contaminants are commonly utilized in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) and have often been detected in groundwater. This study explores the transport of a suite of perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluoroalkylsulfonates, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in microbially active settings. Single point organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients derived by exposing inactive cellular material to PFASs result in more than an order of magnitude increase in sorption compared to soil organic carbon sorption coefficients found in literature. For example, the sorption coefficients for PFOS are 4.05±0.07 L/kg and 2.80±0.08 L/kg for cellular organic carbon and soil organic carbon respectively. This increase in sorption, coupled with enhanced extracellular polymeric substance production observed during growth of a common hydrocarbon degrading soil microbe exposed to source-level concentrations of PFASs (10 mg/L of 11 analytes, 110 mg/L total) may result in PFAS retardation in situ. To address the upscaling of this phenomenon, flow-through columns packed with low-organic carbon sediment and biostimulated with 10 mg/L glucose were exposed to PFAS concentrations from 15 μg/L to 10 mg/L of each 11 analytes. Breakthrough and tailing of each analyte was measured and modeled with Hydrus-1D to explore sorption coefficients over time for microbially active columns.

  3. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Lara A.; Boron, Walter F.; Zhou, Yuehan

    2015-01-01

    Each day, the kidneys filter 180 L of blood plasma, equating to some 4,300 mmol of the major blood buffer, bicarbonate (HCO3−). The glomerular filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule (PT), and the majority of filtered HCO3− is reclaimed along the early (S1) and convoluted (S2) portions of the PT in a manner coupled to the secretion of H+ into the lumen. The PT also uses the secreted H+ to titrate non-HCO3− buffers in the lumen, in the process creating “new HCO3−” for transport into the blood. Thus, the PT – along with more distal renal segments – is largely responsible for regulating plasma [HCO3−]. In this review we first focus on the milestone discoveries over the past 50+ years that define the mechanism and regulation of acid-base transport by the proximal tubule. Further on in the review, we will summarize research still in progress from our laboratory, work that addresses the problem of how the PT is able to finely adapt to acid–base disturbances by rapidly sensing changes in basolateral levels of HCO3− and CO2 (but not pH), and thereby to exert tight control over the acid–base composition of the blood plasma. PMID:21170887

  4. Characterization of a new family of metal transport proteins. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Guerinot, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    'Soils at many DOE sites are contaminated with metals and radionuclides. Such soils obviously pose a risk to human and animal health. Unlike organic wastes which can be metabolized, metals are immutable and cannot be degraded into harmless constituents. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to remove toxic materials from soil and water, may prove to be an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for cleaning up metal-contaminated sites. The success of phytoremediation will rely on the availability of plants that absorb, translocate, and tolerate the contaminating metals. However, before the authors can engineer such plants, they need more basic information on how plants acquire metals. An important long term goal of the research program is to understand how metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper are transported across membranes. The research is focused on a new family of metal transporters which they have identified through combined studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They have identified a family of 19 presumptive metal transport genes in a variety of organisms including yeast, trypanosomes, plants, nematodes, and humans. This family, which the authors have designated the ZIP genes, provides a rich source of material with which to undertake studies on metal transport in eukaryotes. The project has three main objectives: Objective 1: Determine the sub-cellular location of the ZIP proteins in Arabidopsis. Objective 2: Carry out a structure/function analysis of the proteins encoded by the ZIP gene family to identify regions of the protein responsible for substrate specificity and affinity. Objective 3: Engineer plants to overexpress and underexpress members of the ZIP gene family and analyze these transgenic plants for alterations in metal accumulation. They now know that manipulation of transporter levels will also require an understanding of post-transcriptional control of ZIP gene expression. They

  5. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. PMID:26854723

  6. Possible involvement of lipoic acid in binding protein-dependent transport systems in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Richarme, G

    1985-04-01

    We describe the properties of the binding protein dependent-transport of ribose, galactose, and maltose and of the lactose permease, and the phosphoenolpyruvate-glucose phosphotransferase transport systems in a strain of Escherichia coli which is deficient in the synthesis of lipoic acid, a cofactor involved in alpha-keto acid dehydrogenation. Such a strain can grow in the absence of lipoic acid in minimal medium supplemented with acetate and succinate. Although the lactose permease and the phosphoenolypyruvate-glucose phosphotransferase are not affected by lipoic acid deprivation, the binding protein-dependent transports are reduced by 70% in conditions of lipoic acid deprivation when compared with their activity in conditions of lipoic acid supply. The remaining transport is not affected by arsenate but is inhibited by the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone; however the lipoic acid-dependent transport is completely inhibited by arsenate and only weakly inhibited by carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The known inhibitor of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases, 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, completely inhibits all binding protein-dependent transports whether in conditions of lipoic supply or deprivation; the results suggest a possible relation between binding protein-dependent transport and alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases and shed light on the inhibition of these transports by arsenicals and uncouplers. PMID:3920206

  7. Transport and signaling via the amino acid binding site of the yeast Gap1 amino acid transceptor.

    PubMed

    Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Bonini, Beatriz Monge; Versele, Matthias; Thevelein, Johan M

    2009-01-01

    Transporter-related nutrient sensors, called transceptors, mediate nutrient activation of signaling pathways through the plasma membrane. The mechanism of action of transporting and nontransporting transceptors is unknown. We have screened 319 amino acid analogs to identify compounds that act on Gap1, a transporting amino acid transceptor in yeast that triggers activation of the protein kinase A pathway. We identified competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors of transport, either with or without agonist action for signaling, including nontransported agonists. Using substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) analysis, we identified Ser388 and Val389 as being exposed into the amino acid binding site, and we show that agonist action for signaling uses the same binding site as used for transport. Our results provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the mechanism of action of transceptors. They indicate that signaling requires a ligand-induced specific conformational change that may be part of but does not require the complete transport cycle. PMID:19060912

  8. Loss of function mutation of the Slc38a3 glutamine transporter reveals its critical role for amino acid metabolism in the liver, brain, and kidney.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kessara; Busque, Stephanie M; Sailer, Manuela; Stoeger, Claudia; Bröer, Stefan; Daniel, Hannelore; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Wagner, Carsten A

    2016-02-01

    Glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in mammals, is critical for cell and organ functions. Its metabolism depends on the ability of cells to take up or release glutamine by transporters located in the plasma membrane. Several solute carrier (SLC) families transport glutamine, but the SLC38 family has been thought to be mostly responsible for glutamine transport. We demonstrate that despite the large number of glutamine transporters, the loss of Snat3/Slc38a3 glutamine transporter has a major impact on the function of organs expressing it. Snat3 mutant mice were generated by N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (ENU) mutagenesis and showed stunted growth, altered amino acid levels, hypoglycemia, and died around 20 days after birth. Hepatic concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, leucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan were highly reduced paralleled by downregulation of the mTOR pathway possibly linking reduced amino acid availability to impaired growth and glucose homeostasis. Snat3-deficient mice had altered urea levels paralleled by dysregulation of the urea cycle, gluconeogenesis, and glutamine synthesis. Mice were ataxic with higher glutamine but reduced glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in brain consistent with a major role of Snat3 in the glutamine-glutamate cycle. Renal ammonium excretion was lower, and the expression of enzymes and amino acid transporters involved in ammoniagenesis were altered. Thus, SNAT3 is a glutamine transporter required for amino acid homeostasis and determines critical functions in various organs. Despite the large number of glutamine transporters, loss of Snat3 cannot be compensated, suggesting that this transporter is a major route of glutamine transport in the liver, brain, and kidney. PMID:26490457

  9. Novel properties of the wheat aluminum tolerance organic acid transporter (TaALMT1) revealed by electrophysiological characterization in Xenopus oocytes: Functional and structural implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plant species avoid the phytotoxic effects of aluminum (Al) by exuding organic acid anions which chelate Al3+ and prevent its entry into the root. Several novel genes that encode membrane transporters from the ALMT and MATE families have recently been cloned and implicated in mediating the orga...

  10. Bacillus subtilis YxkJ is a secondary transporter of the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family that transports L-malate and citrate.

    PubMed

    Krom, B P; Aardema, R; Lolkema, J S

    2001-10-01

    The genome of Bacillus subtilis contains two genes that code for membrane proteins that belong to the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family. Here we report the functional characterization of one of the two, yxkJ, which codes for a transporter protein named CimHbs. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and complemented the citrate-negative phenotype of wild-type E. coli and the malate-negative phenotype of the E. coli strain JRG4008, which is defective in malate uptake. Subsequent uptake studies in whole cells expressing CimHbs clearly demonstrated the citrate and malate transport activity of the protein. Immunoblot analysis showed that CimHbs is a 48-kDa protein that is well expressed in E. coli. Studies with right-side-out membrane vesicles demonstrated that CimHbs is an electroneutral proton-solute symporter. No indications were found for the involvement of Na(+) ions in the transport process. Inhibition of the uptake catalyzed by CimHbs by divalent metal ions, together with the lack of effect on transport by the chelator EDTA, showed that CimHbs translocates the free citrate and malate anions. Among a large set of substrates tested, only malate, citramalate, and citrate competitively inhibited citrate transport catalyzed by CimHbs. The transporter is strictly stereoselective, recognizing only the S enantiomers of malate and citramalate. Remarkably, though citramalate binds to the transporter, it is not translocated. PMID:11566984

  11. Mutations in the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Potter, Carol J.; Xiao, Rui; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Kang Ho; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Picarsic, Jennifer L.; Jacobson, Theodora A.; Zhang, Jing; He, Weimin; Liu, Pengfei; Knisely, A. S.; Finegold, Milton J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lupski, James R.; Plon, Sharon E.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Eng, Christine M.; Yang, Yaping; Washington, Gabriel C.; Porteus, Matthew H.; Berquist, William E.; Kambham, Neeraja; Singh, Ravinder J.; Xia, Fan; Enns, Gregory M.; Moore, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal cholestasis is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis. Mutations in several different genes can cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, but known genes cannot account for all familial cases. Here we report four individuals from two unrelated families with neonatal cholestasis and mutations in NR1H4, which encodes the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid-activated nuclear hormone receptor that regulates bile acid metabolism. Clinical features of severe, persistent NR1H4-related cholestasis include neonatal onset with rapid progression to end-stage liver disease, vitamin K-independent coagulopathy, low-to-normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein and undetectable liver bile salt export pump (ABCB11) expression. Our findings demonstrate a pivotal function for FXR in bile acid homeostasis and liver protection. PMID:26888176

  12. A comprehensive classification of nucleic acid structural families based on strand direction and base pairing.

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, R; Zakrzewska, K; Sun, J S; Harvey, S C

    1992-01-01

    We propose a classification of DNA structures formed from 1 to 4 strands, based only on relative strand directions, base to strand orientation and base pairing geometries. This classification and its associated notation enable all nucleic acids to be grouped into structural families and bring to light possible structures which have not yet been observed experimentally. It also helps in understanding transitions between families and can assist in the design of multistrand structures. PMID:1383936

  13. Molecular evolution of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) gene family.

    PubMed

    Körbes, Ana Paula; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Margis, Rogério; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina

    2016-03-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) perform an essential cellular function by controlling the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a key intermediate in the synthesis of membrane, signaling and storage lipids. Although LPAATs have been extensively explored by functional and biotechnological studies, little is known about their molecular evolution and diversification. We performed a genome-wide analysis using data from several plants and animals, as well as other eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, to identify LPAAT genes and analyze their evolutionary history. We used phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis to test the hypothesis of distinct origins for these genes. The reconstructed phylogeny supported the ancient origin of some isoforms (plant LPAAT1 and LPAATB; animal AGPAAT1/2), while others emerged more recently (plant LPAAT2/3/4/5; AGPAAT3/4/5/8). Additionally, the hypothesis of endosymbiotic origin of the plastidic isoform LPAAT1 was confirmed. LPAAT genes from plants and animals mainly experienced strong purifying selection pressures with limited functional divergence after the species-specific duplications. Gene expression analyses of LPAAT isoforms in model plants demonstrated distinct LPAAT expression patterns in these organisms. The results showed that distinct origins followed by diversification of the LPAAT genes shaped the evolution of TAG biosynthesis. The expression pattern of individual genes may be responsible for adaptation into multiple ecological niches. PMID:26721558

  14. The concentrative nucleoside transporter family (SLC28): new roles beyond salvage?

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Duflot, S; Fernández-Veledo, S; Guillén-Gómez, E; Huber-Ruano, I; Casado, F J; Pastor-Anglada, M

    2005-02-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family (SLC28) has three members: SLC28A1 (CNT1), SLC28A2 (CNT2) and SLC28A3 (CNT3). The CNT1 and CNT2 transporters are co-expressed in liver parenchymal cells and macrophages, two suitable models in which to study cell cycle progression. Despite initial observations suggesting that these transporter proteins might contribute to nucleoside salvage during proliferation, their subcellular localization and regulatory properties suggest alternative roles in cell physiology. In particular, CNT2 is a suitable candidate for modulation of purinergic responses, since it is under the control of the adenosine 1 receptor. Increasing evidence also suggests a role for CNT2 in energy metabolism, since its activation relies on the opening of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Animal and cell models genetically modified to alter nucleoside transporter expression levels may help to elucidate the particular roles of CNT proteins in cell physiology. PMID:15667311

  15. Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport.

    PubMed

    Gu, S; Roderick, H L; Camacho, P; Jiang, J X

    2001-06-29

    We report here on the characterization of a mouse N-system amino acid transporter protein, which is involved in the transport of glutamine. This protein of 485 amino acids shares 52% sequence homology with an N-system amino acid transporter, mouse N-system amino acid transporter (mNAT) and its orthologs. Because this protein shares a high degree of sequence homology and functional similarity to mNAT, we named it mNAT2. mNAT2 is predominately expressed in the retina and to a slightly lesser extent in the brain. In the retina, it is located in the axons of ganglion cells in the nerve fiber layer and in the bundles of the optic nerve. Functional analysis of mNAT2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the strongest transport activities were specific for l-glutamine. In addition, mNAT2 is a Na(+)- and pH-dependent, high affinity transporter and partially tolerates substitution of Na(+) by Li(+). Additionally, mNAT2 functions as a carrier-mediated transporter that facilitates efflux. The unique expression pattern and selective glutamine transport properties of mNAT2 suggest that it plays a specific role in the uptake of glutamine involved in the generation of the neurotransmitter glutamate in retina. PMID:11325958

  16. Enterobacteria modulate intestinal bile acid transport and homeostasis through apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (SLC10A2) expression.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hamatsu, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    In our study, ampicillin (AMP)-mediated decrease of enterobacteria caused increases in hepatic bile acid concentration through (at least in part) elevation of bile acid synthesis in C57BL/6N mice. We investigated the involvement of enterobacteria on intestinal bile acid absorption in AMP-treated mice in the present study. Fecal enterobacterial levels and fecal bile acid excretion rates were markedly decreased in mice treated with AMP (100 mg/kg) for 3 days, whereas bile acid concentrations in portal blood were significantly increased compared with those in mice treated with a vehicle. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (SLC10A2) mRNA levels and ileal SLC10A2 protein levels in brush-border membranes were significantly increased compared with those in mice treated with the vehicle. In AMP-treated mice, total bile acid levels were increased, whereas levels of enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and cholic acid were decreased in intestinal lumen. These phenomena were also observed in farnesoid X receptor-null mice treated with AMP for 3 days. Discontinuation of AMP administration after 3 days (vehicle administration for 4 days) increased levels of fecal enterobacteria, fecal bile acid excretion, and taurodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid in the intestinal lumen, whereas the discontinuation decreased ileal SLC10A2 expression and bile acid concentrations in the portal blood. Coadministration of taurodeoxycholic acid or cholic acid decreased ileal SLC10A2 expression in mice treated with AMP. These results suggest that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid biotransformation modulates intestinal bile acid transport and homeostasis through down-regulation of ileal SLC10A2 expression. PMID:20884752

  17. Reactive Transport Modeling of Acid Gas Generation and Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    G. Zhahg; N. Spycher; E. Sonnenthal; C. Steefel

    2005-01-25

    Pulvirenti et al. (2004) recently conducted a laboratory evaporation/condensation experiment on a synthetic solution of primarily calcium chloride. This solution represents one potential type of evaporated pore water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a site proposed for geologic storage of high-level nuclear waste. These authors reported that boiling this solution to near dryness (a concentration factor >75,000 relative to actual pore waters) leads to the generation of acid condensate (pH 4.5) presumably due to volatilization of HCl (and minor HF and/or HNO{sub 3}). To investigate the various processes taking place, including boiling, gas transport, and condensation, their experiment was simulated by modifying an existing multicomponent and multiphase reactive transport code (TOUGHREACT). This code was extended with a Pitzer ion-interaction model to deal with high ionic strength. The model of the experiment was set-up to capture the observed increase in boiling temperature (143 C at {approx}1 bar) resulting from high concentrations of dissolved salts (up to 8 m CaCl{sub 2}). The computed HCI fugacity ({approx} 10{sup -4} bars) generated by boiling under these conditions is not sufficient to lower the pH of the condensate (cooled to 80 and 25 C) down to observed values unless the H{sub 2}O mass fraction in gas is reduced below {approx}10%. This is because the condensate becomes progressively diluted by H{sub 2}O gas condensation. However, when the system is modeled to remove water vapor, the computed pH of instantaneous condensates decreases to {approx}1.7, consistent with the experiment (Figure 1). The results also show that the HCl fugacity increases, and calcite, gypsum, sylvite, halite, MgCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O and CaCl{sub 2} precipitate sequentially with increasing concentration factors.

  18. The AtProT Family. Compatible Solute Transporters with Similar Substrate Specificity But Differential Expression Patterns1

    PubMed Central

    Grallath, Silke; Weimar, Thilo; Meyer, Andreas; Gumy, Christophe; Suter-Grotemeyer, Marianne; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Rentsch, Doris

    2005-01-01

    Proline transporters (ProTs) mediate transport of the compatible solutes Pro, glycine betaine, and the stress-induced compound γ-aminobutyric acid. A new member of this gene family, AtProT3, was isolated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and its properties were compared to AtProT1 and AtProT2. Transient expression of fusions of AtProT and the green fluorescent protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts revealed that all three AtProTs were localized at the plasma membrane. Expression in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant demonstrated that the affinity of all three AtProTs was highest for glycine betaine (Km = 0.1–0.3 mm), lower for Pro (Km = 0.4–1 mm), and lowest for γ-aminobutyric acid (Km = 4–5 mm). Relative quantification of the mRNA level using real-time PCR and analyses of transgenic plants expressing the β-glucuronidase (uidA) gene under control of individual AtProT promoters showed that the expression pattern of AtProTs are complementary. AtProT1 expression was found in the phloem or phloem parenchyma cells throughout the whole plant, indicative of a role in long-distance transport of compatible solutes. β-Glucuronidase activity under the control of the AtProT2 promoter was restricted to the epidermis and the cortex cells in roots, whereas in leaves, staining could be demonstrated only after wounding. In contrast, AtProT3 expression was restricted to the above-ground parts of the plant and could be localized to the epidermal cells in leaves. These results showed that, although intracellular localization, substrate specificity, and affinity are very similar, the transporters fulfill different roles in planta. PMID:15618414

  19. L-aspartic acid transport by cat erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    Cat and dog red cells are unusual in that they have no Na/K ATPase and contain low K and high Na intracellularly. They also show significant Na dependent L-aspartate (L-asp) transport. The authors have characterized this system in cat RBCs. The influx of /sup 3/H-L-asp (typically 2..mu..M) was measured in washed RBCs incubated for 60 s at 37/sup 0/C in medium containing 140 mM NaCl, 5 mM Kcl, 2 mM CaCl/sub 2/, 15 mM MOPS pH 7.4, 5 mM glucose, and /sup 14/C-PEG as a space marker. The cells were washed 3 times in the medium immediately before incubation which was terminated by centrifuging the RBCs through a layer of dibutylphthalate. Over an L-asp concentration range of 0.5-1000..mu..M, influx obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a small added linear diffusion component. The Kt and Jmax of the saturable component were 5.40 +/- 0.34 ..mu..M and 148.8 +/- 7.2 ..mu..mol 1. cell/sup -1/h/sup -1/ respectively. Replacement of Na with Li, K, Rb, Cs or choline reduce influx to diffusion. With the addition of asp analogues (4/sup +/M L-asp, 40/sup +/M inhibitor), the following sequence of inhibition was observed (range 80% to 40% inhib.): L-glutamate > L-cysteine sulfonate > D-asp > L-cysteic acid > D-glutamate. Other amino acids such as L-alanine, L-proline, L-lysine, L-cysteine, and taurine showed no inhibition (<5%). These data suggest that cat red cells contain a high-affinity Na dependent transport system for L-asp, glutamate, and closely related analogues which resembles that found in the RBCs of other carnivores and in neural tissues.

  20. The osmotolerant fructophilic yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii employs two plasma-membrane fructose uptake systems belonging to a new family of yeast sugar transporters.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Maria José; Sychrová, Hana; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C

    2011-02-01

    Owing to its high resistance to weak-acid preservatives and extreme osmotolerance, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is one of the main spoilage yeasts of sweet foods and beverages. In contrast with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Z. rouxii is a fructophilic yeast; it consumes fructose faster than glucose. So far, to our knowledge, no specific Z. rouxii proteins responsible for this fructophilic behaviour have been characterized. We have identified two genes encoding putative fructose transporters in the Z. rouxii CBS 732 genome. Heterologous expression of these two Z. rouxii ORFs in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking its own hexose transporters (hxt-null) and subsequent kinetic analysis of sugar transport showed that both proteins are functionally expressed at the plasma membrane: ZrFfz1 is a high-capacity fructose-specific facilitator (K(m)∼400 mM and V(max)∼13 mmol h(-1) g(-1)) and ZrFfz2 is a facilitator transporting glucose and fructose with similar capacity and affinity (K(m)∼200 mM and V(max)∼4 mmol h(-1) g(-1)). These two proteins together with the Zygosaccharomyces bailii Ffz1 fructose-specific transporter belong to a new family of sugar transport systems mediating the uptake of hexoses via the facilitated diffusion mechanism, and are more homologous to drug/H(+) antiporters (regarding their primary protein structure) than to other yeast sugar transporters of the Sugar Porter family. PMID:21051487

  1. New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B; Bairoch, A

    1993-01-01

    301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes corresponding to 39 EC entries of the I.U.B. classification system have been classified into 35 families on the basis of amino-acid-sequence similarities [Henrissat (1991) Biochem. J. 280, 309-316]. Approximately half of the families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number), whereas the other half were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). A > 60% increase in sequence data for glycosyl hydrolases (181 additional enzymes or enzyme domains sequences have since become available) allowed us to update the classification not only by the addition of more members to already identified families, but also by the finding of ten new families. On the basis of a comparison of 482 sequences corresponding to 52 EC entries, 45 families, out of which 22 are polyspecific, can now be defined. This classification has been implemented in the SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank. PMID:8352747

  2. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Douglas H. . E-mail: sweetd@musc.edu

    2005-05-01

    Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

  3. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 Facilitates the Blood-Brain Barrier Transport of Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijun; Scanlon, Martin J; Owada, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yui; Porter, Christopher J H; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-12-01

    The brain has a limited ability to synthesize the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from its omega-3 fatty acid precursors. Therefore, to maintain brain concentrations of this PUFA at physiological levels, plasma-derived DHA must be transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). While DHA is able to partition into the luminal membrane of brain endothelial cells, its low aqueous solubility likely limits its cytosolic transfer to the abluminal membrane, necessitating the requirement of an intracellular carrier protein to facilitate trafficking of this PUFA across the BBB. As the intracellular carrier protein fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is expressed at the human BBB, the current study assessed the putative role of FABP5 in the brain endothelial cell uptake and BBB transport of DHA in vitro and in vivo, respectively. hFAPB5 was recombinantly expressed and purified from Escherichia coli C41(DE3) cells and the binding affinity of DHA to hFABP5 assessed using isothermal titration calorimetry. The impact of FABP5 siRNA on uptake of (14)C-DHA into immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells was assessed. An in situ transcardiac perfusion method was optimized in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently used to compare the BBB influx rate (Kin) of (14)C-DHA between FABP5-deficient (FABP5(-/-)) and wild-type (FABP5(+/+)) C57BL/6 mice. DHA bound to hFABP5 with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 155 ± 8 nM (mean ± SEM). FABP5 siRNA transfection decreased hCMEC/D3 mRNA and protein expression of FABP5 by 53.2 ± 5.5% and 44.8 ± 13.7%, respectively, which was associated with a 14.1 ± 2.7% reduction in (14)C-DHA cellular uptake. By using optimized conditions for the in situ transcardiac perfusion (a 1 min preperfusion (10 mL/min) followed by perfusion of (14)C-DHA (1 min)), the Kin of (14)C-DHA was 0.04 ± 0.01 mL/g/s. Relative to FABP5(+/+) mice, the Kin of (14)C-DHA decreased 36.7 ± 12.4% in FABP5(-/-) mice

  4. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration. PMID:25195602

  5. Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2014-08-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration. PMID:25195602

  6. Report membrane transport of lactic acid in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  7. Regulatory signals for intestinal amino acid transporters and peptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, R.P.; Kwan, W.W.; Diamond, J. )

    1988-08-01

    Dietary protein ultimately regulates many processes involved in protein digestion, but it is often unclear whether proteins themselves, peptides, or amino acids (AAs) are the proximate regulatory signal. Hence the authors compared several processes involved in protein digestion in mice adapted to one of three rations, identical except for containing 54% of either casein, a partial hydrolysate of casein, or a free AA mixture simulating a complete hydrolysate of casein. The authors measured brush-border uptakes of seven AAs that variously serve as substrates for four AA transporters, and brush-border and cytosolic activities of four peptidases. The three rations yielded essentially the same AA uptake rates. Peptidase activities tended to be lower on the AA ration than on the protein ration. In other studies, all three rations yielded the same rates of brush-border peptide uptake; protein is only modestly more effective than AAs at inducing synthesis of pancreatic proteases; and, depending on the animal species, protein is either much less or much more effective than AAs at stimulating release of cholecystokinin and hence of pancreatic enzymes. Thus the regulators of each process involved in protein digestion are not necessarily that process's substrate.

  8. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Martin, Eric; Moyer, Neil

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  9. Inactivating Mutations in MFSD2A, Required for Omega-3 Fatty Acid Transport in Brain, Cause a Lethal Microcephaly Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guemez-Gamboa, Alicia; Nguyen, Long N.; Yang, Hongbo; Zaki, Maha S.; Kara, Majdi; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Akizu, Naiara; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Rosti, Basak; Scott, Eric; Schroth, Jana; Copeland, Brett; Vaux, Keith K.; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Quek, Debra Q.Y.; Wong, Bernice H.; Tan, Bryan C.; Wenk, Markus R.; Gunel, Murat; Gabriel, Stacey; Chi, Neil C.; Silver, David L.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid in brain, and although considered essential, deficiency has not been linked to disease1,2. Despite the large mass of DHA in phospholipids, the brain does not synthesize it. DHA is imported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) through the Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain 2a (Mfsd2a)3. Mfsd2a transports DHA as well as other fatty acids in the form of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). We identify two families displaying MFSD2A mutations in conserved residues. Patients exhibited a lethal microcephaly syndrome linked to inadequate uptake of LPC lipids. The MFSD2A mutations impaired transport activity in a cell-based assay. Moreover, when expressed in mfsd2aa zebrafish morphants, mutants failed to rescue microcephaly, BBB breakdown and lethality. Our results establish a link between transport of DHA and LPCs by MFSD2A and human brain growth and function, presenting the first evidence of monogenic disease related to transport of DHA in humans. PMID:26005868

  10. Designing Novel Nanoformulations Targeting Glutamate Transporter Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: Implications in Treating Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Rao, PSS; Yallapu, Murali M.; Sari, Youssef; Fisher, Paul B.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic drug abuse is associated with elevated extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain reward regions. Deficit of glutamate clearance has been identified as a contributing factor that leads to enhanced glutamate concentration following extended drug abuse. Importantly, normalization of glutamate level through induction of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)/ excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) expression has been described in several in vivo studies. GLT1 upregulators including ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, have been effective in attenuating drug-seeking and drug-consumption behavior in rodent models. However, potential obstacles toward clinical translation of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators as treatment for drug addiction might include poor gastrointestinal absorption, serious peripheral adverse effects, and/or suboptimal CNS concentrations. Given the growing success of nanotechnology in targeting CNS ailments, nanoformulating known GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators for selective uptake across the blood brain barrier presents an ideal therapeutic approach for treating drug addiction. In this review, we summarize the results obtained with promising GLT1 (EAAT2) inducing compounds in animal models recapitulating drug addiction. Additionally, the various nanoformulations that can be employed for selectively increasing the CNS bioavailability of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators are discussed. Finally, the applicability of GLT1 (EAAT2) induction via central delivery of drug-loaded nanoformulations is described. PMID:26635971

  11. gamma-Glutamyl amino acids. Transport and conversion to 5-oxoproline in the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, R.J.; Meister, A.

    1985-06-25

    Transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids, a step in the proposed glutathione-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-mediated amino acid transport pathway, was examined in mouse kidney. The transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids was demonstrated in vitro in studies on kidney slices. Transport was followed by measuring uptake of /sup 35/S after incubation of the slices in media containing gamma-glutamyl methionine (/sup 35/S)sulfone. The experimental complication associated with extracellular conversion of the gamma-glutamyl amino acid to amino acid and uptake of the latter by slices was overcome by using 5-oxoproline formation (catalyzed by intracellular gamma-glutamyl-cyclotransferase) as an indicator of gamma-glutamyl amino acid transport. This method was also successfully applied to studies on transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids in vivo. Transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids in vitro and in vivo is inhibited by several inhibitors of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and also by high extracellular levels of glutathione. This seems to explain urinary excretion of gamma-glutamylcystine by humans with gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency and by mice treated with inhibitors of this enzyme. Mice depleted of glutathione by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (which inhibits glutathione synthesis) or by treatment with 2,6-dimethyl-2,5-heptadiene-4-one (which effectively interacts with tissue glutathione) exhibited significantly less transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids than did untreated controls. The findings suggest that intracellular glutathione functions in transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids. Evidence was also obtained for transport of gamma-glutamyl gamma-glutamylphenylalanine into kidney slices.

  12. ERECTA Family Genes Regulate Auxin Transport in the Shoot Apical Meristem and Forming Leaf Primordia1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Kun; Wilson, Rebecca L.; Palme, Klaus; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Shpak, Elena D.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are produced postembryonically at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem. Their initiation is induced by a positive feedback loop between auxin and its transporter PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1). The expression and polarity of PIN1 in the shoot apical meristem is thought to be regulated primarily by auxin concentration and flow. The formation of an auxin maximum in the L1 layer of the meristem is the first sign of leaf initiation and is promptly followed by auxin flow into the inner tissues, formation of the midvein, and appearance of the primordium bulge. The ERECTA family genes (ERfs) encode leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, and in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), this gene family consists of ERECTA (ER), ERECTA-LIKE1 (ERL1), and ERL2. Here, we show that ERfs regulate auxin transport during leaf initiation. The shoot apical meristem of the er erl1 erl2 triple mutant produces leaf primordia at a significantly reduced rate and with altered phyllotaxy. This phenotype is likely due to deficiencies in auxin transport in the shoot apex, as judged by altered expression of PIN1, the auxin reporter DR5rev::GFP, and the auxin-inducible genes MONOPTEROS, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE1 (IAA1), and IAA19. In er erl1 erl2, auxin presumably accumulates in the L1 layer of the meristem, unable to flow into the vasculature of a hypocotyl. Our data demonstrate that ERfs are essential for PIN1 expression in the forming midvein of future leaf primordia and in the vasculature of emerging leaves. PMID:23821653

  13. Variation of free phenolic acids in medicinal plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Zgórka, G; Głowniak, K

    2001-08-01

    Ten species belonging to the family Lamiaceae and representing the most popular medicinal plants used in Polish phytotherapy were examined for the content of free phenolic acids (PhAs). Two depsides, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids, as well as eight simple PhAs, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, in different qualitative and quantitative proportions depending on the plant examined were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:11451645

  14. Adsorption and transport of polymaleic acid on Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone: Batch and transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, Delphine; Landesman, Catherine; Grambow, Bernd; Ribet, Solange; Giffaut, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) can affect the mobility of radionuclides in pore water of clay-rich geological formations, such as those intended to be used for nuclear waste disposal. The present work studies the adsorption and transport properties of a polycarboxylic acid, polymaleic acid (PMA, Mw = 1.9 kDa), on Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples (COx). Even though this molecule is rather different from the natural organic matter found in clay rock, the study of its retention properties on both dispersed and intact samples allows assessing to which extent organic acids may undergo sorption under natural conditions (pH 7) and what could be the impact on their mobility. PMA sorption and desorption were investigated in dispersed systems. The degree of sorption was measured after 1, 8 and 21 days and for a range of PMA initial concentrations from 4.5 × 10- 7 to 1.4 × 10- 3 mol.L- 1. The reversibility of the sorption process was estimated by desorption experiments performed after the sorption experiments. At the sorption steady state, the sorption was described by a two-site Langmuir model. A total sorption capacity of COx for PMA was found to be 1.01×10- 2 mol.kg- 1 distributed on two sorption sites, one weak and one strong. The desorption of PMA was incomplete, independently of the duration of the sorption phase. The amount of desorbable PMA even appeared to decrease for sorption phases from 1 to 21 days. To describe the apparent desorption hysteresis, two conceptual models were applied. The two-box diffusion model accounted for intraparticle diffusion and more generally for nonequilibrium processes. The two-box first-order non-reversible model accounted for a first-order non-reversible sorption and more generally for kinetically-controlled irreversible sorption processes. The use of the two models revealed that desorption hysteresis was not the result of nonequilibrium processes but was due to irreversible sorption. Irreversible sorption on the strong site was

  15. Characterizing MttA as a mitochondrial cis-aconitic acid transporter by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Matthias G; Punt, Peter J; Ram, Arthur F J; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial carrier protein MttA is involved in the biosynthesis of itaconic acid in Aspergillus terreus. In this paper, the transport specificity of MttA is analyzed making use of different metabolically engineered Aspergillus niger strains. Furthermore, the mitochondrial localization of this protein is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. It was found that MttA preferentially transports cis-aconitic acid over citric acid and does not transport itaconic acid. The expression of MttA in selected A. niger strains results in secretion of aconitic acid. MttA can be used in further strain engineering strategies to transport cis-aconitic acid to the cytosol to produce itaconic acid or related metabolites. The microbial production of aconitic acid (9g/L) is achieved in strains expressing this transport protein. Thus, metabolic engineering can be used for both the in vivo characterization of transport protein function like MttA and to make use of this protein by creating aconitic acid producing strains. PMID:26875555

  16. Differential regulation of two distinct families of glucose transporter genes in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Bringaud, F; Baltz, T

    1993-01-01

    A tandemly arranged multigene family encoding putative hexose transporters in Trypanosoma brucei has been characterized. It is composed of two 80% homologous groups of genes called THT1 (six copies) and THT2 (five copies). When Xenopus oocytes are microinjected with in vitro-transcribed RNA from a THT1 gene, they express a glucose transporter with properties similar to those of the trypanosome bloodstream-form protein(s). This THT1-encoded transport system for glucose differs from the human erythrocyte-type glucose transporter by its moderate sensitivity to cytochalasin B and its capacity to transport D-fructose. These properties suggest that the trypanosomal transporter may be a good target for antitrypanosomal drugs. mRNA analysis revealed that expression of these genes was life cycle stage dependent. Bloodstream forms express 40-fold more THT1 than THT2. In contrast, procyclic trypanosomes express no detectable THT1 but demonstrate glucose-dependent expression of THT2. Images PMID:8423781

  17. Role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides for cellular mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) uptake.

    PubMed

    König, Jörg; Glaeser, Hartmut; Keiser, Markus; Mandery, Kathrin; Klotz, Ulrich; Fromm, Martin F

    2011-06-01

    The therapeutic effects and metabolism of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease require intracellular accumulation of the drug in intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes. The molecular mechanisms of mesalazine uptake into cells have not been characterized so far. Using human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing uptake transporters of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) family, which are expressed in human intestine and/or liver, we found that mesalazine uptake is mediated by OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 but not by OATP1A2 and OATP4A1. Moreover, genetic variations (*1b, *5, *15) in the SLCO1B1 gene encoding OATP1B1 reduced the K(m) value for mesalazine uptake from 55.1 to 16.3, 24.3, and 32.4 μM, respectively, and the respective V(max) values. Finally, budesonide, cyclosporine, and rifampin were identified as inhibitors of OATP1B1-, OATP1B3-, and OATP2B1-meditated mesalazine uptake. These in vitro data indicate that OATP-mediated uptake and its modification by genetic factors and comedications may play a role for mesalazine effects. PMID:21430235

  18. Structural basis of intramitochondrial phosphatidic acid transport mediated by Ups1-Mdm35 complex

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang; He, Fangyuan; Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Chengyuan; Wang, Jianchuan; Li, Jianxu; Qi, Xiaofeng; Xue, Hongwei; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Ups1 forms a complex with Mdm35 and is critical for the transport of phosphatidic acid (PA) from the mitochondrial outer membrane to the inner membrane. We report the crystal structure of the Ups1-Mdm35-PA complex and the functional characterization of Ups1-Mdm35 in PA binding and transfer. Ups1 features a barrel-like structure consisting of an antiparallel β-sheet and three α-helices. Mdm35 adopts a three-helical clamp-like structure to wrap around Ups1 to form a stable complex. The β-sheet and α-helices of Ups1 form a long tunnel-like pocket to accommodate the substrate PA, and a short helix α2 acts as a lid to cover the pocket. The hydrophobic residues lining the pocket and helix α2 are critical for PA binding and transfer. In addition, a hydrophilic patch on the surface of Ups1 near the PA phosphate-binding site also plays an important role in the function of Ups1-Mdm35. Our study reveals the molecular basis of the function of Ups1-Mdm35 and sheds new light on the mechanism of intramitochondrial phospholipid transport by the MSF1/PRELI family proteins. PMID:26071601

  19. Skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression is increased in young and older adults following resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Christopher S.; Glynn, Erin L.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Walker, Dillon K.; Gundermann, David M.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2011-01-01

    Amino acid transporters and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling are important contributors to muscle protein anabolism. Aging is associated with reduced mTORC1 signaling following resistance exercise, but the role of amino acid transporters is unknown. Young (n = 13; 28 ± 2 yr) and older (n = 13; 68 ± 2 yr) subjects performed a bout of resistance exercise. Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at basal and 3, 6, and 24 h postexercise and were analyzed for amino acid transporter mRNA and protein expression and regulators of amino acid transporter transcription utilizing real-time PCR and Western blotting. We found that basal amino acid transporter expression was similar in young and older adults (P > 0.05). Exercise increased L-type amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, and cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1 mRNA expression in both young and older adults (P < 0.05). L-type amino acid transporter 1 and CD98 protein increased only in younger adults (P < 0.05). eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α-subunit (S52) increased similarly in young and older adults postexercise (P < 0.05). Ribosomal protein S6 (S240/244) and activating transcription factor 4 nuclear protein expression tended to be higher in the young, while nuclear signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (Y705) was higher in the older subjects postexercise (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the rapid upregulation of amino acid transporter expression following resistance exercise may be regulated differently between the age groups, but involves a combination of mTORC1, activating transcription factor 4, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α-subunit, and STAT3. We propose an increase in amino acid transporter expression may contribute to enhanced amino acid sensitivity following exercise in young and older

  20. The very low birth weight transport goes home: impact on the family.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M C; Stemmler, M M; Bernbaum, J C; Farran, A C

    1986-08-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are known to experience more health problems after discharge from the hospital, but the effects of such problems in terms of the demand for medical care and of the effect of this on the family are only just beginning to be described. A survey of the families of 132 children who were born weighing less than 1750 g at mostly suburban hospitals and transported to a Children's Hospital, who were 1-4 years old at the time of the survey, has revealed that these children continue to experience health problems to the extent that 35% are limited in one or more activities of daily living. They also incur greater use of health care services (17% hospitalized in the prior year; 54% with a doctor's visit in the prior month). The most important predictors of high perceived impact of these problems on the family is related to the number of activities limited by health, the age of the child, and the financial resources the family could bring to coping with the child's care. These findings provide further characterization of the families which may be most vulnerable to the ongoing health problems of the VLBW infant. PMID:3745447

  1. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montoudis, Alain; Delvin, Edgard; Menard, Daniel

    2006-01-06

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

  2. Transporter-targeted cholic acid-cytarabine conjugates for improved oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Dongpo; Shang, Lei; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2016-09-10

    Cytarabine has a poor oral absorption due to its rapid deamination and poor membrane permeability. Bile acid transporters are highly expressed both in enterocytes and hepatocytes and to increase the oral bioavailability and investigate the potential application of cytarabine for liver cancers, a transporter- recognizing prodrug strategy was applied to design and synthesize four conjugates of cytarabine with cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The anticancer activities against HepG2 cells were evaluated by MTT assay and the role of bile acid transporters during cellular transport was investigated in a competitive inhibition experiment. The in vitro and in vivo metabolic stabilities of these conjugates were studied in rat plasma and liver homogenates. Finally, an oral bioavailability study was conducted in rats. All the cholic acid-cytarabine conjugates (40μM) showed potent antiproliferative activities (up to 70%) against HepG2 cells after incubation for 48h. The addition of bile acids could markedly reduce the antitumor activities of these conjugates. The N(4)-ursodeoxycholic acid conjugate of cytarabine (compound 5) exhibited optimal stability (t1/2=90min) in vitro and a 3.9-fold prolonged half-life of cytarabine in vivo. More importantly, compound 5 increased the oral bioavailability 2-fold compared with cytarabine. The results of the present study suggest that the prodrug strategy based on the bile acid transporters is suitable for improving the oral absorption and the clinical application of cytarabine. PMID:27377011

  3. Identification and characterization of an amino acid transporter expressed differentially in liver

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sumin; Roderick, Hywel Llewelyn; Camacho, Patricia; Jiang, Jean X.

    2000-01-01

    Cellular metabolic needs are fulfilled by transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane by means of specialized transporter proteins. Although many of the classical amino acid transporters have been characterized functionally, less than half of these proteins have been cloned. In this report, we identify and characterize a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane amino acid transporter. The deduced amino acid sequence is 505 residues and is highly hydrophobic with the likely predicted structure of 9 transmembrane domains, which putatively place the amino terminus in the cytoplasm and the carboxy terminus on the cell surface. Expression of the cRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed strong transport activities specific for histidine and glutamine. This protein is a Na+- and pH-dependent transporter and tolerates substitution of Na+ by Li+. Furthermore, this transporter is not an obligatory exchanger because efflux occurs in the absence of influx. This transporter is expressed predominantly in the liver, although it is also present in the kidney, brain, and heart. In the liver, it is located in the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, and the strongest expression was detected in those adjacent to the central vein, gradually decreasing towards the portal tract. Because this protein displays functional similarities to the N-system amino acid transport, we have termed it mNAT, for murine N-system amino acid transporter. This is the first transporter gene identified within the N-system, one of the major amino acid transport systems in the body. The expression pattern displayed by mNAT suggests a potential role in hepatocyte physiology. PMID:10716701

  4. Potency of individual bile acids to regulate bile acid synthesis and transport genes in primary human hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Hong; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Lei, Xiaohong; Cui, Julia Yue; Ellis, Ewa; Strom, Stephen C; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate their own homeostasis, but the potency of individual bile acids is not known. This study examined the effects of cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on expression of BA synthesis and transport genes in human primary hepatocyte cultures. Hepatocytes were treated with the individual BAs at 10, 30, and 100μM for 48 h, and RNA was extracted for real-time PCR analysis. For the classic pathway of BA synthesis, BAs except for UDCA markedly suppressed CYP7A1 (70-95%), the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid synthesis, but only moderately (35%) down-regulated CYP8B1 at a high concentration of 100μM. BAs had minimal effects on mRNA of two enzymes of the alternative pathway of BA synthesis, namely CYP27A1 and CYP7B1. BAs increased the two major target genes of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), namely the small heterodimer partner (SHP) by fourfold, and markedly induced fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) over 100-fold. The BA uptake transporter Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide was unaffected, whereas the efflux transporter bile salt export pump was increased 15-fold and OSTα/β were increased 10-100-fold by BAs. The expression of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3; sixfold), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter G5 (ABCG5; sixfold), multidrug associated protein-2 (MRP2; twofold), and MRP3 (threefold) were also increased, albeit to lesser degrees. In general, CDCA was the most potent and effective BA in regulating these genes important for BA homeostasis, whereas DCA and CA were intermediate, LCA the least, and UDCA ineffective. PMID:25055961

  5. The putative Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 9 is targeted to vesicles and may be involved in plant amino acid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huaiyu; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids are major primary metabolites. Their uptake, translocation, compartmentation, and re-mobilization require a diverse set of cellular transporters. Here, the broadly expressed gene product of CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 9 (CAT9) was identified as mainly localized to vesicular membranes that are involved in vacuolar trafficking, including those of the trans-Golgi network. In order to probe whether and how these compartments are involved in amino acid homeostasis, a loss-of-function cat9-1 mutant and ectopic over-expressor plants were isolated. Under restricted nitrogen supply in soil, cat9-1 showed a chlorotic phenotype, which was reversed in the over-expressors. The total soluble amino acid pools were affected in the mutants, but this was only significant under poor nitrogen supply. Upon nitrogen starvation, the soluble amino acid leaf pools were lower in the over-expressor, compared with cat9-1. Over-expression generally affected total soluble amino acid concentrations, slightly delayed development, and finally improved the survival upon severe nitrogen starvation. The results potentially identify a novel function of vesicular amino acid transport mediated by CAT9 in the cellular nitrogen-dependent amino acid homeostasis. PMID:25883600

  6. The putative Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 9 is targeted to vesicles and may be involved in plant amino acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huaiyu; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids are major primary metabolites. Their uptake, translocation, compartmentation, and re-mobilization require a diverse set of cellular transporters. Here, the broadly expressed gene product of CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 9 (CAT9) was identified as mainly localized to vesicular membranes that are involved in vacuolar trafficking, including those of the trans-Golgi network. In order to probe whether and how these compartments are involved in amino acid homeostasis, a loss-of-function cat9-1 mutant and ectopic over-expressor plants were isolated. Under restricted nitrogen supply in soil, cat9-1 showed a chlorotic phenotype, which was reversed in the over-expressors. The total soluble amino acid pools were affected in the mutants, but this was only significant under poor nitrogen supply. Upon nitrogen starvation, the soluble amino acid leaf pools were lower in the over-expressor, compared with cat9-1. Over-expression generally affected total soluble amino acid concentrations, slightly delayed development, and finally improved the survival upon severe nitrogen starvation. The results potentially identify a novel function of vesicular amino acid transport mediated by CAT9 in the cellular nitrogen-dependent amino acid homeostasis. PMID:25883600

  7. Auxin Transport in Zea mays Coleoptiles II. Influence of Light on the Transport of Indoleacetic Acid-2-C.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S M; Gordon, S A

    1967-01-01

    The effect of bilateral irradiation with white light (1000 Meter Candle Sec) on the basipetal transport of auxin has been investigated. Illumination of either the intact shoot or the excised coleoptile tip of the Zea seedling, decreased the amount of diffusible auxin obtained from the tip, and decreased Avena curvature response to unilaterally applied indoleacetic acid. Irradiation of the intact Zea seedling did not affect the absorption of (14)C-labeled indoleacetic acid from an agar block subsequently placed on the decapitated coleoptile. However, light caused a significant decrease in the amount of labeled auxin basipetally transported, without affecting materially the velocity of that transport. These and other observations are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that the primary hormonal phenomenon in first-positive phototropism is a light-induced impairment in the basipetal transport of auxin. PMID:16656477

  8. Structural basis of the alternating-access mechanism in a bile acid transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Levin, Elena J.; Pan, Yaping; McCoy, Jason G.; Sharma, Ruchika; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned to the liver for resecretion. In humans, there are two Na+-dependent bile acid transporters involved in enterohepatic recirculation, the Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP; also known as SLC10A1) expressed in hepatocytes, and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; also known as SLC10A2) expressed on enterocytes in the terminal ileum. In recent years, ASBT has attracted much interest as a potential drug target for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia, because inhibition of ASBT reduces reabsorption of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. However, a lack of three-dimensional structures of bile acid transporters hampers our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and transport, and to interpret the wealth of existing functional data. The crystal structure of an ASBT homologue from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBTNM) in detergent was reported recently, showing the protein in an inward-open conformation bound to two Na+ and a taurocholic acid. However, the structural changes that bring bile acid and Na+ across the membrane are difficult to infer from a single structure. To understand the structural changes associated with the coupled transport of Na+ and bile acids, here we solved two structures of an ASBT homologue from Yersinia frederiksenii (ASBTYf) in a lipid environment, which reveal that a large rigid-body rotation of a substrate-binding domain gives the conserved `crossover' region, where two discontinuous helices cross each other, alternating accessibility from either side of the cell membrane. This result has implications

  9. Amino acid absorption and homeostasis in mice lacking the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1.

    PubMed

    Nässl, Anna-Maria; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Fenselau, Henning; Marth, Mena Katharina; Kottra, Gabor; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-07-01

    The intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 mediates the uptake of di- and tripeptides derived from dietary protein breakdown into epithelial cells. Whereas the transporter appears to be essential to compensate for the reduced amino acid delivery in patients with mutations in amino acid transporter genes, such as in cystinuria or Hartnup disease, its physiological role in overall amino acid absorption is still not known. To assess the quantitative importance of PEPT1 in overall amino acid absorption and metabolism, PEPT1-deficient mice were studied by using brush border membrane vesicles, everted gut sacs, and Ussing chambers, as well as by transcriptome and proteome analysis of intestinal tissue samples. Neither gene expression nor proteome profiling nor functional analysis revealed evidence for any compensatory changes in the levels and/or function of transporters for free amino acids in the intestine. However, most plasma amino acid levels were increased in Pept1(-/-) compared with Pept1(+/+) animals, suggesting that amino acid handling is altered. Plasma appearance rates of (15)N-labeled amino acids determined after intragastric administration of a low dose of protein remained unchanged, whereas administration of a large protein load via gavage revealed marked differences in plasma appearance of selected amino acids. PEPT1 seems, therefore, important for overall amino acid absorption only after high dietary protein intake when amino acid transport processes are saturated and PEPT1 can provide additional absorption capacity. Since renal amino acid excretion remained unchanged, elevated basal concentrations of plasma amino acids in PEPT1-deficient animals seem to arise mainly from alterations in hepatic amino acid metabolism. PMID:21350187

  10. Molecular basis for amino acid sensing by family C G-protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wellendorph, P; Bräuner-Osborne, H

    2009-01-01

    Family C of human G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is constituted by eight metabotropic glutamate receptors, two γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB1–2) subunits forming the heterodimeric GABAB receptor, the calcium-sensing receptor, three taste1 receptors (T1R1–3), a promiscuous L-α-amino acid receptor G-protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) and seven orphan receptors. Aside from the orphan receptors, the family C GPCRs are dimeric receptors characterized by a large extracellular Venus flytrap domain which bind the endogenous agonists. Except from the GABAB1–2 and T1R2–3 receptor, all receptors are either activated or positively modulated by amino acids. In this review, we outline mutational, biophysical and structural studies which have elucidated the interaction of the amino acids with the Venus flytrap domains, molecular mechanisms of receptor selectivity and the initial steps in receptor activation. PMID:19298394

  11. Growth responses of 53 open-pollinated loblolly pine families to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Edwards, N.T.; Hanson, P.J.

    1994-03-01

    Field exposures of 9950 containerized 12-wk-old loblolly pine (Pinustaeda L.) seedlings representing 53 commercially important, open-pollinated families were conducted to evaluate individual and interactive effects of acid rain and O{sub 3} on growth response. A 36-plot field research facility comprised of 33 open-top chambers and three open plots was used to test effects of five O{sub 3} levels that included ambient (A) and seasonally integrated levels that were 0.53, 1.10, 1.58, or 2.15 times ambient. Individual effects of three levels of simulated acid rain (pH 3.3, 4.5, and 5.2) as well as their interaction with O{sub 3} at 0.53A, 1.58A, and 2.15A levels were also included. Exposure to ambient air reduced average growth in height (26%), diameter (5%), and volume (14%) compared with growth of seedlings exposed to a 47% lower dose in charcoal filtered (CF) air. Responses to increasing O{sub 3} above ambient levels varied widely between families, became increasingly inhibitory at the highest O{sub 3} levels, but did not significantly exceed growth reductions found in ambient air. Diameter growth was reduced in most families by all levels of O{sub 3} addition. Acid rain caused a general stimulation of height growth at ambient levels (pH 4.5), while both height and diameter growth were reduced at a mean pH of 3.3. Significant antagonism between rainfall acidity and O{sub 3} effects on height and biomass increment was detected with increasing pollutant concentrations. Ozone reduced root/shoot biomass in most families, while acid rain did not. 51 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 mediates ER-Golgi transit of a family of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Kunduri, Govind; Yuan, Changqing; Parthibane, Velayoudame; Nyswaner, Katherine M; Kanwar, Ritu; Nagashima, Kunio; Britt, Steven G; Mehta, Nickita; Kotu, Varshika; Porterfield, Mindy; Tiemeyer, Michael; Dolph, Patrick J; Acharya, Usha; Acharya, Jairaj K

    2014-07-01

    The coat protein II (COPII)-coated vesicular system transports newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Recruitment of cargo into COPII vesicles requires an interaction of COPII proteins either with the cargo molecules directly or with cargo receptors for anterograde trafficking. We show that cytosolic phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 (PAPLA1) interacts with COPII protein family members and is required for the transport of Rh1 (rhodopsin 1), an N-glycosylated G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), from the ER to the Golgi complex. In papla1 mutants, in the absence of transport to the Golgi, Rh1 is aberrantly glycosylated and is mislocalized. These defects lead to decreased levels of the protein and decreased sensitivity of the photoreceptors to light. Several GPCRs, including other rhodopsins and Bride of sevenless, are similarly affected. Our findings show that a cytosolic protein is necessary for transit of selective transmembrane receptor cargo by the COPII coat for anterograde trafficking. PMID:25002678

  13. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha and bile acids regulate human concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kerstin; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Eloranta, Jyrki J

    2009-04-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 (CNT1) is a member of the solute carrier 28 (SLC28) gene family and is expressed in the liver, intestine, and kidneys. CNT1 mediates the uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine nucleosides, but also nucleoside analogs used in anticancer and antiviral therapy. Thus expression levels of CNT1 may affect the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and the outcome of drug therapy. Because little is known about the transcriptional regulation of human CNT1 gene expression, we have characterized the CNT1 promoter with respect to DNA response elements and their binding factors. The transcriptional start site of the CNT1 gene was determined by 5'-RACE. In silico analysis revealed the existence of three putative binding sites for the nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) within the CNT1 promoter. A luciferase reporter gene construct containing the CNT1 promoter region was transactivated by HNF-4alpha in human cell lines derived from the liver, intestine, and kidneys. Consistent with this, we showed in electromobility shift assays that HNF-4alpha specifically binds to two conserved direct repeat-1 motifs within the proximal CNT1 promoter. In cotransfection experiments, the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha further increased, whereas the bile acid-inducible corepressor small heterodimer partner reduced, HNF-4alpha-dependent CNT1 promoter activity. Consistent with the latter phenomenon, CNT1 mRNA expression levels were suppressed in primary human hepatocytes upon bile acid treatment. Supporting the physiological relevance and species conservation of this effect, ileal Cnt1 mRNA expression was decreased upon bile acid feeding and increased upon bile duct ligation in mice. PMID:19228884

  14. Transport properties for members of the ZIP family in plants and their role in Zn and Mn homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of the role of the Arabidopsis ZIP family of micronutrient transporters is necessary in order to advance our understanding of plant Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu homeostasis. In the current study, the eleven Arabidopsis ZIP family members not yet well characterized were studied for thei...

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elicits Inflammatory Responses that Dysregulate Placental Amino Acid Transport

    PubMed Central

    Boeuf, Philippe; Aitken, Elizabeth H.; Chandrasiri, Upeksha; Chua, Caroline Lin Lin; McInerney, Bernie; McQuade, Leon; Duffy, Michael; Molyneux, Malcolm; Brown, Graham; Glazier, Jocelyn; Rogerson, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Placental malaria (PM) can lead to poor neonatal outcomes, including low birthweight due to fetal growth restriction (FGR), especially when associated with local inflammation (intervillositis or IV). The pathogenesis of PM-associated FGR is largely unknown, but in idiopathic FGR, impaired transplacental amino acid transport, especially through the system A group of amino acid transporters, has been implicated. We hypothesized that PM-associated FGR could result from impairment of transplacental amino acid transport triggered by IV. In a cohort of Malawian women and their infants, the expression and activity of system A (measured by Na+-dependent 14C-MeAIB uptake) were reduced in PM, especially when associated with IV, compared to uninfected placentas. In an in vitro model of PM with IV, placental cells exposed to monocyte/infected erythrocytes conditioned medium showed decreased system A activity. Amino acid concentrations analyzed by reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography in paired maternal and cord plasmas revealed specific alterations of amino acid transport by PM, especially with IV. Overall, our data suggest that the fetoplacental unit responds to PM by altering its placental amino acid transport to maintain adequate fetal growth. However, IV more profoundly compromises placental amino acid transport function, leading to FGR. Our study offers the first pathogenetic explanation for FGR in PM. PMID:23408887

  16. Antigen-specific stimulation of amino acid transport in bovine lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of bovine lymphocytes isolated from animals which were either infected with Mycobacterium bovis or sensitized to a purified protein derivative (PPD-B) from this organism induced an increase in the transport of a-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and a-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB). PPD-B did not stimulate these transport activities in lymphocytes from nonsensitized animals. The transport stimulation was first measurable after about 7 hours of treatment, reached about a two-fold enhancement after 20 hours, and continued to increase to 30- to 40-fold after 6 days. The stimulation of AIB transport was inhibited by both ouabain and cycloheximide. Experiments to determine transport system specificities in nonstimulated lymphocytes showed that MeAIB transport was primarily by the Na/sup +/-dependent, A-system,and leucine transport was mostly by Na/sup +/-independent system(s). In contrast, AIB transport was about 25% by the A-system, 25% by at least one Na/sup +/-dependent, non-A-system, and 50% by one or more Na/sup +/-independent system(s). Analysis of the three components of AIB transport after treatment with PPD-B showed that: 1) transport by both the A-system and the Na/sup +/-independent system(s) was stimulated; 2) A-system transport was stimulated to a larger extent than Na/sup +/-independent transport; and 3) Na/sup +/-dependent, non-A-system transport was not stimulated significantly.

  17. Human neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1: Structure of the gene (SLC1A4) and localization to chromosome 2p13-p15

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, K.; Dueker, M.; Stoffel, W.

    1994-11-01

    Screening for cDNAs encoding proteins similar to the sodium-coupled glutamate transporter GLAST1 led to the isolation of a cDNA clone coding for a protein that turned out to be identical to the recently described neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1. The new member of the GLAST-related transporter family does not transport glutamate or aspartate but alanine, serine, cysteine, and threonine instead. The expressed sequence tag EST02446, a short cDNA sequence found in the course of a large-scale sequencing project of human brain-derived cDNA, showed significant similarity to the eukaryotic glutamate transporter GLAST1 and was therefore used as probe in the search for further glutamate transporter cDNAs. Fragments of the cDNA were used for the isolation and characterization of human ASCT1 genomic clones. The ORF of 1572 bp encoding 524 amino acid residues is distributed over 8 exons, which span at least 40 kb of human chromosomal DNA. The ASCT1 gene locus was assigned to chromosome 2p13-p15 by chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) studies. The gene structure is not related to any other previously characterized transporter gene. In contrast to the genes of the sodium-coupled nonglutamate neurotransmitter transporters, it shows no obvious correspondence between intron/exon structure and transmembrane organization. The transcription start site in human liver tissue was determined by primer extension analysis to be located 291 bp upstream of the initiating ATG codon. The DNA region immediately upstream of the transcription start lacks any TATA or CAAT boxes but contains several bindings sites for the transcription factors Sp1 and Egr-1. The ASCT1 gene (SLC1A4) structure reported here will facilitate the characterization of the genes of the other members of the GLAST-related transporter family and might be useful in the elucidation of amino acid transport-related defects. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Developmental changes in aspartate-family amino acid biosynthesis in pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.R.; Cato, L.W.; Stephens, B.W.; Reeves, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Isolated chloroplasts are known to synthesize the asp-derived amino acids (ile, hse, lys and thr) from ({sup 14}C)asp (Mills et al, 1980, Plant Physiol. 65, 1166). Now, we have studied the influence of tissue age on essential amino acid biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) plastids. Chloroplasts from the younger (third and fourth) leaves of 12 day old plants, were 2-3 times more active in synthesizing lys and thr from ({sup 14}C)asp than those from older (first or second) leaves. We also examined two key pathway enzymes (aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase); with each enzyme,a activity in younger leaves was about 2 times that in plastids from older tissue. Both lys- and thr-sensitive forms of aspartate kinase are known in plants; in agreement with earlier work, we found that lys-sensitive activity was about 4 times higher in the younger tissues, while the thr-sensitive activity changed little during development (Davies and Miflin, 1977, Plant Sci. Lett. 9, 323). Recently the role of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase in controlling asp-family amino acid synthesis has been questioned (Giovanelli et al, 1989, Plant Physiol. 90, 1584); we hope that measurements of amino acid levels in chloroplasts as well as further enzyme studies will help us to better understand the regulation of asp-family amino acid synthesis.

  19. Pharmacology of Glutamate Transport in the CNS: Substrates and Inhibitors of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAATs) and the Glutamate/Cystine Exchanger System x c -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, Richard J.; Patel, Sarjubhai A.

    As the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, l-glutamate participates not only in standard fast synaptic communication, but also contributes to higher order signal processing, as well as neuropathology. Given this variety of functional roles, interest has been growing as to how the extracellular concentrations of l-glutamate surrounding neurons are regulated by cellular transporter proteins. This review focuses on two prominent systems, each of which appears capable of influencing both the signaling and pathological actions of l-glutamate within the CNS: the sodium-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and the glutamate/cystine exchanger, system x c - (Sx c -). While the family of EAAT subtypes limit access to glutamate receptors by rapidly and efficiently sequestering l-glutamate in neurons and glia, Sxc - provides a route for the export of glutamate from cells into the extracellular environment. The primary intent of this work is to provide an overview of the inhibitors and substrates that have been developed to delineate the pharmacological specificity of these transport systems, as well as be exploited as probes with which to selectively investigate function. Particular attention is paid to the development of small molecule templates that mimic the structural properties of the endogenous substrates, l-glutamate, l-aspartate and l-cystine and how strategic control of functional group position and/or the introduction of lipophilic R-groups can impact multiple aspects of the transport process, including: subtype selectivity, inhibitory potency, and substrate activity.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure and transport properties of tetra-butylphosphonium amino acid ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Kowsari, M H; Alavi, Saman; Najafi, Bijan; Gholizadeh, K; Dehghanpisheh, E; Ranjbar, F

    2011-05-21

    Systematic molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the structure, dynamics and transport properties of the ionic liquids composed of the tetra-butylphosphonium ([TBP](+), or [P(C(4)H(9))(4)](+)) cation with six amino acid ([AA](-)) anions. The structural features of these ionic liquids were characterized by calculating the partial site-site radial distribution functions, g(r), and computing the dihedral angle distribution of n-butyl side chains in the [TBP](+) cations. The dynamics of the ionic liquids are described by studying the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) and the mean-square displacement (MSD) for the centers of mass of the ions at different temperatures. The ionic diffusion coefficients and the electrical conductivities were evaluated from both the Einstein and Green-Kubo methods. The cross-correlation terms in the electric-current autocorrelation functions, which are an indication of the ion pair correlations, are investigated. The cationic transference numbers were also estimated to study the contributions of the anions and cations to the transport of charge in these ionic liquids. We determined the role of the amino acid anion structures on the dynamical behavior and the transport coefficients of this family of ionic liquids. In general, the MSD and self-diffusion coefficients of the relatively heavier non-planar [TBP](+) cations are smaller than those of the lighter amino acid anions. Introducing polar functional groups (acid or amide) in the side chain of [AA](-) decreases the diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity of AAILs. The major factors for determining the magnitude of the transport coefficients are the chemical functionality and the length of the alkyl side chain of the [AA](-) anion of these [TBP][AA] ionic liquids. PMID:21455505

  1. Characteristics of the transport of ascorbic acid into leucocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Raghoebar, M.; Huisman, J.A.M.; van den Berg, W.B.; van Ginneken, C.A.M.

    1987-02-02

    The degree and the mode of association of (/sup 14/C)-ascorbic acid with leucocytes are examined. The degree of association of ascorbic acid with polymorphonuclear leucocytes (1-3 %) is dependent on cell type, extracellular concentration of ascorbic acid, incubation temperature, intactness of the cells and the extracellular pH. All experiments are performed according to strict protocols as these compounds are labile in aqueous solutions. Further it is noticed that in all experiments an outward gradient of leucocyte endogenic ascorbic acid exists. The results suggest that the association process comprises at least one saturable pathway. The activation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes by phorbol myristate acetate increases the accumulation of ascorbic acid threefold. 30 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  2. OSBP-Related Protein Family: Mediators of Lipid Transport and Signaling at Membrane Contact Sites.

    PubMed

    Kentala, Henriikka; Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Olkkonen, Vesa M

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and its related protein homologs, ORPs, constitute a conserved family of lipid-binding/transfer proteins (LTPs) expressed ubiquitously in eukaryotes. The ligand-binding domain of ORPs accommodates cholesterol and oxysterols, but also glycerophospholipids, particularly phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). ORPs have been implicated as intracellular lipid sensors or transporters. Most ORPs carry targeting determinants for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and non-ER organelle membrane. ORPs are located and function at membrane contact sites (MCSs), at which ER is closely apposed with other organelle limiting membranes. Such sites have roles in lipid transport and metabolism, control of Ca(2+) fluxes, and signaling events. ORPs are postulated either to transport lipids over MCSs to maintain the distinct lipid compositions of organelle membranes, or to control the activity of enzymes/protein complexes with functions in signaling and lipid metabolism. ORPs may transfer PI4P and another lipid class bidirectionally. Transport of PI4P followed by its hydrolysis would in this model provide the energy for transfer of the other lipid against its concentration gradient. Control of organelle lipid compositions by OSBP/ORPs is important for the life cycles of several pathogenic viruses. Targeting ORPs with small-molecular antagonists is proposed as a new strategy to combat viral infections. Several ORPs are reported to modulate vesicle transport along the secretory or endocytic pathways. Moreover, antagonists of certain ORPs inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Thus, ORPs are LTPs, which mediate interorganelle lipid transport and coordinate lipid signals with a variety of cellular regimes. PMID:26811291

  3. The Human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 Genes of Solute Carrier Family 25 Encode Two Mitochondrial Pyrimidine Nucleotide Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. PMID:25320081

  4. Improved soybean oil quality by targeted mutagenesis of the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene family.

    PubMed

    Haun, William; Coffman, Andrew; Clasen, Benjamin M; Demorest, Zachary L; Lowy, Anita; Ray, Erin; Retterath, Adam; Stoddard, Thomas; Juillerat, Alexandre; Cedrone, Frederic; Mathis, Luc; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated to increase its shelf life and improve oxidative stability. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat. Soybean lines that are low in polyunsaturated fats were generated by introducing mutations in two fatty acid desaturase 2 genes (FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B), which in the seed convert the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, to the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were engineered to recognize and cleave conserved DNA sequences in both genes. In four of 19 transgenic soybean lines expressing the TALENs, mutations in FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were observed in DNA extracted from leaf tissue; three of the four lines transmitted heritable FAD2-1 mutations to the next generation. The fatty acid profile of the seed was dramatically changed in plants homozygous for mutations in both FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B: oleic acid increased from 20% to 80% and linoleic acid decreased from 50% to under 4%. Further, mutant plants were identified that lacked the TALEN transgene and only carried the targeted mutations. The ability to create a valuable trait in a single generation through targeted modification of a gene family demonstrates the power of TALENs for genome engineering and crop improvement. PMID:24851712

  5. Transport of hop bitter acids across intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cattoor, Ko; Bracke, Marc; Deforce, Dieter; De Keukeleire, Denis; Heyerick, Arne

    2010-04-14

    Several health-beneficial properties of hop bitter acids have been reported (inhibition of bone resorption and anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities); however, scientific data on the bioavailability of these compounds are lacking. As a first approach to study the bioavailability, the epithelial transport of hop alpha- and beta-acids across Caco-2 monolayers was investigated. Hop acids were added either to the apical or to the basolateral chamber and, at various time points, amounts transported to the receiving compartment were determined. The monolayer integrity control was performed by using marker compounds (atenolol and propranolol), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement, and determination of the fluorescein efflux. The TEER and fluorescein efflux confirmed the preservation of the monolayer integrity. The membrane permeability of the alpha-acids (apparent permeability coefficients for apical to basolateral transport (P(appAB)) ranged from 14 x 10(-6) to 41 x 10(-6) cm/s) was determined to be substantially higher than that of the beta-acids (P(appAB) values ranging from 0.9 x 10(-6) to 2.1 x 10(-6) cm/s). Notably, the beta-acids exhibited significantly different bidirectional P(app) values with efflux ratios around 10. The involvement of carrier-mediated transport for beta-acids (active efflux pathway by P-gp, BCRP, and/or MRP-2 type efflux pumps) could be confirmed by transport experiments with specific inhibitors (verapamil and indomethacin). It appears that alpha-acids are efficiently absorbed, whereas the permeability of beta-acids is low. Limiting factors in the absorption of beta-acids could involve P-gp and MRP-2 type efflux transporters and phase II metabolism. PMID:20329731

  6. Aphid amino acid transporter regulates glutamine supply to intracellular bacterial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Feng, Honglin; Baker, James D; Bavan, Selvan; Luetje, Charles W; Wilson, Alex C C

    2014-01-01

    Endosymbiotic associations have played a major role in evolution. However, the molecular basis for the biochemical interdependence of these associations remains poorly understood. The aphid-Buchnera endosymbiosis provides a powerful system to elucidate how these symbioses are regulated. In aphids, the supply of essential amino acids depends on an ancient nutritional symbiotic association with the gamma-proteobacterium Buchnera aphidicola. Buchnera cells are densely packed in specialized aphid bacteriocyte cells. Here we confirm that five putative amino acid transporters are highly expressed and/or highly enriched in Acyrthosiphon pisum bacteriocyte tissues. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, two bacteriocyte amino acid transporters displayed significant levels of glutamine uptake, with transporter ACYPI001018, LOC100159667 (named here as Acyrthosiphon pisum glutamine transporter 1, ApGLNT1) functioning as the most active glutamine transporter. Transporter ApGLNT1 has narrow substrate selectivity, with high glutamine and low arginine transport capacity. Notably, ApGLNT1 has high binding affinity for arginine, and arginine acts as a competitive inhibitor for glutamine transport. Using immunocytochemistry, we show that ApGLNT1 is localized predominantly to the bacteriocyte plasma membrane, a location consistent with the transport of glutamine from A. pisum hemolymph to the bacteriocyte cytoplasm. On the basis of functional transport data and localization, we propose a substrate feedback inhibition model in which the accumulation of the essential amino acid arginine in A. pisum hemolymph reduces the transport of the precursor glutamine into bacteriocytes, thereby regulating amino acid biosynthesis in the bacteriocyte. Structural similarities in the arrangement of hosts and symbionts across endosymbiotic systems suggest that substrate feedback inhibition may be mechanistically important in other endosymbioses. PMID:24367072

  7. The orally active antihyperglycemic drug beta-guanidinopropionic acid is transported by the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter hPAT1.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Linda; Dorn, Madlen; Markwardt, Fritz; Brandsch, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The orally administered creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA) decreases plasma glucose levels by increasing the sensitivity to insulin. This effect is based on a beta-GPA induced expression of mRNA and total protein content of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4. Although the oral availability of beta-GPA is well established, the underlying uptake mechanism has not yet been studied. We investigated whether the H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1, which is expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal cells, accepts guanidine derivatives as substrates. Uptake of l-[(3)H]proline into Caco-2 cells expressing hPAT1 constitutively was strongly inhibited by beta-GPA and its derivatives guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and 4-guanidinobutyric acid (4-GBA). Competition assays revealed apparent affinity constants of about 1.5 mM. Electrophysiological measurements at hPAT1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes unequivocally demonstrated that beta-GPA, GAA and 4-GBA are effectively transported by this transport system in an electrogenic manner. We conclude that hPAT1 might be responsible for the intestinal absorption of beta-GPA thereby allowing its oral administration. Moreover, with beta-GPA we identified a new high affinity hPAT1 substrate that might be an interesting starting point for future drug design-drug delivery strategies. PMID:19358571

  8. Utilization of Lactic Acid by Fusarium oxysporum var. lini: Regulation of Transport and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ieso M.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1994-01-01

    Lactic acid was transported in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini ATCC 10960 by a saturable transport system that had a half-saturation constant of 56.6 ± 7.5 μM and a maximum velocity of 0.61 ± 0.10 mmol h-1 g-1 (dry weight) at 26°C and pH 5.0. This transport system was inducible and was not expressed in the presence of a repressing substrate. Evidence is presented that the anionic form lactate- was taken up by the cells. Propionic, acetic, pyruvic, and bromoacetic acids but not succinic acid competitively inhibited the transport of lactic acid. Bromoacetic acid, which was not metabolized, was taken up to a steady-state level when intracellular and extracellular concentrations were identical, indicating that the transport system was not accumulative. The enzymatic activity that was physiologically more relevant in the metabolism of lactic acid was lactate: ferricytochrome c oxidase. This enzyme did not exhibit stereospecifity and was induced by lactic acid. PMID:16349143

  9. Role of organic acids in promoting colloidal transport of mercury from mine tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slowey, A.J.; Johnson, S.B.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors affect the transport of dissolved and paniculate mercury (Hg) from inoperative Hg mines, including the presence of organic acids in the rooting zone of vegetated mine waste. We examined the role of the two most common organic acids in soils (oxalic and citric acid) on Hg transport from such waste by pumping a mixed organic acid solution (pH 5.7) at 1 mL/min through Hg mine tailings columns. For the two total organic acid concentrations investigated (20 ??M and 1 mM), particle-associated Hg was mobilized, with the onset of paniculate Hg transport occurring later for the lower organic acid concentration. Chemical analyses of column effluent indicate that 98 wt % of Hg mobilized from the column was paniculate. Hg speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, showing that HgS minerals are dominant in the mobilized particles. Hg adsorbed to colloids is another likely mode of transport due to the abundance of Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, Fe-sulfides, alunite, and jarosite in the tailings to which Hg(II) adsorbs. Organic acids produced by plants are likely to enhance the transport of colloid-associated Hg from vegetated Hg mine tailings by dissolving cements to enable colloid release. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  10. Characterization of methylaminoisobutyric acid transport by system A in rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Tovar, A R; Avila, E; DeSantiago, S; Torres, N

    2000-07-01

    During lactation, the mammary gland has a large demand for amino acids for the synthesis of milk proteins and fatty acids. Arteriovenous differences in amino acids across the mammary gland show an elevated uptake of small neutral amino acids that are mainly transported via system A. The purpose of this study was to characterize the transport of methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), an amino acid analog used to model transport by system A in lactating rat mammary gland explants. MeAIB accumulation in mammary gland cells increased steadily, and after 3 hours of incubation, the intracellular concentration of the analog was 8-fold higher than the concentration in the medium. MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants showed a Km of 3.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/L and a maximal velocity (Vmax) of 555 +/- 23 pmol/microL intracellular fluid (ICF) x min, indicating a system with high capacity but low affinity for its substrate. MeAIB transport into mammary tissue depended highly on Na+, and the uptake was inhibited by addition of natural and analog small neutral amino acids. Cationic, anionic, and large neutral amino acids did not reduce MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants. Preincubation of mammary gland explants in an amino acid-free medium stimulated MeAIB transport, suggesting an adaptive regulation. The addition of an equimolar mixture of alanine, glycine, and serine to the preincubation medium inhibited stimulation of MeAIB transport. Furthermore, stimulation of MeAIB uptake by amino acid starvation was also prevented by the addition of actinomycin D, cycloheximide, tunicamycin, and colchicine. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increased MeAIB uptake, whereas phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) did not stimulate MeAIB transport. During the first postweaning days, kinetic analyses showed a decrease of 27% in the Vmax. Injection of rat lactating mammary gland mRNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes induced expression of the MeAIB transport system; however, the

  11. LHT1, a lysine- and histidine-specific amino acid transporter in arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Bush, D R

    1997-01-01

    We have identified a new amino acid transporter from the Arabidopsis thaliana expressed sequence tag cDNA collection by functional complementation of a yeast amino acid transport mutant. Transport analysis of the expressed protein in yeast shows that it is a high-affinity transporter for both lysine (Lys) and histidine with Michaelis constant values of 175 and 400 microM, respectively. This transporter (LHT1, lysine histidine transporter) has little affinity for arginine when measured directly in uptake experiments or indirectly with substrate competition. The cDNA is 1.7 kb with an open reading frame that codes for a protein with 446 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 50.5 kD. Hydropathy analysis shows that LHT1 is an integral membrane protein with 9 to 10 putative membrane-spanning domains. Southern-blot analysis suggests that LHT1 is a single-copy gene in the Arabidopsis genome. RNA gel-blot analysis shows that this transporter is present in all tissues, with the strongest expression in young leaves, flowers, and siliques. Wholemount, in situ hybridization revealed that expression is further localized on the surface of roots in young seedlings and in pollen. Overall, LHT1 belongs to a new class of amino acid transporter that is specific for Lys and histidine, and, given its substrate specificity, it has significant promise as a tool for improving the Lys content of Lys-deficient grains. PMID:9390441

  12. Regulation of amino acid transport in Escherichia coli by transcription termination factor rho.

    PubMed Central

    Quay, S C; Oxender, D L

    1977-01-01

    Amino acid transport rates and amino acid binding proteins were examined in a strain containing the rho-120 mutation (formerly SuA), which has been shown to lower the rho-dependent, ribonucleic acid-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity to 9% of the rho activity in the isogenic wild-type strain. Tryptophan and proline transport, which occur by membrane-bound systems, were not altered. On the other hand, arginine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine transport were variably increased by a factor of 1.4 to 5.0. Kinetics of leucine transport showed that the LIV (leucine, isoleucine, and valine)-I (binding protein-associated) transport system is increased 8.5-fold, whereas the LIV-II (membrane-bound) system is increased 1.5-fold in the rho mutant under leucine-limited growth conditions. The leucine binding protein is increased fourfold under the same growth conditions. The difference in leucine transport in these strains was greatest during leucine-limited growth; growth on complex media repressed both strains to the same transport activity. We propose that rho-dependent transcriptional termination is important for leucine-specific repression of branched-chain amino acid transport, although rho-independent regulation, presumably by a corepressor-aporepressor-type mechanism, must also occur. PMID:324970

  13. Maternal bile acid transporter deficiency promotes neonatal demise

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Fei; Wang, Yao; Pitre, Aaron; Fang, Zhong-ze; Frank, Matthew W.; Calabrese, Christopher; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Neale, Geoffrey; Frase, Sharon; Vogel, Peter; Rock, Charles O.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Schuetz, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is associated with adverse neonatal survival and is estimated to impact between 0.4 and 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Here we show that maternal cholestasis (due to Abcb11 deficiency) produces neonatal death among all offspring within 24 h of birth due to atelectasis-producing pulmonary hypoxia, which recapitulates the neonatal respiratory distress of human ICP. Neonates of Abcb11-deficient mothers have elevated pulmonary bile acids and altered pulmonary surfactant structure. Maternal absence of Nr1i2 superimposed on Abcb11 deficiency strongly reduces maternal serum bile acid concentrations and increases neonatal survival. We identify pulmonary bile acids as a key factor in the disruption of the structure of pulmonary surfactant in neonates of ICP. These findings have important implications for neonatal respiratory failure, especially when maternal bile acids are elevated during pregnancy, and highlight potential pathways and targets amenable to therapeutic intervention to ameliorate this condition. PMID:26416771

  14. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of low specific activity nitric acid. Revisison 1

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-05-16

    This is in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site to Portsmouth VA, Baltimore MD, and Port Elizabeth NJ.

  15. Clustering of protein families into functional subtypes using Relative Complexity Measure with reduced amino acid alphabets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic analysis can be used to divide a protein family into subfamilies in the absence of experimental information. Most phylogenetic analysis methods utilize multiple alignment of sequences and are based on an evolutionary model. However, multiple alignment is not an automated procedure and requires human intervention to maintain alignment integrity and to produce phylogenies consistent with the functional splits in underlying sequences. To address this problem, we propose to use the alignment-free Relative Complexity Measure (RCM) combined with reduced amino acid alphabets to cluster protein families into functional subtypes purely on sequence criteria. Comparison with an alignment-based approach was also carried out to test the quality of the clustering. Results We demonstrate the robustness of RCM with reduced alphabets in clustering of protein sequences into families in a simulated dataset and seven well-characterized protein datasets. On protein datasets, crotonases, mandelate racemases, nucleotidyl cyclases and glycoside hydrolase family 2 were clustered into subfamilies with 100% accuracy whereas acyl transferase domains, haloacid dehalogenases, and vicinal oxygen chelates could be assigned to subfamilies with 97.2%, 96.9% and 92.2% accuracies, respectively. Conclusions The overall combination of methods in this paper is useful for clustering protein families into subtypes based on solely protein sequence information. The method is also flexible and computationally fast because it does not require multiple alignment of sequences. PMID:20718947

  16. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  17. Arachidonic acid activation of a new family of K+ channels in cultured rat neuronal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D; Sladek, C D; Aguado-Velasco, C; Mathiasen, J R

    1995-01-01

    , a neurotransmitter reported to generate arachidonic acid in striatal neurons, did not cause activation of the K+ channels when applied extracellularly in cell-attached patches. 10. It is suggested that the K+ channels described here belong to a distinct family of ion channels that are activated by either fatty acids or membrane stretch. Although the physiological roles of these K+ channels are not yet known, they may be involved in cellular processes such as cell volume regulation and ischaemia-induced elevation of K+ loss. Images Figure 1 PMID:7623282

  18. Heme and FLVCR-related transporter families SLC48 and SLC49.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anwar A; Quigley, John G

    2013-01-01

    Heme is critical for a variety of cellular processes, but excess intracellular heme may result in oxidative stress and membrane injury. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor (FLVCR1), a member of the SLC49 family of four paralogous genes, is a cell surface heme exporter, essential for erythropoiesis and systemic iron homeostasis. Disruption of FLVCR1 function blocks development of erythroid progenitors, likely due to heme toxicity. Mutations of SLC49A1 encoding FLVCR1 are noted in patients with a rare neurodegenerative disorder: posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa. FLVCR2 is highly homologous to FLVCR1 and may function as a cellular heme importer. Mutations of SLC49A2 encoding FLVCR2 are observed in Fowler syndrome, a rare proliferative vascular disorder of the brain. The functions of the remaining members of the SLC49 family, MFSD7 and DIRC2 (encoded by the SLC49A3 and SLC49A4 genes), are unknown, although the latter is implicated in hereditary renal carcinomas. SLC48A1 (heme responsive gene-1, HRG-1), the sole member of the SLC48 family, is associated with the endosome and appears to transport heme from the endosome into the cytosol. PMID:23506900

  19. Heme and FLVCR-related transporter families SLC48 and SLC49

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Heme is critical for a variety of cellular processes, but excess intracellular heme may result in oxidative stress and membrane injury. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor (FLVCR1), a member of the SLC49 family of 4 paralogous genes, is a cell surface heme exporter, essential for erythropoiesis and systemic iron homeostasis. Disruption of FLVCR1 function blocks development of erythroid progenitors, likely due to heme toxicity. Mutations of SLC49A1 encoding FLVCR1 are noted in patients with a rare neurodegenerative disorder: posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa. FLVCR2 is highly homologous to FLVCR1 and may function as a cellular heme importer. Mutations of SLC49A2encoding FLVCR2 are observed in Fowler syndrome, a rare proliferative vascular disorder of the brain. The functions of the remaining members of the SLC49 family, MFSD7 and DIRC2 (encoded by the SLC49A3and SLC49A4 genes), are unknown, although the latter is implicated in hereditary renal carcinomas. SLC48A1 (Heme responsive gene-1, HRG-1), the sole member of the SLC48 family, is associated with the endosome and appears to transport heme from the endosome into the cytosol. PMID:23506900

  20. Structure and expression profile of the phosphate Pht1 transporter gene family in mycorrhizal Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Loth-Pereda, Verónica; Orsini, Elena; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Lota, Frédéric; Kohler, Annegret; Diss, Loic; Blaudez, Damien; Chalot, Michel; Nehls, Uwe; Bucher, Marcel; Martin, Francis

    2011-08-01

    Gene networks involved in inorganic phosphate (Pi) acquisition and homeostasis in woody perennial species able to form mycorrhizal symbioses are poorly known. Here, we describe the features of the 12 genes coding for Pi transporters of the Pht1 family in poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Individual Pht1 transporters play distinct roles in acquiring and translocating Pi in different tissues of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal poplar during different growth conditions and developmental stages. Pi starvation triggered the up-regulation of most members of the Pht1 family, especially PtPT9 and PtPT11. PtPT9 and PtPT12 showed a striking up-regulation in ectomycorrhizas and endomycorrhizas, whereas PtPT1 and PtPT11 were strongly down-regulated. PtPT10 transcripts were highly abundant in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) roots only. PtPT8 and PtPT10 are phylogenetically associated to the AM-inducible Pht1 subfamily I. The analysis of promoter sequences revealed conserved motifs similar to other AM-inducible orthologs in PtPT10 only. To gain more insight into gene regulatory mechanisms governing the AM symbiosis in woody plant species, the activation of the poplar PtPT10 promoter was investigated and detected in AM of potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. These results indicated that the regulation of AM-inducible Pi transporter genes is conserved between perennial woody and herbaceous plant species. Moreover, poplar has developed an alternative Pi uptake pathway distinct from AM plants, allowing ectomycorrhizal poplar to recruit PtPT9 and PtPT12 to cope with limiting Pi concentrations in forest soils. PMID:21705655

  1. Ion Transport Dynamics in Acid Variable Charge Subsoils

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nik; Sumner, Malcolm E.; Toma, Mitsuru

    2005-06-06

    This is a mini-review of the research work conducted by the authors with the objective of studying ion transport in variable charge subsoils collected from different areas around the world. An attempt is made in these studies to relate the unique behavior manifested during ionic transport in these subsoils with their mineralogical, physical and chemical properties, which are markedly different from those in soils from temperate regions. The variable charge subsoils have a relatively high salt sorption capacity and anion exchange capacity (AEC) that retards anions downward movement. The AEC correlates closely with the anion retardation coefficients. Ca2+ applied with gypsum in topsoil may be transported to the subsoil and may improve the subsoil chemical properties. These results may help in developing appropriate management strategies under a range of mineralogical, physical, and chemical conditions.

  2. Characterization of the role of ABCG2 as a bile acid transporter in liver and placenta.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Alba G; Briz, Oscar; Romero, Marta R; Rosales, Ruben; Monte, Maria J; Vaquero, Javier; Macias, Rocio I R; Cassio, Doris; Marin, Jose J G

    2012-02-01

    ABCG2 is involved in epithelial transport/barrier functions. Here, we have investigated its ability to transport bile acids in liver and placenta. Cholylglycylamido fluorescein (CGamF) was exported by WIF-B9/R cells, which do not express the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Sensitivity to typical inhibitors suggested that CGamF export was mainly mediated by ABCG2. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells), coexpression of rat Oatp1a1 and human ABCG2 enhanced the uptake and efflux, respectively, of CGamF, cholic acid (CA), glycoCA (GCA), tauroCA, and taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate. The ability of ABCG2 to export these bile acids was confirmed by microinjecting them together with inulin in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing this pump. ABCG2-mediated bile acid transport was inhibited by estradiol 17β-d-glucuronide and fumitremorgin C. Placental barrier for bile acids accounted for <2-fold increase in fetal cholanemia despite >14-fold increased maternal cholanemia induced by obstructive cholestasis in pregnant rats. In rat placenta, the expression of Abcg2, which was much higher than that of Bsep, was not affected by short-term cholestasis. In pregnant rats, fumitremorgin C did not affect uptake/secretion of GCA by the liver but inhibited its fetal-maternal transfer. Compared with wild-type mice, obstructive cholestasis in pregnant Abcg2(-/-) knockout mice induced similar bile acid accumulation in maternal serum but higher accumulation in placenta, fetal serum, and liver. In conclusion, ABCG2 is able to transport bile acids. The importance of this function depends on the relative expression in the same epithelium of other bile acid exporters. Thus, ABCG2 may play a key role in bile acid transport in placenta, as BSEP does in liver. PMID:22096226

  3. Substrate specificity and transport mechanism of amino-acid transceptor Slimfast from Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Boudko, Dmitri Y; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Meleshkevitch, Ella A; Price, David P; Drake, Lisa L; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Anautogenous mosquitoes depend on vertebrate blood as nutrient source for their eggs. A highly efficient set of membrane transporters mediates the massive movement of nutrient amino acids between mosquito tissues after a blood meal. Here we report the characterization of the amino-acid transporter Slimfast (Slif) from the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using codon-optimized heterologous expression. Slif is a well-known component of the target-of-rapamycin signalling pathway and fat body nutrient sensor, but its substrate specificity and transport mechanism were unknown. We found that Slif transports essential cationic and neutral amino acids with preference for arginine. It has an unusual dual-affinity mechanism with only the high affinity being Na(+) dependent. Tissue-specific expression and blood meal-dependent regulation of Slif are consistent with conveyance of essential amino acids from gut to fat body. Slif represents a novel transport system and type of transceptor for sensing and transporting essential amino acids during mosquito reproduction. PMID:26449545

  4. Substrate specificity and transport mechanism of amino-acid transceptor Slimfast from Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Meleshkevitch, Ella A.; Price, David P.; Drake, Lisa L.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    Anautogenous mosquitoes depend on vertebrate blood as nutrient source for their eggs. A highly efficient set of membrane transporters mediates the massive movement of nutrient amino acids between mosquito tissues after a blood meal. Here we report the characterization of the amino-acid transporter Slimfast (Slif) from the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using codon-optimized heterologous expression. Slif is a well-known component of the target-of-rapamycin signalling pathway and fat body nutrient sensor, but its substrate specificity and transport mechanism were unknown. We found that Slif transports essential cationic and neutral amino acids with preference for arginine. It has an unusual dual-affinity mechanism with only the high affinity being Na+ dependent. Tissue-specific expression and blood meal-dependent regulation of Slif are consistent with conveyance of essential amino acids from gut to fat body. Slif represents a novel transport system and type of transceptor for sensing and transporting essential amino acids during mosquito reproduction. PMID:26449545

  5. Role for Ion Transport in Porcine Vocal Fold Epithelial Defense to Acid Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Erickson-Levendoski, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2012-01-01

    Objective The vocal fold epithelium is routinely exposed to gastric contents, including acid and pepsin, during laryngopharyngeal reflux events. The epithelium may possess intrinsic defenses to reflux. The first objective of the current study was to examine whether vocal fold epithelial ion transport is one potential mechanism of defense to gastric contents. The second objective was to determine whether ion transport in response to gastric contents is associated with the secretion of bicarbonate. Study Design Prospective design in excised porcine larynges. Setting Laboratory. Subjects and Methods Porcine vocal folds (N = 56) were exposed on the luminal surface to acid, pepsin, or sham challenges. Ion transport at baseline and following challenge exposure was measured using electrophysiological techniques. To examine specific ion transport mechanisms, vocal folds were pretreated with either a sodium channel blocker or bicarbonate channel blocker. Results Within 60 seconds of acid but not pepsin exposure, there was a significant increase in ion transport. This rapid increase in ion transport was transient and related to bicarbonate secretion. Conclusion The current data suggest that porcine vocal folds immediately increase bicarbonate secretion following exposure to acid. Bicarbonate secretion may act to neutralize acid. These findings contribute to the identification of the mechanisms underlying vocal fold defense to reflux and offer implications for the development of treatments for reflux-induced vocal fold injury. PMID:22086905

  6. Overview of Nucleotide Sugar Transporter Gene Family Functions Across Multiple Species.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ariel; Moraga, Carol; Araya, Macarena; Moreno, Adrian

    2016-08-14

    Glycoproteins and glycolipids are crucial in a number of cellular processes, such as growth, development, and responses to external cues, among others. Polysaccharides, another class of sugar-containing molecules, also play important structural and signaling roles in the extracellular matrix. The additions of glycans to proteins and lipids, as well as polysaccharide synthesis, are processes that primarily occur in the Golgi apparatus, and the substrates used in this biosynthetic process are nucleotide sugars. These proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides are also modified by the addition of sulfate groups in the Golgi apparatus in a series of reactions where nucleotide sulfate is needed. The required nucleotide sugar substrates are mainly synthesized in the cytosol and transported into the Golgi apparatus by nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs), which can additionally transport nucleotide sulfate. Due to the critical role of NSTs in eukaryotic organisms, any malfunction of these could change glycan and polysaccharide structures, thus affecting function and altering organism physiology. For example, mutations or deletion on NST genes lead to pathological conditions in humans or alter cell walls in plants. In recent years, many NSTs have been identified and functionally characterized, but several remain unanalyzed. This study examined existing information on functionally characterized NSTs and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 257 NSTs predicted from nine animal and plant model species, as well as from protists and fungi. From this analysis, relationships between substrate specificity and the primary NST structure can be inferred, thereby advancing understandings of nucleotide sugar gene family functions across multiple species. PMID:27261257

  7. A family of diatom-like silicon transporters in the siliceous loricate choanoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Alan O.; Alston, Mark J.; Heavens, Darren; Akam, Michael; Caccamo, Mario; Holland, Peter W. H.; Walker, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Biosilicification is widespread across the eukaryotes and requires concentration of silicon in intracellular vesicles. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remains limited, with unrelated silicon-transporting proteins found in the eukaryotic clades previously studied. Here, we report the identification of silicon transporter (SIT)-type genes from the siliceous loricate choanoflagellates Stephanoeca diplocostata and Diaphanoeca grandis. Until now, the SIT gene family has been identified only in diatoms and other siliceous stramenopiles, which are distantly related to choanoflagellates among the eukaryotes. This is the first evidence of similarity between SITs from different eukaryotic supergroups. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that choanoflagellate and stramenopile SITs form distinct monophyletic groups. The absence of putative SIT genes in any other eukaryotic groups, including non-siliceous choanoflagellates, leads us to propose that SIT genes underwent a lateral gene transfer event between stramenopiles and loricate choanoflagellates. We suggest that the incorporation of a foreign SIT gene into the stramenopile or choanoflagellate genome resulted in a major metabolic change: the acquisition of biomineralized silica structures. This hypothesis implies that biosilicification has evolved multiple times independently in the eukaryotes, and paves the way for a better understanding of the biochemical basis of silicon transport through identification of conserved sequence motifs. PMID:23407828

  8. Structural insights into nonvesicular lipid transport by the oxysterol binding protein homologue family.

    PubMed

    Tong, Junsen; Manik, Mohammad Kawsar; Yang, Huiseon; Im, Young Jun

    2016-08-01

    Sterols such as cholesterol in mammals and ergosterol in fungi are essential membrane components and play a key role in membrane function and in cell signaling. The intracellular distribution and processing of sterols and other phospholipids are in part carried out by oxysterol binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) in eukaryotes. Seven ORPs (Osh1-Osh7 proteins) in yeast have distinct functions in maintaining distribution, metabolism and signaling of intracellular lipids but they share at least one essential function. Significant progress has been made in understanding the ligand specificity and mechanism of non-vesicular lipid transport by ORPs. The unique structural features of Osh proteins explain the diversity and specificity of functions in PI(4)P-coupled lipid transport optimized in membrane contact sites. This review discusses the current advances in structural biology regarding this protein family and its potential functions, introducing them as the key players in the novel pathways of phosphoinositide-coupled directional transport of various lipids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26784528

  9. OSBP-Related Protein Family in Lipid Transport Over Membrane Contact Sites

    PubMed Central

    Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) localize at membrane contact sites, which are high-capacity platforms for inter-organelle exchange of small molecules and information. ORPs can simultaneously associate with the two apposed membranes and transfer lipids across the interbilayer gap. Oxysterol-binding protein moves cholesterol from the endoplasmic reticulum to trans-Golgi, driven by the retrograde transport of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Analogously, yeast Osh6p mediates the transport of phosphatidylserine from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in exchange for PI4P, and ORP5 and -8 are suggested to execute similar functions in mammalian cells. ORPs may share the capacity to bind PI4P within their ligand-binding domain, prompting the hypothesis that bidirectional transport of a phosphoinositide and another lipid may be a common theme among the protein family. This model, however, needs more experimental support and does not exclude a function of ORPs in lipid signaling. PMID:26715851

  10. Differential effects of cyclosporin A on transport of bile acids by rat hepatocytes: relationship to individual serum bile acid levels.

    PubMed

    Azer, S A; Stacey, N H

    1994-02-01

    Cyclosporin A treatment has been reported to induce hepatotoxicity marked by a rise in total serum bile acid and total bilirubin. The mechanism of cyclosporin A-induced hepatotoxicity seems to be related to interference with hepatocellular transport of these substrates although this remains to be fully substantiated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the hepatocellular uptake of the different bile acids, in the presence of cyclosporin A, is consistent with the changes in their respective individual serum bile acid concentrations. High-performance liquid chromatography has been used to assay individual serum bile acids in cyclosporin A-treated rats at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Control rats were treated with Cremophor (1 ml/kg/day). At the higher doses, cyclosporin A produced a significant increase in levels of cholic acid, taurocholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and deoxycholic acid compared with controls. Serum glycocholate was unaffected even at the highest dose. Inhibition of initial rate of uptake and accumulation of [14C]cholic acid, [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid, and [14C]deoxycholic acid by isolated rat hepatocytes was consistent with the changes in their respective serum bile acids. Coincubation of rat hepatocytes with unlabeled cholic acid (100 microM), the major serum bile acid in cyclosporin A-treated rats, showed a further inhibitory effect on [14C]cholic acid and [14C]deoxycholic acid accumulation. The initial rate of uptake of [14C]glycocholate was also inhibited. However, accumulation of glycocholic acid did not show significant changes at the longer incubation times (2-30 min). In addition, coincubation of rat hepatocytes with unlabeled cholic acid (100 microM) plus cyclosporin A did not induce any inhibition of glycocholate accumulation. Together, these differences provide an explanation for the unchanged serum levels of glycocholate. In conclusion, the changes in individual serum bile acids in cyclosporin A

  11. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  12. Myosin 1b Regulates Amino Acid Transport by Associating Transporters with the Apical Plasma Membrane of Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Komaba, Shigeru; Coluccio, Lynne M.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATers) in the brush border of the apical plasma membrane (APM) of renal proximal tubule (PT) cells mediate amino acid transport (AAT). We found that the membrane-associated class I myosin myosin 1b (Myo1b) localized at the apical brush border membrane of PTs. In opossum kidney (OK) 3B/2 epithelial cells, which are derived from PTs, expressed rat Myo1b-GFP colocalized in patched microvilli with expressed mouse V5-tagged SIT1 (SIT1-V5), which mediates neutral amino acid transport in OK cells. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of opossum Myo1b-specific shRNA resulted in knockdown (kd) of Myo1b expression, less SIT1-V5 at the APM as determined by localization studies, and a decrease in neutral AAT as determined by radioactive uptake assays. Myo1b kd had no effect on Pi transport or noticeable change in microvilli structure as determined by rhodamine phalloidin staining. The studies are the first to define a physiological role for Myo1b, that of regulating renal AAT by modulating the association of AATers with the APM. PMID:26361046

  13. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  14. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  15. Taxol induced apoptosis regulates amino acid transport in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanyuan; Shen, Dejun; Chen, Zujian; Clayton, Sheila; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2007-03-01

    A major outcome from Taxol treatment is induction of tumor cell apoptosis. However, metabolic responses to Taxol-induced apoptosis are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesize that alterations in specific amino acid transporters may affect the Taxol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In this case, the activity of the given transporter may serve as a biomarker that could provide a biological assessment of response to drug treatment. We have examined the mechanisms responsible for Taxol-induced neutral amino acid uptake by breast cancer cells, such as MCF-7, BT474, MDAMB231 and T47D. The biochemical and molecular studies include: (1) growth-inhibition (MTT); (2) transport kinetics: (3) substrate-specific inhibition; (4) effect of thiol-modifying agents NEM and NPM; (5) gene expression of amino acid transporters; and (6) apoptotic assays. Our data show that Taxol treatment of MCF-7 cells induced a transient increase in Na(+)-dependent transport of the neutral amino acid transporter B0 at both gene and protein level. This increase was attenuated by blocking the transporter in the presence of high concentrations of the substrate amino acid. Other neutral amino acid transporters such as ATA2 (System A) and ASC were not altered. Amino acid starvation resulted in the expected up-regulation of System A (ATA2) gene, but not for B0 and ASC. B0 was significantly down regulated. Taxol treatment had no significant effect on the uptake of arginine and glutamate as measured by System y(+) and X(-) (GC) respectively. Tunel assays and FACS cell cycle analysis demonstrated that both Taxol- and doxorubicin-induced upregulation of B0 transporter gene with accompanying increase in cell apoptosis, could be reversed partially by blocking the B0 transporter with high concentration of alanine, and/or by inhibiting the caspase pathway. Both Taxol and doxorubicin treatment caused a significant decrease in S-phase of the cell cycle. However, Taxol-induced an increase primarily

  16. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) using amino acid nitrogen isotopicanalyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the biogeochemical and ecological mechanisms responsible for variability in bulk tissue and amino acid (AA) stable nitrogen isotope compositions in two groups of important mesopelagic fish families, Myctophidae (lanternfishes) and Stomiidae (dragonfishes), from five d...

  17. The Aspergillus nidulans proline permease as a model for understanding the factors determining substrate binding and specificity of fungal amino acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Gournas, Christos; Evangelidis, Thomas; Athanasopoulos, Alexandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

    2015-03-01

    Amino acid uptake in fungi is mediated by general and specialized members of the yeast amino acid transporter (YAT) family, a branch of the amino acid polyamine organocation (APC) transporter superfamily. PrnB, a highly specific l-proline transporter, only weakly recognizes other Put4p substrates, its Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologue. Taking advantage of the high sequence similarity between the two transporters, we combined molecular modeling, induced fit docking, genetic, and biochemical approaches to investigate the molecular basis of this difference and identify residues governing substrate binding and specificity. We demonstrate that l-proline is recognized by PrnB via interactions with residues within TMS1 (Gly(56), Thr(57)), TMS3 (Glu(138)), and TMS6 (Phe(248)), which are evolutionary conserved in YATs, whereas specificity is achieved by subtle amino acid substitutions in variable residues. Put4p-mimicking substitutions in TMS3 (S130C), TMS6 (F252L, S253G), TMS8 (W351F), and TMS10 (T414S) broadened the specificity of PrnB, enabling it to recognize more efficiently l-alanine, l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, and glycine without significantly affecting the apparent Km for l-proline. S253G and W351F could transport l-alanine, whereas T414S, despite displaying reduced proline uptake, could transport l-alanine and glycine, a phenotype suppressed by the S130C mutation. A combination of all five Put4p-ressembling substitutions resulted in a functional allele that could also transport l-alanine and glycine, displaying a specificity profile impressively similar to that of Put4p. Our results support a model where residues in these positions determine specificity by interacting with the substrates, acting as gating elements, altering the flexibility of the substrate binding core, or affecting conformational changes of the transport cycle. PMID:25572393

  18. PARAMETRIC METHODOLOGIES OF CLOUD VERTICAL TRANSPORT FOR ACID DEPOSITION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A CUmulus VENTing (CUVENT) cloud module has been developed that calculates the vertical flux of mass from the boundary layer to the cloud layer by an ensemble of nonprecipitating subgrid-scale air mass clouds. This model will be integrated into the Regional Acid Deposition Model ...

  19. Gambogic acid is an antagonist of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Dayong; Jin, Chaofang; Shiau, Chung-wai; Kitada, Shinichi; Satterthwait, Arnold C; Reed, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The natural product Gambogic acid (GA) has been reported to have cytotoxic activity against tumor cells in culture, and was identified as an active compound in a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for activators of caspases, proteases involved in apoptosis. Using the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein, Bfl-1, as a target for screening of a library of natural products, we identified GA as a competitive inhibitor that displaced BH3 peptides from Bfl-1 in a fluorescent polarization assay (FPA). Analysis of competition for BH3 peptide binding revealed that GA inhibits all 6 human Bcl-2-family proteins to various extents, with Mcl-1 and Bcl-B the most potently inhibited (concentrations required for 50% inhibition [IC50] <1 μM). Competition for BH3 peptide binding was also confirmed using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay. GA functionally inhibited the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins, as demonstrated by experiments using isolated mitochondria in which recombinant purified Bcl-2-family proteins suppress SMAC release in vitro, showing that GA neutralizes their suppressive effects on mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner. GA killed tumor cell lines via an apoptotic mechanism, whereas analogs of GA with greatly reduced potency at BH3 peptide displacement showed little or no cytotoxic activity. However, GA retained cytotoxic activity against bax−/− bak−/− cells in which anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins lack a cytoprotective phenotype, implying that GA also has additional targets that contribute to its cytotoxic mechanism. Altogether, the findings suggest that suppression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins may be among the cytotoxic mechanisms by which GA kills tumor cells. PMID:18566235

  20. Identification of a Disulfide Bridge in Sodium-Coupled Neutral Amino Acid Transporter 2(SNAT2) by Chemical Modification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Jiahong; Cai, Ruiping; Yuan, Yanmeng; Guo, Zhanyun; Grewer, Christof; Zhang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) belongs to solute carrier 38 (SLC38) family of transporters, which is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and mediates transport of small, neutral amino acids, exemplified by alanine(Ala, A). Yet structural data on SNAT2, including the relevance of intrinsic cysteine residues on structure and function, is scarce, in spite of its essential roles in many tissues. To better define the potential of intrinsic cysteines to form disulfide bonds in SNAT2, mutagenesis experiments and thiol-specific chemical modifications by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol maleimide (mPEG-Mal, MW 5000) were performed, with or without the reducing regent dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment. Seven single mutant transporters with various cysteine (Cys, C) to alanine (Ala, A) substitutions, and a C245,279A double mutant were introduced to SNAT2 with a hemagglutinin (HA) tag at the C-terminus. The results showed that the cells expressing C245A or C279A were labeled by one equivalent of mPEG-Mal in the presence of DTT, while wild-type or all the other single Cys to Ala mutants were modified by two equivalents of mPEG-Mal. Furthermore, the molecular weight of C245,279A was not changed in the presence or absence of DTT treatment. The results suggest a disulfide bond between Cys245 and Cys279 in SNAT2 which has no effect on cell surface trafficking, as well as transporter function. The proposed disulfide bond may be important to delineate proximity in the extracellular domain of SNAT2 and related proteins. PMID:27355203

  1. Identification of a Disulfide Bridge in Sodium-Coupled Neutral Amino Acid Transporter 2(SNAT2) by Chemical Modification

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ruiping; Yuan, Yanmeng; Guo, Zhanyun; Grewer, Christof; Zhang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) belongs to solute carrier 38 (SLC38) family of transporters, which is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and mediates transport of small, neutral amino acids, exemplified by alanine(Ala, A). Yet structural data on SNAT2, including the relevance of intrinsic cysteine residues on structure and function, is scarce, in spite of its essential roles in many tissues. To better define the potential of intrinsic cysteines to form disulfide bonds in SNAT2, mutagenesis experiments and thiol-specific chemical modifications by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol maleimide (mPEG-Mal, MW 5000) were performed, with or without the reducing regent dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment. Seven single mutant transporters with various cysteine (Cys, C) to alanine (Ala, A) substitutions, and a C245,279A double mutant were introduced to SNAT2 with a hemagglutinin (HA) tag at the C-terminus. The results showed that the cells expressing C245A or C279A were labeled by one equivalent of mPEG-Mal in the presence of DTT, while wild-type or all the other single Cys to Ala mutants were modified by two equivalents of mPEG-Mal. Furthermore, the molecular weight of C245,279A was not changed in the presence or absence of DTT treatment. The results suggest a disulfide bond between Cys245 and Cys279 in SNAT2 which has no effect on cell surface trafficking, as well as transporter function. The proposed disulfide bond may be important to delineate proximity in the extracellular domain of SNAT2 and related proteins. PMID:27355203

  2. Role of ion transporters in the bile acid-induced esophageal injury.

    PubMed

    Laczkó, Dorottya; Rosztóczy, András; Birkás, Klaudia; Katona, Máté; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Tiszlavicz, László; Róka, Richárd; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter; Venglovecz, Viktória

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is considered to be the most severe complication of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which the prolonged, repetitive episodes of combined acidic and biliary reflux result in the replacement of the squamous esophageal lining by columnar epithelium. Therefore, the acid-extruding mechanisms of esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) may play an important role in the defense. Our aim was to identify the presence of acid/base transporters on EECs and to investigate the effect of bile acids on their expressions and functions. Human EEC lines (CP-A and CP-D) were acutely exposed to bile acid cocktail (BAC) and the changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured by microfluorometry. mRNA and protein expression of ion transporters was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We have identified the presence of a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter (NBC), and a Cl(-)-dependent HCO3 (-) secretory mechanism in CP-A and CP-D cells. Acute administration of BAC stimulated HCO3 (-) secretion in both cell lines and the NHE activity in CP-D cells by an inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium release. Chronic administration of BAC to EECs increased the expression of ion transporters compared with nontreated cells. A similar expression pattern was observed in biopsy samples from BE compared with normal epithelium. We have shown that acute administration of bile acids differently alters ion transport mechanisms of EECs, whereas chronic exposure to bile acids increases the expression of acid/base transporters. We speculate that these adaptive processes of EECs represent an important mucosal defense against the bile acid-induced epithelial injury. PMID:27198194

  3. Assignment of function to a domain of unknown function: DUF1537 is a new kinase family in catabolic pathways for acid sugars.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinshuai; Carter, Michael S; Vetting, Matthew W; San Francisco, Brian; Zhao, Suwen; Al-Obaidi, Nawar F; Solbiati, Jose O; Thiaville, Jennifer J; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Jacobson, Matthew P; Almo, Steven C; Gerlt, John A

    2016-07-19

    Using a large-scale "genomic enzymology" approach, we (i) assigned novel ATP-dependent four-carbon acid sugar kinase functions to members of the DUF1537 protein family (domain of unknown function; Pfam families PF07005 and PF17042) and (ii) discovered novel catabolic pathways for d-threonate, l-threonate, and d-erythronate. The experimentally determined ligand specificities of several solute binding proteins (SBPs) for TRAP (tripartite ATP-independent permease) transporters for four-carbon acids, including d-erythronate and l-erythronate, were used to constrain the substrates for the catabolic pathways that degrade the SBP ligands to intermediates in central carbon metabolism. Sequence similarity networks and genome neighborhood networks were used to identify the enzyme components of the pathways. Conserved genome neighborhoods encoded SBPs as well as permease components of the TRAP transporters, members of the DUF1537 family, and a member of the 4-hydroxy-l-threonine 4-phosphate dehydrogenase (PdxA) oxidative decarboxylase, class II aldolase, or ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, large subunit (RuBisCO) superfamily. Because the characterized substrates of members of the PdxA, class II aldolase, and RuBisCO superfamilies are phosphorylated, we postulated that the members of the DUF1537 family are novel ATP-dependent kinases that participate in catabolic pathways for four-carbon acid sugars. We determined that (i) the DUF1537/PdxA pair participates in a pathway for the conversion of d-threonate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and CO2 and (ii) the DUF1537/class II aldolase pair participates in pathways for the conversion of d-erythronate and l-threonate (epimers at carbon-3) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and CO2 The physiological importance of these pathways was demonstrated in vivo by phenotypic and genetic analyses. PMID:27402745

  4. Physiological and regulatory properties of the general amino acid transport system of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    DeBusk, R M; DeBusk, A G

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental properties of the general amino acid transport system of Neurospora crassa were investigated in the conidial stage of the life cycle. The transport activity was found to be under genetic control, and an isogenic set of mutants deficient for the neutral, basic, or general amino acid transport systems and combinations thereof was constructed and used for analyzing the properties specific to the general permease. Amino acid transport by this system was found to be a carrier-mediated active process with broad specificity for the neutral and basic amino acids. Kinetic analysis revealed that a common binding site functioned to transport both neutral and basic amino acids and that the permease had a high affinity for its substrates. The kinetic parameters Km, Vmax, and Ki were defined for several substrates. Two modes of regulation were detected: substrate inhibition and ammonium repression. Activity of the general system was enhanced by the removal of ammonium ions from the incubation medium with a concomitant decline in either neutral or basic permease activity, suggesting that a common component exists between the neutral and the general systems and between the basic and the general systems. PMID:6447141

  5. Biochemical Roles for Conserved Residues in the Bacterial Fatty Acid-binding Protein Family.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Tyler C; Miller, Darcie J; Jackson, Pamela; Nourse, Amanda; White, Stephen W; Rock, Charles O

    2016-03-18

    Fatty acid kinase (Fak) is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterial enzyme consisting of an ATP-binding protein (FakA) that phosphorylates the fatty acid bound to FakB. In Staphylococcus aureus, Fak is a global regulator of virulence factor transcription and is essential for the activation of exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids. The 1.2-Å x-ray structure of S. aureus FakB2, activity assays, solution studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and in vivo complementation were used to define the functions of the five conserved residues that define the FakB protein family (Pfam02645). The fatty acid tail is buried within the protein, and the exposed carboxyl group is bound by a Ser-93-fatty acid carboxyl-Thr-61-His-266 hydrogen bond network. The guanidinium of the invariant Arg-170 is positioned to potentially interact with a bound acylphosphate. The reduced thermal denaturation temperatures of the T61A, S93A, and H266A FakB2 mutants illustrate the importance of the hydrogen bond network in protein stability. The FakB2 T61A, S93A, and H266A mutants are 1000-fold less active in the Fak assay, and the R170A mutant is completely inactive. All FakB2 mutants form FakA(FakB2)2 complexes except FakB2(R202A), which is deficient in FakA binding. Allelic replacement shows that strains expressing FakB2 mutants are defective in fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids and virulence gene transcription. These conserved residues are likely to perform the same critical functions in all bacterial fatty acid-binding proteins. PMID:26774272

  6. Coupling of hydrologic transport and chemical reactions in a stream affected by acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.A.; Broshears, R.E.; Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, examined the coupling of hydrologic transport to chemical reactions affecting metal concentrations. Injection of LiCl as a conservative tracer was used to determine discharge and residence time along a 1497-m reach. Transport of metals downstream from inflows of acidic, metal-rich water was evaluated based on synoptic samples of metal concentrations and the hydrologic characteristics of the stream. Transport of SO4 and Mn was generally conservative, but in the subreaches most affected by acidic inflows, transport was reactive. Both 0.1-??m filtered and particulate Fe were reactive over most of the stream reach. Filtered Al partitioned to the particulate phase in response to high instream concentrations. Simulations that accounted for the removal of SO4, Mn, Fe, and Al with first-order reactions reproduced the steady-state profiles. The calculated rate constants for net removal used in the simulations embody several processes that occur on a stream-reach scale. The comparison between rates of hydrologie transport and chemical reactions indicates that reactions are only important over short distances in the stream near the acidic inflows, where reactions occur on a comparable time scale with hydrologic transport and thus affect metal concentrations.

  7. Genetic evidence of a high-affinity cyanuric acid transport system in Pseudomonas sp. ADP.

    PubMed

    Platero, Ana I; Santero, Eduardo; Govantes, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. ADP plasmid pADP-1 encodes the activities involved in the hydrolytic degradation of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine. Here, we explore the presence of a specific transport system for the central intermediate of the atrazine utilization pathway, cyanuric acid, in Pseudomonas sp. ADP. Growth in fed-batch cultures containing limiting cyanuric acid concentrations is consistent with high-affinity transport of this substrate. Acquisition of the ability to grow at low cyanuric acid concentrations upon conjugal transfer of pADP1 to the nondegrading host Pseudomonas putida KT2442 suggests that all activities required for this phenotype are encoded in this plasmid. Co-expression of the pADP1-borne atzDEF and atzTUVW genes, encoding the cyanuric acid utilization pathway and the subunits of an ABC-type solute transport system, in P. putida KT2442 was sufficient to promote growth at cyanuric acid concentrations as low as 50 μM in batch culture. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the atzTUVW gene products are involved in high-affinity transport of cyanuric acid. PMID:24484197

  8. Prohibitin/annexin 2 interaction regulates fatty acid transport in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Ahmad; Daquinag, Alexes C.; Staquicini, Daniela I.; An, Zhiqiang; Hajjar, Katherine A.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified prohibitin (PHB) and annexin A2 (ANX2) as proteins interacting on the surface of vascular endothelial cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) of humans and mice. Here, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB also interact in adipocytes. Mice lacking ANX2 have normal WAT vascularization, adipogenesis, and glucose metabolism but display WAT hypotrophy due to reduced fatty acid uptake by WAT endothelium and adipocytes. By using cell culture systems in which ANX2/PHB binding is disrupted either genetically or through treatment with a blocking peptide, we show that fatty acid transport efficiency relies on this protein complex. We also provide evidence that the interaction between ANX2 and PHB mediates fatty acid transport from the endothelium into adipocytes. Moreover, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB form a complex with the fatty acid transporter CD36. Finally, we show that the colocalization of PHB and CD36 on adipocyte surface is induced by extracellular fatty acids. Together, our results suggest that an unrecognized biochemical interaction between ANX2 and PHB regulates CD36-mediated fatty acid transport in WAT, thus revealing a new potential pathway for intervention in metabolic diseases. PMID:27468426

  9. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    Background In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Methods Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. Results For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Conclusions Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans. PMID:26356420

  10. Defective canalicular transport and toxicity of dietary ursodeoxycholic acid in the abcb11-/- mouse: transport and gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renxue; Liu, Lin; Sheps, Jonathan A; Forrest, Dana; Hofmann, Alan F; Hagey, Lee R; Ling, Victor

    2013-08-15

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP), encoded by the abcb11 gene, is the major canalicular transporter of bile acids from the hepatocyte. BSEP malfunction in humans causes bile acid retention and progressive liver injury, ultimately leading to end-stage liver failure. The natural, hydrophilic, bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is efficacious in the treatment of cholestatic conditions, such as primary biliary cirrhosis and cholestasis of pregnancy. The beneficial effects of UDCA include promoting bile flow, reducing hepatic inflammation, preventing apoptosis, and maintaining mitochondrial integrity in hepatocytes. However, the role of BSEP in mediating UDCA efficacy is not known. Here, we used abcb11 knockout mice (abcb11-/-) to test the effects of acute and chronic UDCA administration on biliary secretion, bile acid composition, liver histology, and liver gene expression. Acutely infused UDCA, or its taurine conjugate (TUDC), was taken up by the liver but retained, with negligible biliary output, in abcb11-/- mice. Feeding UDCA to abcb11-/- mice led to weight loss, retention of bile acids, elevated liver enzymes, and histological damage to the liver. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that genes encoding Mdr1a and Mdr1b (canalicular) as well as Mrp4 (basolateral) transporters were upregulated in abcb11-/- mice. We concluded that infusion of UDCA and TUDC failed to induce bile flow in abcb11-/- mice. UDCA fed to abcb11-/- mice caused liver damage and the appearance of biliary tetra- and penta-hydroxy bile acids. Supplementation with UDCA in the absence of Bsep caused adverse effects in abcb11-/- mice. PMID:23764895

  11. Regulation of branched-chain amino acid transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Quay, S C; Oxender, D L

    1976-01-01

    The repression and derepression of leucine, isoleucine, and valine transport in Escherichia coli K-12 was examined by using strains auxotrophic for leucine, isoleucine, valine, and methionine. In experiments designed to limit each of these amino acids separately, we demonstrate that leucine limitation alone derepressed the leucine-binding protein, the high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system (LIV-I), and the membrane-bound, low-affinity system (LIV-II). This regulation did not seem to involve inactivation of transport components, but represented an increase in the differential rate of synthesis of transport components relative to total cellular proteins. The apparent regulation of transport by isoleucine, valine, and methionine reported elsewhere was shown to require an intact leucine, biosynthetic operon and to result from changes in the level of leucine biosynthetic enzymes. A functional leucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase was also required for repression of transport. Transport regulation was shown to be essentially independent of ilvA or its gene product, threonine deaminase. The central role of leucine or its derivatives in cellular metabolism in general is discussed. PMID:783137

  12. Genome-wide analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family in Gossypium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yurchenko, Olga P.; Park, Sunjung; Ilut, Daniel C.; Inmon, Jay J.; Millhollon, Jon C.; Liechty, Zach; Page, Justin T.; Jenks, Matthew A.; Chapman, Kent D.; Udall, Joshua A.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The majority of commercial cotton varieties planted worldwide are derived from Gossypium hirsutum, which is a naturally occurring allotetraploid produced by interspecific hybridization of A- and D-genome diploid progenitor species. While most cotton species are adapted to warm, semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, and thus perform well in these geographical areas, cotton seedlings are sensitive to cold temperature, which can significantly reduce crop yields. One of the common biochemical responses of plants to cold temperatures is an increase in omega-3 fatty acids, which protects cellular function by maintaining membrane integrity. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterizemore » the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene family in G. hirsutum, with an emphasis on identifying omega-3 FADs involved in cold temperature adaptation. Results: Eleven omega-3 FAD genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and characterization of the gene family in extant A and D diploid species (G. herbaceum and G. raimondii, respectively) allowed for unambiguous genome assignment of all homoeologs in tetraploid G. hirsutum. The omega-3 FAD family of cotton includes five distinct genes, two of which encode endoplasmic reticulum-type enzymes (FAD3-1 and FAD3-2) and three that encode chloroplast-type enzymes (FAD7/8-1, FAD7/8-2, and FAD7/8-3). The FAD3-2 gene was duplicated in the A genome progenitor species after the evolutionary split from the D progenitor, but before the interspecific hybridization event that gave rise to modern tetraploid cotton. RNA-seq analysis revealed conserved, gene-specific expression patterns in various organs and cell types and semi-quantitative RT-PCR further revealed that FAD7/8-1 was specifically induced during cold temperature treatment of G. hirsutum seedlings. Conclusions: The omega-3 FAD gene family in cotton was characterized at the genome-wide level in three species, showing relatively ancient establishment of the gene family prior

  13. Whole-transcriptome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family genes in the latex-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 'full-size', 21 'half-size' and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

  14. Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 ‘full-size’, 21 ‘half-size’ and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

  15. Comprehensive Analysis and Expression Profiling of the OsLAX and OsABCB Auxin Transporter Gene Families in Rice (Oryza sativa) under Phytohormone Stimuli and Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chenglin; Subudhi, Prasanta K

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin gradient is formed in plant as a result of polar auxin transportation by three types of auxin transporters such as OsLAX, OsPIN, and OsABCB. We report here the analysis of two rice auxin transporter gene families, OsLAX and OsABCB, using bioinformatics tools, publicly accessible microarray data, and quantitative RT-PCR. There are 5 putative OsLAXs and 22 putative OsABCBs in rice genome, which were mapped on 8 chromosomes. The exon-intron structure of OsLAX genes and properties of deduced proteins were relatively conserved within grass family, while that of OsABCB genes varied greatly. Both constitutive and organ/tissue specific expression patterns were observed in OsLAXs and OsABCBs. Analysis of evolutionarily closely related "gene pairs" together with organ/tissue specific expression revealed possible "function gaining" and "function losing" events during rice evolution. Most OsLAX and OsABCB genes were regulated by drought and salt stress, as well as hormonal stimuli [auxin and Abscisic Acid (ABA)], which suggests extensive crosstalk between abiotic stresses and hormone signaling pathways. The existence of large number of auxin and stress related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions might account for their massive responsiveness of these genes to these environmental stimuli, indicating complexity of regulatory networks involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The comprehensive analysis of OsLAX and OsABCB auxin transporter genes in this study would be helpful for understanding the biological significance of these gene families in hormone signaling and adaptation of rice plants to unfavorable environments. PMID:27200061

  16. Comprehensive Analysis and Expression Profiling of the OsLAX and OsABCB Auxin Transporter Gene Families in Rice (Oryza sativa) under Phytohormone Stimuli and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chenglin; Subudhi, Prasanta K.

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin gradient is formed in plant as a result of polar auxin transportation by three types of auxin transporters such as OsLAX, OsPIN, and OsABCB. We report here the analysis of two rice auxin transporter gene families, OsLAX and OsABCB, using bioinformatics tools, publicly accessible microarray data, and quantitative RT-PCR. There are 5 putative OsLAXs and 22 putative OsABCBs in rice genome, which were mapped on 8 chromosomes. The exon-intron structure of OsLAX genes and properties of deduced proteins were relatively conserved within grass family, while that of OsABCB genes varied greatly. Both constitutive and organ/tissue specific expression patterns were observed in OsLAXs and OsABCBs. Analysis of evolutionarily closely related “gene pairs” together with organ/tissue specific expression revealed possible “function gaining” and “function losing” events during rice evolution. Most OsLAX and OsABCB genes were regulated by drought and salt stress, as well as hormonal stimuli [auxin and Abscisic Acid (ABA)], which suggests extensive crosstalk between abiotic stresses and hormone signaling pathways. The existence of large number of auxin and stress related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions might account for their massive responsiveness of these genes to these environmental stimuli, indicating complexity of regulatory networks involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The comprehensive analysis of OsLAX and OsABCB auxin transporter genes in this study would be helpful for understanding the biological significance of these gene families in hormone signaling and adaptation of rice plants to unfavorable environments. PMID:27200061

  17. The ZIP family zinc transporters support the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Do, Eunsoo; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Kronstad, James W; Jung, Won Hee

    2016-08-01

    Zinc is an essential element in living organisms and a cofactor for various metalloproteins. To disseminate and survive, a pathogenic microbe must obtain zinc from the host, which is an environment with extremely limited zinc availability. In this study, we investigated the roles of the ZIP family zinc transporters Zip1 and Zip2 in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans Zip1 and Zip2 are homologous to Zrt1 and Zrt2 of the model fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. We found that the expression of ZIP1 was regulated by the zinc concentration in the environment. Furthermore, the mutant lacking ZIP1 displayed a severe growth defect under zinc-limited conditions, while the mutant lacking ZIP2 displayed normal growth. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis showed that the absence of Zip1 expression significantly reduced total cellular zinc levels relative to that in the wild type, while overexpression of Zip1 was associated with increased cellular zinc levels. These findings suggested that Zip1 plays roles in zinc uptake in C. neoformans We also constructed a Zip1-FLAG fusion protein and found, by immunofluorescence, not only that the protein was localized to the periphery implying it is a membrane transporter, but also that the protein was N-glycosylated. Furthermore, the mutant lacking ZIP1 showed attenuated virulence in a murine inhalation model of cryptococcosis and reduced survival within murine macrophages. Overall, our data suggest that Zip1 plays essential roles in zinc transport and the virulence of C. neoformans. PMID:27118799

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhiza Symbiosis Induces a Major Transcriptional Reprogramming of the Potato SWEET Sugar Transporter Family.

    PubMed

    Manck-Götzenberger, Jasmin; Requena, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Biotrophic microbes feeding on plants must obtain carbon from their hosts without killing the cells. The symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonizing plant roots do so by inducing major transcriptional changes in the host that ultimately also reprogram the whole carbon partitioning of the plant. AM fungi obtain carbohydrates from the root cortex apoplast, in particular from the periarbuscular space that surrounds arbuscules. However, the mechanisms by which cortical cells export sugars into the apoplast for fungal nutrition are unknown. Recently a novel type of sugar transporter, the SWEET, able to perform not only uptake but also efflux from cells was identified. Plant SWEETs have been shown to be involved in the feeding of pathogenic microbes and are, therefore, good candidates to play a similar role in symbiotic associations. Here we have carried out the first phylogenetic and expression analyses of the potato SWEET family and investigated its role during mycorrhiza symbiosis. The potato genome contains 35 SWEETs that cluster into the same four clades defined in Arabidopsis. Colonization of potato roots by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis imposes major transcriptional rewiring of the SWEET family involving, only in roots, changes in 22 of the 35 members. None of the SWEETs showed mycorrhiza-exclusive induction and most of the 12 induced genes belong to the putative hexose transporters of clade I and II, while only two are putative sucrose transporters from clade III. In contrast, most of the repressed transcripts (10) corresponded to clade III SWEETs. Promoter-reporter assays for three of the induced genes, each from one cluster, showed re-localization of expression to arbuscule-containing cells, supporting a role for SWEETs in the supply of sugars at biotrophic interfaces. The complex transcriptional regulation of SWEETs in roots in response to AM fungal colonization supports a model in which symplastic sucrose in cortical cells could be cleaved

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhiza Symbiosis Induces a Major Transcriptional Reprogramming of the Potato SWEET Sugar Transporter Family

    PubMed Central

    Manck-Götzenberger, Jasmin; Requena, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Biotrophic microbes feeding on plants must obtain carbon from their hosts without killing the cells. The symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonizing plant roots do so by inducing major transcriptional changes in the host that ultimately also reprogram the whole carbon partitioning of the plant. AM fungi obtain carbohydrates from the root cortex apoplast, in particular from the periarbuscular space that surrounds arbuscules. However, the mechanisms by which cortical cells export sugars into the apoplast for fungal nutrition are unknown. Recently a novel type of sugar transporter, the SWEET, able to perform not only uptake but also efflux from cells was identified. Plant SWEETs have been shown to be involved in the feeding of pathogenic microbes and are, therefore, good candidates to play a similar role in symbiotic associations. Here we have carried out the first phylogenetic and expression analyses of the potato SWEET family and investigated its role during mycorrhiza symbiosis. The potato genome contains 35 SWEETs that cluster into the same four clades defined in Arabidopsis. Colonization of potato roots by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis imposes major transcriptional rewiring of the SWEET family involving, only in roots, changes in 22 of the 35 members. None of the SWEETs showed mycorrhiza-exclusive induction and most of the 12 induced genes belong to the putative hexose transporters of clade I and II, while only two are putative sucrose transporters from clade III. In contrast, most of the repressed transcripts (10) corresponded to clade III SWEETs. Promoter-reporter assays for three of the induced genes, each from one cluster, showed re-localization of expression to arbuscule-containing cells, supporting a role for SWEETs in the supply of sugars at biotrophic interfaces. The complex transcriptional regulation of SWEETs in roots in response to AM fungal colonization supports a model in which symplastic sucrose in cortical cells could be cleaved

  20. The novel putative bile acid transporter SLC10A5 is highly expressed in liver and kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Carla F.; Godoy, Jose R.; Doering, Barbara; Cavalcanti, Marcia C.O.; Bergmann, Martin; Petzinger, Ernst; Geyer, Joachim . E-mail: Joachim.M.Geyer@vetmed.uni-giessen.de

    2007-09-14

    Here we report the identification, cloning, and characterization of SLC10A5, which is a new member of Solute Carrier Family 10 (SLC10), also known as the 'sodium/bile acid cotransporter family'. Expression of SLC10A5/Slc10a5 was examined by quantitative real-time PCR and revealed its highest expression levels in liver and kidney in humans, rat and mouse. In rat liver and kidney, Slc10a5 expression was localized by in situ hybridization to hepatocytes and proximal tubules, respectively. A SLC10A5-FLAG fusion protein was expressed in HEK293 cells and showed an apparent molecular weight of 42 kDa after immunoprecipitation. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the SLC10A5-FLAG protein was detected in the oocyte's plasma membrane but showed no transport activity for taurocholate, cholate, estrone-3-sulfate, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. As bile acid carriers are the most related carriers to SLC10A5 though, we strongly suppose that SLC10A5 is an orphan carrier with yet non-identified substrates.

  1. Suppression of Arbuscule Degeneration in Medicago truncatula phosphate transporter4 Mutants Is Dependent on the Ammonium Transporter 2 Family Protein AMT2;3

    PubMed Central

    Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Floss, Daniela S.; Gomez, S. Karen; Pumplin, Nathan; Ding, Yi; Levesque-Tremblay, Veronique; Noar, Roslyn D.; Daniels, Dierdra A.; Bravo, Armando; Eaglesham, James B.; Benedito, Vagner A.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Harrison, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    During arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, the plant gains access to phosphate (Pi) and nitrogen delivered by its fungal symbiont. Transfer of mineral nutrients occurs at the interface between branched hyphae called arbuscules and root cortical cells. In Medicago truncatula, a Pi transporter, PT4, is required for symbiotic Pi transport, and in pt4, symbiotic Pi transport fails, arbuscules degenerate prematurely, and the symbiosis is not maintained. Premature arbuscule degeneration (PAD) is suppressed when pt4 mutants are nitrogen-deprived, possibly the result of compensation by PT8, a second AM-induced Pi transporter. However, PAD is also suppressed in nitrogen-starved pt4 pt8 double mutants, negating this hypothesis and furthermore indicating that in this condition, neither of these symbiotic Pi transporters is required for symbiosis. In M. truncatula, three AMT2 family ammonium transporters are induced during AM symbiosis. To test the hypothesis that suppression of PAD involves AMT2 transporters, we analyzed double and triple Pi and ammonium transporter mutants. ATM2;3 but not AMT2;4 was required for suppression of PAD in pt4, while AMT2;4, but not AMT2;3, complemented growth of a yeast ammonium transporter mutant. In summary, arbuscule life span is influenced by PT4 and ATM2;3, and their relative importance varies with the nitrogen status of the plant. PMID:25841038

  2. Suppression of Arbuscule Degeneration in Medicago truncatula phosphate transporter4 Mutants is Dependent on the Ammonium Transporter 2 Family Protein AMT2;3.

    PubMed

    Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Floss, Daniela S; Gomez, S Karen; Pumplin, Nathan; Ding, Yi; Levesque-Tremblay, Veronique; Noar, Roslyn D; Daniels, Dierdra A; Bravo, Armando; Eaglesham, James B; Benedito, Vagner A; Udvardi, Michael K; Harrison, Maria J

    2015-04-01

    During arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, the plant gains access to phosphate (Pi) and nitrogen delivered by its fungal symbiont. Transfer of mineral nutrients occurs at the interface between branched hyphae called arbuscules and root cortical cells. In Medicago truncatula, a Pi transporter, PT4, is required for symbiotic Pi transport, and in pt4, symbiotic Pi transport fails, arbuscules degenerate prematurely, and the symbiosis is not maintained. Premature arbuscule degeneration (PAD) is suppressed when pt4 mutants are nitrogen-deprived, possibly the result of compensation by PT8, a second AM-induced Pi transporter. However, PAD is also suppressed in nitrogen-starved pt4 pt8 double mutants, negating this hypothesis and furthermore indicating that in this condition, neither of these symbiotic Pi transporters is required for symbiosis. In M. truncatula, three AMT2 family ammonium transporters are induced during AM symbiosis. To test the hypothesis that suppression of PAD involves AMT2 transporters, we analyzed double and triple Pi and ammonium transporter mutants. ATM2;3 but not AMT2;4 was required for suppression of PAD in pt4, while AMT2;4, but not AMT2;3, complemented growth of a yeast ammonium transporter mutant. In summary, arbuscule life span is influenced by PT4 and ATM2;3, and their relative importance varies with the nitrogen status of the plant. PMID:25841038

  3. Hepatic transport of bile acid and effect of conjugation.

    PubMed

    Kitani, K

    1995-06-01

    Biliary transport of bile salts was investigated by measuring: 1) biliary transport maxima values (Tm) for different conjugated bile salts; and 2) biliary excretion of unconjugated bile salts relative to their conjugates under the continuous i.v. infusion of various unconjugated bile salts. The order of Tm values found in the rat of both sexes was tauro (and glyco) ursodeoxycholate (TUDC, GUDC), tauro alpha- and beta-muricholate (T alpha-MC, T beta-MC) > taurocholate(TC) > taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC), while in female hamsters it was TC > TCDC > TUDC. The differences in the Tm order between rats and hamsters cast doubt on the currently proposed view that the apparent Tm values of bile salts are primarily determined by their physical-chemical properties (detergent property in particular). The biliary excretion of unconjugated bile salts was most efficient with ursocholate (UC) and alpha-MC followed by beta-MC, with UDC (and probably 7 ketolithocholate) being the least efficient for excretion. Thus, while for some bile salts such as cholate and UC, the amidation is not a prerequisite to their efficient excretion, for other bile salts such as UDC, the amidation is an excellent mechanism for facilitating the biliary excretion. In an attempt to explain the above order for the efficacy of the biliary excretion of unconjugated bile salts on the basis of their physical-chemical properties, we must remember that unlike rats, the biliary excretion of dehydrocholate and cholate in dogs is more limited than their respective taurine conjugates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8541581

  4. The acidic domains of the Toc159 chloroplast preprotein receptor family are intrinsically disordered protein domains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Toc159 family of proteins serve as receptors for chloroplast-destined preproteins. They directly bind to transit peptides, and exhibit preprotein substrate selectivity conferred by an unknown mechanism. The Toc159 receptors each include three domains: C-terminal membrane, central GTPase, and N-terminal acidic (A-) domains. Although the function(s) of the A-domain remains largely unknown, the amino acid sequences are most variable within these domains, suggesting they may contribute to the functional specificity of the receptors. Results The physicochemical properties of the A-domains are characteristic of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Using CD spectroscopy we show that the A-domains of two Arabidopsis Toc159 family members (atToc132 and atToc159) are disordered at physiological pH and temperature and undergo conformational changes at temperature and pH extremes that are characteristic of IDPs. Conclusions Identification of the A-domains as IDPs will be important for determining their precise function(s), and suggests a role in protein-protein interactions, which may explain how these proteins serve as receptors for such a wide variety of preprotein substrates. PMID:20042108

  5. Aminoaciduria and altered renal expression of luminal amino acid transporters in mice lacking novel gene collectrin.

    PubMed

    Malakauskas, Sandra M; Quan, Hui; Fields, Timothy A; McCall, Shannon J; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Kourany, Wissam M; Frey, Campbell W; Le, Thu H

    2007-02-01

    Defects in renal proximal tubule transport manifest in a number of human diseases. Although variable in clinical presentation, disorders such as Hartnup disease, Dent's disease, and Fanconi syndrome are characterized by wasting of solutes commonly recovered by the proximal tubule. One common feature of these disorders is aminoaciduria. There are distinct classes of amino acid transporters located in the apical and basal membranes of the proximal tubules that reabsorb >95% of filtered amino acids, yet few details are known about their regulation. We present our physiological characterization of a mouse line with targeted deletion of the gene collectrin that is highly expressed in the kidney. Collectrin-deficient mice display a reduced urinary concentrating capacity due to enhanced solute clearance resulting from profound aminoaciduria. The aminoaciduria is generalized, characterized by loss of nearly every amino acid, and results in marked crystalluria. Furthermore, in the kidney, collectrin-deficient mice have decreased plasma membrane populations of amino acid transporter subtypes B(0)AT1, rBAT, and b(0,+)AT, as well as altered cellular distribution of EAAC1. Our data suggest that collectrin is a novel mediator of renal amino acid transport and may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of a number of human disease correlates. PMID:16985211

  6. Transport and metabolism of fumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic glucose-limited chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mihir V; van Mastrigt, Oscar; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2016-04-01

    Currently, research is being focused on the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid and other relevant organic acids from renewable feedstocks via fermentation, preferably at low pH for better product recovery. However, at low pH a large fraction of the extracellular acid is present in the undissociated form, which is lipophilic and can diffuse into the cell. There have been no studies done on the impact of high extracellular concentrations of fumaric acid under aerobic conditions in S. cerevisiae, which is a relevant issue to study for industrial-scale production. In this work we studied the uptake and metabolism of fumaric acid in S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a cultivation pH of 3.0 (pH < pK). Steady states were achieved with different extracellular levels of fumaric acid, obtained by adding different amounts of fumaric acid to the feed medium. The experiments were carried out with the wild-type S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D and an engineered S. cerevisiae ADIS 244 expressing a heterologous dicarboxylic acid transporter (DCT-02) from Aspergillus niger, to examine whether it would be capable of exporting fumaric acid. We observed that fumaric acid entered the cells most likely via passive diffusion of the undissociated form. Approximately two-thirds of the fumaric acid in the feed was metabolized together with glucose. From metabolic flux analysis, an increased ATP dissipation was observed only at high intracellular concentrations of fumarate, possibly due to the export of fumarate via an ABC transporter. The implications of our results for the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26683700

  7. DeltapH-Dependent Amino Acid Transport into Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves: II. Evidence for Multiple Aliphatic, Neutral Amino Acid Symports.

    PubMed

    Li, Z C; Bush, D R

    1991-08-01

    Proton-coupled aliphatic, neutral amino acid transport was investigated in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., cv Great Western) leaves. Two neutral amino acid symport systems were resolved based on inter-amino acid transport competition and on large variations in the specific activity of each porter in different species. Competitive inhibition was observed for transport competition between alanine, methionine, glutamine, and leucine (the alanine group) and between isoleucine, valine, and threonine (the isoleucine group). The apparent K(m) and K(i) values were similar for transport competition among amino acids within the alanine group. In contrast, the kinetics of transport competition between these two groups of amino acids did not fit a simple competitive model. Furthermore, members of the isoleucine group were weak transport antagonists of the alanine group. These results are consistent with two independent neutral amino acid porters. In support of that conclusion, the ratio of the specific activity of alanine transport versus isoleucine transport varied from two- to 13-fold in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from different plant species. This ratio would be expected to remain relatively stable if these amino acids were moving through a single transport system and, indeed, the ratio of alanine to glutamine transport varied less than twofold. Analysis of the predicted structure of the aliphatic, neutral amino acids in solution shows that isoleucine, valine, and threonine contain a branched methyl or hydroxyl group at the beta-carbon position that places a dense electron cloud close to the alpha-amino group. This does not occur for the unbranched amino acids or those that branch further away, e.g. leucine. We hypothesize that this structural feature of isoleucine, valine, and threonine results in unfavorable steric interactions with the alanine transport system that limits their flux through this porter. Hydrophobicity and

  8. The ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Lin; Cui, Ying-Jun; Lang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2010-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a very important inhibitory neurotransmitter in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. GABA receptors (GABARs) are known to be the molecular targets of a class of insecticides. Members of the GABAR gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a model insect of Lepidoptera, have been identified and characterized in this study. All putative silkworm GABAR cDNAs were cloned using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Bombyx mori appears to have the largest insect GABAR gene family known to date, including three RDL, one LCCH3, and one GRD subunit. The silkworm RDL1 gene has RNA-editing sites, and the RDL1 and RDL3 genes possess alternative splicing. These mRNA modifications enhance the diversity of the silkworm's GABAR gene family. In addition, truncated transcripts were found for the RDL1 and LCCH3 genes. In particular, the three RDL subunits may have arisen from two duplication events. PMID:20924418

  9. Characterization of mouse amino acid transporter B0AT1 (slc6a19)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of the mouse (m)B0AT1 (slc6a19) transporter was studied in detail using two electrode voltage-clamp techniques and tracer studies in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. All neutral amino acids induced inward currents at physiological potentials, but large neutral non-aromatic amino acids were the preferred substrates of mB0AT1. Substrates were transported with K0.5 values ranging from approx. 1 mM to approx. 10 mM. The transporter mediates Na+–amino acid co-transport with a stoichiometry of 1:1. No other ions were involved in the transport mechanism. An increase in the extracellular Na+ concentration reduced the K0.5 for leucine, and vice versa. Moreover, the K0.5 values and Vmax values of both substrates varied with the membrane potential. As a result, K0.5 and Vmax values are a complex function of the concentration of substrate and co-substrate and the membrane potential. A model is presented assuming random binding order and a positive charge associated with the ternary [Na+–substrate–transporter] complex, which is consistent with the experimental data. PMID:15804236

  10. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25616451

  11. The family of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters: a focus on the GLT-1/EAAT2 subtype.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M B

    1998-12-01

    The acidic amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian CNS. Under many pathologic conditions, these excitatory amino acids (EAAs) accumulate in the extracellular fluid in CNS and the resultant excessive activation of EAA receptors contributes to brain injury through a process known as 'excitotoxicity'. Unlike many other neurotransmitters, there is no evidence for extracellular metabolism of EAAs, rather, they are cleared by Na+-dependent transport mechanisms. Therefore, this transport process is important for ensuring crisp synaptic signaling as well as limiting the excitotoxic potential of EAAs. With the cloning of five distinct EAA transporters, a variety of tools were developed to characterize individual transporter subtypes, including specific antibodies, expression systems, and probes to delete/knock-down expression of each subtype. These tools are beginning to provide fundamental information that has the potential to impact our understanding of EAA physiology and pathophysiology. For example, biophysical studies of the cloned transporters have led to the observation that some subtypes function as ligand-gated ion channels as well as transporters. With these reagents, it has also been possible to explore the relative contributions of each transporter to the clearance of extracellular EAAs and to begin to examine the regulation of specific transporter subtypes. In this review, an overview of the properties of the transporter subtypes will be presented. The evidence which suggests that the transporter, GLT1/EAAT2, may be sufficient to explain a large percentage of forebrain transport will be critically reviewed. Finally, the studies of regulation of GLT-1 in vitro and in vivo will be described. PMID:10098717

  12. Evidence that the transport-related proteins BAT and 4F2hc are not specific for amino acids: induction of Na+-dependent uridine and pyruvate transport activity by recombinant BAT and 4F2hc expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yao, S Y; Muzyka, W R; Cass, C E; Cheeseman, C I; Young, J D

    1998-01-01

    Members of the BAT and 4F2hc gene family have one or, in the case of BAT, up to four transmembane domains and induce amino acid transport systems b(o,+) (BAT) and y+L (4F2hc) when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. System b(o,+) is a Na+-independent process with a broad tolerance for cationic and zwitterionic amino acids, whereas y+L exhibits Na+-independent transport of cationic amino acids (e.g., lysine) and Na+-dependent transport of zwitterionic amino acids (e.g., leucine). Mutations in the human BAT gene are associated with type I cystinuria, a genetic disease affecting the ability of intestinal and renal brush border membranes to transport cationic amino acids and cystine. An unresolved question is whether BAT and 4F2hc themselves have catalytic (i.e., transporting) activity or whether they operate as activators of other, as yet unidentified, transporter proteins. In this report, we have investigated the transport of representatives of four different classes of organic substrates in Xenopus oocytes following injection with rat BAT or 4F2hc RNA transcripts: leucine (a control amino acid substrate), uridine (a nucleoside), pyruvate (a monocarboxylate), and choline (an amine). Both recombinant proteins induced small, statistically significant Na+-dependent fluxes of uridine and pyruvate but had no effect on choline uptake. In contrast, control oocytes injected with transcripts for conventional nucleoside and cationic amino acid transporters (rat CNT1 and murine CAT1, respectively) showed no induction of transport of either leucine or pyruvate (CNT1) or uridine or pyruvate (CAT1). These findings support the idea that BAT and 4F2hc are transport activators and minimize the possibility that they have intrinsic transport capability. The transport-regulating functions of these proteins may extend to permeants other than amino acids. PMID:10353721

  13. Gymnemic acids inhibit sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Dawid, Corinna; Kottra, Gabor; Daniel, Hannelore; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-06-25

    To evaluate the activity of botanicals used in Chinese Traditional Medicine as hypoglycemic agents for diabetes type II prevention and/or treatment, extracts prepared from 26 medicinal herbs were screened for their inhibitory activity on sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) by using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording of glucose uptake in Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with cRNA for SGLT1. Showing by far the strongest SGLT1 inhibitory effect, the phytochemicals extracted from Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schult were located by means of activity-guided fractionation and identified as 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-2-tigloyl-22-O-2-tigloyl gymnemagenin (1) and 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-2-methylbutyryl-22-O-2-tigloyl gymnemagenin (2) by means of LC-MS/MS, UPLC-TOF/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments. Both saponins exhibited low IC50 values of 5.97 (1) and 0.17 μM (2), the latter of which was in the same range as found for the high-affinity inhibitor phlorizin (0.21 μM). As SGLT1 is found in high levels in brush-border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells, these findings demonstrate for the first time the potential of these saponins for inhibiting electrogenic glucose uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24856809

  14. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  15. Monocarboxylate Transporter-Mediated Transport of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wing Ki; Felmlee, Melanie A.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) and to evaluate intestinal transport of the MCT substrates γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and d-lactate in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The presence of mRNA for MCT1, 2, 3, and 4 was observed in Caco-2 cells. The uptake of both GHB and d-lactate in Caco-2 cells was demonstrated to be pH- and concentration-dependent and sodium-independent. The uptake of GHB and d-lactate was best described by a Michaelis-Menten equation with passive diffusion (GHB: Km = 17.6 ± 10.5 mM, Vmax = 17.3 ± 11.7 nmol/min/mg, and P = 0.38 ± 0.15 μl/min/mg; and d-lactate: Km = 6.0 ± 2.9 mM, Vmax = 35.0 ± 18.4 nmol/min/mg, and P = 1.3 ± 0.6 μl/min/mg). The uptake of GHB and d-lactate was significantly decreased by the known MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and the MCT substrates GHB and d-lactate but not by the organic cation tetraethylammonium chloride. Directional flux studies with both GHB and d-lactate suggested the involvement of carrier-mediated transport with the permeability in the apical to basolateral direction higher than that in the basolateral to apical direction. These findings confirm the presence of MCT1–4 in Caco-2 cells and demonstrate GHB and d-lactate transport characteristics consistent with proton-dependent MCT-mediated transport. PMID:19952290

  16. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Kindergarten Units: The School, The Farm, The Family, and Transportation].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Four curriculum units for use at the kindergarten level focus on: (1) school jobs and the school community; (2) farming jobs and lifestyle; (3) family jobs at home and outside the home; and (4) transportation jobs and its industry. Objectives linking the units emphasize increasing students' awareness of and appreciation for each unit's jobs. The…

  17. Chronic intermittent psychological stress promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by impairing bile acid absorption in mice

    PubMed Central

    Silvennoinen, Reija; Quesada, Helena; Kareinen, Ilona; Julve, Josep; Kaipiainen, Leena; Gylling, Helena; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress. PMID:25969465

  18. Chronic intermittent psychological stress promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by impairing bile acid absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Reija; Quesada, Helena; Kareinen, Ilona; Julve, Josep; Kaipiainen, Leena; Gylling, Helena; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-05-11

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress. PMID:25969465

  19. Multiple origins of crassulacean acid metabolism and the epiphytic habit in the Neotropical family Bromeliaceae

    PubMed Central

    Crayn, Darren M.; Winter, Klaus; Smith, J. Andrew C.

    2004-01-01

    The large Neotropical family Bromeliaceae presents an outstanding example of adaptive radiation in plants, containing a wide range of terrestrial and epiphytic life-forms occupying many distinct habitats. Diversification in bromeliads has been linked to several key innovations, including water- and nutrient-impounding phytotelmata, absorptive epidermal trichomes, and the water-conserving mode of photosynthesis known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). To clarify the origins of CAM and the epiphytic habit, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 51 bromeliad taxa by using the plastid loci matK and the rps16 intron, combined with a survey of photosynthetic pathway determined by carbon-isotope ratios for 1,873 species representing 65% of the family. Optimization of character-states onto the strict consensus tree indicated that the last common ancestor of Bromeliaceae was a terrestrial C3 mesophyte, probably adapted to moist, exposed, nutrient-poor habitats. Both CAM photosynthesis and the epiphytic habit evolved a minimum of three times in the family, most likely in response to geological and climatic changes in the late Tertiary. The great majority of epiphytic forms are now found in two lineages: in subfamily Tillandsioideae, in which C3 photosynthesis was the ancestral state and CAM developed later in the most extreme epiphytes, and in subfamily Bromelioideae, in which CAM photosynthesis predated the appearance of epiphytism. Subsequent radiation of the bromelioid line into less xeric habitats has led to reversion to C3 photosynthesis in some taxa, showing that both gain and loss of CAM have occurred in the complex evolutionary history of this family. PMID:14982989

  20. Influence of Verapamil and Cyclosporin A on bile acid metabolism and transport in rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Barth, Astrid; Braun, Jerome; Müller, Dieter

    2006-08-01

    Verapamil (V) is a specific inhibitor of the P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane. Cyclosporin A (CsA) as an essential immunosuppressive drug has potentially cholestatic adverse effects on the liver, but increases the expression of mdr1. In precision-cut liver slices from 34- to 40-day-old male Wistar rats 26 individual free and conjugated bile acids (BAs) as markers of hepatic transport and synthesis function were analysed after 4 h incubation with V (100 microM) or CsA (5 microM) in Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Some slices were loaded with cholic acid (CA 5 microM) or tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (T-UDCA 5 microM) to investigate the V and CsA effects under conditions of BA supplementation. BAs were determined in tissue and medium by HPLC with postcolumn derivatisation and fluorescence detection. V and CsA, influencing different targets in BA transport, enhanced slice concentrations of T- and glyco- (G-) conjugated CA only when exogenous CA was given additionally. This BA accumulation in tissue is more reflected at decreased medium concentrations of these BAs after V and CsA incubations. Both V and CsA also inhibited CA uptake into the slices. The acidic chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) synthesis pathway is disturbed: T- and G-CDCA concentrations are diminished in slices and medium after V and CsA incubations. T-UDCA plus V or CsA enhanced not only its own slice concentration but also the concentration of the trihydroxylated tauro-muricholic acid (T-beta-MCA), reflecting the conversion of the accumulated dihydroxylated T-UDCA into the T-beta-MCA. The similar effects of V and CsA on BA transport and metabolism can be explained by mdr1 mediated disturbances of cellular ATP transport rather than by inhibition of individual BA transporters. PMID:16793245

  1. Mn-euvering manganese: the role of transporter gene family members in manganese uptake and mobilization in plants

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Amanda L.; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, is important for plant health. In plants, Mn serves as a cofactor in essential processes such as photosynthesis, lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Mn deficient plants exhibit decreased growth and yield and are more susceptible to pathogens and damage at freezing temperatures. Mn deficiency is most prominent on alkaline soils with approximately one third of the world's soils being too alkaline for optimal crop production. Despite the importance of Mn in plant development, relatively little is known about how it traffics between plant tissues and into and out of organelles. Several gene transporter families have been implicated in Mn transport in plants. These transporter families include NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), ZIP (zinc regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter [ZRT/IRT1]-related protein), CAX (cation exchanger), CCX (calcium cation exchangers), CDF/MTP (cation diffusion facilitator/metal tolerance protein), P-type ATPases and VIT (vacuolar iron transporter). A combination of techniques including mutant analysis and Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy can assist in identifying essential transporters of Mn. Such knowledge would vastly improve our understanding of plant Mn homeostasis. PMID:24744764

  2. Mn-euvering manganese: the role of transporter gene family members in manganese uptake and mobilization in plants.

    PubMed

    Socha, Amanda L; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, is important for plant health. In plants, Mn serves as a cofactor in essential processes such as photosynthesis, lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Mn deficient plants exhibit decreased growth and yield and are more susceptible to pathogens and damage at freezing temperatures. Mn deficiency is most prominent on alkaline soils with approximately one third of the world's soils being too alkaline for optimal crop production. Despite the importance of Mn in plant development, relatively little is known about how it traffics between plant tissues and into and out of organelles. Several gene transporter families have been implicated in Mn transport in plants. These transporter families include NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), ZIP (zinc regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter [ZRT/IRT1]-related protein), CAX (cation exchanger), CCX (calcium cation exchangers), CDF/MTP (cation diffusion facilitator/metal tolerance protein), P-type ATPases and VIT (vacuolar iron transporter). A combination of techniques including mutant analysis and Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy can assist in identifying essential transporters of Mn. Such knowledge would vastly improve our understanding of plant Mn homeostasis. PMID:24744764

  3. Amino Acid Sensing by mTORC1: Intracellular Transporters Mark the Spot.

    PubMed

    Goberdhan, Deborah C I; Wilson, Clive; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-04-12

    Cell metabolism and growth are matched to nutrient availability via the amino-acid-regulated mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Transporters have emerged as important amino acid sensors controlling mTOR recruitment and activation at the surface of multiple intracellular compartments. Classically, this has involved late endosomes and lysosomes, but now, in a recent twist, also the Golgi apparatus. Here we propose a model in which specific amino acids in assorted compartments activate different mTORC1 complexes, which may have distinct drug sensitivities and functions. We will discuss the implications of this for mTORC1 function in health and disease. PMID:27076075

  4. D-cycloserine transport in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells: mediation by a H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, D. T.; Armstrong, G.; Hirst, B. H.; Simmons, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    1. The ability of D-cycloserine to act as a substrate for H+/amino acid symport has been tested in epithelial layers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells. 2. In Na(+)-free media with the apical bathing media held at pH 6.0, D-cycloserine (20 mM) is an effective inhibitor of net transepithelial transport (Jnet) of L-alanine (100 microM) and its accumulation (across the apical membrane) in a similar manner to amino acid substrates (L-alanine, beta-alanine, L-proline and glycine). In contrast L-valine was ineffective as an inhibitor for H+/amino acid symport. Both inhibition of L-alanine Jnet and its accumulation by D-cycloserine were dose-dependent, maximal inhibition being achieved by 5-10 mM. 3. Both D-cycloserine and known substrates for H+/amino acid symport stimulated an inward short circuit current (Isc) when voltage-clamped monolayers of Caco-2 epithelia, mounted in Ussing chambers, were exposed to apical substrate in Na(+)-free media, with apical pH held at 6.0. The D-cycloserine dependent increase in Isc was dose-dependent with an apparent Km = 15.8 +/- 2.0 (mean +/- s.e. mean) mM, and Vmax = 373 +/- 21 nmol cm-2h-1. 4. D-Cycloserine (20 mM) induced a prompt acidification of Caco-2 cell cytosol when superfused at the apical surface in both Na+ and Na(+)-free conditions. Cytosolic acidification in response to D-cycloserine was dependent upon superfusate pH, being attenuated at pH 8 and enhanced in acidic media. 5. The increment in Isc with 20 mM D-cycloserine was non-additive with other amino acid substrates for H+/amino acid symport. PMID:8548174

  5. Effect of pravastatin on biliary lipid composition and bile acid synthesis in familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Hoogerbrugge-vd Linden, N; de Rooy, F W; Jansen, H; van Blankenstein, M

    1990-03-01

    Nine patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia were treated for eight weeks with either 40 mg pravastatin or placebo under double blind conditions. Six patients received pravastatin, a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Treatment with pravastatin resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol caused by a decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) of 30% (p less than 0.005). We determined the effect of this medication on the lithogenicity of bile. Cholesterol saturation index of fasting gall bladder bile decreased with 23% (p less than 0.01) from 1.06 to 0.75 during treatment with pravastatin. A reduction of 24% (p less than 0.01) in molar percentage of biliary cholesterol was seen. After treatment the total bile acid excretion in faeces and the molar percentage of biliary bile acids were not significantly changed, suggesting that pravastatin does not influence bile acid biosynthesis to a significant extent. These findings indicate that treatment with pravastatin can decrease the incidence and complications of cholesterol gall stones. PMID:2108908

  6. The SWEET family of sugar transporters in grapevine: VvSWEET4 is involved in the interaction with Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Chong, Julie; Piron, Marie-Christine; Meyer, Sophie; Merdinoglu, Didier; Bertsch, Christophe; Mestre, Pere

    2014-12-01

    During plant development, sugar export is determinant in multiple processes such as nectar production, pollen development and long-distance sucrose transport. The plant SWEET family of sugar transporters is a recently identified protein family of sugar uniporters. In rice, SWEET transporters are the target of extracellular bacteria, which have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to modify their expression and acquire sugars to sustain their growth. Here we report the characterization of the SWEET family of sugar transporters in Vitis vinifera. We identified 17 SWEET genes in the V. vinifera 40024 genome and show that they are differentially expressed in vegetative and reproductive organs. Inoculation with the biotrophic pathogens Erysiphe necator and Plasmopara viticola did not result in significant induction of VvSWEET gene expression. However, infection with the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea triggered a strong up-regulation of VvSWEET4 expression. Further characterization of VvSWEET4 revealed that it is a glucose transporter localized in the plasma membrane that is up-regulated by inducers of reactive oxygen species and virulence factors from necrotizing pathogens. Finally, Arabidopsis knockout mutants in the orthologous AtSWEET4 were found to be less susceptible to B. cinerea. We propose that stimulation of expression of a developmentally regulated glucose uniporter by reactive oxygen species production and extensive cell death after necrotrophic fungal infection could facilitate sugar acquisition from plant cells by the pathogen. PMID:25246444

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits intestinal β-carotene absorption by downregulation of lipid transporter expression via PPAR-α dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Kondaiah, Palsa; Palika, Ravindranadh; Ghosh, Sudip; Nair, Madhavan K; Raghu, Pullakhandam

    2016-01-15

    The involvement of lipid transporters, the scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and Niemann-Pick type C1 Like 1 protein (NPC1L1) in carotenoid absorption is demonstrated in intestinal cells and animal models. Dietary ω-3 fatty acids are known to possess antilipidemic properties, which could be mediated by activation of PPAR family transcription factors. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on intestinal β-carotene absorption. β-carotene uptake in Caco-2/TC7 cells was inhibited by EPA (p < 0.01) and PPARα agonist (P < 0.01), but not by DHA, PPARγ or PPARδ agonists. Despite unaltered β-carotene uptake, both DHA and PPARδ agonists inhibited the NPC1L1 expression. Further, EPA also induced the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A) expression, a PPARα target gene. Interestingly, EPA induced inhibition of β-carotene uptake and SR B1 expression were abrogated by specific PPARα antagonist, but not by PPARδ antagonist. EPA and PPARα agonist also inhibited the basolateral secretion of β-carotene from Caco-2 cells grown on permeable supports. These results suggest that EPA inhibits intestinal β-carotene absorption by down regulation of SR B1 expression via PPARα dependent mechanism and provide an evidence for dietary modulation of intestinal β-carotene absorption. PMID:26577021

  8. Investigation of the fatty acid transporter-encoding genes SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 in autism.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Motoko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Manabu; Shimamoto, Chie; Hisano, Yasuko; Toyota, Tomoko; Balan, Shabeesh; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Iwata, Yasuhide; Takagai, Shu; Yamada, Kohei; Ota, Motonori; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Okada, Yohei; Akamatsu, Wado; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Owada, Yuji; Okano, Hideyuki; Mori, Norio; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    The solute carrier 27A (SLC27A) gene family encodes fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) and includes 6 members. During fetal and postnatal periods of development, the growing brain requires a reliable supply of fatty acids. Because autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are now recognized as disorders caused by impaired early brain development, it is possible that functional abnormalities of SLC27A genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. Here, we confirmed the expression of SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 in human neural stem cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, which suggested their involvement in the developmental stage of the central nervous system. Additionally, we resequenced the SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 genes using 267 ASD patient and 1140 control samples and detected 47 (44 novel and 29 nonsynonymous) and 30 (17 novel and 14 nonsynonymous) variants for the SLC27A3 and SLC27A4, respectively, revealing that they are highly polymorphic with multiple rare variants. The SLC27A4 Ser209 allele was more frequently represented in ASD samples. Furthermore, we showed that a SLC27A4 Ser209 mutant resulted in significantly higher fluorescently-labeled fatty acid uptake into bEnd3 cells, a mouse brain capillary-derived endothelial cell line, compared with SLC27A4 Gly209, suggesting that the functional change may contribute to ASD pathophysiology. PMID:26548558

  9. Investigation of the fatty acid transporter-encoding genes SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 in autism

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Motoko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Manabu; Shimamoto, Chie; Hisano, Yasuko; Toyota, Tomoko; Balan, Shabeesh; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Iwata, Yasuhide; Takagai, Shu; Yamada, Kohei; Ota, Motonori; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Okada, Yohei; Akamatsu, Wado; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Owada, Yuji; Okano, Hideyuki; Mori, Norio; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    The solute carrier 27A (SLC27A) gene family encodes fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) and includes 6 members. During fetal and postnatal periods of development, the growing brain requires a reliable supply of fatty acids. Because autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are now recognized as disorders caused by impaired early brain development, it is possible that functional abnormalities of SLC27A genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. Here, we confirmed the expression of SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 in human neural stem cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, which suggested their involvement in the developmental stage of the central nervous system. Additionally, we resequenced the SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 genes using 267 ASD patient and 1140 control samples and detected 47 (44 novel and 29 nonsynonymous) and 30 (17 novel and 14 nonsynonymous) variants for the SLC27A3 and SLC27A4, respectively, revealing that they are highly polymorphic with multiple rare variants. The SLC27A4 Ser209 allele was more frequently represented in ASD samples. Furthermore, we showed that a SLC27A4 Ser209 mutant resulted in significantly higher fluorescently-labeled fatty acid uptake into bEnd3 cells, a mouse brain capillary-derived endothelial cell line, compared with SLC27A4 Gly209, suggesting that the functional change may contribute to ASD pathophysiology. PMID:26548558

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis efpA encodes an efflux protein of the QacA transporter family.

    PubMed Central

    Doran, J L; Pang, Y; Mdluli, K E; Moran, A J; Victor, T C; Stokes, R W; Mahenthiralingam, E; Kreiswirth, B N; Butt, J L; Baron, G S; Treit, J D; Kerr, V J; Van Helden, P D; Roberts, M C; Nano, F E

    1997-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv efpA gene encodes a putative efflux protein, EfpA, of 55,670 Da. The deduced EfpA protein was similar in secondary structure to Pur8, MmrA, TcmA, LfrA, EmrB, and other members of the QacA transporter family (QacA TF) which mediate antibiotic and chemical resistance in bacteria and yeast. The predicted EfpA sequence possessed all transporter motifs characteristic of the QacA TF, including those associated with proton-antiport function and the motif considered to be specific to exporters. The 1,590-bp efpA open reading frame was G+C rich (65%), whereas the 40-bp region immediately upstream had an A+T bias (35% G+C). Reverse transcriptase-PCR assays indicated that efpA was expressed in vitro and in situ. Putative promoter sequences were partially overlapped by the A+T-rich region and by a region capable of forming alternative secondary structures indicative of transcriptional regulation in analogous systems. PCR single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis demonstrated that these upstream flanking sequences and the 231-bp, 5' coding region are highly conserved among both drug-sensitive and multiply-drug-resistant isolates of M. tuberculosis. The efpA gene was present in the slow-growing human pathogens M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and Mycobacterium bovis and in the opportunistic human pathogens Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellular. However, efpA was not present in 17 other opportunistically pathogenic or nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. PMID:9008277

  11. The urea transporter family (SLC14): physiological, pathological and structural aspects.

    PubMed

    Shayakul, Chairat; Clémençon, Benjamin; Hediger, Matthias A

    2013-01-01

    Urea transporters (UTs) belonging to the solute carrier 14 (SLC14) family comprise two genes with a total of eight isoforms in mammals, UT-A1 to -A6 encoded by SLC14A2 and UT-B1 to -B2 encoded by SLC14A1. Recent efforts have been directed toward understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of UTs using transgenic mouse models and heterologous expression systems, leading to important new insights. Urea uptake by UT-A1 and UT-A3 in the kidney inner medullary collecting duct and by UT-B1 in the descending vasa recta for the countercurrent exchange system are chiefly responsible for medullary urea accumulation in the urinary concentration process. Vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone, regulates UT-A isoforms via the phosphorylation and trafficking of the glycosylated transporters to the plasma membrane that occurs to maintain equilibrium with the exocytosis and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathways. UT-B isoforms are also important in several cellular functions, including urea nitrogen salvaging in the colon, nitric oxide pathway modulation in the hippocampus, and the normal cardiac conduction system. In addition, genomic linkage studies have revealed potential additional roles for SLC14A1 and SLC14A2 in hypertension and bladder carcinogenesis. The precise role of UT-A2 and presence of the urea recycling pathway in normal kidney are issues to be further explored. This review provides an update of these advances and their implications for our current understanding of the SLC14 UTs. PMID:23506873

  12. Effects of endotoxin exposure on cationic amino acid transporter function in ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Megan F; Reade, Michael C; Boyd, C A R; Young, J Duncan

    2003-03-01

    Rodent models of sepsis differ from clinical human disease in that humans make substantially less whole-body nitric oxide and have different cellular responses to endotoxin. Sheep, when exposed to endotoxin, behave in a manner more similar to humans. Many studies of rodent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to endotoxin demonstrate increased cationic amino acid transporter function (particularly through the y+ transporter) to supply arginine substrate to upregulated nitric oxide synthase. Whether this is true in sheep is not known. We have studied cationic amino acid transport in sheep PBMCs stimulated with endotoxin, using labelled lysine. PBMCs stimulated both in vitro and in vivo show an initial reduction in total and y+ lysine transport (after 1-2 h exposure to endotoxin): a previously undescribed effect of endotoxin. In in vitro activated cells, the reduction in y+ transport was prevented by the lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA), and the phospholipase inhibitor 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPAB), but not cyclohexamide or a number of other inhibitors of intracellular second-messenger pathways. In contrast after 14 h incubation, the expected increase in total and y+ lysine transport was seen. The increase in y+ transport could be prevented by cyclohexamide, dexamethasone, ibuprofen, the protein kinase C inhibitor sphingosine, NDGA and 4-BPAB. These results suggest that in response to endotoxin exposure there is an initial decrease in y+ activity mediated by a lipoxygenase product, followed by a substantial increase in y+ activity mediated by the products of either cyclo-oxygenase or lipoxygenase. Cyclo-oxygenase and/or lipoxygenase inhibition might be useful in reducing arginine transport, and hence nitric oxide production, in these cells. PMID:12621525

  13. Influence of organic acids on the transport of heavy metals in soil.

    PubMed

    Schwab, A P; Zhu, D S; Banks, M K

    2008-06-01

    Vegetation historically has been an important part of reclamation of sites contaminated with metals, whether the objective was to stabilize the metals or remove them through phytoremediation. Understanding the impact of organic acids typically found in the rhizosphere would contribute to our knowledge of the impact of plants in contaminated environments. Heavy metal transport in soils in the presence of simple organic acids was assessed in two laboratory studies. In the first study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to investigate Zn, Cd, and Pb movement in a sandy loam soil as affected by soluble organic acids in the rhizosphere. Many of these organic acids enhanced heavy metal movement. For organic acid concentrations of 10mM, citric acid had the highest R(f) values (frontal distance moved by metal divided by frontal distance moved by the solution) for Zn, followed by malic, tartaric, fumaric, and glutaric acids. Citric acid also has the highest R(f) value for Cd movement followed by fumaric acid. Citric acid and tartaric acid enhanced Pb transport to the greatest degree. For most organic acids studied, R(f) values followed the trend Zn>Cd>Pb. Citric acid (10mM) increased R(f) values of Zn and Cd by approximately three times relative to water. In the second study, small soil columns were used to test the impact of simple organic acids on Zn, Cd, and Pb leaching in soils. Citric acid greatly enhanced Zn and Cd movement in soils but had little influence on Pb movement. The Zn and Cd in the effluents from columns treated with 10mM citric acid attained influent metal concentrations by the end of the experiment, but effluent metal concentrations were much less than influent concentrations for citrate <10mM. Exchangeable Zn in the soil columns was about 40% of total Zn, and approximately 80% total Cd was in exchangeable form. Nearly all of the Pb retained by the soil columns was exchangeable. PMID:18482743

  14. Substrate-specific effects of pirinixic acid derivatives on ABCB1-mediated drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Wurglics, Mario; Aniceto, Natália; Dittrich, Michaela; Zettl, Heiko; Wiese, Michael; Wass, Mark; Ghafourian, Taravat; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2016-01-01

    Pirinixic acid derivatives, a new class of drug candidates for a range of diseases, interfere with targets including PPARα, PPARγ, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and microsomal prostaglandin and E2 synthase-1 (mPGES1). Since 5-LO, mPGES1, PPARα, and PPARγ represent potential anti-cancer drug targets, we here investigated the effects of 39 pirinixic acid derivatives on prostate cancer (PC-3) and neuroblastoma (UKF-NB-3) cell viability and, subsequently, the effects of selected compounds on drug-resistant neuroblastoma cells. Few compounds affected cancer cell viability in low micromolar concentrations but there was no correlation between the anti-cancer effects and the effects on 5-LO, mPGES1, PPARα, or PPARγ. Most strikingly, pirinixic acid derivatives interfered with drug transport by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 in a drug-specific fashion. LP117, the compound that exerted the strongest effect on ABCB1, interfered in the investigated concentrations of up to 2μM with the ABCB1-mediated transport of vincristine, vinorelbine, actinomycin D, paclitaxel, and calcein-AM but not of doxorubicin, rhodamine 123, or JC-1. In silico docking studies identified differences in the interaction profiles of the investigated ABCB1 substrates with the known ABCB1 binding sites that may explain the substrate-specific effects of LP117. Thus, pirinixic acid derivatives may offer potential as drug-specific modulators of ABCB1-mediated drug transport. PMID:26887049

  15. MODULATION OF HEALTH AND PRODUCTION BY ORAL BETA-GLUCAN AND ASCORBIC ACID AFTER TRANSPORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeast cell-wall Beta-glucan works synergistically with ascorbic acid to enhance growth of neonatal calves in indoor, raised crates. Objectives of this study were to determine 1) if this combination of dietary supplements would improve neonatal calves' stress responses to transport, 2) production an...

  16. Substrate-specific effects of pirinixic acid derivatives on ABCB1-mediated drug transport.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Wurglics, Mario; Aniceto, Natália; Dittrich, Michaela; Zettl, Heiko; Wiese, Michael; Wass, Mark; Ghafourian, Taravat; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2016-03-01

    Pirinixic acid derivatives, a new class of drug candidates for a range of diseases, interfere with targets including PPARα, PPARγ, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and microsomal prostaglandin and E2 synthase-1 (mPGES1). Since 5-LO, mPGES1, PPARα, and PPARγ represent potential anti-cancer drug targets, we here investigated the effects of 39 pirinixic acid derivatives on prostate cancer (PC-3) and neuroblastoma (UKF-NB-3) cell viability and, subsequently, the effects of selected compounds on drug-resistant neuroblastoma cells. Few compounds affected cancer cell viability in low micromolar concentrations but there was no correlation between the anti-cancer effects and the effects on 5-LO, mPGES1, PPARα, or PPARγ. Most strikingly, pirinixic acid derivatives interfered with drug transport by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 in a drug-specific fashion. LP117, the compound that exerted the strongest effect on ABCB1, interfered in the investigated concentrations of up to 2μM with the ABCB1-mediated transport of vincristine, vinorelbine, actinomycin D, paclitaxel, and calcein-AM but not of doxorubicin, rhodamine 123, or JC-1. In silico docking studies identified differences in the interaction profiles of the investigated ABCB1 substrates with the known ABCB1 binding sites that may explain the substrate-specific effects of LP117. Thus, pirinixic acid derivatives may offer potential as drug-specific modulators of ABCB1-mediated drug transport. PMID:26887049

  17. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  18. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37{degrees}C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by (14C)CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  19. Charge transport and structural dynamics in carboxylic-acid-based deep eutectic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Philip J; Cosby, Tyler; Holt, Adam P; Benson, Roberto S; Sangoro, Joshua R

    2014-08-01

    Charge transport and structural dynamics in the 1:2 mol ratio mixture of lidocaine and decanoic acid (LID-DA), a model deep eutectic mixture (DEM), have been characterized over a wide temperature range using broad-band dielectric spectroscopy and depolarized dynamic light scattering. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed to assess the degree of proton transfer between the neutral parent molecules. From our detailed analysis of the dielectric spectra, we have determined that this carboxylic-acid-based DEM is approximately 25% ionic at room temperature. Furthermore, we have found that the characteristic diffusion rate of mobile charge carriers is practically identical to the rate of structural relaxation at all measured temperatures, indicating that fast proton transport does not occur in LID-DA. Our results demonstrate that while LID-DA exhibits the thermal characteristics of a DEM, its charge transport properties resemble those of a protic ionic liquid. PMID:25025600

  20. Inhibition of ileal bile acid transporter: An emerging therapeutic strategy for chronic idiopathic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Mosińska, Paula; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic constipation is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that encompasses a wide profile of symptoms. Current treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation are of limited value; therefore, a novel strategy is necessary with an increased effectiveness and safety. Recently, the inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter has become a promising target for constipation-associated diseases. Enhanced delivery of bile acids into the colon achieves an accelerated colonic transit, increased stool frequency, and relief of constipation-related symptoms. This article provides insight into the mechanism of action of ileal bile acid transporter inhibitors and discusses their potential clinical use for pharmacotherapy of constipation in chronic idiopathic constipation. PMID:26139989

  1. Bile Acid Pool Dynamics in Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis with Partial External Bile Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, Hilary Smith; Kaurs, Elizabeth; Boverhof, Renze; Knisely, Alex; Shneider, Benjamin L; Verkade, Henkjan J; Whitington, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Partial external bile diversion (PEBD) is an established therapy for low-GGT Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (PFIC). This study sought to determine if the dynamics of the cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) pools in low-GGT-PFIC subjects with successful PEBD were equivalent to those achieved with successful liver transplantation (LTX). Methods The kinetics of CA and CDCA metabolism were measured by stable isotope dilution in plasma samples in 5 PEBD subjects all with intact canalicular BSEP expression and compared to low-GGT-PFIC subjects with successful LTX. Stomal loss of bile acids was measured in PEBD subjects. Results The fractional turnover rate for CA in the PEBD group ranged from 0.5 to 4.2 d−1 (LTX group, range 0.2 – 0.9 d−1, p = 0.076) and for CDCA from 0.7 to 4.5 d−1 (LTX group 0.3 – 0.4 d−1, p = 0.009). The CA and CDCA pool sizes were equivalent between groups; however pool composition in PEBD was somewhat more hydrophilic. The CA/CDCA ratio in PEBD ranged from 0.9 to 19.5, whereas in LTX it ranged from 0.5 to 2.6. Synthesis rates computed from isotope dilution correlated well with timed output for both CA: r2 = 0.760, p = 0.024 and CDCA: r2 = 0.690, p = 0.021. Conclusions PEBD results in bile acid fractional turnover rates greater than LTX, pool sizes equivalent to LTX and pool composition that is at least as hydrophilic as produced by LTX. PMID:25383786

  2. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway. PMID:17640976

  3. High Selectivity of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Transporter 2 (GAT-2, SLC6A13) Revealed by Structure-based Approach*

    PubMed Central

    Schlessinger, Avner; Wittwer, Matthias B.; Dahlin, Amber; Khuri, Natalia; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Fan, Hao; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Sali, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The solute carrier 6 (SLC6) is a family of ion-dependent transporters that mediate uptake into the cell of osmolytes such as neurotransmitters and amino acids. Four SLC6 members transport GABA, a key neurotransmitter that triggers inhibitory signaling pathways via various receptors (e.g., GABAA). The GABA transporters (GATs) regulate the concentration of GABA available for signaling and are thus targeted by a variety of anticonvulsant and relaxant drugs. Here, we characterize GAT-2, a transporter that plays a role in peripheral GABAergic mechanisms, by constructing comparative structural models based on crystallographic structures of the leucine transporter LeuT. Models of GAT-2 in two different conformations were constructed and experimentally validated, using site-directed mutagenesis. Computational screening of 594,166 compounds including drugs, metabolites, and fragment-like molecules from the ZINC database revealed distinct ligands for the two GAT-2 models. 31 small molecules, including high scoring compounds and molecules chemically related to known and predicted GAT-2 ligands, were experimentally tested in inhibition assays. Twelve ligands were found, six of which were chemically novel (e.g., homotaurine). Our results suggest that GAT-2 is a high selectivity/low affinity transporter that is resistant to inhibition by typical GABAergic inhibitors. Finally, we compared the binding site of GAT-2 with those of other SLC6 members, including the norepinephrine transporter and other GATs, to identify ligand specificity determinants for this family. Our combined approach may be useful for characterizing interactions between small molecules and other membrane proteins, as well as for describing substrate specificities in other protein families. PMID:22932902

  4. Mutation and gene transfer of neutral amino acid transport System L genes in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gewely, M.R.; Collarini, E.J.; Campbell, G.S.; Oxender, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    The authors are attempting to clone the genes coding for amino acid transport System L. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants that are temperature sensitive in their leucyl-tRNA synthetase show temperature-dependent regulation of System L. Temperature resistant mutants isolated from these cells have constitutively derepressed System L activity. Somatic cell fusion studies using these mutants have suggested that a trans-acting element controls regulation of System L. Mutants with reduced transport activity were isolated by a TH-suicide selection. The growth of these mutant cells is limited by the transport defect. CHO mutants were transformed with a human cosmid library, followed by selection at high temperatures and low leucine concentrations. Some transformants have increased levels of System L activity, suggesting that human genes coding for leucine transport have been incorporated into the CHO genome. Human sequences were rescued by a lambda in vitro packaging system. These sequences hybridize to vector and total human DNA. Experiments are being done to confirm that these sequences indeed code for transport System L. They are also attempting to label membrane components of amino acid transporters by group-specific modifying reagents.

  5. High specificity in response of the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter to derivatives of pantothenic acid.

    PubMed

    Chirapu, Srinivas Reddy; Rotter, Charles J; Miller, Emily L; Varma, Manthena V; Dow, Robert L; Finn, M G

    2013-01-01

    Essential nutrients are attractive targets for the transport of biologically active agents across cell membranes, since many are substrates for active cellular importation pathways. The sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) is among the best characterized of these, and biotin derivatives have been its most popular targets. We have surveyed 45 derivatives of pantothenic acid, another substrate of SMVT, long known as a competitive inhibitor of biotin transport. Variations of the β-alanyl fragment of pantothenate were uniformly rejected by the transporter, including derivatives with very similar steric and acidic characteristics to the natural substrate. The secondary hydroxyl of the 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol (pantoyl) fragment was the only position at which potential linkers could be attached while retaining activity as an inhibitor of biotin uptake and a substrate for sodium-dependent transport. However, triazole conjugates to several drug-like cargo motifs were not accepted as substrates by human SMVT in cell culture. Two compounds were observed which did not inhibit biotin uptake but were themselves transported in a sodium-dependent fashion, suggesting more complex behavior than expected. These studies represent the most extensive examination to date of pantothenate as an anchor for SMVT-mediated drug delivery, showing that this route requires further investigation before being judged promising. PMID:23578027

  6. Molecular Switch Controlling the Binding of Anionic Bile Acid Conjugates to Human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Rana; Acharya, Chayan; Tririya, Gasirat; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Polli, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) may serve as a prodrug target for oral drug absorption. Synthetic, biological, NMR and computational approaches identified the structure-activity relationships of mono- and dianionic bile acid conjugates for hASBT binding. Experimental data combined with a conformationally-sampled pharmacophore/QSAR modeling approach (CSP-SAR) predicted that dianionic substituents with intramolecular hydrogen bonding between hydroxyls on the cholane skeleton and the acid group on the conjugate's aromatic ring increased conjugate hydrophobicity and improved binding affinity. Notably, the model predicted the presence of a conformational molecular switch, where shifting the carboxylate substituent on an aromatic ring by a single position controlled binding affinity. Model validation was performed by effectively shifting the spatial location of the carboxylate by inserting a methylene adjacent to the aromatic ring, resulting in the predicted alteration in binding affinity. This work illustrates conformation as a determinant of ligand binding affinity to a biological transporter. PMID:20504026

  7. Experimental Study and Reactive Transport Modeling of Boric Acid Leaching of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabalan, R. T.; Chiang, K.-T. K.

    2013-07-01

    Borated water leakage through spent fuel pools (SFPs) at pressurized water reactors is a concern because it could cause corrosion of reinforcement steel in the concrete structure, compromise the integrity of the structure, or cause unmonitored releases of contaminated water to the environment. Experimental data indicate that pH is a critical parameter that determines the corrosion susceptibility of rebar in borated water and the degree of concrete degradation by boric acid leaching. In this study, reactive transport modeling of concrete leaching by borated water was performed to provide information on the solution pH in the concrete crack or matrix and the degree of concrete degradation at different locations of an SFP concrete structure exposed to borated water. Simulations up to 100 years were performed using different boric acid concentrations, crack apertures, and solution flow rates. Concrete cylinders were immersed in boric acid solutions for several months and the mineralogical changes and boric acid penetration in the concrete cylinder were evaluated as a function of time. The depths of concrete leaching by boric acid solution derived from the reactive transport simulations were compared with the measured boric acid penetration depth.

  8. Rapid high-affinity transport of a chemotherapeutic amino acid across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Takada, Y; Vistica, D T; Greig, N H; Purdon, D; Rapoport, S I; Smith, Q R

    1992-04-15

    The therapeutic efficacy of many anticancer drugs against intracerebral tumors is limited by poor uptake into the central nervous system. One way to enhance brain delivery is to design agents that are transported into the brain by the saturable nutrient carriers of the blood-brain barrier. In this paper, we describe a nitrogen mustard amino acid, DL-2-amino-7-bis[(2-chloroethyl)amino/bd-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-napthoi c acid, that is taken up into brain with high affinity by the large neutral amino acid carrier of the blood-brain barrier. Brain transport of DL-2-amino-7-bis[(2-chloroethyl)aminol-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphth oic acid in the rat was found to be rapid (cerebrovascular permeability-surface area product approximately 2 x 10(-2) ml/s/g), saturable and inhibitable by large neutral amino acids. Maximal influx rate (Vmax) and half-saturation (Km) constants equaled 0.26 nmol/min/g and 0.19 microM, respectively, in the parietal cortex. Regional brain uptake of acid exceeded that of the clinical analogue, melphalan, by greater than 20-fold. The results demonstrate that drug modification to produce high-affinity ligands for the cerebrovascular nutrient carriers is a viable means to enhance drug delivery to brain for the treatment of brain tumors and other central nervous system disorders. PMID:1559223

  9. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on the expression of peroxisomal ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Sabrina; Skrzypski, Jérémy; Courvoisier, Anne; Gondcaille, Catherine; Bonnetain, Franck; André, Agnès; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Bellenger, Sandrine; Bellenger, Jérôme; Narce, Michel; Savary, Stéphane

    2008-10-01

    Peroxisomal ABC transporters encoded by the ABCD genes are thought to participate in the import of specific fatty acids in the peroxisomal matrix. ABCD1 deficiency is associated with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most frequent peroxisomal disorder which is characterized by the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). ABCD2 (the closest homolog of ABCD1) and ABCD3 have been shown to have partial functional redundancy with ABCD1; only when overexpressed, they can compensate for VLCFA accumulation. Other lipids, for instance polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), should be possible candidate substrates for the ABCD2 and ABCD3 gene products, ALDRP and PMP70 respectively. Moreover, PUFA, which are known regulators of gene expression, could therefore represent potent inducers of the ABCD genes. To test this hypothesis, littermates of n-3-deficient rats were subjected to an n-3-deficient diet or equilibrated diets containing ALA (alpha-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3) as unique source of n-3 fatty acids or ALA plus DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3) at two different doses. We analyzed the expression of peroxisomal ABC transporters and of the peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase gene 1 (Acox1) in adrenals, brain and liver. Whatever the diet, we did not observe any difference in gene expression in adrenals and brain. However, the hepatic expression level of Abcd2 and Abcd3 genes was found to be significantly higher in the n-3-deficient rats than in the rats fed the ALA diet or the DHA supplemented diets. This was accompanied by important changes in hepatic fatty acid composition. In summary, the hepatic expression of Abcd2 and Abcd3 but not of Abcd1 and Abcd4 appears to be highly sensitive towards dietary PUFA. This difference could be linked to the substrate specificity of the peroxisomal ABC transporters and a specific involvement of Abcd2 and Abcd3 in PUFA metabolism. PMID:18585430

  10. Transport of indoleacetic acid in intact corn coleoptiles. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, K.E.; Briggs, W.R. )

    1990-10-01

    We have characterized the transport of ({sup 3}H)indoleacetic acid (IAA) in intact corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. We have used a wide range of concentrations of added IAA (28 femtomoles to 100 picomoles taken up over 60 minutes). The shape of the transport curve varies with the concentration of added IAA, although the rate of movement of the observed front of tracer is invariant with concentration. At the lowest concentration of tracer used, the labeled IAA in the transport stream is not detectably metabolized or immobilized, curvature does not develop as a result of tracer application, and normal phototropic and gravitropic responsiveness are not affected. Therefore we believe we are observing the transport of true tracer quantities of labeled auxin at this lowest concentration.

  11. Facilitated transport of amino acids across organic phases and the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Hider, R C; McCormack, W

    1980-01-01

    1. An artificial facilitated amino-acid-transfer process operating across a chloroform phase is reported. 2. This process utilizes a family of bis(salicylamidato)copper(II) complexes. 3. A mechanism is proposed for this process and for its sensitivity towards cyanide and bathophenanthroline sulphonate. 4. Facilitated transfer of L-leucine in human erythrocytes has been shown to be inhibited by bathophenanthroline sulphonate. PMID:7396879

  12. Evidence of carrier mediated transport of ascorbic acid through mammalian cornea.

    PubMed

    Singla, Shivali; Majumdar, D K; Goyal, Sachin; Khilnani, Gurudas

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the transport of ascorbic acid, a water soluble molecule, through a predominantly lipophilic cornea. Thus in-vitro permeation of ascorbic acid from aqueous drops through freshly excised mammalian cornea was studied. Aqueous isotonic ophthalmic solutions of ascorbic acid of different concentrations (0.125% w/v to 2% w/v) (pH 5.4) were made. Further 1.0% w/v or 0.5% w/v ascorbic acid solution containing NaCl or dextrose as tonicity modifiers or Na(+)K(+)-ATPase inhibitors were also made. Permeation characteristics of drug were evaluated by putting 1 ml formulation on freshly excised cornea fixed between donor and receptor compartments of an all-glass modified Franz diffusion cell and measuring the drug permeated in the receptor by spectrophotometry at 265 nm, after 120 min. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test or paired t-test. Increase in drug concentration in the formulation resulted in an increase in the quantity permeated but after a certain level increase in permeation with increase in concentration was minimal. Aqueous drops made isotonic with dextrose showed decreased permeation through paired cornea compared with aqueous drops made isotonic with NaCl from 1% w/v ascorbic acid solution suggesting likely involvement of Na(+) co-transporter but there was decreased permeation through 0.5% w/v ascorbic acid solution made isotonic with NaCl as compared to solution made isotonic with dextrose. Further aqueous drops containing Na(+)K(+)-ATPase inhibitor {MAG-Mono Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate (25 μmol)} showed decreased corneal permeation from 0.5% w/v ascorbic acid solution but there was not significant decrease from 1% ascorbic acid solution since MAG is a competitive inhibitor of ascorbic acid. Aqueous drops containing Na(+)K(+)-ATPase inhibitor {MAG (50 μmol) or Ouabain (1 mmol)} showed decreased corneal permeation of ascorbic acid compared with control

  13. Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in pediatric patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, E; Hermans, D; Myara, A; Habes, D; Debray, D; Hadchouel, M; Sokal, E M; Bernard, O

    1997-03-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a lethal inherited childhood cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. Different subtypes of PFIC have been described according to serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. There is currently no effective medical therapy available for children with PFIC. We report on 39 patients with PFIC who received ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) orally (20-30 mg/kg b.w./day) for a period of 2 to 4 years. Group 1 (n = 26) consisted of children with normal GGT activity, and group 2 (n = 13) of children with high GGT activity. Within group 1, liver tests normalized in 11 children, improved in 5, and stabilized or worsened in 10. Within group 2, liver tests normalized in six children, improved in four, and stabilized or worsened in three. Improvement of parameters was associated with an enrichment of the circulating pool of bile acids with UDCA. Hepatosplenomegaly and pruritus disappeared or diminished in children in whom liver tests normalized. In nine of these children, liver tests worsened and normalized again after stopping and restarting UDCA. Liver histology assessed in four children after normalization of liver tests and 2 years of treatment showed a decrease in fibrosis. We conclude that UDCA should be considered in the initial therapeutic management of children with PFIC, because it appears effective in resolving or improving the liver function and the clinical status of a fair proportion of children. Chronic UDCA therapy might thus avoid the need for liver transplantation in some children with PFIC. PMID:9049190

  14. Amino acid depletion activates TonEBP and sodium-coupled inositol transport.

    PubMed

    Franchi-Gazzola, R; Visigalli, R; Dall'Asta, V; Sala, R; Woo, S K; Kwon, H M; Gazzola, G C; Bussolati, O

    2001-06-01

    The expression of the osmosensitive sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) is regulated by multiple tonicity-responsive enhancers (TonEs) in the 5'-flanking region of the gene. In response to hypertonicity, the nuclear abundance of the transcription factor TonE-binding protein (TonEBP) is increased, and the transcription of the SMIT gene is induced. Transport system A for neutral amino acids, another osmosensitive mechanism, is progressively stimulated if amino acid substrates are not present in the extracellular compartment. Under this condition, as in hypertonicity, cells shrink and mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated. We demonstrate here that a clear-cut nuclear redistribution of TonEBP, followed by SMIT expression increase and inositol transport activation, is observed after incubation of cultured human fibroblasts in Earle's balanced salts (EBSS), an isotonic, amino acid-free saline. EBSS-induced SMIT stimulation is prevented by substrates of system A, although these compounds do not compete with inositol for transport through SMIT. We conclude that the incubation in isotonic, amino acid-free saline triggers an osmotic stimulus and elicits TonEBP-dependent responses like hypertonic treatment. PMID:11350742

  15. Characterization of the Role of a Highly Conserved Sequence in ATP Binding Cassette Transporter G (ABCG) Family in ABCG1 Stability, Oligomerization, and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates cholesterol and oxysterol efflux onto lipidated lipoproteins and plays an important role in macrophage reverse cholesterol transport. Here, we identified a highly conserved sequence present in the five ABCG transporter family members. The conserved sequence is located between the nucleotide binding domain and the transmembrane domain and contains five amino acid residues from Asn at position 316 to Phe at position 320 in ABCG1 (NPADF). We found that cells expressing mutant ABCG1, in which Asn316, Pro317, Asp319, and Phe320 in the conserved sequence were replaced with Ala simultaneously, showed impaired cholesterol efflux activity compared with wild type ABCG1-expressing cells. A more detailed mutagenesis study revealed that mutation of Asn316 or Phe 320 to Ala significantly reduced cellular cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol efflux conferred by ABCG1, whereas replacement of Pro317 or Asp319 with Ala had no detectable effect. To confirm the important role of Asn316 and Phe320, we mutated Asn316 to Asp (N316D) and Gln (N316Q), and Phe320 to Ile (F320I) and Tyr (F320Y). The mutant F320Y showed the same phenotype as wild type ABCG1. However, the efflux of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol was reduced in cells expressing ABCG1 mutant N316D, N316Q, or F320I compared with wild type ABCG1. Further, mutations N316Q and F320I impaired ABCG1 trafficking while having no marked effect on the stability and oligomerization of ABCG1. The mutant N316Q and F320I could not be transported to the cell surface efficiently. Instead, the mutant proteins were mainly localized intracellularly. Thus, these findings indicate that the two highly conserved amino acid residues, Asn and Phe, play an important role in ABCG1-dependent export of cellular cholesterol, mainly through the regulation of ABCG1 trafficking. PMID:24320932

  16. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers: three mammalian gene families control Ca2+ transport.

    PubMed

    Lytton, Jonathan

    2007-09-15

    Mammalian Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are members of three branches of a much larger family of transport proteins [the CaCA (Ca2+/cation antiporter) superfamily] whose main role is to provide control of Ca2+ flux across the plasma membranes or intracellular compartments. Since cytosolic levels of Ca2+ are much lower than those found extracellularly or in sequestered stores, the major function of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers is to extrude Ca2+ from the cytoplasm. The exchangers are, however, fully reversible and thus, under special conditions of subcellular localization and compartmentalized ion gradients, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers may allow Ca2+ entry and may play more specialized roles in Ca2+ movement between compartments. The NCX (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger) [SLC (solute carrier) 8] branch of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers comprises three members: NCX1 has been most extensively studied, and is broadly expressed with particular abundance in heart, brain and kidney, NCX2 is expressed in brain, and NCX3 is expressed in brain and skeletal muscle. The NCX proteins subserve a variety of roles, depending upon the site of expression. These include cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, neuronal signalling and Ca2+ reabsorption in the kidney. The NCKX (Na2+/Ca2+-K+ exchanger) (SLC24) branch of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers transport K+ and Ca2+ in exchange for Na+, and comprises five members: NCKX1 is expressed in retinal rod photoreceptors, NCKX2 is expressed in cone photoreceptors and in neurons throughout the brain, NCKX3 and NCKX4 are abundant in brain, but have a broader tissue distribution, and NCKX5 is expressed in skin, retinal epithelium and brain. The NCKX proteins probably play a particularly prominent role in regulating Ca2+ flux in environments which experience wide and frequent fluctuations in Na+ concentration. Until recently, the range of functions that NCKX proteins play was generally underappreciated. This situation is now changing rapidly as evidence emerges for roles including photoreceptor

  17. Effects of chemical oxidants on perfluoroalkyl acid transport in one-dimensional porous media columns.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica R; Siegrist, Robert L; McCray, John E; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation approach that is often used to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with fuels and chlorinated solvents. At many aqueous film-forming foam-impacted sites, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can also be present at concentrations warranting concern. Laboratory experiments were completed using flow-through one-dimensional columns to improve our understanding of how ISCO (i.e., activated persulfate, permanganate, or catalyzed hydrogen peroxide) could affect the fate and transport of PFAAs in saturated porous media. While the resultant data suggest that standard ISCO is not a viable remediation strategy for PFAA decomposition, substantial changes in PFAA transport were observed upon and following the application of ISCO. In general, activated persulfate decreased PFAA transport, while permanganate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide increased PFAA transport. PFAA sorption increased in the presence of increased aqueous polyvalent cation concentrations or decreased pH. The changes in contaminant mobility were greater than what would be predicted on the basis of aqueous chemistry considerations alone, suggesting that the application of ISCO results in changes to the porous media matrix (e.g., soil organic matter quality) that also influence transport. The application of ISCO is likely to result in changes in PFAA transport, where the direction (increased or decreased transport) and magnitude are dependent on PFAA characteristics, oxidant characteristics, and site-specific factors. PMID:25621878

  18. Chlorpromazine, clozapine and olanzapine inhibit anionic amino acid transport in cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, C; Dall'Asta, V; Rotoli, B M; Bianchi, M G; Maggini, C; Gazzola, G C; Bussolati, O

    2006-09-01

    We report here that chlorpromazine, a first generation antipsychotic drug, inhibits anionic amino acid transport mediated by system X(-) (AG) (EAAT transporters) in cultured human fibroblasts. With 30 microM chlorpromazine, transport inhibition is detectable after 3 h of treatment, maximal after 48 h (>60%), and referable to a decrease in V(max). Chlorpromazine effect is not dependent upon changes of membrane potential and is selective for system X(-) (AG) since transport systems A and y(+) are not affected. Among antipsychotic drugs, the inhibitory effect of chlorpromazine is shared by two dibenzodiazepines, clozapine and olanzapine, while other compounds, such as risperidon, zuclopentixol, sertindol and haloperidol, are not effective. Transport inhibition by clozapine and olanzapine, but not by chlorpromazine, is reversible, suggesting that the mechanisms involved are distinct. These results indicate that a subset of antipsychotic drugs inhibits EAAT transporters in non-nervous tissues and prompt further investigation on possible alterations of glutamate transport in peripheral tissues of schizophrenic patients. PMID:16699818

  19. Inhibition of Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporters Suppresses Kynurenic Acid Production Via Inhibition of Kynurenine Uptake in Rodent Brain.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Airi; Kuroki, Yusuke; Urata, Tomomi; Mori, Noriyuki; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increases of brain KYNA levels are involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, and regulation of KYNA production has become a new target for treatment of these diseases. Kynurenine (KYN), the immediate precursor of KYNA, is transported into astrocytes via large neutral amino acid transporters (LATs). In the present study, the effect of LATs regulation on KYN uptake and KYNA production was investigated in vitro and in vivo using an LATs inhibitor, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). In the in vitro study, cortical slices of rat brain were incubated with a physiological concentration of KYN and 3 µmol/L-3 mmol/L BCH. BCH inhibited KYNA production and KYN uptake in a dose-dependent manner, and their IC50 values were 90.7 and 97.4 µmol/L, respectively. In the in vivo study, mice were administered KYN (50 mg/kg BW) orally and BCH (200 mg/kg BW) intravenously. Administration of KYN increased brain KYN and KYNA levels compared with the mice treated with vehicle, whereas additional administration of BCH suppressed KYN-induced elevations in KYN and KYNA levels to 50 and 70 % in the brain. These results suggest that inhibition of LATs prevented the increase of KYNA production via blockade of KYN uptake in the brain in vitro and in vivo. LATs can be a target to modulate brain function by regulation of KYNA production in the brain. PMID:27161376

  20. Transport of fatty acids and monoacylglycerols in white and brown adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Scow, R O; Blanchette-Mackie, E J

    1991-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids (FA) and 2-monoacylglycerols (MG) are produced by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) from plasma triacylglycerols (TG) in capillaries of adipose tissue and transported to adipocytes for TG synthesis. It is widely proposed FA may be transported in cells by FA-binding protein. Mode of transport of MG has received little attention. Our findings in tissues and model membranes indicate that FA (as 1:1 acid-soaps) and MG can be transported in vivo by lateral movement in an interfacial continuum (IFC) of the outer leaflets of plasma and intracellular membranes of capillary endothelium and adipocytes. We postulate that FA and MG enter the IFC in capillaries and flow in the IFC across endothelium and extracellular space to sites in adipocytes where MG are hydrolyzed by MG-lipase (MGL) to FA and glycerol, and FA are esterified in endoplasmic reticulum or transferred to inner mitochondrial membrane for oxidation. FA and MG produced by hormone-sensitive lipase also enter the IFC. These MG flow in the IFC to sites of MGL activity, and the FA flow in the IFC to capillaries for transport to other tissues by albumin, or to mitochondria for heat production. PMID:1959050

  1. Structural basis for amino acid export by DMT superfamily transporter YddG.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hirotoshi; Doki, Shintaro; Takemoto, Mizuki; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Fukui, Keita; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Tabuchi, Eri; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Koichi; Dohmae, Naoshi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-06-16

    The drug/metabolite transporter (DMT) superfamily is a large group of membrane transporters ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and includes exporters for a remarkably wide range of substrates, such as toxic compounds and metabolites. YddG is a bacterial DMT protein that expels aromatic amino acids and exogenous toxic compounds, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis. Here we present structural and functional analyses of YddG. Using liposome-based analyses, we show that Escherichia coli and Starkeya novella YddG export various amino acids. The crystal structure of S. novella YddG at 2.4 Å resolution reveals a new membrane transporter topology, with ten transmembrane segments in an outward-facing state. The overall structure is basket-shaped, with a large substrate-binding cavity at the centre of the molecule, and is composed of inverted structural repeats related by two-fold pseudo-symmetry. On the basis of this intramolecular symmetry, we propose a structural model for the inward-facing state and a mechanism of the conformational change for substrate transport, which we confirmed by biochemical analyses. These findings provide a structural basis for the mechanism of transport of DMT superfamily proteins. PMID:27281193

  2. Insulin-induced phospho-oligosaccharide stimulates amino acid transport in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Varela, I; Avila, M; Mato, J M; Hue, L

    1990-01-01

    The ability of the insulin-induced phospho-oligosaccharide to stimulate amino acid transport was studied in isolated rat hepatocytes. At low alpha-aminoisobutyric acid concentrations (0.1 mM), both 100 nM-insulin and 10 microM-phospho-oligosaccharide doubled amino acid uptake after 2 h of incubation. This stimulation was prevented by 0.1 mM-cycloheximide or 5 micrograms of actinomycin D/ml, indicating that the phospho-oligosaccharide, like insulin, was acting via the synthesis of a high-affinity transport component. The effects of the phospho-oligosaccharide and of insulin were blocked by Ins2P (2.5 mM), but not by myo-inositol, inositol hexaphosphoric acid or several monosaccharides such as mannose, glucosamine and galactose. Both the temporal effect on amino acid entry and the extent of stimulation of this process by the phospho-oligosaccharide indicate that this molecule mimics, and may mediate, some of the long-term actions of insulin. However, the effects of phospho-oligosaccharide and insulin were not exactly the same, since the effect of insulin, but not of the phospho-oligosaccharide, was additive with that of glucagon. PMID:2185744

  3. Evidence for transport intermediates in aromatic amino acid synthesis of non-green tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, C.; Schultz, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Quinate (QA) is the predominant pre-aromatic compound formed at high rates in leaves of many plants at the early vegetation stage and transported through the phloem. The transfer of 3-dehydroquinate, 3-dehydroshikimate and (SkA) across the plastidial membranes has been evidenced. The question was whether the rate of QA uptake is comparable to that of the 3 SkA-pathway intermediates. To demonstrate this, /U-{sup 14}C/QA and /U-{sup 14}C/SkA were applied to Brassica rapa roots. Both compounds were uptaken at considerable rates and incorporated into aromatic amino acids (Phe + Tyr + Trp formation, in nmol/g fresh wt x h: applying 145 {mu}mol QA: 21.2; applying 156 {mu}mol Ska: 31.8). Thus, QA is a possible candidate for transport into non-green tissues for aromatic amino acid synthesis.

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of fatty acid transporters and MCT1 in the sebaceous glands of mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Miao; Lee, Shinhye; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The sebaceous glands secrete sebum to protect the epidermis and hairs by the oily products. The glands express several transporters and binding proteins for the production of fatty acids and uptake of their sources. The present immunohistochemical study examined the expression and localization of CD36, MCT1, FATP4, and E-FABP in the sebaceous glands, including the meibomian and preputial glands of mice. CD36 and MCT1 in sebaceous glands were largely co-localized along the plasma membrane of secretory cells, while they were separately expressed in the glandular portion of meibomian and preputial glands. Immunoreactivities for FATP4 and E-FABP appeared diffusely in the cytoplasm of secretory cells. Genetic deletion of CD36 did not affect the immunolocalization of the three other molecules. The sebaceous glands were judged to be useful for analyzing the functions and relation of fatty acid transporters and binding proteins. PMID:27545003

  5. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, J. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bruning, H.; Ter Heijne, A.

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density.

  6. Genetic mapping of hph2, a mutation affecting amino acid transport in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Symula, D J; Shedlovsky, A; Dove, W F

    1997-02-01

    We describe the genetic mapping of hyperphenylal-aninemia 2 (hph2), a recessive mutation in the mouse that causes deficient amino acid transport similar to Hartnup disorder, a human genetic amino acid transport disorder. The hph2 locus was mapped in three separate crosses to identify candidate genes for hph2 and a region of homology in the human genome where we propose the Hartnup Disorder gene might lie. The mutation maps to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 7 distal of the simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) marker D7Mit140 and does not recombine with D7Nds4, an SSLP marker in the fibroblast growth factor 3 (Fgf3) gene. Unexpectedly, the mutant chromosome affects recombination frequency in the D7Mit12 to D7Nds4 interval. PMID:9060407

  7. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, J E; Biesheuvel, P M; Bruning, H; Ter Heijne, A

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density. PMID:25122405

  8. Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI Transporter Represent a New Family of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J. F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to AceI are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of AceI and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like AceI, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the AceI homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the AceI homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of AceI homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. PMID:25670776

  9. Bacillus cereus efflux protein BC3310 – a multidrug transporter of the unknown major facilitator family, UMF-2

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Jasmin K.; Hassan, Karl; Vörös, Aniko; Simm, Roger; Saidijam, Massoud; Bettaney, Kim E.; Bechthold, Andreas; Paulsen, Ian T.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic classification divides the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) into 82 families, including 25 families that are comprised of transporters with no characterized functions. This study describes functional data for BC3310 from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, a member of the “unknown major facilitator family-2” (UMF-2). BC3310 was shown to be a multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to ethidium bromide, SDS and silver nitrate when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α ΔacrAB. A conserved aspartate residue (D105) in putative transmembrane helix 4 was identified, which was essential for the energy dependent ethidium bromide efflux by BC3310. Transport proteins of the MFS comprise specific sequence motifs. Sequence analysis of UMF-2 proteins revealed that they carry a variant of the MFS motif A, which may be used as a marker to distinguish easily between this family and other MFS proteins. Genes orthologous to bc3310 are highly conserved within the B. cereus group of organisms and thus belong to the core genome, suggesting an important conserved functional role in the normal physiology of these bacteria. PMID:26528249

  10. Improved Experimental Techniques for Analyzing Nucleic Acid Transport Through Protein Nanopores in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Justin A.

    The translocation of nucleic acid polymers across cell membranes is a fundamental requirement for complex life and has greatly contributed to genomic molecular evolution. The diversity of pathways that have evolved to transport DNA and RNA across membranes include protein receptors, active and passive transporters, endocytic and pinocytic processes, and various types of nucleic acid conducting channels known as nanopores. We have developed a series of experimental techniques, collectively known as "Wicking", that greatly improves the biophysical analysis of nucleic acid transport through protein nanopores in planar lipid bilayers. We have verified the Wicking method using numerous types of classical ion channels including the well-studied chloride selective channel, CLIC1. We used the Wicking technique to reconstitute α-hemolysin and found that DNA translocation events of types A and B could be routinely observed using this method. Furthermore, measurable differences were observed in the duration of blockade events as DNA length and composition was varied, consistent with previous reports. Finally, we tested the ability of the Wicking technology to reconstitute the dsRNA transporter Sid-1. Exposure to dsRNAs of increasing length and complexity showed measurable differences in the current transitions suggesting that the charge carrier was dsRNA. However, the translocation events occurred so infrequently that a meaningful electrophysiological analysis was not possible. Alterations in the lipid composition of the bilayer had a minor effect on the frequency of translocation events but not to such a degree as to permit rigorous statistical analysis. We conclude that in many instances the Wicking method is a significant improvement to the lipid bilayer technique, but is not an optimal method for analyzing transport through Sid-1. Further refinements to the Wicking method might have future applications in high throughput DNA sequencing, DNA computation, and

  11. Absorption and lymphatic transport of exogenous and endogenous arachidonic and linoleic acid in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, A.; Landin, B.; Jensen, E.; Akesson, B.

    1987-06-01

    (/sup 3/H)Arachidonic (20:4) and (/sup 14/C)linoleic acid (18:2) were fed to thoracic duct-cannulated rats in test meals of either tracers alone, cream, Intralipid, pure arachidonic acid, or pure linoleic acid. Less (/sup 3/H)20:4 than (/sup 14/C)18:2 was recovered in chyle during the first 5 h. After cream feeding, the proportion of radioactivity found in phospholipids was high and increased during the first 3 h. After the meal 61 +/- 6% of the /sup 3/H and 57 +/- 10% of the /sup 14/C was in phosphatidylcholine, and 11 +/- 3% of the /sup 3/H and 3.0 +/- 4% of the /sup 14/C was in phosphatidylethanolamine. Changing the fat vehicle to Intralipid or pure 18:2 decreased the proportion of label in the phospholipds and increased the /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C radioactivity in the triacylglycerol fraction, the distribution of /sup 14/C radioactivity in the triacylglycerol fraction, the distribution of /sup 14/C being influenced more than that of /sup 3/H. After feeding the tracers in 200 ..mu..l of pure 20:4, >90% of both isotopes was in triacylglycerol. During fasting, triacylglycerol transported 56% (0.7 ..mu..mol/h), phosphatidylethanolamine transported 10% (0.1 ..mu..mol/h) of the 20:4 mass. After cream or Intralipid feeding, the output of 20:4-containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased 2.1- to 2.8-fold, whereas the transport of 20:4 with triacylglycerol remained constant. Phospholipids thus became the predominant transport form for 20:4. After feeding 200 ..mu..l of 20:4, the intestine produced, however, 20:4-rich triacylglycerols that transported 80% of the chyle 20:4.

  12. Stimulation of the amino acid transporter SLC6A19 by JAK2

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, Shefalee K.; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Merches, Katja; Gu, Shuchen; Broeer, Stefan; Lang, Florian

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino acid transporter SLC6A19 is upregulated by Janus kinase-2 JAK2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {sup V617F}JAK2 mutant, causing myeloproliferative disease, is more effective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JAK2 inhibitor AG490 reverses stimulation of SLC6A19 by {sup V617F}JAK2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JAK2 enhances SLC6A19 protein insertion into the cell membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SLC6A19 may contribute to amino acid uptake into {sup V617F}JAK2 expressing tumor cells. -- Abstract: JAK2 (Janus kinase-2) is expressed in a wide variety of cells including tumor cells and contributes to the proliferation and survival of those cells. The gain of function mutation {sup V617F}JAK2 mutant is found in the majority of myeloproliferative diseases. Cell proliferation depends on the availability of amino acids. Concentrative cellular amino acid uptake is in part accomplished by Na{sup +} coupled amino acid transport through SLC6A19 (B(0)AT). The present study thus explored whether JAK2 activates SLC6A19. To this end, SLC6A19 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without wild type JAK2, {sup V617F}JAK2 or inactive {sup K882E}JAK2 and electrogenic amino acid transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. In SLC6A19-expressing oocytes but not in oocytes injected with water or JAK2 alone, the addition of leucine (2 mM) to the bath generated a current (I{sub le}), which was significantly increased following coexpression of JAK2 or {sup V617F}JAK2, but not by coexpression of {sup K882E}JAK2. Coexpression of JAK2 enhanced the maximal transport rate without significantly modifying the affinity of the carrier. Exposure of the oocytes to the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 (40 {mu}M) resulted in a gradual decline of I{sub le}. According to chemiluminescence JAK2 enhanced the carrier protein abundance in the cell membrane. The decline of I{sub le} following inhibition of carrier insertion by brefeldin A (5 {mu}M) was similar

  13. Amyloid protein precursor stimulates excitatory amino acid transport. Implications for roles in neuroprotection and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masliah, E; Raber, J; Alford, M; Mallory, M; Mattson, M P; Yang, D; Wong, D; Mucke, L

    1998-05-15

    Excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate are required for the normal functioning of the central nervous system but can trigger excitotoxic neuronal injury if allowed to accumulate to abnormally high levels. Their extracellular levels are controlled primarily by transmitter uptake into astrocytes. Here, we demonstrate that the amyloid protein precursor may participate in the regulation of this important process. The amyloid protein precursor has been well conserved through evolution, and a number of studies indicate that it may function as an endogenous excitoprotectant. However, the mechanisms underlying this neuroprotective capacity remain largely unknown. At moderate levels of expression, human amyloid protein precursors increased glutamate/aspartate uptake in brains of transgenic mice, with the 751-amino acid isoform showing greater potency than the 695-amino acid isoform. Cerebral glutamate/aspartate transporter protein levels were higher in transgenic mice than in non-transgenic controls, whereas transporter mRNA levels were unchanged. Amyloid protein precursor-dependent stimulation of aspartate uptake by cultured primary astrocytes was associated with increases in protein kinase A and C activity and could be blocked by inhibitors of these kinases. The stimulation of astroglial excitatory amino acid transport by amyloid protein precursors could protect the brain against excitotoxicity and may play an important role in neurotransmission. PMID:9575214

  14. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation reduces SERCA Ca2+ transport efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Bombardier, Eric; Irvine, Thomas; Metherel, Adam H; Stark, Ken D; Duhamel, Todd; Rush, James W E; Green, Howard J; Tupling, A Russell

    2015-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the efficiency and increase the energy consumption of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump and mitochondrial electron transport chain by promoting Na(+) and H(+) membrane permeability, respectively. In skeletal muscle, the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are major contributors to resting metabolic rate. Whether DHA can affect SERCA efficiency remains unknown. Here, we examined the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with DHA would reduce Ca(2+) transport efficiency of the SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle. Total lipids were extracted from enriched sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes that were isolated from red vastus lateralis skeletal muscles of rats that were either fed a standard chow diet supplemented with soybean oil or supplemented with DHA for 8 weeks. The fatty acid composition of total SR membrane lipids and the major phospholipid species were determined using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). After 8 weeks of DHA supplementation, total SR DHA content was significantly elevated (control, 4.1 ± 1.0% vs. DHA, 9.9 ± 1.7%; weight percent of total fatty acids) while total arachidonic acid was reduced (control, 13.5 ± 0.4% vs. DHA-fed, 9.4 ± 0.2). Similar changes in these fatty acids were observed in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol, altogether indicating successful incorporation of DHA into the SR membranes post-diet. As hypothesized, DHA supplementation reduced SERCA Ca(2+) transport efficiency (control, 0.018 ± 0.0002 vs. DHA-fed, 0.014 ± 0.0009) possibly through enhanced SR Ca(2+) permeability (ionophore ratio: control, 2.8 ± 0.2 vs. DHA-fed, 2.2 ± 0.3). Collectively, our results suggest that DHA may promote skeletal muscle-based metabolism and thermogenesis through its influence on SERCA. PMID:25772907

  15. The repertoire of olfactory C family G protein-coupled receptors in zebrafish: candidate chemosensory receptors for amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Alioto, Tyler S; Ngai, John

    2006-01-01

    Background Vertebrate odorant receptors comprise at least three types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): the OR, V1R, and V2R/V2R-like receptors, the latter group belonging to the C family of GPCRs. These receptor families are thought to receive chemosensory information from a wide spectrum of odorant and pheromonal cues that influence critical animal behaviors such as feeding, reproduction and other social interactions. Results Using genome database mining and other informatics approaches, we identified and characterized the repertoire of 54 intact "V2R-like" olfactory C family GPCRs in the zebrafish. Phylogenetic analysis – which also included a set of 34 C family GPCRs from fugu – places the fish olfactory receptors in three major groups, which are related to but clearly distinct from other C family GPCRs, including the calcium sensing receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptors, GABA-B receptor, T1R taste receptors, and the major group of V2R vomeronasal receptor families. Interestingly, an analysis of sequence conservation and selective pressure in the zebrafish receptors revealed the retention of a conserved sequence motif previously shown to be required for ligand binding in other amino acid receptors. Conclusion Based on our findings, we propose that the repertoire of zebrafish olfactory C family GPCRs has evolved to allow the detection and discrimination of a spectrum of amino acid and/or amino acid-based compounds, which are potent olfactory cues in fish. Furthermore, as the major groups of fish receptors and mammalian V2R receptors appear to have diverged significantly from a common ancestral gene(s), these receptors likely mediate chemosensation of different classes of chemical structures by their respective organisms. PMID:17156446

  16. Tritium suicide selection of mammalian cell mutants defective in the transport of neutral amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M C; Slayman, C W; Adelberg, E A

    1977-01-01

    Mouse lymphocytic cells of the established line GF-14 were allowed to accumulate intracellular 3H-labeled aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), frozen, and stored over liquid N2. After internal radiation had reduced survival to 1 in 10(4), survivors were plated and tested for their ability to transport AIB. Out of 200 clones tested, two (designated GF-17 and GF-18) were found to have reductions to 13-35% of the parent in the rate of transport of AIB, L-alanine, L-proline, and L-serine; GF-18 also showed significant reductions in the rate of transport of L-glutamate and DL-cysteine. Little or no change was observed for 10 other amino acids or for thymidine. Kinetic analyses revealed that the mutants were not altered in Km for AIB uptake, but had Vmax values approximately 20% the value of the parent strain, GF-14, suggesting that either the number of AIB transport sites or the turnover rate of the sites has been reduced in the two mutants. PMID:200920

  17. A thermophilic and acid stable family-10 xylanase from the acidophilic fungus Bispora sp. MEY-1.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huiying; Li, Jiang; Yang, Jun; Wang, Hui; Yang, Yuhui; Huang, Huoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Fan, Yunliu; Yao, Bin

    2009-09-01

    A complete gene, xyl10C, encoding a thermophilic endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (XYL10C), was cloned from the acidophilic fungus Bispora sp. MEY-1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. XYL10C shares highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of 57.3 and 49.7%, respectively, with a putative xylanase from Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 of glycoside hydrolase family 10. A high expression level in P. pastoris (73,400 U ml(-1)) was achieved in a 3.7-l fermenter. The purified recombinant XYL10C was thermophilic, exhibiting maximum activity at 85 degrees C, which is higher than that reported from any fungal xylanase. The enzyme was also highly thermostable, exhibiting approximately 100% of the initial activity after incubation at 80 degrees C for 60 min and >87% of activity at 90 degrees C for 10 min. The half lives of XYL10C at 80 and 85 degrees C were approximately 45 and 3 h, respectively. It had two activity peaks at pH 3.0 and 4.5-5.0 (maximum), respectively, and was very acid stable, retaining more than 80% activity after incubation at pH 1.5-6.0 for 1 h. The enzyme was resistant to Co(2+), Mn(2+), Cr(3+) and Ag(+). The specific activity of XYL10C for oat spelt xylan was 18,831 U mg(-1). It also had wide substrate specificity and produced simple products (65.1% xylose, 25.0% xylobiose and 9.9% xylan polymer) from oat spelt xylan. PMID:19655217

  18. Using reduced amino acid composition to predict defensin family and subfamily: Integrating similarity measure and structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yong-Chun; Li, Qian-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Defensins are essentially ancient natural antibiotics with potent activity extending from lower organisms to humans. They can inhibit the growth or virulence of micro-organisms directly or indirectly enhance the host's immune system. The successful prediction of defensin peptides will provide very useful information and insights for the basic research of defensins. In this study, by selecting the N-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) obtained from structural alphabet named Protein Blocks as the feature parameters, the increment of diversity (ID) is firstly developed to predict defensins family and subfamily. The jackknife test based on 2-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) with 13 reduced amino acids shows that the overall accuracy of prediction are 91.36% for defensin family, and 94.21% for defensin subfamily. The results indicate that ID_RAAA is a simple and efficient prediction method for defensin peptides. PMID:19591890

  19. Novel riboflavin transporter family RFVT/SLC52: identification, nomenclature, functional characterization and genetic diseases of RFVT/SLC52.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Atsushi; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Riboflavin, a water-soluble vitamin also known as vitamin B2, is essential for normal cellular functions. Riboflavin transporters play important roles in its homeostasis. Recently, three novel riboflavin transporters were identified, and designated as RFT1, RFT2 and RFT3. Because the RFTs did not show similarity to other SLC transporters, and RFT1 and RFT3 are similar in sequence and function, they were assigned into a new SLC family, SLC52. Subsequently, RFT1/GPR172B, RFT3/GPR172A and RFT2/C20orf54 were renamed as RFVT1/SLC52A1, RFVT2/SLC52A2 and RFVT3/SLC52A3, respectively. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the cloning, nomenclature, functional characterization and genetic diseases of RFVT1/SLC52A1, RFVT2/SLC52A2 and RFVT3/SLC52A3. PMID:23506902

  20. Interaction of α-Lipoic Acid with the Human Na+/Multivitamin Transporter (hSMVT).

    PubMed

    Zehnpfennig, Britta; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Carlson, David A; Quick, Matthias

    2015-06-26

    The human Na(+)/multivitamin transporter (hSMVT) has been suggested to transport α-lipoic acid (LA), a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent used in therapeutic applications, e.g. in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy and Alzheimer disease. However, the molecular basis of the cellular delivery of LA and in particular the stereospecificity of the transport process are not well understood. Here, we expressed recombinant hSMVT in Pichia pastoris and used affinity chromatography to purify the detergent-solubilized protein followed by reconstitution of hSMVT in lipid bilayers. Using a combined approach encompassing radiolabeled LA transport and equilibrium binding studies in conjunction with the stabilized R-(+)- and S-(-)-enantiomers and the R,S-(+/-) racemic mixture of LA or lipoamide, we identified the biologically active form of LA, R-LA, to be the physiological substrate of hSMVT. Interaction of R-LA with hSMVT is strictly dependent on Na(+). Under equilibrium conditions, hSMVT can simultaneously bind ~2 molecules of R-LA in a biphasic binding isotherm with dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.9 and 7.4 μm. Transport of R-LA in the oocyte and reconstituted system is exclusively dependent on Na(+) and exhibits an affinity of ~3 μm. Measuring transport with known amounts of protein in proteoliposomes containing hSMVT in outside-out orientation yielded a catalytic turnover number (kcat) of about 1 s(-1), a value that is well in agreement with other Na(+)-coupled transporters. Our data suggest that hSMVT-mediated transport is highly specific for R-LA at our tested concentration range, a finding with wide ramifications for the use of LA in therapeutic applications. PMID:25971966

  1. Polar Transport of 1-Naphthaleneacetic Acid Determines the Distribution of Flower Buds on Explants of Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Croes, Anton F.; Wullems, George J.

    1988-01-01

    Upon addition of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1-NAA) and benzylaminopurine, flower buds developed on explants from flower stalks of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Samsun cultured in vitro. At low concentrations of 1-NAA, buds emerged mainly at the basal edge, whereas at high concentrations they developed on the remaining surface. The optimum concentrations for the two groups of buds were 0.45 micromolar and 2.2 micromolar, respectively, and the shapes of the concentration versus response curves were similar. The level of benzylaminopurine in the medium affected neither the shape nor the optimum concentration of these curves. The distribution of the buds over the explants was shown to be caused by polar auxin transport, leading to accumulation at the basal side. First, in the presence of the inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, both groups of buds had the same optimum concentration of 1 micromolar 1-NAA. Second, after 6 hours of culture applied 1-NAA had accumulated in the basal part of the explant. In the presence of 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, no transport or accumulation of applied 1-NAA occurred. Images Fig. 6 PMID:16666378

  2. A candidate mouse model for Hartnup disorder deficient in neutral amino acid transport.

    PubMed

    Symula, D J; Shedlovsky, A; Guillery, E N; Dove, W F

    1997-02-01

    The mutant mouse strain HPH2 (hyperphenylalaninemia) was isolated after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis on the basis of delayed plasma clearance of an injected load of phenylalanine. Animals homozygous for the recessive hph2 mutation excrete elevated concentrations of many of the neutral amino acids in the urine, while plasma concentrations of these amino acids are normal. In contrast, mutant homozygotes excrete normal levels of glucose and phosphorus. These data suggest an amino acid transport defect in the mutant, confirmed in a small reduction in normalized values of 14C-labeled glutamine uptake by kidney cortex brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The hyperaminoaciduria pattern is very similar to that of Hartnup Disorder cases also show niacin deficiency symptoms, of Hartnup Disorder cases also show niacin deficiency symptoms, which are thought to be multifactorially determined. Similarly, the HPH2 mouse exhibits a niacin-reversible syndrome that is modified by diet and by genetic background. Thus, HPH2 provides a candidate mouse model for the study of Hartnup Disorder, an amino acid transport deficiency and a multifactorial disease in the human. PMID:9060408

  3. ΔpH-Dependent Amino Acid Transport into Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Sugar Beet Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-Chang; Bush, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid transport into plasma membrane vesicles isolated from mature sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv Great Western) leaves was investigated. The transport of alanine, leucine, glutamine, glutamate, isoleucine, and arginine was driven by a trans-membrane proton concentration difference. ΔpH-Dependent alanine, leucine, glutamine, and glutamate transport exhibited simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and double-reciprocal plots of the data were linear with apparent Km values of 272, 346, 258, and 1981 micromolar, respectively. These results are consistent with carrier mediated transport. ΔpH-Dependent isoleucine and arginine transport exhibited biphasic kinetics, suggesting these amino acids may be transported by at least two transport systems. Symport mediated alanine transport was electrogenic as demonstrated by the effect of membrane potential (ΔΨ) on ΔpH-dependent flux. In the absence of significant charge compensation, a low rate of alanine transport was observed. When ΔΨ was held at 0 millivolt with symmetric potassium concentrations and valinomycin, the rate of flux was stimulated fourfold. In the presence of a negative ΔΨ, alanine transport increased sixfold. These results are consistent with an electrogenic transport process which results in a net flux of positive charge into the vesicles. The effect of changing ΔΨ on the kinetics of alanine transport altered Vmax with no apparent change in Km. Amino acid transport was inhibited by the protein modifier diethyl pyrocarbonate, but was insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene disulfonic acid, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, phenylglyoxal, and N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Four amino acid symport systems, two neutral, one acidic, and one basic, were resolved based on inter-amino acid competition experiments. One neutral system appears to be active for all neutral amino acids while the second exhibited a low affinity for isoleucine, threonine, valine, and proline

  4. Changes in Dynamics upon Oligomerization Regulate Substrate Binding and Allostery in Amino Acid Kinase Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Enrique; Crehuet, Ramon; Bahar, Ivet

    2011-01-01

    Oligomerization is a functional requirement for many proteins. The interfacial interactions and the overall packing geometry of the individual monomers are viewed as important determinants of the thermodynamic stability and allosteric regulation of oligomers. The present study focuses on the role of the interfacial interactions and overall contact topology in the dynamic features acquired in the oligomeric state. To this aim, the collective dynamics of enzymes belonging to the amino acid kinase family both in dimeric and hexameric forms are examined by means of an elastic network model, and the softest collective motions (i.e., lowest frequency or global modes of motions) favored by the overall architecture are analyzed. Notably, the lowest-frequency modes accessible to the individual subunits in the absence of multimerization are conserved to a large extent in the oligomer, suggesting that the oligomer takes advantage of the intrinsic dynamics of the individual monomers. At the same time, oligomerization stiffens the interfacial regions of the monomers and confers new cooperative modes that exploit the rigid-body translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the intact monomers. The present study sheds light on the mechanism of cooperative inhibition of hexameric N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase by arginine and on the allosteric regulation of UMP kinases. It also highlights the significance of the particular quaternary design in selectively determining the oligomer dynamics congruent with required ligand-binding and allosteric activities. PMID:21980279

  5. GH1-family 6-P-β-glucosidases from human microbiome lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Karolina; Tan, Kemin; Li, Hui; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Bearden, Jessica; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    In lactic acid bacteria and other bacteria, carbohydrate uptake is mostly governed by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs). PTS-dependent translocation through the cell membrane is coupled with phosphorylation of the incoming sugar. After translocation through the bacterial membrane, the β-glycosidic bond in 6′-­P-­β-glucoside is cleaved, releasing 6-P-β-glucose and the respective aglycon. This reaction is catalyzed by 6-P-β-glucosidases, which belong to two glycoside hydrolase (GH) families: GH1 and GH4. Here, the high-resolution crystal structures of GH1 6-P-β-glucosidases from Lactobacillus plantarum (LpPbg1) and Streptococcus mutans (SmBgl) and their complexes with ligands are reported. Both enzymes show hydrolytic activity towards 6′-P-β-glucosides. The LpPbg1 structure has been determined in an apo form as well as in a complex with phosphate and a glucose molecule corresponding to the aglycon molecule. The S. mutans homolog contains a sulfate ion in the phosphate-dedicated subcavity. SmBgl was also crystallized in the presence of the reaction product 6-P-β-glucose. For a mutated variant of the S. mutans enzyme (E375Q), the structure of a 6′-P-salicin complex has also been determined. The presence of natural ligands enabled the definition of the structural elements that are responsible for substrate recognition during catalysis. PMID:23519420

  6. Bed rest impairs skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression, mTORC1 signaling, and protein synthesis in response to essential amino acids in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Jared M.; Fry, Christopher S.; Walker, Dillon K.; Gundermann, David M.; Reidy, Paul T.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Markofski, Melissa M.; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Rasmussen, Blake B.; Volpi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy during bed rest is attributed, at least in part, to slower basal muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Essential amino acids (EAA) stimulate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1) signaling, amino acid transporter expression, and MPS and are necessary for muscle mass maintenance, but there are no data on the effect of inactivity on this anabolic mechanism. We hypothesized that bed rest decreases muscle mass in older adults by blunting the EAA stimulation of MPS through reduced mTORC1 signaling and amino acid transporter expression in older adults. Six healthy older adults (67 ± 2 yr) participated in a 7-day bed rest study. We used stable isotope tracers, Western blotting, and real-time qPCR to determine the effect of bed rest on MPS, muscle mTORC1 signaling, and amino acid transporter expression and content in the postabsorptive state and after acute EAA ingestion. Bed rest decreased leg lean mass by ∼4% (P < 0.05) and increased postabsorptive mTOR protein (P < 0.05) levels while postabsorptive MPS was unchanged (P > 0.05). Before bed rest acute EAA ingestion increased MPS, mTOR (Ser2448), S6 kinase 1 (Thr389, Thr421/Ser424), and ribosomal protein S6 (Ser240/244) phosphorylation, activating transcription factor 4, L-type amino acid transporter 1 and sodium-coupled amino acid transporter 2 protein content (P < 0.05). However, bed rest blunted the EAA-induced increase in MPS, mTORC1 signaling, and amino acid transporter protein content. We conclude that bed rest in older adults significantly attenuated the EAA-induced increase in MPS with a mechanism involving reduced mTORC1 signaling and amino acid transporter protein content. Together, our data suggest that a blunted EAA stimulation of MPS may contribute to muscle loss with inactivity in older persons. PMID:22338078

  7. PDR-type ABC transporter mediates cellular uptake of the phytohormone abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Kim, Yu-Young; Assmann, Sarah M.; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2010-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous phytohormone involved in many developmental processes and stress responses of plants. ABA moves within the plant, and intracellular receptors for ABA have been recently identified; however, no ABA transporter has been described to date. Here, we report the identification of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Arabidopsis thaliana Pleiotropic drug resistance transporter PDR12 (AtPDR12)/ABCG40 as a plasma membrane ABA uptake transporter. Uptake of ABA into yeast and BY2 cells expressing AtABCG40 was increased, whereas ABA uptake into protoplasts of atabcg40 plants was decreased compared with control cells. In response to exogenous ABA, the up-regulation of ABA responsive genes was strongly delayed in atabcg40 plants, indicating that ABCG40 is necessary for timely responses to ABA. Stomata of loss-of-function atabcg40 mutants closed more slowly in response to ABA, resulting in reduced drought tolerance. Our results integrate ABA-dependent signaling and transport processes and open another avenue for the engineering of drought-tolerant plants. PMID:20133880

  8. Physiologic hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein synthesis and enhances transport of selected amino acids in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Biolo, G; Declan Fleming, R Y; Wolfe, R R

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms of the anabolic effect of insulin on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers, using stable isotopic tracers of amino acids. Calculations of muscle protein synthesis, breakdown, and amino acid transport were based on data obtained with the leg arteriovenous catheterization and muscle biopsy. Insulin was infused (0.15 mU/min per 100 ml leg) into the femoral artery to increase femoral venous insulin concentration (from 10 +/- 2 to 77 +/- 9 microU/ml) with minimal systemic perturbations. Tissue concentrations of free essential amino acids decreased (P < 0.05) after insulin. The fractional synthesis rate of muscle protein (precursor-product approach) increased (P < 0.01) after insulin from 0.0401 +/- 0.0072 to 0.0677 +/- 0.0101%/h. Consistent with this observation, rates of utilization for protein synthesis of intracellular phenylalanine and lysine (arteriovenous balance approach) also increased from 40 +/- 8 to 59 +/- 8 (P < 0.05) and from 219 +/- 21 to 298 +/- 37 (P < 0.08) nmol/min per 100 ml leg, respectively. Release from protein breakdown of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine was not significantly modified by insulin. Local hyperinsulinemia increased (P < 0.05) the rates of inward transport of leucine, lysine, and alanine, from 164 +/- 22 to 200 +/- 25, from 126 +/- 11 to 221 +/- 30, and from 403 +/- 64 to 595 +/- 106 nmol/min per 100 ml leg, respectively. Transport of phenylalanine did not change significantly. We conclude that insulin promoted muscle anabolism, primarily by stimulating protein synthesis independently of any effect on transmembrane transport. Images PMID:7860765

  9. Identification of GH15 Family Thermophilic Archaeal Trehalases That Function within a Narrow Acidic-pH Range.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Shimodaira, Satoru; Ishida, Shin-Nosuke; Amemiya, Miko; Honda, Shotaro; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Two glucoamylase-like genes, TVN1315 and Ta0286, from the archaea Thermoplasma volcanium and T. acidophilum, respectively, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene products, TVN1315 and Ta0286, were identified as archaeal trehalases. These trehalases belong to the CAZy database family GH15, although they have putative (α/α)6 barrel catalytic domain structures similar to those of GH37 and GH65 family trehalases from other organisms. These newly identified trehalases function within a narrow range of acidic pH values (pH 3.2 to 4.0) and at high temperatures (50 to 60°C), and these enzymes display Km values for trehalose higher than those observed for typical trehalases. These enzymes were inhibited by validamycin A; however, the inhibition constants (Ki) were higher than those of other trehalases. Three TVN1315 mutants, corresponding to E408Q, E571Q, and E408Q/E571Q mutations, showed reduced activity, suggesting that these two glutamic acid residues are involved in trehalase catalysis in a manner similar to that of glucoamylase. To date, TVN1315 and Ta0286 are the first archaeal trehalases to be identified, and this is the first report of the heterologous expression of GH15 family trehalases. The identification of these trehalases could extend our understanding of the relationships between the structure and function of GH15 family enzymes as well as glycoside hydrolase family enzymes; additionally, these enzymes provide insight into archaeal trehalose metabolism. PMID:25979886

  10. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  11. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  12. Identification of GH15 Family Thermophilic Archaeal Trehalases That Function within a Narrow Acidic-pH Range

    PubMed Central

    Shimodaira, Satoru; Ishida, Shin-nosuke; Amemiya, Miko; Honda, Shotaro; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Two glucoamylase-like genes, TVN1315 and Ta0286, from the archaea Thermoplasma volcanium and T. acidophilum, respectively, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene products, TVN1315 and Ta0286, were identified as archaeal trehalases. These trehalases belong to the CAZy database family GH15, although they have putative (α/α)6 barrel catalytic domain structures similar to those of GH37 and GH65 family trehalases from other organisms. These newly identified trehalases function within a narrow range of acidic pH values (pH 3.2 to 4.0) and at high temperatures (50 to 60°C), and these enzymes display Km values for trehalose higher than those observed for typical trehalases. These enzymes were inhibited by validamycin A; however, the inhibition constants (Ki) were higher than those of other trehalases. Three TVN1315 mutants, corresponding to E408Q, E571Q, and E408Q/E571Q mutations, showed reduced activity, suggesting that these two glutamic acid residues are involved in trehalase catalysis in a manner similar to that of glucoamylase. To date, TVN1315 and Ta0286 are the first archaeal trehalases to be identified, and this is the first report of the heterologous expression of GH15 family trehalases. The identification of these trehalases could extend our understanding of the relationships between the structure and function of GH15 family enzymes as well as glycoside hydrolase family enzymes; additionally, these enzymes provide insight into archaeal trehalose metabolism. PMID:25979886

  13. The evolution of Jen3 proteins and their role in dicarboxylic acid transport in Yarrowia

    PubMed Central

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Michely, Stéphanie; Thevenieau, France; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Jen proteins in yeast are involved in the uptake of mono/dicarboxylic acids. The Jen1 subfamily transports lactate and pyruvate, while the Jen2 subfamily transports fumarate, malate, and succinate. Yarrowia lipolytica has six JEN genes: YALI0B19470g, YALI0C15488g, YALI0C21406g, YALI0D20108g, YALI0D24607g, and YALI0E32901g. Through phylogenetic analyses, we found that these genes represent a new subfamily, Jen3 and that these three Jen subfamilies derivate from three putative ancestral genes. Reverse transcription-PCR. revealed that only four YLJEN genes are expressed and they are upregulated in the presence of lactate, pyruvate, fumarate, malate, and/or succinate, suggesting that they are able to transport these substrates. Analysis of deletion mutant strains revealed that Jen3 subfamily proteins transport fumarate, malate, and succinate. We found evidence that YALI0C15488 encodes the main transporter because its deletion was sufficient to strongly reduce or suppress growth in media containing fumarate, malate, or succinate. It appears that the other YLJEN genes play a minor role, with the exception of YALI0E32901g, which is important for malate uptake. However, the overexpression of each YLJEN gene in the sextuple-deletion mutant strain ΔYLjen1-6 revealed that all six genes are functional and have evolved to transport different substrates with varying degrees of efficacy. In addition, we found that YALI0E32901p transported succinate more efficiently in the presence of lactate or fumarate. PMID:25515252

  14. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) using amino acid nitrogen isotopic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2012-01-01

    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ~2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ~3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ~3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP~4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure.

  15. Global Trophic Position Comparison of Two Dominant Mesopelagic Fish Families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) Using Amino Acid Nitrogen Isotopic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2012-01-01

    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ∼2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ∼3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ∼3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP∼4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure. PMID:23209656

  16. Stable isotope tracer reveals that viviparous snakes transport amino acids to offspring during gestation.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, James U; Beaupre, Steven J

    2012-03-01

    Viviparity and placentation have evolved from oviparity over 100 times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). The independent origins of placentation have resulted in a variety of placental morphologies in different taxa, ranging from simple apposition of fetal and maternal tissues to endotheliochorial implantation that is homoplasious with mammalian placentation. Because the eggs of oviparous squamates transport gases and water from the environment and calcium from the eggshell, the placentae of viviparous squamates are thought to have initially evolved to accomplish these functions from within the maternal oviduct. Species with complex placentae have also been shown to rely substantially, or even primarily, on placental transport of organic nutrients for embryonic nutrition. However, it is unclear whether species with only simple placentae are also capable of transporting organic nutrients to offspring. Among viviparous squamates, all of the snakes that have been studied thus far have been shown to have simple placentae. However, most studies of snake placentation are limited to a single lineage, the North American Natricinae. We tested the abilities of four species of viviparous snakes - Agkistrodon contortrix (Viperidae), Boa constrictor (Boidae), Nerodia sipedon (Colubridae: Natricinae) and Thamnophis sirtalis (Colubridae: Natricinae) - to transport diet-derived amino acids to offspring during gestation. We fed [(15)N]leucine to pregnant snakes, and compared offspring (15)N content with that of unlabeled controls. Labeled females allocated significantly more (15)N to offspring than did controls, but (15)N allocation did not differ among species. Our results indicate that viviparous snakes are capable of transporting diet-derived amino acids to their offspring during gestation, possibly via placentation. PMID:22323198

  17. Real-time functional characterization of cationic amino acid transporters using a new FRET sensor.

    PubMed

    Vanoaica, Liviu; Behera, Alok; Camargo, Simone M R; Forster, Ian C; Verrey, François

    2016-04-01

    L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that serves as precursor for the production of urea, nitric oxide (NO), polyamines, and other biologically important metabolites. Hence, a fast and reliable assessment of its intracellular concentration changes is highly desirable. Here, we report on a genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based arginine nanosensor that employs the arginine repressor/activator ahrC gene from Bacillus subtilis. This new nanosensor was expressed in HEK293T cells, and experiments with cell lysate showed that it binds L-arginine with high specificity and with a K d of ∼177 μM. Live imaging experiments showed that the nanosensor was expressed throughout the cytoplasm and displayed a half maximal FRET increase at an extracellular L-arginine concentration of ∼22 μM. By expressing the nanosensor together with SLC7A1, SLC7A2B, or SLC7A3 cationic amino acid transporters (CAT1-3), it was shown that L-arginine was imported at a similar rate via SLC7A1 and SLC7A2B and slower via SLC7A3. In contrast, upon withdrawal of extracellular L-arginine, intracellular levels decreased as fast in SLC7A3-expressing cells compared with SLC7A1, but the efflux was slower via SLC7A2B. SLC7A4 (CAT4) could not be convincingly shown to transport L-arginine. We also demonstrated the impact of membrane potential on L-arginine transport and showed that physiological concentrations of symmetrical and asymmetrical dimethylarginine do not significantly interfere with L-arginine transport through SLC7A1. Our results demonstrate that the FRET nanosensor can be used to assess L-arginine transport through plasma membrane in real time. PMID:26555760

  18. Expression of amino acid transport systems in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, G E; Pearson, J D; Sheriff, C J; Toothill, V J

    1989-03-01

    1. Nutrient transport in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells was characterized using a rapid dual-isotope dilution technique. Microcarrier beads with confluent endothelial cells were perfused in small columns, and uptake and efflux were assessed relative to D-mannitol (extracellular tracer) during a single transit through the column. 2. At tracer concentrations significant unidirectional uptakes were measured for L-leucine (53 +/- 2%), L-phenylalanine (73 +/- 2%), L-serine (40 +/- 4%), L-arginine (42 +/- 3%) and L-ornithine (26 +/- 3%). Uptake for L-proline, D-glucose, dopamine and serotonin was lower (6-10%), whereas uptake for the system A analogue 2-methylaminoisobutyric acid (2-MeAIB) was negligible. Uptakes rapidly decreased with time due to tracer efflux. 3. Endothelial cell transport of L-leucine was markedly inhibited during perfusion with 1 mM-BCH (beta-2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid, system L analogue), L-leucine, D-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-methionine and L-DOPA. 2-MeAIB, L-cysteine, glycine, L-proline, hydroxy-L-proline, L-aspartate and beta-alanine were poor inhibitors, while L-serine and the cationic substrates L-lysine and L-arginine inhibited uptake by 10-35%. 4. When the kinetics of L-leucine transport were examined over a wide range of substrate concentrations (0.025-1 mM) transport was saturable. A single entry site analysis gave a half-maximal saturation constant Kt = 0.24 +/- 0.08 mM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 5) and a Vmax = 27.8 +/- 4.6 nmol/min per column (approximately 3 x 10(6) cells). 5. Removal of sodium from the perfusate inhibited tracer uptake of L-leucine, L-serine and L-arginine by respectively 20 +/- 5% (n = 3), 77 +/- 5% (n = 3) and 35 +/- 4% (n = 3). 6. Our results provide the first evidence that cultured human endothelial cells of venous origin express a saturable transport system for large neutral amino acids resembling system L described in brain microvascular endothelium. Detection of Na

  19. The contribution of SNAT1 to system A amino acid transporter activity in human placental trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Desforges, M.; Greenwood, S.L.; Glazier, J.D.; Westwood, M.; Sibley, C.P.

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} mRNA levels for SNAT1 are higher than other system A subtype mRNAs in primary human cytotrophoblast. {yields} SNAT1 knockdown in cytotrophoblast cells significantly reduces system A activity. {yields} SNAT1 is a key contributor to system A-mediated amino acid transport in human placenta. -- Abstract: System A-mediated amino acid transport across the placenta is important for the supply of neutral amino acids needed for fetal growth. All three system A subtypes (SNAT1, 2, and 4) are expressed in human placental trophoblast suggesting there is an important biological role for each. Placental system A activity increases as pregnancy progresses, coinciding with increased fetal nutrient demands. We have previously shown SNAT4-mediated system A activity is higher in first trimester than at term, suggesting that SNAT1 and/or SNAT2 are responsible for the increased system A activity later in gestation. However, the relative contribution of each subtype to transporter activity in trophoblast at term has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant subtype of system A in cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placenta, maintained in culture for 66 h, by: (1) measuring mRNA expression of the three subtypes and determining the Michaelis-Menten constants for uptake of the system A-specific substrate, {sup 14}C-MeAIB, (2) investigating the contribution of SNAT1 to total system A activity using siRNA. Results: mRNA expression was highest for the SNAT1 subtype of system A. Kinetic analysis of {sup 14}C-MeAIB uptake revealed two distinct transport systems; system 1: K{sub m} = 0.38 {+-} 0.12 mM, V{sub max} = 27.8 {+-} 9.0 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which resembles that reported for SNAT1 and SNAT2 in other cell types, and system 2: K{sub m} = 45.4 {+-} 25.0 mM, V{sub max} = 1190 {+-} 291 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which potentially represents SNAT4. Successful knockdown of SNAT1 mRNA using target-specific si

  20. HosA, a MarR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Represses Nonoxidative Hydroxyarylic Acid Decarboxylase Operon and Is Modulated by 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ajit; Ranjan, Akash

    2016-02-23

    Members of the Multiple antibiotic resistance Regulator (MarR) family of DNA binding proteins regulate transcription of a wide array of genes required for virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria. The present study reports the molecular characterization of HosA (Homologue of SlyA), a MarR protein, with respect to its target gene, DNA recognition motif, and nature of its ligand. Through a comparative genomics approach, we demonstrate that hosA is in synteny with nonoxidative hydroxyarylic acid decarboxylase (HAD) operon and is present exclusively within the mutS-rpoS polymorphic region in nine different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. Using molecular biology and biochemical approach, we demonstrate that HosA binds to a palindromic sequence downstream to the transcription start site of divergently transcribed nonoxidative HAD operon and represses its expression. Furthermore, in silico analysis showed that the recognition motif for HosA is highly conserved in the upstream region of divergently transcribed operon in different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. A systematic chemical search for the physiological ligand revealed that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) interacts with HosA and derepresses HosA mediated repression of the nonoxidative HAD operon. Based on our study, we propose a model for molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of nonoxidative HAD operon by HosA in Enterobacteriaceae family. PMID:26818787

  1. Evolutionary ancestry and novel functions of the mammalian glucose transporter (GLUT) family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In general, sugar porters function by proton-coupled symport or facilitative transport modes. Symporters, coupled to electrochemical energy, transport nutrients against a substrate gradient. Facilitative carriers transport sugars along a concentration gradient, thus transport is dependent upon extracellular nutrient levels. Across bacteria, fungi, unicellular non-vertebrates and plants, proton-coupled hexose symport is a crucial process supplying energy under conditions of nutrient flux. In mammals it has been assumed that evolution of whole body regulatory mechanisms would eliminate this need. To determine whether any isoforms bearing this function might be conserved in mammals, we investigated the relationship between the transporters of animals and the proton-coupled hexose symporters found in other species. Results We took a comparative genomic approach and have performed the first comprehensive and statistically supported phylogenetic analysis of all mammalian glucose transporter (GLUT) isoforms. Our data reveals the mammalian GLUT proteins segregate into five distinct classes. This evolutionary ancestry gives insight to structure, function and transport mechanisms within the groups. Combined with biological assays, we present novel evidence that, in response to changing nutrient availability and environmental pH, proton-coupled, active glucose symport function is maintained in mammalian cells. Conclusions The analyses show the ancestry, evolutionary conservation and biological importance of the GLUT classes. These findings significantly extend our understanding of the evolution of mammalian glucose transport systems. They also reveal that mammals may have conserved an adaptive response to nutrient demand that would have important physiological implications to cell survival and growth. PMID:20487568

  2. Mechanism of Linolenic Acid-induced Inhibition of Photosynthetic Electron Transport 12

    PubMed Central

    Golbeck, John H.; Martin, Iris F.; Fowler, Charles F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of linolenic acid on photosynthetic electron transport reactions in chloroplasts has been localized at a site on the donor side of photosystem I and at two functionally distinct sites in photosystem II. In photosystem I, an increase in the electron transport rate occurs in the presence of 10 to 100 micromolar linolenic acid, followed by a decline in rate from 100 to 200 micromolar linolenic acid. The increase may result from an alteration of membrane structure that allows greater reactivity of the artificial donors 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine with plastocyanin. The decrease is due to loss of plastocyanin from the membrane since addition of purified plastocyanin to treated and washed chloroplasts leads to the reestablishment of photosystem I rates. In photosystem II, a reversible site and an irreversible site of inhibition have been located. At the irreversible site, there is a time-dependent loss of the loosely bound pool of Mn implicated in the water-splitting mechanism. At the reversible site, the photochemical charge separation is rapidly inhibited as evidenced by the high initial fluorescence yield upon illumination and the inhibition of artificial donor reactions in NH2OH-washed chloroplasts. When chloroplasts are washed after treatment with linolenic acid, the fluorescence returns to its original low value and there is a resumption of artificial donor activity from diphenylcarbazide → DPIP. This reversible inhibition of the photoact is a unique characteristic of linolenic acid and suggests evidence for a new mode of inhibition of photosystem II. PMID:16661266

  3. Repression and inhibition of transport systems for branched-chain amino acids in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kiritani, K; Ohnishi, K

    1977-02-01

    Kinetics of the transport systems common for entry of L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine in Salmonella typhimurium LT2 have been analyzed as a function of substrateconcentration in the range of 0.5 to 45 muM. The systems of transport mutants, KA203 (ilvT3) and KA204 (ilvT4), are composed of two components; apparent Km values for uptake of isoleucine, leucine, and valine by the low Km component are 2 muM, 2 to 3 muM, and 1 muM, respectively, and by the high Km component 30 muM, 20 to 40 muM, and 0.1 mM, respectively. The transport system(s) of the wild type has not been separated into components but rather displays single Km values of 9 muM for isoleucine, 10 muM for leucine, and 30 muM for valine. The transport activity of the wild type was repressed by L-leucine, alpha ketoisocaproate, glycyl-L-isoleucine, glycyl-L-leucine, and glycyl-L-methionine. That for the transport mutants was repressed by L-alanine, L-isoleucine, L-methionine, L-valine, alpha-ketoisovalerate, alpha-keto-beta-methylvalerate, glycyl-L-alanine, glycyl-L-threonine, and glycyl-L-valine, in addition to the compounds described above. Repression of the mutant transport systems resulted in disappearance of the low Km component for valine uptake, together with a decrease in Vmax of the high Km component; the kinetic analysis with isoleucine and leucine as substrates was not possible because of poor uptake. The maximum reduction of the transport activity for isoleucine was obtained after growing cells for two to three generations in a medium supplemented with repressor, and for the depression, protein synthesis was essential after removal of the repressor. The transport activity for labeled isoleucine in the transport mutant and wild-type strains was inhibited by unlabeled L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-threonine, and L-valine. D-Amino acids neither repressed nor inhibited the transport activity of cells for entry of isoleucine. PMID:320186

  4. Transport of free and peptide-bound glycated amino acids: synthesis, transepithelial flux at Caco-2 cell monolayers, and interaction with apical membrane transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Geissler, Stefanie; Matthes, René; Peto, Anett; Silow, Christoph; Brandsch, Matthias; Henle, Thomas

    2011-05-16

    In glycation reactions, the side chains of protein-bound nucleophilic amino acids such as lysine and arginine are post-translationally modified to a variety of derivatives also known as Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Considerable amounts of MRPs are taken up in food. Here we have studied the interactions of free and dipeptide-bound MRPs with intestinal transport systems. Free and dipeptide-bound derivatives of N(6)-(1-fructosyl)lysine (FL), N(6)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N(6)-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), formyline, argpyrimidine, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1) were synthesized. The inhibition of L-[(3)H]lysine and [(14) C]glycylsarcosine uptakes was measured in Caco-2 cells which express the H(+)/peptide transporter PEPT1 and lysine transport system(s). Glycated amino acids always displayed lower affinities than their unmodified analogues towards the L-[(3)H]lysine transporter(s). In contrast, all glycated dipeptides except Ala-FL were medium- to high-affinity inhibitors of [(14)C]Gly-Sar uptake. The transepithelial flux of the derivatives across Caco-2 cell monolayers was determined. Free amino acids and intact peptides derived from CML and CEL were translocated to very small extents. Application of peptide-bound MRPs, however, led to elevation (up to 80-fold) of the net flux and intracellular accumulation of glycated amino acids, which were hydrolyzed from the dipeptides inside the cells. We conclude 1) that free MRPs are not substrates for the intestinal lysine transporter(s), and 2) that dietary MRPs are absorbed into intestinal cells in the form of dipeptides, most likely by the peptide transporter PEPT1. After hydrolysis, hydrophobic glycated amino acids such as pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, and argpyrimidine undergo basolateral efflux, most likely by simple diffusion down their concentration gradients. PMID:21538757

  5. Interactions Between Fatty Acid Transport Proteins, Genes That Encode for Them, and Exercise: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jayewardene, Avindra F; Mavros, Yorgi; Reeves, Anneliese; Hancock, Dale P; Gwinn, Tom; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-08-01

    Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) movement into skeletal muscle involves a highly mediated process in which lipid rafts are utilized in the cellular membrane, involving numerous putative plasma membrane-associated LCFA transport proteins. The process of LCFA uptake and oxidation is of particular metabolic significance both at rest and during light to moderate exercise. A comprehensive systematic search of electronic databases was conducted to investigate whether exercise alters protein and/or gene expression of putative LCFA transport proteins. There were 31 studies meeting all eligibility criteria, of these 13 utilized an acute exercise protocol and 18 examined chronic exercise adaptations. Seventeen involved a study design incorporating an exercise stimulus, while the remaining 14 incorporated a combined exercise and diet stimulus. Divergent data relating to acute exercise, as well as prolonged exercise training (≥3 weeks), on protein content (PC) response was identified for proteins CD36, FABPpm and CAV1. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) data did not always correspond to functional PC, supporting previous suggestions of a disconnect due to potentially limiting factors post gene expression. The large array of study designs, cohorts, and primary dependent variables within the studies included in the present review elucidate the complexity of the interaction between exercise and LCFA transport proteins. Summary of the results in the present review validate the need for further targeted investigation within this topic, and provide an important information base for such research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1671-1687, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26638980

  6. Structure of a Bacterial ABC Transporter Involved in the Import of an Acidic Polysaccharide Alginate.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yukie; Itoh, Takafumi; Kaneko, Ai; Nishitani, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-09-01

    The acidic polysaccharide alginate represents a promising marine biomass for the microbial production of biofuels, although the molecular and structural characteristics of alginate transporters remain to be clarified. In Sphingomonas sp. A1, the ATP-binding cassette transporter AlgM1M2SS is responsible for the import of alginate across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we present the substrate-transport characteristics and quaternary structure of AlgM1M2SS. The addition of poly- or oligoalginate enhanced the ATPase activity of reconstituted AlgM1M2SS coupled with one of the periplasmic solute-binding proteins, AlgQ1 or AlgQ2. External fluorescence-labeled oligoalginates were specifically imported into AlgM1M2SS-containing proteoliposomes in the presence of AlgQ2, ATP, and Mg(2+). The crystal structure of AlgQ2-bound AlgM1M2SS adopts an inward-facing conformation. The interaction between AlgQ2 and AlgM1M2SS induces the formation of an alginate-binding tunnel-like structure accessible to the solvent. The translocation route inside the transmembrane domains contains charged residues suitable for the import of acidic saccharides. PMID:26235029

  7. Hypertonic upregulation of amino acid transport system A in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, J G; Klus, L R; Steenbergen, D K; Kempson, S A

    1994-08-01

    The A10 line of vascular smooth muscle cells has Na+ dependent transport systems for alanine, proline, and Pi, whereas uptake of leucine, myo-inositol and D-glucose is Na+ independent. When A10 cells were incubated for 4 h in medium made hypertonic by addition of sucrose, there was a marked increase in Na(+)-dependent transport of alanine and proline but no change in Na(+)-dependent Pi uptake or Na(+)-independent uptake of leucine and inositol. Intracellular alanine content was increased 61% by the hypertonic treatment. Other nonpenetrating solutes, such as cellobiose and mannitol, reproduced the effect of sucrose, but urea, a penetrating solute, did not. Studies with 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid revealed that the upregulation by hypertonicity involved only system A. Increases in alanine and proline uptake also occurred after incubating the cells in isotonic medium containing 0.1 mM ouabain, suggesting that an increase in intracellular Na+ may be part of the intracellular signal for upregulation of system A. Hypertonic upregulation of Na(+)-dependent alanine transport occurred also in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells. The response was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating that gene transcription and protein synthesis play important roles in the mechanism leading to increased alanine uptake. We conclude that vascular smooth muscle cells, during prolonged hypertonic stress, activate system A and accumulate specific neutral amino acids which may act as organic osmolytes to help maintain normal cell volume. PMID:8074188

  8. Influence of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on the Transport and Deposition Behaviors of Bacteria in Quartz Sand.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-03-01

    The significance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the transport and deposition behaviors of bacteria (Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis) in quartz sand is examined in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions at pH 5.6 by comparing both breakthrough curves and retained profiles with PFOA in solutions versus those without PFOA. All test conditions are found to be highly unfavorable for cell deposition regardless of the presence of PFOA; however, 7%-46% cell deposition is observed depending on the conditions. The cell deposition may be attributed to micro- or nanoscale roughness and/or to chemical heterogeneity of the sand surface. The results show that, under all examined conditions, PFOA in suspensions increases cell transport and decreases cell deposition in porous media regardless of cell type, presence or absence of extracellular polymeric substances, ionic strength, and ion valence. We find that the additional repulsion between bacteria and quartz sand caused by both acid-base interaction and steric repulsion as well as the competition for deposition sites on quartz sand surfaces by PFOA are responsible for the enhanced transport and decreased deposition of bacteria with PFOA in solutions. PMID:26866280

  9. Evidence for a multigene family involved in bile acid 7-dehydroxylation in Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708.

    PubMed Central

    White, W B; Franklund, C V; Coleman, J P; Hylemon, P B

    1988-01-01

    Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 is a human intestinal isolate which has an inducible bile acid 7-dehydroxylation activity. At least two cholic acid-induced polypeptides, with molecular masses of 27,000 and 45,000 daltons, respectively, coelute with bile acid 7-dehydroxylation activity. The 45,000-dalton polypeptide appears to be encoded by a cholic acid-induced mRNA species of greater than 6 kilobases, which suggests that the gene coding for this polypeptide is part of a larger operon. A gene has been cloned which flanks the gene encoding the 45,000-dalton polypeptide, in the upstream (5') direction. This gene appears to encode a second 27,000-dalton polypeptide. The gene bears striking homology at both the nucleotide (80%) and deduced amino acid sequence (89%) levels with the gene which encodes the 27,000-dalton polypeptide that has been shown previously to be involved in the bile acid 7-dehydroxylation reaction sequence. The implications of this homology and the possible function(s) of the two homologous genes in bile acid 7-dehydroxylation are discussed. Evidence is presented which suggests that the two homologous genes involved in bile acid 7-dehydroxylation may be part of a larger multigene family in Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708. Images PMID:3170477

  10. A clinicobiochemical study of tryptophan and other plasma and urinary amino acids in the family with Hartnup disease.

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Dragoslav D

    2003-01-01

    Two cases of Hartnup disease were diagnosed in a five member family. A changeable polymorph and severe clinical features of a 16 year old girl was described. Total plasma amino acids value was significantly decreased in the girl compared to the sum of plasma amino acids value in the brother, mother, father and to the summed maximal values of normal range. Intermediate aminoaciduria was also found with atypical amino acids pattern. Total plasma amino acids concentration was significantly reduced (27.20%) in the mother, while no significant decrease in the son (1.83%) and father (7.51%) were found compared to the summed maximal values of normal range. In the clinicaly healthy father, 38 years of age, a gross aminoaciduria with atypical pattern of amino acids was also found. Urinary amino acids concentration in the son and his mother were rather normal, although low concentration of eight amino acids was found in the mother's urine. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid level was reduced in the girl. PMID:15206746

  11. Transport and cycling of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: Influence of organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.T.; Runkel, R.L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Voelker, B.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Carraway, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    An in-stream injection of two dissolved organic acids (phthalic and aspartic acids) was performed in an acidic mountain stream to assess the effects of organic acids on Fe photoreduction and H2O2 cycling. Results indicate that the fate of Fe is dependent on a net balance of oxidative and reductive processes, which can vary over a distance of several meters due to changes in incident light and other factors. Solution phase photoreduction rates were high in sunlit reaches and were enhanced by the organic acid addition but were also limited by the amount of ferric iron present in the water column. Fe oxide photoreduction from the streambed and colloids within the water column resulted in an increase in the diurnal load of total filterable Fe within the experimental reach, which also responded to increases in light and organic acids. Our results also suggest that Fe(II) oxidation increased in response to the organic acids, with the result of offsetting the increase in Fe(II) from photoreductive processes. Fe(II) was rapidly oxidized to Fe(III) after sunset and during the day within a well-shaded reach, presumably through microbial oxidation. H2O 2, a product of dissolved organic matter photolysis, increased downstream to maximum concentrations of 0.25 ??M midday. Kinetic calculations show that the buildup of H2O2 is controlled by reaction with Fe(III), but this has only a small effect on Fe(II) because of the small formation rates of H2O2 compared to those of Fe(II). The results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the effects of light and dissolved organic carbon into Fe reactive transport models to further our understanding of the fate of Fe in streams and lakes.

  12. Loratadine and analogues: discovery and preliminary structure-activity relationship of inhibitors of the amino acid transporter B(0)AT2.

    PubMed

    Cuboni, Serena; Devigny, Christian; Hoogeland, Bastiaan; Strasser, Andrea; Pomplun, Sebastian; Hauger, Barbara; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T; Eder, Matthias; Buschauer, Armin; Holsboer, Florian; Hausch, Felix

    2014-11-26

    B(0)AT2, encoded by the SLC6A15 gene, is a transporter for neutral amino acids that has recently been implicated in mood and metabolic disorders. It is predominantly expressed in the brain, but little is otherwise known about its function. To identify inhibitors for this transporter, we screened a library of 3133 different bioactive compounds. Loratadine, a clinically used histamine H1 receptor antagonist, was identified as a selective inhibitor of B(0)AT2 with an IC50 of 4 μM while being less active or inactive against several other members of the SLC6 family. Reversible inhibition of B(0)AT2 was confirmed by electrophysiology. A series of loratadine analogues were synthesized to gain insight into the structure-activity relationships. Our studies provide the first chemical tool for B(0)AT2. PMID:25318072

  13. Enhanced charge transport in highly conducting PEDOT-PSS films after acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, V. Akshaya; Bhatia, Ravi; Menon, Reghu

    The high electrical conductivity, good stability, high strength, flexibility and good transparency of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), make it useful for many applications including polymeric anodes for organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, flexible electrodes, supercapacitors, electrochromic devices, field-effect transistors and antistatic-coatings. However, the electrical conductivity of PEDOT-PSS has to be increased significantly for replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices. The as prepared (pristine) PEDOT-PSS film prepared from the PEDOT-PSS aqueous solution usually has conductivity below 1Scm-1, remarkably lower than ITO. Significant conductivity enhancement has been observed on transparent and conductive PEDOT-PSS films after a treatment with inorganic acids. Our study investigates the charge transport in pristine and H2SO4, HNO3, HCl treated PEDOT-PSS films. We have treated the films with various concentrations of acids to probe the effect of the acid treatment on the conduction mechanism. The study includes the measurement of dc and electric field dependent conductivity of films in the temperature range of 4.2K-300K. We have also performed magneto-resistance measurements in the range of 0-5T. An enhancement by a factor of~103 has been observed in the room temperature conductivity. The detailed magneto-transport studies explain the various mechanisms for the conductivity enhancement observed.

  14. Tumor microenvironment promotes dicarboxylic acid carrier-mediated transport of succinate to fuel prostate cancer mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhunussova, Aigul; Sen, Bhaswati; Friedman, Leah; Tuleukhanov, Sultan; Brooks, Ari D; Sensenig, Richard; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells reprogram their metabolism, so that they support their elevated oxidative phosphorylation and promote a cancer friendly microenvironment. This work aimed to explore the mechanisms that cancer cells employ for fueling themselves with energy rich metabolites available in interstitial fluids. The mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation in metastatic prostate cancer DU145 cells and normal prostate epithelial PrEC cells were studied by high-resolution respirometry. An important finding was that prostate cancer cells at acidic pH 6.8 are capable of consuming exogenous succinate, while physiological pH 7.4 was not favorable for this process. Using specific inhibitors, it was demonstrated that succinate is transported in cancer cells by the mechanism of plasma membrane Na+-dependent dycarboxylic acid transporter NaDC3 (SLC13A3 gene). Although the level of expression of SLC13A3 was not significantly altered when maintaining cells in the medium with lower pH, the respirometric activity of cells under acidic condition was elevated in the presence of succinate. In contrast, normal prostate cells while expressing NaDC3 mRNA do not produce NaDC3 protein. The mechanism of succinate influx via NaDC3 in metastatic prostate cancer cells could yield a novel target for anti-cancer therapy and has the potential to be used for imaging-based diagnostics to detect non-glycolytic tumors. PMID:26175936

  15. MATE Transporter-Dependent Export of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Gorzolka, Karin; Matern, Andreas; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Böttcher, Christoph; Rosahl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to successfully prevent colonization by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), depends on multilayered defense responses. To address the role of surface-localized secondary metabolites for entry control, droplets of a P. infestans zoospore suspension, incubated on Arabidopsis leaves, were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling. The hydroxycinnamic acid amide coumaroylagmatine was among the metabolites secreted into the inoculum. In vitro assays revealed an inhibitory activity of coumaroylagmatine on P. infestans spore germination. Mutant analyses suggested a requirement of the p-coumaroyl-CoA:agmatine N4-p-coumaroyl transferase ACT for the biosynthesis and of the MATE transporter DTX18 for the extracellular accumulation of coumaroylagmatine. The host plant potato is not able to efficiently secrete coumaroylagmatine. This inability is overcome in transgenic potato plants expressing the two Arabidopsis genes ACT and DTX18. These plants secrete agmatine and putrescine conjugates to high levels, indicating that DTX18 is a hydroxycinnamic acid amide transporter with a distinct specificity. The export of hydroxycinnamic acid amides correlates with a decreased ability of P. infestans spores to germinate, suggesting a contribution of secreted antimicrobial compounds to pathogen defense at the leaf surface. PMID:26744218

  16. Vertical transport processes of an acid-iron waste in a MERL stratified mesocosm

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.F.; Kester, D.R.; Hunt, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The vertical transport of the Fe particles formed after an acid-Fe waste mixes with seawater and the impact of the waste on the trace metal composition of seawater were examined in a stratified tank (2 m diameter and 5 m deep) at the MERL facility of the University of Rhode Island. Two acid-Fe waste additions were made to one of the stratified tanks at concentrations comparable to those observed after the initial dispersion of the waste in the ocean (10/sup 5/ dilution); a second stratified tank was maintained as a control. The removal of the Fe waste from the water column was due to settling of the Fe particles through the pycnocline; biological transport of the Fe particles was not an important removal mechanism. The kinetic behavior of the Fe particles was different after the two waste additions; gravitational settling was the rate-limiting step after the first addition, whereas flocculation was the rate-limiting step after the second waste addition. The first acid-Fe waste addition apparently altered the properties of the seawater, possibly stripping organic substances from the water column. This alteration in the characteristics of seawater changed the distribution of Pb and V between the dissolved and particulate forms. Both Pb and V showed a strong correlation with Fe, suggesting scavenging of these metals by the Fe particles. Cu and Cd show remarkable independence from the behavior of Fe. 18 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-07-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentrations increased only modestly and briefly after an oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of oral L-tryptophan, reflecting the absorptive defect. An oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of tryptophan ethyl ester resulted in a prompt increase in serum tryptophan to a peak of 555 microM. Sustained treatment with 20 mg/kg q6h resulted in normalization of serum (66 +/- 15 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan concentrations (mean = 2.3 microM). Cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA increased to more normal concentrations (mean = 33 ng/ml). No toxicity was observed over an 8-mo period of treatment, chronic diarrhea resolved, and body weight, which had remained unchanged for 7 mo before ester therapy, increased by approximately 26%. We concluded that tryptophan ethyl ester is effective at circumventing defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport and may be useful in the treatment of Hartnup disease. PMID:2472426

  18. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-01-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentrations increased only modestly and briefly after an oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of oral L-tryptophan, reflecting the absorptive defect. An oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of tryptophan ethyl ester resulted in a prompt increase in serum tryptophan to a peak of 555 microM. Sustained treatment with 20 mg/kg q6h resulted in normalization of serum (66 +/- 15 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan concentrations (mean = 2.3 microM). Cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA increased to more normal concentrations (mean = 33 ng/ml). No toxicity was observed over an 8-mo period of treatment, chronic diarrhea resolved, and body weight, which had remained unchanged for 7 mo before ester therapy, increased by approximately 26%. We concluded that tryptophan ethyl ester is effective at circumventing defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport and may be useful in the treatment of Hartnup disease. PMID:2472426

  19. Cloning and identification of the human LPAAT-zeta gene, a novel member of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase family.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yu, Long; Wu, Hai; Shan, Yuxi; Guo, Jinhu; Dang, Yongjun; Wei, Youheng; Zhao, Shouyuan

    2003-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring component of phospholipid and plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological and pathophysiological processes including cell growth, survival, and pro-angiogenesis. LPA is converted to phosphatidic acid by the action of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). Five members of the LPAAT gene family have been detected in humans to date. Here, we report the identification of a novel LPAAT member, which is designated as LPAAT-zeta. LPAAT-zeta was predicted to encode a protein consisting of 456 amino acid residues with a signal peptide sequence and the acyltransferase domain. Northern blot analysis showed that LPAAT-zeta was ubiquitously expressed in all 16 human tissues examined, with levels in the skeletal muscle, heart, and testis being relatively high and in the lung being relatively low. The human LPAAT-zeta gene consisted of 13 exons and is positioned at chromosome 8p11.21. PMID:12938015

  20. Extraction and carrier-facilitated transport of amino acids using synthetic non-cyclic receptors through bulk liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pratibha; Joshi, Nidhi; Sharma, Uma

    2006-10-01

    The extraction and carrier-facilitated transport of amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) was studied through chloroform bulk liquid membrane system using a series of non-cyclic receptors such as diethylene glycol (1), diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (2), diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (3), diethylene glycol dibenzoate (4), triethylene glycol (5) and tetraethylene glycol (6). The amount of amino acid extracted and transported depends mainly upon the structure and the concentration of the receptors and also on the concentration of amino acid. The receptors 1 to 4, having small chain length and flexible end groups, formed stable complexes with amino acids, and the flexibility of receptors in different conformational forms was responsible for their carrier ability, while the receptors 5 and 6, having larger chain length showed poor carrier ability. Hydrophobicity of amino acids also play an important role in the extraction as well as transport process. PMID:17133741

  1. The role of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19) in Hartnup disorder and protein nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bröer, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Hartnup disorder (OMIM 234500) is an autosomal recessive disorder, which was first described in 1956 as an aminoaciduria of neutral amino acids accompanied by a variety of symptoms, such as a photo-sensitive skin-rash and cerebellar ataxia. The disorder is caused by mutations in the neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19). To date 21 mutations have been identified in more than twenty families. SLC6A19 requires either collectrin or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for surface expression in the kidney and intestine, respectively. This ties SLC6A19 together with more complex functions such as blood-pressure control, glomerular structure, and exocytosis. PMID:19472175

  2. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  3. The active transport of 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid from a recirculatory perfusion system of the cerebral ventricles of the unanaesthetized dog

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, G. W.; Dow, R. C.; Moir, A. T. B.

    1968-01-01

    1. An operation on dogs for the implantation of guide tubes to the lateral ventricle and cisterna magna and a method whereby the ventricular space can be repeatedly perfused in conscious and unrestrained animals are described. 2. The characteristics of a recirculatory perfusion system were examined and the bulk formation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid and the volume of the ventricular space perfused were derived from the concentrations achieved during the infusion of inulin into the system. 3. 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HIAA), the acid metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HVA), the main acid metabolite of dopamine, were demonstrated to be mainly removed from cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) by an active transport system localized in the region of the fourth ventricle. 4. It was possible to inhibit the active transport of these acids from cerebrospinal fluid by pre-treating the dogs with probenecid. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:5723518

  4. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Affect Electrolyte Transport in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: Dependence on Cyclooxygenase and Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Nüsing, Rolf M.; Schweer, Horst; Fleming, Ingrid; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wegmann, Markus

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on ion transport in the polarized renal distal tubular cell line, MDCK C7. Of the four EET regioisomers (5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET) studied, only apical, but not basolateral, application of 5,6-EET increased short circuit current (Isc) with kinetics similar to those of arachidonic acid. The ion transport was blocked by preincubation with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or with the chloride channel blocker NPPB. Further, both a Cl−-free bath solution and the Ca2+ antagonist verapamil blocked 5,6-EET-induced ion transport. Although the presence of the PGE2 receptors EP2, EP3, and EP4 was demonstrated, apically added PGE2 was ineffective and basolaterally added PGE2 caused a different kinetics in ion transport compared to 5,6-EET. Moreover, PGE2 sythesis in MDCK C7 cells was unaffected by 5,6-EET treatment. GC/MS/MS analysis of cell supernatants revealed the presence of the biologically inactive 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1 in 5,6-EET-treated cells, but not in control cells. Indomethacin suppressed the formation of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1. 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 the precursor of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1, caused a similar ion transport as 5,6-EET. Cytochrome P450 enzymes homolog to human CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2J2 protein were detected immunologically in the MDCK C7 cells. Our findings suggest that 5,6-EET affects Cl-transport in renal distal tubular cells independent of PGE2 but by a mechanism, dependent on its conversion to 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 by cyclooxygenase. We suggest a role for this P450 epoxygenase product in the regulation of electrolyte transport, especially as a saluretic compound acting from the luminal side of tubular cells in the mammalian kidney. PMID:17494091

  5. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids affect electrolyte transport in renal tubular epithelial cells: dependence on cyclooxygenase and cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Nüsing, Rolf M; Schweer, Horst; Fleming, Ingrid; Zeldin, Darryl C; Wegmann, Markus

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on ion transport in the polarized renal distal tubular cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) C7. Of the four EET regioisomers (5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET) studied, only apical, but not basolateral, application of 5,6-EET increased short-circuit current (I(sc)) with kinetics similar to those of arachidonic acid. The ion transport was blocked by preincubation with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or with the chloride channel blocker NPPB. Furthermore, both a Cl(-)-free bath solution and the Ca(2+) antagonist verapamil blocked 5,6-EET-induced ion transport. Although the presence of the PGE(2) receptors EP2, EP3, and EP4 was demonstrated, apically added PGE(2) was ineffective and basolaterally added PGE(2) caused a different kinetics in ion transport compared with 5,6-EET. Moreover, PGE(2) synthesis in MDCK C7 cells was unaffected by 5,6-EET treatment. GC/MS/MS analysis of cell supernatants revealed the presence of the biologically inactive 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE(1) in 5,6-EET-treated cells, but not in control cells. Indomethacin suppressed the formation of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE(1). 5,6-Epoxy-PGE(1), the precursor of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE(1), caused a similar ion transport as 5,6-EET. Cytochrome P-450 enzymes homolog to human CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2J2 protein were detected immunologically in the MDCK C7 cells. Our findings suggest that 5,6-EET affects Cl(-) transport in renal distal tubular cells independent of PGE(2) but by a mechanism, dependent on its conversion to 5,6-epoxy-PGE(1) by cyclooxygenase. We suggest a role for this P450 epoxygenase product in the regulation of electrolyte transport, especially as a saluretic compound acting from the luminal side of tubular cells in the mammalian kidney. PMID:17494091

  6. Drugs or diet? – Developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting the free fatty acid family of GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Dranse, H J; Kelly, M E M; Hudson, B D

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are metabolic intermediates that may be obtained through the diet, synthesized endogenously, or produced via fermentation of carbohydrates by gut microbiota. In addition to serving as an important source of energy, FFAs are known to produce a variety of both beneficial and detrimental effects on metabolic and inflammatory processes. While historically, FFAs were believed to produce these effects only through intracellular targets such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, it has now become clear that FFAs are also agonists for several GPCRs, including a family of four receptors now termed FFA1-4. Increasing evidence suggests that FFA1-4 mediate many of the beneficial properties of FFAs and not surprisingly, this has generated significant interest in the potential of these receptors as therapeutic targets for the treatment of a variety of metabolic and inflammatory disorders. In addition to the traditional strategy of developing small-molecule therapeutics targeting these receptors, there has also been some consideration given to alternate therapeutic approaches, specifically by manipulating endogenous FFA concentrations through alteration of either dietary intake, or production by gut microbiota. In this review, the current state of knowledge for FFA1-4 will be discussed, together with their potential as therapeutic targets in the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disorders. In particular, the evidence in support of small molecule versus dietary and microbiota-based therapeutic approaches will be considered to provide insight into the development of novel multifaceted strategies targeting the FFA receptors for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disorders. PMID:23937426

  7. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, K. W.; Berumen, M. L.; Mateo, I.; Elsdon, T. S.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas.

  8. Structural basis for the hydrolysis of ATP by a nucleotide binding subunit of an amino acid ABC transporter from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Devi, Seenivasan Karthiga; Chichili, Vishnu Priyanka Reddy; Jeyakanthan, J; Velmurugan, D; Sivaraman, J

    2015-06-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a major family of small molecule transporter proteins, and their deregulation is associated with several diseases, including cancer. Here, we report the crystal structure of the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of an amino acid ABC transporter from Thermus thermophilus (TTHA1159) in its apo form and as a complex with ADP along with functional studies. TTHA1159 is a putative arginine ABC transporter. The apo-TTHA1159 was crystallized in dimeric form, a hitherto unreported form of an apo NBD. Structural comparison of the apo and ADP-Mg(2+) complexes revealed that Phe14 of TTHA1159 undergoes a significant conformational change to accommodate ADP, and that the bound ADP interacts with the P-loop (Gly40-Thr45). Modeling of ATP-Mg(2+):TTHA1159 complex revealed that Gln86 and Glu164 are involved in water-mediated hydrogen bonding contacts and Asp163 in Mg(2+) ion-mediated hydrogen bonding contacts with the γ-phosphate of ATP, consistent with the findings of other ABC transporters. Mutational studies confirmed the necessity of each of these residues, and a comparison of the apo/ADP Mg(2+):TTHA1159 with its ATP-complex model suggests the likelihood of a key conformational change to the Gln86 side chain for ATP hydrolysis. PMID:25916755

  9. Design and Evaluation of a Novel Trifluorinated Imaging Agent for Assessment of Bile Acid Transport Using Fluorine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vivian, Diana; Cheng, Kunrong; Khurana, Sandeep; Xu, Su; Dawson, Paul A.; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we developed a trifluorinated bile acid, CA-lys-TFA, with the objective of noninvasively assessing bile acid transport in vivo using 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CA-lys-TFA was successfully imaged in the mouse gallbladder, but was susceptible to deconjugation in vitro by choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH), a bacterial bile acid deconjugating enzyme found in the terminal ileum and colon. The objective of the present study was to develop a novel trifluorinated bile acid resistant to deconjugation by CGH. CA-sar-TFMA was designed, synthesized, and tested for in vitro transport properties, stability, imaging properties, and its ability to differentially accumulate in the gallbladders of normal mice, compared with mice with known impaired bile acid transport (deficient in the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, ASBT). CA-sar-TFMA was a potent inhibitor and substrate of ASBT and the Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide. Stability was favorable in all conditions tested, including the presence of CGH. CA-sar-TFMA was successfully imaged and accumulated at 16.1-fold higher concentrations in gallbladders from wild-type mice compared with those from Asbt-deficient mice. Our results support the potential of using MRI with CA-sar-TFMA as a noninvasive method to assess bile acid transport in vivo. PMID:25196788

  10. A novel mutation in the sodium/iodide symporter gene in the largest family with iodide transport defect.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, S; Bhayana, S; Dean, H J

    1999-09-01

    We previously reported nine children with an autosomally recessive form of congenital hypothyroidism due to an iodide transport defect in a large Hutterite family with extensive consanguinity living in central Canada. Since the original report, we have diagnosed congenital hypothyroidism by newborn TSH screening in 9 additional children from the family. We performed direct sequencing of the PCR products of each NIS (sodium/iodide symporter) gene exon with flanking introns amplified from genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells of the patients. We identified a novel NIS gene mutation, G395R (Gly395-->Arg; GGA-->AGA), in 10 patients examined in the present study. All of the parents tested were heterozygous for the mutation, suggesting that the patients were homozygous. The mutation was located in the 10th transmembrane helix. Expression experiments by transfection of the mutant NIS complimentary DNA into COS-7 cells showed no perchlorate-sensitive iodide uptake, confirming that the mutation is the direct cause of the iodide transport defect in these patients. A patient who showed an intermediate saliva/serum technetium ratio (14.0; normal, > or = 20) and was considered to have a partial or less severe defect in the previous report (IX-24) did not have a NIS gene mutation. It is now possible to use gene diagnostics of this unique NIS mutation to identify patients with congenital hypothyroidism due to an iodide transport defect in this family and to determine the carrier state of potential parents for genetic counseling and arranging rapid and early diagnosis of their infants. PMID:10487695

  11. FUBT, a putative MFS transporter, promotes secretion of fusaric acid in the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid (FA) is a key component in virulence and symptom development in cotton during infection by Fusarium oxysporum. A putative MFS transporter gene was identified upstream of the polyketide synthase gene responsible for the biosynthesis of FA. Disruption of the transporter gene, designated...

  12. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: Application of a reactive transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    A reactive transport model based on one-dimensional transport and equilibrium chemistry is applied to synoptic data from an acid mine drainage stream. Model inputs include streamflow estimates based on tracer dilution, inflow chemistry based on synoptic sampling, and equilibrium constants describing acid/base, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption reactions. The dominant features of observed spatial profiles in pH and metal concentration are reproduced along the 3.5-km study reach by simulating the precipitation of Fe(III) and Al solid phases and the sorption of Cu, As, and Pb onto freshly precipitated iron-(III) oxides. Given this quantitative description of existing conditions, additional simulations are conducted to estimate the streamwater quality that could result from two hypothetical remediation plans. Both remediation plans involve the addition of CaCO3 to raise the pH of a small, acidic inflow from ???2.4 to ???7.0. This pH increase results in a reduced metal load that is routed downstream by the reactive transport model, thereby providing an estimate of post-remediation water quality. The first remediation plan assumes a closed system wherein inflow Fe(II) is not oxidized by the treatment system; under the second remediation plan, an open system is assumed, and Fe(II) is oxidized within the treatment system. Both plans increase instream pH and substantially reduce total and dissolved concentrations of Al, As, Cu, and Fe(II+III) at the terminus of the study reach. Dissolved Pb concentrations are reduced by ???18% under the first remediation plan due to sorption onto iron-(III) oxides within the treatment system and stream channel. In contrast, iron(III) oxides are limiting under the second remediation plan, and removal of dissolved Pb occurs primarily within the treatment system. This limitation results in an increase in dissolved Pb concentrations over existing conditions as additional downstream sources of Pb are not attenuated by

  13. Utility of bilirubins and bile acids as endogenous biomarkers for the inhibition of hepatic transporters.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Miyake, Manami; Shimizu, Toshinobu; Kamezawa, Miho; Masutomi, Naoya; Shimura, Takesada; Ohashi, Rikiya

    2015-04-01

    It is useful to identify endogenous substrates for the evaluation of drug-drug interactions via transporters. In this study, we investigated the utility of bilirubins, substrates of OATPs and MRP2, and bile acids and substrates of NTCP and BSEP, as biomarkers for the inhibition of transporters. In rats administered 20 and 80 mg/kg rifampicin, the plasma levels of bilirubin glucuronides were elevated, gradually decreased, and almost returned to the baseline level at 24 hours after administration without an elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). This result indicates the transient inhibition of rOatps and/or rMrp2. Although the correlation between free plasma concentrations and IC50 values of rOatps depended on the substrates used in the in vitro studies, the inhibition of rOatps by rifampicin was confirmed in the in vivo study using valsartan as a substrate of rOatps. In rats administered 10 and 30 mg/kg cyclosporin A, the plasma levels of bile acids were elevated and persisted for up to 24 hours after administration without an elevation of ALT and AST. This result indicates the continuous inhibition of rNtcp and/or rBsep, although there were differences between the free plasma or liver concentrations and IC50 values of rNtcp or rBsep, respectively. This study suggests that the monitoring of bilirubins and bile acids in plasma is useful in evaluating the inhibitory potential of their corresponding transporters. PMID:25581390

  14. Biodegradation, sorption, and transport of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in saturated and unsaturated soils.

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, M R; Brusseau, M L; Maier, R S; Pepper, I L; Wierenga, P J; Miller, R M

    1993-01-01

    The fate of an organic contaminant in soil depends on many factors, including sorption, biodegradation, and transport. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used as a model compound to illustrate the impact of these interacting factors on the fate of an organic contaminant. Batch and column experiments performed with a sandy loam soil mixture under saturated and unsaturated conditions were used to determine the effects of sorption and biodegradation on the fate and transport of 2,4-D. Sorption of 2,4-D was found to have a slight but significant effect on transport of 2,4-D under saturated conditions (retardation factor, 1.8) and unsaturated conditions (retardation factor, 3.4). Biodegradation of 2,4-D was extensive under both batch and column conditions and was found to have a significant impact on 2,4-D transport in column experiments. In batch experiments, complete mineralization of 2,4-D (100 mg kg-1) occurred over a 4-day period following a 3-day lag phase under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The biodegradation rate parameters calculated for batch experiments were found to be significantly different from those estimated for column experiments. PMID:8285717

  15. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Conveys Familial Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Striatal Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Fossella, John A.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Casey B. J.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Vessaz, M. Nathalie; Van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results confirm that DAT1 translates the genetic risk of ADHD through striatal activation.

  16. Structure-based ligand discovery for the Large-neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1, LAT-1.

    PubMed

    Geier, Ethan G; Schlessinger, Avner; Fan, Hao; Gable, Jonathan E; Irwin, John J; Sali, Andrej; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2013-04-01

    The Large-neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT-1)--a sodium-independent exchanger of amino acids, thyroid hormones, and prescription drugs--is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier and various types of cancer. LAT-1 plays an important role in cancer development as well as in mediating drug and nutrient delivery across the blood-brain barrier, making it a key drug target. Here, we identify four LAT-1 ligands, including one chemically novel substrate, by comparative modeling, virtual screening, and experimental validation. These results may rationalize the enhanced brain permeability of two drugs, including the anticancer agent acivicin. Finally, two of our hits inhibited proliferation of a cancer cell line by distinct mechanisms, providing useful chemical tools to characterize the role of LAT-1 in cancer metabolism. PMID:23509259

  17. Structure-based ligand discovery for the Large-neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1, LAT-1

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Ethan G.; Schlessinger, Avner; Fan, Hao; Gable, Jonathan E.; Irwin, John J.; Sali, Andrej; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    The Large-neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT-1)—a sodium-independent exchanger of amino acids, thyroid hormones, and prescription drugs—is highly expressed in the blood–brain barrier and various types of cancer. LAT-1 plays an important role in cancer development as well as in mediating drug and nutrient delivery across the blood–brain barrier, making it a key drug target. Here, we identify four LAT-1 ligands, including one chemically novel substrate, by comparative modeling, virtual screening, and experimental validation. These results may rationalize the enhanced brain permeability of two drugs, including the anticancer agent acivicin. Finally, two of our hits inhibited proliferation of a cancer cell line by distinct mechanisms, providing useful chemical tools to characterize the role of LAT-1 in cancer metabolism. PMID:23509259

  18. Essential amino acid transporter Lat4 (Slc43a2) is required for mouse development

    PubMed Central

    Guetg, Adriano; Mariotta, Luca; Bock, Lukas; Herzog, Brigitte; Fingerhut, Ralph; Camargo, Simone M R; Verrey, François

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) uniporter Lat4 (Slc43a2) mediates facilitated diffusion of branched-chain AAs, methionine and phenylalanine, although its physiological role and subcellular localization are not known. We report that Slc43a2 knockout mice were born at expected Mendelian frequency but displayed an ∼10% intrauterine growth retardation and low amniotic fluid AAs, suggesting defective transplacental transport. Postnatal growth was strongly reduced, with premature death occurring within 9 days such that further investigations were made within 3 days of birth. Lat4 immunofluorescence showed a strong basolateral signal in the small intestine, kidney proximal tubule and thick ascending limb epithelial cells of wild-type but not Slc43a2 null littermates and no signal in liver and skeletal muscle. Experiments using Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that Lat4 functioned as a symmetrical low affinity uniporter with a K0.5 of ∼5 mm for both in- and efflux. Plasma AA concentration was decreased in Slc43a2 null pups, in particular that of non-essential AAs alanine, serine, histidine and proline. Together with an increased level of plasma long chain acylcarnitines and a strong alteration of liver gene expression, this indicates malnutrition. Attempts to rescue pups by decreasing the litter size or by nutrients injected i.p. did not succeed. Radioactively labelled leucine but not lysine given per os accumulated in the small intestine of Slc43a2null pups, suggesting the defective transcellular transport of Lat4 substrates. In summary, Lat4 is a symmetrical uniporter for neutral essential AAs localizing at the basolateral side of (re)absorbing epithelia and is necessary for early nutrition and development. Key points Lat4 (Slc43a2) transports branched-chain amino acids, phenylalanine and methionine, and is expressed in kidney tubule and small intestine epithelial cells. Using a new knockout model as a negative control, it is shown that Lat4 is expressed at the basolateral

  19. Charge transport through dicarboxylic-acid-terminated alkanes bound to graphene-gold nanogap electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longlong; Zhang, Qian; Tao, Shuhui; Zhao, Cezhou; Almutib, Eman; Al-Galiby, Qusiy; Bailey, Steven W. D.; Grace, Iain; Lambert, Colin J.; Du, Jun; Yang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Graphene-based electrodes are attractive for single-molecule electronics due to their high stability and conductivity and reduced screening compared with metals. In this paper, we use the STM-based matrix isolation I(s) method to measure the performance of graphene in single-molecule junctions with one graphene electrode and one gold electrode. By measuring the length dependence of the electrical conductance of dicarboxylic-acid-terminated alkanes, we find that the transport is consistent with phase-coherent tunneling, but with an attenuation factor of βN = 0.69 per methyl unit, which is lower than the value measured for Au-molecule-Au junctions. Comparison with density-functional-theory calculations of electron transport through graphene-molecule-Au junctions and Au-molecule-Au junctions reveals that this difference is due to the difference in Fermi energies of the two types of junction, relative to the frontier orbitals of the molecules. For most molecules, their electrical conductance in graphene-molecule-Au junctions is higher than that in Au-molecule-Au junctions, which suggests that graphene offers superior electrode performance, when utilizing carboxylic acid anchor groups.Graphene-based electrodes are attractive for single-molecule electronics due to their high stability and conductivity and reduced screening compared with metals. In this paper, we use the STM-based matrix isolation I(s) method to measure the performance of graphene in single-molecule junctions with one graphene electrode and one gold electrode. By measuring the length dependence of the electrical conductance of dicarboxylic-acid-terminated alkanes, we find that the transport is consistent with phase-coherent tunneling, but with an attenuation factor of βN = 0.69 per methyl unit, which is lower than the value measured for Au-molecule-Au junctions. Comparison with density-functional-theory calculations of electron transport through graphene-molecule-Au junctions and Au

  20. A chondrodysplasia family produced by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene: genotype/phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Superti-Furga, A; Rossi, A; Steinmann, B; Gitzelmann, R

    1996-05-01

    Achondrogenesis type 1B (ACG-1B), atelosteogenesis type 2 (AO-2), and diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) are recessively inherited chondrodysplasias of decreasing severity caused by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST) gene on chromosome 5. In these conditions, sulfate transport across the cell membrane is impaired which results in insufficient sulfation of cartilage proteoglycans and thus in an abnormally low sulfate content of cartilage. The severity of the phenotype correlates well with the predicted effect of the underlying DTDST mutations: homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for stop codons or transmembrane domain substitutions mostly result in achondrogenesis type 1B, while other structural or regulatory mutations usually result in one of the less severe phenotypes. The chondrodysplasias arising at the DTDST locus constitute a bone dysplasia family with recessive inheritance. PMID:8723100

  1. A chondrodysplasia family produced by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene: Genotype/phenotype correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Superti-Furga, A.; Steinmann, B.; Gitzelmann, R.; Rossi, A.

    1996-05-03

    Achondrogenesis type 1B (ACG-1B), atelosteogenesis type 2 (AO-2), and diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) are recessively inherited chondrodysplasia of decreasing severity caused by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST) gene on chromosome 5. In these conditions, sulfate transport across the cell membrane is impaired which results in insufficient sulfation of cartilage proteoglycans and thus in an abnormally low sulfate content of cartilage. The severity of the phenotype correlates well with the predicted effect of the underlying DTDST mutations: homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for stop codons or transmembrane domain substitutions mostly result in achondrogenesis type 1B, while other structural or regulatory mutations usually result in one of the less severe phenotypes. The chondrodysplasia arising at the DTDST locus constitute a bone dysplasia family with recessive inheritance. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Organization and sequence of the human P gene and identification of a new family of transport proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.T.; Fukai, K.; Spritz, R.A.

    1995-03-20

    We have determined the structure, nucleotide sequence, and polymorphisms of the human P gene. Mutations of the P gene result in type H oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in humans and pink-eyed dilution (p) in mice. We find that the human P gene is quite large, consisting of 25 exons spanning 250 to 600 kb in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. The P polypeptide appears to define a novel family of small molecule transporters and may be involved in transport of tyrosine, the precursor to melanin synthesis, within the melanocyte. These results provide the basis for analyses of patients with OCA2 and may point toward eventual pharmacologic treatment of this and related disorders of pigmentation. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Identification and characterization of the zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) gene family in maize

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential micronutrients for plant growth and development, their deficiency or excess severely impaired physiological and biochemical reactions of plants. Therefore, a tightly controlled zinc and iron uptake and homeostasis network has been evolved in plants. The Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Proteins (ZIP) are capable of uptaking and transporting divalent metal ion and are suggested to play critical roles in balancing metal uptake and homeostasis, though a detailed analysis of ZIP gene family in maize is still lacking. Results Nine ZIP-coding genes were identified in maize genome. It was revealed that the ZmZIP proteins share a conserved transmembrane domain and a variable region between TM-3 and TM-4. Transiently expression in onion epidermal cells revealed that all ZmZIP proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. The yeast complementation analysis was performed to test the Zn or Fe transporter activity of ZmZIP proteins. Expression analysis showed that the ZmIRT1 transcripts were dramatically induced in response to Zn- and Fe-deficiency, though the expression profiles of other ZmZIP changed variously. The expression patterns of ZmZIP genes were observed in different stages of embryo and endosperm development. The accumulations of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP6 were increased in the late developmental stages of embryo, while ZmZIP4 was up-regulated during the early development of embryo. In addition, the expression of ZmZIP5 was dramatically induced associated with middle stage development of embryo and endosperm. Conclusions These results suggest that ZmZIP genes encode functional Zn or Fe transporters that may be responsible for the uptake, translocation, detoxification and storage of divalent metal ion in plant cells. The various expression patterns of ZmZIP genes in embryo and endosperm indicates that they may be essential for ion translocation and storage during

  4. Suppression of asymmetric acid efflux and gravitropism in maize roots treated with auxin transport inhibitors of sodium orthovanadate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    In gravitropically stimulated roots of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid WF9 x 38MS), there is more acid efflux on the rapidly growing upper side than on the slowly growing lower side. In light of the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism which states that gravitropic curvature results from lateral redistribution of auxin, the effects of auxin transport inhibitors on the development of acid efflux asymmetry and curvature in gravistimulated roots were examined. All the transport inhibitors tested prevented both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots. The results indicate that auxin redistribution may cause the asymmetry of acid efflux, a finding consistent with the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism. As further evidence that auxin-induced acid efflux asymmetry may mediate gravitropic curvature, sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of auxin-induced H+ efflux was found to prevent both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots.

  5. Reactive transport controls on sandy acid sulfate soils and impacts on shallow groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, S. Ursula; Rate, Andrew W.; Rengel, Zed; Appleyard, Steven; Prommer, Henning; Hinz, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Disturbance or drainage of potential acid sulfate soils (PASS) can result in the release of acidity and degradation of infrastructure, water resources, and the environment. Soil processes affecting shallow groundwater quality have been investigated using a numerical code that integrates (bio)geochemical processes with water, solute, and gas transport. The patterns of severe and persistent acidification (pH < 4) in the sandy, carbonate-depleted podzols of a coastal plain could be reproduced without calibration, based on oxidation of microcrystalline pyrite after groundwater level decrease and/or residual groundwater acidity, due to slow vertical solute transport rates. The rate of acidification was limited by gas phase diffusion of oxygen and hence was sensitive to soil water retention properties and in some cases also to oxygen consumption by organic matter mineralization. Despite diffusion limitation, the rate of oxidation in sandy soils was rapid once pyrite-bearing horizons were exposed, even to a depth of 7.5 m. Groundwater level movement was thus identified as an important control on acidification, as well as the initial pyrite content. Increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation lead to slightly lower pH and greater accumulation of Fe(III) phases, but had little effect on the overall amount of pyrite oxidized. Aluminosilicate (kaolinite) dissolution had a small pH-buffering effect but lead to the release of Al and associated acidity. Simulated dewatering scenarios highlighted the potential of the model for risk assessment of (bio)geochemical impacts on soil and groundwater over a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  6. Enhanced antitumour drug delivery to cholangiocarcinoma through the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT).

    PubMed

    Lozano, Elisa; Monte, Maria J; Briz, Oscar; Hernández-Hernández, Angel; Banales, Jesus M; Marin, Jose J G; Macias, Rocio I R

    2015-10-28

    Novel antitumour drugs, such as cationic tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are useful in many types of cancer but not in others, such as cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), where their uptake through specific membrane transporters, such as OCT1, is very poor. Here we have investigated the usefulness of targeting cytostatic bile acid derivatives to enhance the delivery of chemotherapy to tumours expressing the bile acid transporter ASBT and whether this is the case for CCA. The analysis of paired samples of CCA and adjacent non-tumour tissue collected from human (n=15) and rat (n=29) CCA revealed that ASBT expression was preserved. Moreover, ASBT was expressed, although at different levels, in human and rat CCA cell lines. Both cells in vitro and rat tumours in vivo were able to carry out efficient uptake of bile acid derivatives. Using Bamet-UD2 (cisplatin-ursodeoxycholate conjugate) as a model ASBT-targeted drug, in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity was evaluated. ASBT expression enhanced the sensitivity to Bamet-UD2, but not to cisplatin, in vitro. In nude mice, Bamet-UD2 (more than cisplatin) inhibited the growth of human colon adenocarcinoma tumours with induced stable expression of ASBT. As compared with cisplatin, administration of Bamet-UD2 to rats with CCA resulted in an efficient liver and tumour uptake but low exposure of extrahepatic tissues to the drug. Consequently, signs of liver/renal toxicity were absent in animals treated with Bamet-UD2. In conclusion, endogenous or induced ASBT expression may be useful in pharmacological strategies to treat enterohepatic tumours based on the use of cytostatic bile acid derivatives. PMID:26278512

  7. ATR-FTIR characterization of transport properties of benzoic acid ion-pairs in silicone membranes.

    PubMed

    Tantishaiyakul, Vimon; Phadoongsombut, Narubodee; Wongpuwarak, Wibul; Thungtiwachgul, Jatupit; Faroongsarng, Damrongsak; Wiwattanawongsa, Kamonthip; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2004-09-28

    A novel technique based on Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study the transport of benzoic acid ion-pairs/salts in silicone membranes. The benzoic acid ion-pairs were prepared using various counter-ions with different degrees of lipophilicity, e.g. triethylamine (TA), diethylamine (DE), tert-butylamine (t-BA), 2-amino-2-methyl-propanol (AMP), and 2-amino-2-methyl-propanediol (AMPD). Silicone membrane, treated or untreated with propylene glycol (PG), was placed on the surface of a ZnSe crystal and the transport solution was applied to the upper surface of the membrane. A mathematical model, based on Fick's second law describing the build up of permeant concentration at the membrane/crystal interface with time was applied to determine diffusion coefficients. Absorption due to the acid (1700 cm(-1)) or benzoate anion (1555 cm(-1)) was observed at different regions without the interference from PG or silicone membrane. Benzoate anion, a charged species, was observed to permeate the membrane. The permeation of benzoate anion from sodium benzoate and polar ion-pairs of AMP and AMPD was very low in contrast to their high-saturated concentrations in PG as compared to the t-BA ion-pair. This indicated that benzoate anion preferentially permeates the membrane as an ion-pair rather than a single anion; otherwise its permeation should correspond to its concentration in PG instead of the lipophilicity of the ion-pairs. Additionally, the diffusion coefficient values of benzoic acid and benzoate anions through the treated and untreated membranes were not statistically different. PMID:15363507

  8. The ABC transporter gene family of Caenorhabditis elegans has implications for the evolutionary dynamics of multidrug resistance in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Sheps, Jonathan A; Ralph, Steven; Zhao, Zhongying; Baillie, David L; Ling, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Background Many drugs of natural origin are hydrophobic and can pass through cell membranes. Hydrophobic molecules must be susceptible to active efflux systems if they are to be maintained at lower concentrations in cells than in their environment. Multi-drug resistance (MDR), often mediated by intrinsic membrane proteins that couple energy to drug efflux, provides this function. All eukaryotic genomes encode several gene families capable of encoding MDR functions, among which the ABC transporters are the largest. The number of candidate MDR genes means that study of the drug-resistance properties of an organism cannot be effectively carried out without taking a genomic perspective. Results We have annotated sequences for all 60 ABC transporters from the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, and performed a phylogenetic analysis of these along with the 49 human, 30 yeast, and 57 fly ABC transporters currently available in GenBank. Classification according to a unified nomenclature is presented. Comparison between genomes reveals much gene duplication and loss, and surprisingly little orthology among analogous genes. Proteins capable of conferring MDR are found in several distinct subfamilies and are likely to have arisen independently multiple times. Conclusions ABC transporter evolution fits a pattern expected from a process termed 'dynamic-coherence'. This is an unusual result for such a highly conserved gene family as this one, present in all domains of cellular life. Mechanistically, this may result from the broad substrate specificity of some ABC proteins, which both reduces selection against gene loss, and leads to the facile sorting of functions among paralogs following gene duplication. PMID:15003118

  9. Whole-Genome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Family Genes in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 “full-size,” 41 “half-size,” and 15 “soluble” putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera. PMID:24244377

  10. Topology mapping to characterize cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters: BicA (SulP/SLC26 family) and SbtA.

    PubMed

    Price, G Dean; Howitt, Susan M

    2014-09-01

    This mini-review addresses advances in understanding the transmembrane topologies of two unrelated, single-subunit bicarbonate transporters from cyanobacteria, namely BicA and SbtA. BicA is a Na(+)-dependent bicarbonate transporter that belongs to the SulP/SLC26 family that is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Topology mapping of BicA via the phoA/lacZ fusion reporter method identified 12 transmembrane helices with an unresolved hydrophobic region just beyond helix 8. Re-interpreting this data in the light of a recent topology study on rat prestin leads to a consensus topology of 14 transmembrane domains with a 7+7 inverted repeat structure. SbtA is also a Na(+)-dependent bicarbonate transporter, but of considerably higher affinity (Km 2-5 μM versus >100 μM for BicA). Whilst SbtA is widespread in cyanobacteria and a few bacteria, it appears to be absent from eukaryotes. Topology mapping of SbtA via the phoA/lacZ fusion reporter method identified 10 transmembrane helices. The topology consists of a 5+5 inverted repeat, with the two repeats separated by a large intracellular loop. The unusual location of the N and C-termini outside the cell raises the possibility that SbtA forms a novel fold, not so far identified by structural and topological studies on transport proteins. PMID:25222859

  11. Acidic loadings in South Korean ecosystems by long-range transport and local emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Myun; Park, Soon-Ung

    2004-10-01

    Exceedances of sulfur and nitrogen critical loads in South Korean ecosystems caused by long-range transport and local emissions of sulfur and nitrogen have been estimated using the maximum critical load of sulfur and the critical load of nutrient nitrogen. The long-term-averaged deposition of sulfur and nitrogen is estimated with a simplified chemical model and the K-mean clustering technique. The three consecutive days of gridded daily mean National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP) reanalyzed 850 hPa geopotential height fields with and without precipitation on the last day over South Korea are used for clustering of synoptic patterns for the period of 1994-1998. Two emission conditions are simulated for each cluster to estimate long-term averaged depositions of sulfur and nitrogen by long-range transport and local emissions over South Korea. One condition takes all emissions within the simulated domain into account as a base case and the other condition excludes all South Korean emissions but includes all of the other emissions, as a control case. The results of the present study indicate that the contribution of long-range transport to the annual total deposition over South Korea is found to be about 40% (530 eqha-1yr-1) for sulfur and 49% (650 eqha-1yr-1) for nitrogen, of which 55% for sulfur and 58% for nitrogen are contributed by wet deposition. This suggests the importance of wet deposition through the transformed acidic precursors for long-range transport to South Korea's total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen. The estimated exceedance for South Korean ecosystems indicates that the current estimate of total sulfur deposition affects about 42% of the South Korean ecosystems adversely, of which 14% is attributed to South Korean source only and the rest 28% is attributed to long-range transport together with South Korean source. Long-range transport of sulfur itself does not exceed the maximum critical load of sulfur. On the other hand, the current

  12. Predicting Therapist Adherence to a Transported Family-Based Treatment for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relations between therapist, caregiver, and youth characteristics and therapist adherence to multisystemic therapy (MST). Participants were 405 therapists in 45 organizations and the 1,711 families they treated with MST. Therapist perceptions that the flexible hours required to implement MST are problematic predicted lower…

  13. The Amino Acid Transporter JhI-21 Coevolves with Glutamate Receptors, Impacts NMJ Physiology, and Influences Locomotor Activity in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anna B; Augustin, Hrvoje; Clark, Nathan L; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Simonnet, Mégane M; Steinert, Joern R; Geillon, Flore; Manière, Gérard; Featherstone, David E; Grosjean, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in synaptic physiology underlie neuronal network plasticity and behavioral phenomena, which are adjusted during development. The Drosophila larval glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) represents a powerful synaptic model to investigate factors impacting these processes. Amino acids such as glutamate have been shown to regulate Drosophila NMJ physiology by modulating the clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and thereby regulating the strength of signal transmission from the motor neuron to the muscle cell. To identify amino acid transporters impacting glutmatergic signal transmission, we used Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC), a recently developed bioinformatic tool. Our screen identified ten proteins co-evolving with NMJ glutamate receptors. We selected one candidate transporter, the SLC7 (Solute Carrier) transporter family member JhI-21 (Juvenile hormone Inducible-21), which is expressed in Drosophila larval motor neurons. We show that JhI-21 suppresses postsynaptic muscle glutamate receptor abundance, and that JhI-21 expression in motor neurons regulates larval crawling behavior in a developmental stage-specific manner. PMID:26805723

  14. The Amino Acid Transporter JhI-21 Coevolves with Glutamate Receptors, Impacts NMJ Physiology, and Influences Locomotor Activity in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Anna B.; Augustin, Hrvoje; Clark, Nathan L.; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Simonnet, Mégane M.; Steinert, Joern R.; Geillon, Flore; Manière, Gérard; Featherstone, David E.; Grosjean, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in synaptic physiology underlie neuronal network plasticity and behavioral phenomena, which are adjusted during development. The Drosophila larval glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) represents a powerful synaptic model to investigate factors impacting these processes. Amino acids such as glutamate have been shown to regulate Drosophila NMJ physiology by modulating the clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and thereby regulating the strength of signal transmission from the motor neuron to the muscle cell. To identify amino acid transporters impacting glutmatergic signal transmission, we used Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC), a recently developed bioinformatic tool. Our screen identified ten proteins co-evolving with NMJ glutamate receptors. We selected one candidate transporter, the SLC7 (Solute Carrier) transporter family member JhI-21 (Juvenile hormone Inducible-21), which is expressed in Drosophila larval motor neurons. We show that JhI-21 suppresses postsynaptic muscle glutamate receptor abundance, and that JhI-21 expression in motor neurons regulates larval crawling behavior in a developmental stage-specific manner. PMID:26805723

  15. Proton transport in triflic acid pentahydrate studied via ab initio path integral molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robin L; Paddison, Stephen J; Tuckerman, Mark E

    2011-06-16

    Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid hydrates provide a well-defined system to study proton dissociation and transport in perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, typically used as the electrolyte in hydrogen fuel cells, in the limit of minimal water. The triflic acid pentahydrate crystal (CF(3)SO(3)H·5H(2)O) is sufficiently aqueous that it contains an extended three-dimensional water network. Despite it being extended, however, long-range proton transport along the network is structurally unfavorable and would require considerable rearrangement. Nevertheless, the triflic acid pentahydrate crystal system can provide a clear picture of the preferred locations of local protonic defects in the water network, which provides insights about related structures in the disordered, low-hydration environment of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the proton defect is most likely to transfer to the closest water that has the expected presolvation and only contains water in its first solvation shell. Unlike the tetrahydrate of triflic acid (CF(3)SO(3)H·4H(2)O), there is no evidence of the proton preferentially transferring to a water molecule bridging two of the sulfonate groups. However, this could be an artifact of the crystal structure since the only such water molecule is separated from the proton by long O-O distances. Hydrogen bonding criteria, using the two-dimensional potential of mean force, are extracted. Radial distribution functions, free energy profiles, radii of gyration, and the root-mean-square displacement computed from ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations reveal that quantum effects do significantly extend the size of the protonic defect and increase the frequency of proton transfer events by nearly 15%. The calculated IR spectra confirm that the dominant protonic defect mostly exists as an Eigen cation but contains some Zundel ion characteristics. Chain lengths and ring sizes determined from the

  16. The hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Mrp2 are downregulated in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Cherrington, Nathan J.; Estrada, Teresa E.; Frisk, Harrison A.; Canet, Mark J.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Dvorak, Bohuslav; Lux, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency of premature infants and is characterized by an extensive hemorrhagic inflammatory necrosis of the distal ileum and proximal colon. We have previously shown that, during the development of experimental NEC, the liver plays an important role in regulating inflammation in the ileum, and accumulation of ileal bile acids (BA) along with dysregulation of ileal BA transporters contributes to ileal damage. Given these findings, we speculated that hepatic BA transporters would also be altered in experimental NEC. Using both rat and mouse models of NEC, levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp27a1, and the hepatic BA transporters Bsep, Ntcp, Oatp2, Oatp4, Mrp2, and Mrp3 were investigated. In addition, levels of hepatic BA transporters were also determined when the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-18, which are both elevated in NEC, are neutralized during disease development. Ntcp and Mrp2 were decreased in NEC, but elevated ileal BA levels were not responsible for these reductions. However, neutralization of TNF-α normalized Ntcp, whereas removal of IL-18 normalized Mrp2 levels. These data show that the hepatic transporters Ntcp and Mrp2 are downregulated, whereas Cyp27a1 is increased in rodent models of NEC. Furthermore, increased levels of TNF-α and IL-18 in experimental NEC may play a role in the regulation of Ntcp and Mrp2, respectively. These data suggest the gut-liver axis should be considered when therapeutic modalities for NEC are developed. PMID:23125159

  17. The urease inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid is transported by the urea pathway in rat terminal IMCD.

    PubMed

    Star, R A; Gillin, A D; Parikh, V J; Sands, J M

    1993-09-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), a urea analogue, is used clinically to dissolve struvite stones because it inhibits the urease produced by Proteus mirabilis. To be effective, the concentration of AHA must be high in the collecting duct system and final urine. Because AHA is structurally similar to urea, we investigated whether AHA is transported by the urea carrier found in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and the erythrocyte. We examined AHA transport under four conditions known to affect urea movement across the terminal IMCD, i.e., stimulation by vasopressin (AVP) and hyperosmolality, and inhibition by phloretin and urea analogues. The AHA permeability was determined with a 10 mM bath-to-lumen AHA gradient. AHA was measured by ultramicrocolorimetry. Addition of 1 nM AVP to the bath increased the AHA permeability of the perfused terminal IMCD. Increasing perfusate and bath osmolality from 290 to 690 mosmol/kgH2O (by adding NaCl) also increased tubule permeability to AHA. Addition of either 0.25 mM phloretin to the bath or 200 mM thiourea to the lumen reversibly inhibited the AVP-stimulated AHA permeability. AHA-induced osmotic lysis of erythrocytes was inhibited by phloretin or thionicotinamide; AHA inhibited the osmotic lysis induced by the urea analogue acetamide. Thus, in the rat terminal IMCD, both urea and AHA transport are stimulated by AVP and hyperosmolality, and both are inhibited by phloretin and thiourea. In erythrocytes, both urea and AHA transport are inhibited by phloretin or thionicotinamide. Thus AHA is transported by the urea carrier in the terminal IMCD and erythrocyte.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8214097

  18. Functional reconstitution of the. gamma. -aminobutyric acid transporter from synaptic vesicles using artificial ion gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Hell, J.W.; Edelmann, L.; Hartinger, J.; Jahn, R. )

    1991-12-24

    The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter of rat brain synaptic vesicles was reconstituted in proteoliposomes, and its activity was studied in response to artificially created membrane potentials or proton gradients. Changes of the membrane potential were monitored using the dyes oxonol VI and 3,3{prime}-diisopropylthiodicarbocyanine iodide, and changes of the H{sup +} gradient were followed using acridine orange. An inside positive membrane potential was generated by the creation of an inwardly directed K{sup +} gradient and the subsequent addition of valinomycin. Under these conditions, valinomycin evoked uptake of ({sup 3}H)GABA which was saturable. Similarly, ({sup 3}H)glutamate uptake was stimulated by valinomycin, indicating that both transporters can be driven by the membrane potential. Proton gradients were generated by the incubation of K{sup +}-loaded proteoliposomes in a buffer free of K{sup +} or Na{sup +} ions and the subsequent addition of nigericin. Proton gradients were also generated via the endogenous H{sup +} ATPase by incubation of K{sup +}-loaded proteoliposomes in equimolar K{sup +} buffer in the presence of valinomycin. These proton gradients evoked nonspecific, nonsaturable uptake of GABA and {beta}-alanine but not of glycine in proteoliposomes as well as protein-free liposomes. Therefore, transporter activity was monitored using glycine as an alternative substrate. Proton gradients generated by both methods elicited saturable glycine uptake in proteoliposomes. Together, these data confirm that the vesicular GABA transporter can be energized by both the membrane potential and the pH gradient and show that transport can be achieved by artificial gradients independently of the endogenous proton ATPase.

  19. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    2011-05-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for

  20. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Results Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. Conclusions In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it

  1. Identification and functional characterization of a novel low affinity aromatic-preferring amino acid transporter (arpAT). One of the few proteins silenced during primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Esperanza; Torrents, David; Zorzano, Antonio; Palacín, Manuel; Chillarón, Josep

    2005-05-13

    We have identified in silico arpAT, a gene encoding a new member of the LSHAT family, and cloned it from kidney. Co-expression of arpAT with the heavy subunits rBAT or 4F2hc elicited a sodium-independent alanine transport activity in HeLa cells. L-tyrosine, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), L-glutamine, L-serine, L-cystine, and L-arginine were also transported. Kinetic and cis-inhibition studies showed a K(m) = 1.59 +/- 0.24 mM for L-alanine or IC50 in the millimolar range for most amino acids, except L-proline, glycine, anionic and D-amino acids, which were not inhibitory. L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were the most effective competitive inhibitors of L-alanine transport, with IC50 values of 272.2 +/- 57.1 and 716.3 +/- 112.4 microM, respectively. In the small intestine, arpAT mRNA was located at the enterocytes, in a decreasing gradient from the crypts to the tip of the villi. It was also expressed in neurons from different brain areas. Finally, we show that while the arpAT gene is conserved in rat, dog, and chicken, it has become silenced in humans and chimpanzee. Actually, it has been recently reported that it is one of the 33 recently inactivated genes in the human lineage. The evolutionary implications of the silencing process and the roles of arpAT in transport of L-DOPA in the brain and in aromatic amino acid absorption are discussed. PMID:15757906

  2. Colloid Transport and Surface-Subsurface Exchange in an Acid Mine Drainage-Impacted Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvell, A. S.; Ryan, J. N.; Ren, J.; McKnight, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Colloidal particles may provide an important control on the mobility of contaminants of concern; e.g., metals introduced into a stream from an acid mine drainage. In order to examine colloidal transport and surface-subsurface exchange, we injected synthesized ferrihydrite colloids along with a conservative tracer, bromide, into Lefthand Creek, a stream contaminated by acid mine drainage in northwestern Boulder County, Colorado. The ferrihydrite colloids were co-precipitated with yttrium to form yttrium-labelled colloids so that we could differentiate them from environmental colloids. Yttrium was measured in samples collected from the surface water and the hyporheic zone. The hyporheic zone samples were collected from a series of mini-piezometers embedded up to 1 m in depth and over a 61 m reach of the stream. A one-dimensional transient storage model (OTIS-P) was used to quantify parameters describing the transport of the conservative tracer and the colloids. Approximately 20% of the colloidal mass was lost over the 61 m reach. The loss of colloids is attributed to deposition in the shallow hyporheic zone. Laboratory column experiments demonstrated that the stream bed sediments effectively remove colloids from suspension at the pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter concentration conditions occurring in Lefthand Creek.

  3. Xanthurenic acid distribution, transport, accumulation and release in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gobaille, Serge; Kemmel, Véronique; Brumaru, Daniel; Dugave, Christophe; Aunis, Dominique; Maitre, Michel

    2008-05-01

    Tryptophan metabolism through the kynurenine pathway leads to several neuroactive compounds, including kynurenic and picolinic acids. Xanthurenic acid (Xa) has been generally considered as a substance with no physiological role but possessing toxic and apoptotic properties. In the present work, we present several findings which support a physiological role for endogenous Xa in synaptic signalling in brain. This substance is present in micromolar amounts in most regions of the rat brain with a heterogeneous distribution. An active vesicular synaptic process inhibited by bafilomycin and nigericin accumulates xanthurenate into pre-synaptic terminals. A neuronal transport, partially dependant on adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), sodium and chloride ions exists in NCB-20 neurons which could participate in the clearance of extracellular xanthurenate. Both transports (neuronal and vesicular) are greatly enhanced by the presence of micromolar amounts of zinc ions. Finally, electrical in vivo stimulation of A10-induced Xa release in the extracellular spaces of the rat prefrontal cortex. This phenomenon is reproduced by veratrine, K+ ions and blocked by EGTA and tetrodotoxin. These results strongly argue for a role for Xa in neurotransmission/neuromodulation in the rat brain, thus providing the existence of specific Xa receptors. PMID:18182052

  4. Charge transport through dicarboxylic-acid-terminated alkanes bound to graphene-gold nanogap electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longlong; Zhang, Qian; Tao, Shuhui; Zhao, Cezhou; Almutib, Eman; Al-Galiby, Qusiy; Bailey, Steven W D; Grace, Iain; Lambert, Colin J; Du, Jun; Yang, Li

    2016-08-14

    Graphene-based electrodes are attractive for single-molecule electronics due to their high stability and conductivity and reduced screening compared with metals. In this paper, we use the STM-based matrix isolation I(s) method to measure the performance of graphene in single-molecule junctions with one graphene electrode and one gold electrode. By measuring the length dependence of the electrical conductance of dicarboxylic-acid-terminated alkanes, we find that the transport is consistent with phase-coherent tunneling, but with an attenuation factor of βN = 0.69 per methyl unit, which is lower than the value measured for Au-molecule-Au junctions. Comparison with density-functional-theory calculations of electron transport through graphene-molecule-Au junctions and Au-molecule-Au junctions reveals that this difference is due to the difference in Fermi energies of the two types of junction, relative to the frontier orbitals of the molecules. For most molecules, their electrical conductance in graphene-molecule-Au junctions is higher than that in Au-molecule-Au junctions, which suggests that graphene offers superior electrode performance, when utilizing carboxylic acid anchor groups. PMID:27412865

  5. The mRNA expression of amino acid transporters, aminopeptidase, and the di- and tri-peptide