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Sample records for acid transporter protein

  1. Intestinal transport of sulfanilic acid in rats immunized with protein-sulfanilic acid conjugate.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, A; Kawaratani, T; Kawashima, K; Hashida, M; Sezaki, H

    1990-07-01

    Intestinal transport of sulfanilic acid was examined by means of an in vitro everted sac technique in rats immunized with a bovine gamma-globulin-sulfanilic acid conjugate. At a low concentration of sulfanilic acid, the intestinal transport of sulfanilic acid was decreased in rats immunized with bovine gamma-globulin-sulfanilic acid conjugate. This phenomenon was dose dependent and antigen specific, since there was no difference in the transport of sulfanilic acid at a high concentration and of an unrelated hapten. These results suggested that parenteral immunization impaired not only the intestinal transport of macromolecular antigens, as previously shown, but also the transport of the low molecular weight hapten, sulfanilic acid.

  2. Transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2013-04-16

    This Teaching Resource provides and describes two animated lessons that illustrate general properties of transport proteins. The lesson called "transport protein classes" depicts major classes and subclasses of transport proteins. The "transporters, mechanism of action" lesson explains how transporters and P class ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) pumps function. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these important factors. Courses that might use them include introductory biology, biochemistry, cell biology, physiology, and biophysics.

  3. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 Facilitates the Blood-Brain Barrier Transport of Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijun; Scanlon, Martin J; Owada, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yui; Porter, Christopher J H; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-12-01

    The brain has a limited ability to synthesize the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from its omega-3 fatty acid precursors. Therefore, to maintain brain concentrations of this PUFA at physiological levels, plasma-derived DHA must be transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). While DHA is able to partition into the luminal membrane of brain endothelial cells, its low aqueous solubility likely limits its cytosolic transfer to the abluminal membrane, necessitating the requirement of an intracellular carrier protein to facilitate trafficking of this PUFA across the BBB. As the intracellular carrier protein fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is expressed at the human BBB, the current study assessed the putative role of FABP5 in the brain endothelial cell uptake and BBB transport of DHA in vitro and in vivo, respectively. hFAPB5 was recombinantly expressed and purified from Escherichia coli C41(DE3) cells and the binding affinity of DHA to hFABP5 assessed using isothermal titration calorimetry. The impact of FABP5 siRNA on uptake of (14)C-DHA into immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells was assessed. An in situ transcardiac perfusion method was optimized in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently used to compare the BBB influx rate (Kin) of (14)C-DHA between FABP5-deficient (FABP5(-/-)) and wild-type (FABP5(+/+)) C57BL/6 mice. DHA bound to hFABP5 with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 155 ± 8 nM (mean ± SEM). FABP5 siRNA transfection decreased hCMEC/D3 mRNA and protein expression of FABP5 by 53.2 ± 5.5% and 44.8 ± 13.7%, respectively, which was associated with a 14.1 ± 2.7% reduction in (14)C-DHA cellular uptake. By using optimized conditions for the in situ transcardiac perfusion (a 1 min preperfusion (10 mL/min) followed by perfusion of (14)C-DHA (1 min)), the Kin of (14)C-DHA was 0.04 ± 0.01 mL/g/s. Relative to FABP5(+/+) mice, the Kin of (14)C-DHA decreased 36.7 ± 12.4% in FABP5(-/-) mice

  4. The SLC32 transporter, a key protein for the synaptic release of inhibitory amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gasnier, Bruno

    2004-02-01

    The SLC32 family comprises a single member: the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) or vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). It belongs to a eukaryotic-specific superfamily of H(+)-coupled amino acid transporters, which also comprises the mammalian SLC36 and SLC38 transporters. VIAAT exchanges GABA or glycine for protons. It is present on synaptic vesicles of GABAergic and glycinergic neurons, and in some endocrine cells, where it ensures the H(+)-ATPase-driven uptake, and subsequent exocytotic release, of inhibitory amino acids. Despite a similar function in vesicular neurotransmitter loading, VIAAT is not related to the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT, SLC17) or the vesicular monoamine transporter/vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VMAT/VACHT, SLC18) proteins.

  5. Amyloid protein precursor stimulates excitatory amino acid transport. Implications for roles in neuroprotection and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masliah, E; Raber, J; Alford, M; Mallory, M; Mattson, M P; Yang, D; Wong, D; Mucke, L

    1998-05-15

    Excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate are required for the normal functioning of the central nervous system but can trigger excitotoxic neuronal injury if allowed to accumulate to abnormally high levels. Their extracellular levels are controlled primarily by transmitter uptake into astrocytes. Here, we demonstrate that the amyloid protein precursor may participate in the regulation of this important process. The amyloid protein precursor has been well conserved through evolution, and a number of studies indicate that it may function as an endogenous excitoprotectant. However, the mechanisms underlying this neuroprotective capacity remain largely unknown. At moderate levels of expression, human amyloid protein precursors increased glutamate/aspartate uptake in brains of transgenic mice, with the 751-amino acid isoform showing greater potency than the 695-amino acid isoform. Cerebral glutamate/aspartate transporter protein levels were higher in transgenic mice than in non-transgenic controls, whereas transporter mRNA levels were unchanged. Amyloid protein precursor-dependent stimulation of aspartate uptake by cultured primary astrocytes was associated with increases in protein kinase A and C activity and could be blocked by inhibitors of these kinases. The stimulation of astroglial excitatory amino acid transport by amyloid protein precursors could protect the brain against excitotoxicity and may play an important role in neurotransmission. PMID:9575214

  6. Interactions Between Fatty Acid Transport Proteins, Genes That Encode for Them, and Exercise: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jayewardene, Avindra F; Mavros, Yorgi; Reeves, Anneliese; Hancock, Dale P; Gwinn, Tom; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-08-01

    Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) movement into skeletal muscle involves a highly mediated process in which lipid rafts are utilized in the cellular membrane, involving numerous putative plasma membrane-associated LCFA transport proteins. The process of LCFA uptake and oxidation is of particular metabolic significance both at rest and during light to moderate exercise. A comprehensive systematic search of electronic databases was conducted to investigate whether exercise alters protein and/or gene expression of putative LCFA transport proteins. There were 31 studies meeting all eligibility criteria, of these 13 utilized an acute exercise protocol and 18 examined chronic exercise adaptations. Seventeen involved a study design incorporating an exercise stimulus, while the remaining 14 incorporated a combined exercise and diet stimulus. Divergent data relating to acute exercise, as well as prolonged exercise training (≥3 weeks), on protein content (PC) response was identified for proteins CD36, FABPpm and CAV1. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) data did not always correspond to functional PC, supporting previous suggestions of a disconnect due to potentially limiting factors post gene expression. The large array of study designs, cohorts, and primary dependent variables within the studies included in the present review elucidate the complexity of the interaction between exercise and LCFA transport proteins. Summary of the results in the present review validate the need for further targeted investigation within this topic, and provide an important information base for such research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1671-1687, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Physiologic hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein synthesis and enhances transport of selected amino acids in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Biolo, G; Declan Fleming, R Y; Wolfe, R R

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms of the anabolic effect of insulin on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers, using stable isotopic tracers of amino acids. Calculations of muscle protein synthesis, breakdown, and amino acid transport were based on data obtained with the leg arteriovenous catheterization and muscle biopsy. Insulin was infused (0.15 mU/min per 100 ml leg) into the femoral artery to increase femoral venous insulin concentration (from 10 +/- 2 to 77 +/- 9 microU/ml) with minimal systemic perturbations. Tissue concentrations of free essential amino acids decreased (P < 0.05) after insulin. The fractional synthesis rate of muscle protein (precursor-product approach) increased (P < 0.01) after insulin from 0.0401 +/- 0.0072 to 0.0677 +/- 0.0101%/h. Consistent with this observation, rates of utilization for protein synthesis of intracellular phenylalanine and lysine (arteriovenous balance approach) also increased from 40 +/- 8 to 59 +/- 8 (P < 0.05) and from 219 +/- 21 to 298 +/- 37 (P < 0.08) nmol/min per 100 ml leg, respectively. Release from protein breakdown of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine was not significantly modified by insulin. Local hyperinsulinemia increased (P < 0.05) the rates of inward transport of leucine, lysine, and alanine, from 164 +/- 22 to 200 +/- 25, from 126 +/- 11 to 221 +/- 30, and from 403 +/- 64 to 595 +/- 106 nmol/min per 100 ml leg, respectively. Transport of phenylalanine did not change significantly. We conclude that insulin promoted muscle anabolism, primarily by stimulating protein synthesis independently of any effect on transmembrane transport. Images PMID:7860765

  8. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter protein levels are down-regulated through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation induced by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-08-15

    The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2) has a crucial role in intestinal bile acid absorption. We previously reported that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid conversion was involved in the alteration of ileal ASBT expression levels. In the present study, to investigate the hypothesis that ileal ASBT protein levels are post-translationally regulated by enterobacteria-associated bile acids, alteration of ileal ASBT protein levels was analysed in mice 12 h and 24 h after anti-bacterial drug ampicillin (ABPC) treatment (100 mg/kg, single shot) that altered bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. In ABPC-treated mice, enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and cholic acid (CA) levels were decreased, whereas taurocholic acid (TCA) and tauro-β-muricholic acid levels were increased in the intestinal lumen. Ileal ASBT protein levels in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), but not ileal Asbt mRNA levels, were significantly increased in the ABPC-treated mice, and the extent of ubiquitination of the ileal ASBT protein was reduced in the ABPC-treated mice. Treatment of ABPC-pretreated mice with CA or TDCA, but not TCA, significantly decreased ileal ASBT protein levels and increased the extent of ubiquitination of ileal ASBT protein. Treatment of mice with the lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine, or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased ileal ASBT protein levels in BBMVs. CA-mediated reduction of ASBT protein levels in the ABPC-pretreated mice was attenuated by co-treatment with chloroquine or MG132. These results suggest that ileal ASBT protein is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in response to enterobacteria-associated bile acids. PMID:23872411

  9. New functions of the chloroplast Preprotein and Amino acid Transporter (PRAT) family members in protein import.

    PubMed

    Rossig, Claudia; Reinbothe, Christiane; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells contain distinct compartments such as the nucleus, the endomembrane system comprising the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, vacuoles, as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts. All of these compartments are surrounded by 1 or 2 limiting membranes and need to import proteins from the cytosol. Previous work led to the conclusion that mitochondria and chloroplasts use structurally different protein import machineries in their outer and inner membranes for the uptake of cytosolic precursor proteins. Our most recent data show that there is some unexpected overlap. Three members of the family of preprotein and amino acid transporters, PRAT, were identified in chloroplasts that mediate the uptake of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner plastid envelope membrane. By analogy, mitochondria contain with TIM22 a related PRAT protein that is involved in the import of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts thus make use of similar import mechanisms to deliver some of their proteins to their final place. Because single homologs of HP20- and HP30-like proteins are present in algae such as Chlamydomonas, Ostreococcus, and Volvox, which diverged from land plants approximately 1 billion years ago, it is likely that the discovered PRAT-mediated mechanism of protein translocation evolved concomitantly with the secondary endosymbiotic event that gave rise to green plants. PMID:24476934

  10. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins Transport N-Acylethanolamines to Nuclear Receptors and Are Targets of Endocannabinoid Transport Inhibitors*

    PubMed Central

    Kaczocha, Martin; Vivieca, Stephanie; Sun, Jing; Glaser, Sherrye T.; Deutsch, Dale G.

    2012-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are bioactive lipids that engage diverse receptor systems. Recently, we identified fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) as intracellular NAE carriers. Here, we provide two new functions for FABPs in NAE signaling. We demonstrate that FABPs mediate the nuclear translocation of the NAE oleoylethanolamide, an agonist of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Antagonism of FABP function through chemical inhibition, dominant-negative approaches, or shRNA-mediated knockdown reduced PPARα activation, confirming a requisite role for FABPs in this process. In addition, we show that NAE analogs, traditionally employed as inhibitors of the putative endocannabinoid transmembrane transporter, target FABPs. Support for the existence of the putative membrane transporter stems primarily from pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid uptake by such transport inhibitors, which are widely employed in endocannabinoid research despite lacking a known cellular target(s). Our approach adapted FABP-mediated PPARα signaling and employed in vitro binding, arachidonoyl-[1-14C]ethanolamide ([14C]AEA) uptake, and FABP knockdown to demonstrate that transport inhibitors exert their effects through inhibition of FABPs, thereby providing a molecular rationale for the underlying physiological effects of these compounds. Identification of FABPs as targets of transport inhibitors undermines the central pharmacological support for the existence of an endocannabinoid transmembrane transporter. PMID:22170058

  11. Improved Experimental Techniques for Analyzing Nucleic Acid Transport Through Protein Nanopores in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Justin A.

    The translocation of nucleic acid polymers across cell membranes is a fundamental requirement for complex life and has greatly contributed to genomic molecular evolution. The diversity of pathways that have evolved to transport DNA and RNA across membranes include protein receptors, active and passive transporters, endocytic and pinocytic processes, and various types of nucleic acid conducting channels known as nanopores. We have developed a series of experimental techniques, collectively known as "Wicking", that greatly improves the biophysical analysis of nucleic acid transport through protein nanopores in planar lipid bilayers. We have verified the Wicking method using numerous types of classical ion channels including the well-studied chloride selective channel, CLIC1. We used the Wicking technique to reconstitute α-hemolysin and found that DNA translocation events of types A and B could be routinely observed using this method. Furthermore, measurable differences were observed in the duration of blockade events as DNA length and composition was varied, consistent with previous reports. Finally, we tested the ability of the Wicking technology to reconstitute the dsRNA transporter Sid-1. Exposure to dsRNAs of increasing length and complexity showed measurable differences in the current transitions suggesting that the charge carrier was dsRNA. However, the translocation events occurred so infrequently that a meaningful electrophysiological analysis was not possible. Alterations in the lipid composition of the bilayer had a minor effect on the frequency of translocation events but not to such a degree as to permit rigorous statistical analysis. We conclude that in many instances the Wicking method is a significant improvement to the lipid bilayer technique, but is not an optimal method for analyzing transport through Sid-1. Further refinements to the Wicking method might have future applications in high throughput DNA sequencing, DNA computation, and

  12. Hypertonic stress regulates amino acid transport and cell cycle proteins in chick embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bruscalupi, Giovannella; Massimi, Mara; Spagnuolo, Silvana; Fiore, Anna Maria; Leoni, Silvia

    2012-02-01

    Hyperosmotic stress affects cell growth, decreasing cell volume and increasing the uptake of organic osmolytes. However, the sensitivity of embryonic cells to osmotic treatment remains to be established. We have analysed some aspects of cell-cycle control and amino-acid transport in hypertonic conditions during prenatal life. The effects of hyperosmotic stress on amino-acid uptake mediated by system A, (3)H-thymidine incorporation, and regulation of cell-cycle proteins were analysed in chick embryo hepatocytes. Hypertonic stress increased system A activity and caused cell-cycle delay. Effects on amino-acid transport involved p38 kinase activation and new carrier synthesis. Cyclin D1, cdk4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) and PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) levels decreased, whereas cyclin E, p21 and p53 levels were unchanged. Incorporation of (3)H-leucine indicated decreased synthesis of cyclin D1. In contrast, analysis of mRNA by qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR) showed a net increase of cyclin D1 transcripts, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. The data show that chick embryo hepatocytes respond to hyperosmotic conditions by arresting cell growth to prevent DNA damage and increasing osmolyte uptake to regulate cell volume, indicating that the adaptive response to environmental stress exists during prenatal life.

  13. Protein cold adaptation strategy via a unique seven-amino acid domain in the icefish (Chionodraco hamatus) PEPT1 transporter.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Antonia; Romano, Alessandro; Kottra, Gabor; Acierno, Raffaele; Storelli, Carlo; Verri, Tiziano; Daniel, Hannelore; Maffia, Michele

    2013-04-23

    Adaptation of organisms to extreme environments requires proteins to work at thermodynamically unfavorable conditions. To adapt to subzero temperatures, proteins increase the flexibility of parts of, or even the whole, 3D structure to compensate for the lower thermal kinetic energy available at low temperatures. This may be achieved through single-site amino acid substitutions in regions of the protein that undergo large movements during the catalytic cycle, such as in enzymes or transporter proteins. Other strategies of cold adaptation involving changes in the primary amino acid sequence have not been documented yet. In Antarctic icefish (Chionodraco hamatus) peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1), the first transporter cloned from a vertebrate living at subzero temperatures, we came upon a unique principle of cold adaptation. A de novo domain composed of one to six repeats of seven amino acids (VDMSRKS), placed as an extra stretch in the cytosolic COOH-terminal region, contributed per se to cold adaptation. VDMSRKS was in a protein region uninvolved in transport activity and, notably, when transferred to the COOH terminus of a warm-adapted (rabbit) PEPT1, it conferred cold adaptation to the receiving protein. Overall, we provide a paradigm for protein cold adaptation that relies on insertion of a unique domain that confers greater affinity and maximal transport rates at low temperatures. Due to its ability to transfer a thermal trait, the VDMSRKS domain represents a useful tool for future cell biology or biotechnological applications. PMID:23569229

  14. Drosophila Fatty Acid Transport Protein Regulates Rhodopsin-1 Metabolism and Is Required for Photoreceptor Neuron Survival

    PubMed Central

    Dourlen, Pierre; Bertin, Benjamin; Chatelain, Gilles; Robin, Marion; Napoletano, Francesco; Roux, Michel J.; Mollereau, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of the visual response is essential for photoreceptor function and survival. Visual response dysregulation often leads to photoreceptor cell degeneration, but the causes of such cell death are not well understood. In this study, we investigated a fatty acid transport protein (fatp) null mutation that caused adult-onset and progressive photoreceptor cell death. Consistent with fatp having a role in the retina, we showed that fatp is expressed in adult photoreceptors and accessory cells and that its re-expression in photoreceptors rescued photoreceptor viability in fatp mutants. The visual response in young fatp-mutant flies was abnormal with elevated electroretinogram amplitudes associated with high levels of Rhodopsin-1 (Rh1). Reducing Rh1 levels in rh1 mutants or depriving flies of vitamin A rescued photoreceptor cell death in fatp mutant flies. Our results indicate that fatp promotes photoreceptor survival by regulating Rh1 abundance. PMID:22844251

  15. Coupled transport protein systems.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2013-04-16

    This set of animated lessons provides examples of how transport proteins interact in coupled systems to produce physiologic effects. The gastric pumps animation depicts the secretion of hydrochloric acid into the gastric lumen. The animation called glucose absorption depicts glucose absorption by intestinal epithelial cells. The CFTR animation explains how the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR) functions as a key component of a coupled system of transport proteins that clears the pulmonary system of mucus and inhaled particulates. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these processes. Courses that might use them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

  16. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montoudis, Alain; Delvin, Edgard; Menard, Daniel

    2006-01-06

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

  17. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Manglekar, Rupali R; Dangat, Kamini D; Kulkarni, Asmita V; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2012-01-01

    A disturbed fatty acid metabolism increases the risk of adult non-communicable diseases. This study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. An imbalance of maternal micronutrients reduces liver docosahexaenoic acid, increases Δ5 desaturase activity but decreases mRNA levels, decreases Δ6 desaturase activity but not mRNA levels as compared to control. mRNA level of Δ5 desaturase reverts back to the levels of the control group as a result of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Our data for the first time indicates that maternal micronutrients differentially alter the activity and expression of fatty acid desaturases in the liver.

  18. Fatty Acid Transport Protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC50 8–11μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC50 58μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of 13C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:26284975

  19. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC{sub 50} 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC{sub 50} 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of {sup 13}C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata.

  20. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  1. Coffee polyphenol caffeic acid but not chlorogenic acid increases 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Satoshi; Egawa, Tatsuro; Ma, Xiao; Oshima, Rieko; Kurogi, Eriko; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2012-11-01

    Chlorogenic acid is an ester of caffeic and quinic acids, and is one of the most widely consumed polyphenols because it is abundant in foods, especially coffee. We explored whether chlorogenic acid and its metabolite, caffeic acid, act directly on skeletal muscle to stimulate 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Incubation of rat epitrochlearis muscles with Krebs buffer containing caffeic acid (≥0.1 mM, ≥30 min) but not chlorogenic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPKα Thr(172), an essential step for kinase activation, and acetyl CoA carboxylase Ser(79), a downstream target of AMPK, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Analysis of isoform-specific AMPK activity revealed that AMPKα2 activity increased significantly, whereas AMPKα1 activity did not change. This enzyme activation was associated with a reduction in phosphocreatine content and an increased rate of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose transport activity in the absence of insulin. These results suggest that caffeic acid but not chlorogenic acid acutely stimulates skeletal muscle AMPK activity and insulin-independent glucose transport with a reduction of the intracellular energy status. PMID:22227267

  2. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids to a low-protein diet regulates intestinal expression of amino acid and peptide transporters in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihai; Qiao, Shiyan; Ren, Man; Zeng, Xiangfang; Ma, Xi; Wu, Zhenlong; Thacker, Philip; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-11-01

    This study determined the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) on growth performance, expression of jejunal AA and peptide transporters, and the colonic microflora of weanling piglets fed a low-protein (LP) diet. One hundred and eight Large White × Landrace × Duroc piglets (weaned at 28 days of age) were fed a normal protein diet (NP, 20.9 % crude protein), an LP diet (LP, 17.1 % crude protein), or an LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + BCAA, 17.9 % crude protein) for 14 days. Dietary protein restriction reduced piglet growth performance and small-intestinal villous height, which were restored by BCAA supplementation to the LP diet to values for the NP diet. Serum concentrations of BCAA were reduced in piglets fed the LP diet while those in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet were similar to values for the NP group. mRNA levels for Na(+)-neutral AA exchanger-2, cationic AA transporter-1, b(0,+) AA transporter, and 4F2 heavy chain were more abundant in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet than the LP diet. However, mRNA and protein levels for peptide transporter-1 were lower in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet as compared to the LP diet. The colonic microflora did not differ among the three groups of pigs. In conclusion, growth performance, intestinal development, and intestinal expression of AA transporters in weanling piglets are enhanced by BCAA supplementation to LP diets. Our findings provide a new molecular basis for further understanding of BCAA as functional AA in animal nutrition.

  3. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption. PMID:27611307

  4. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Kai; Qin, Chun Fu; Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption.

  5. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Kai; Qin, Chun Fu; Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption. PMID:27611307

  6. Human lysosomal acid phosphatase is transported as a transmembrane protein to lysosomes in transfected baby hamster kidney cells.

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, A; Gottschalk, S; Hille, A; Krentler, C; Pohlmann, R; Braulke, T; Hauser, H; Geuze, H; von Figura, K

    1988-01-01

    BHK cells transfected with human lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) cDNA (CT29) expressed 70-fold higher enzyme activities of acid phosphatase than non-transfected BHK cells. The CT29-LAP was synthesized in BHK cells as a heterogeneously glycosylated precursor that was tightly membrane associated. Transfer to the trans-Golgi was associated with a small increase in size (approximately 7 kd) and partial processing of the oligosaccharides to complex type structures. CT29-LAP was transferred into lysosomes as shown by subcellular fractionation, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Lack of mannose-6-phosphate residues suggested that transport does not involve mannose-6-phosphate receptors. Part of the membrane-associated CT29-LAP was processed to a soluble form. The mechanism that converts CT29-LAP into a soluble form was sensitive to NH4Cl, and reduced the size of the polypeptide by 7 kd. In vitro translation of CT29-derived cRNA in the presence of microsomal membranes yielded a CT29-LAP precursor that is protected from proteinase K except for a small peptide of approximately 2 kd. In combination with the sequence data available for LAP, these observations suggest that CT29-LAP is synthesized and transported to lysosomes as a transmembrane protein. In the lysosomes, CT29-LAP is released from the membrane by proteolytic cleavage, which removes a C-terminal peptide including the transmembrane domain and the cytosolic tail of 18 amino acids. Images PMID:3056714

  7. Transepithelial transport of ferulic acid by monocarboxylic acid transporter in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yutaka; Shimizu, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    Our previous study (Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 66, 2449-2457 (2002)), suggested that ferulic acid was transported via a monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT). Transepithelial transport of ferulic acid was examined in this study by directly measuring the rate of its transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Ferulic acid transport was dependent on pH, and in a vectorical way in the apical-basolateral direction. The permeation of ferulic acid was concentration-dependent and saturable; the Michaelis constant was 16.2 mM and the maximum velocity was 220.4 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1. Various substrates for MCTs, such as benzoic acid and acetic acid, strongly inhibited the permeation of ferulic acid, demonstrating that ferulic acid is obviously transported by MCT. Antioxidative phenolic acid compounds from dietary sources like ferulic acid would be recognized and transported by MCT by intestinal absorption.

  8. Placental amino acid transport may be regulated by maternal vitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein: results from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Cleal, J K; Day, P E; Simner, C L; Barton, S J; Mahon, P A; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M; Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Lewis, R M; Harvey, N C

    2015-06-28

    Both maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations during pregnancy and placental amino acid transporter gene expression have been associated with development of the offspring in terms of body composition and bone structure. Several amino acid transporter genes have vitamin D response elements in their promoters suggesting the possible linkage of these two mechanisms. We aimed to establish whether maternal 25(OH)D and vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) levels relate to expression of placental amino acid transporters. RNA was extracted from 102 placental samples collected in the Southampton Women's Survey, and gene expression was analysed using quantitative real-time PCR. Gene expression data were normalised to the geometric mean of three housekeeping genes, and related to maternal factors and childhood body composition. Maternal serum 25(OH)D and VDBP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Maternal 25(OH)D and VDBP levels were positively associated with placental expression of specific genes involved in amino acid transport. Maternal 25(OH)D and VDBP concentrations were correlated with the expression of specific placental amino acid transporters, and thus may be involved in the regulation of amino acid transfer to the fetus. The positive correlation of VDBP levels and placental transporter expression suggests that delivery of vitamin D to the placenta may be important. This exploratory study identifies placental amino acid transporters which may be altered in response to modifiable maternal factors and provides a basis for further studies.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteins Involved in Mycolic Acid Synthesis and Transport Localize Dynamically to the Old Growing Pole and Septum

    PubMed Central

    Cantaloube, Sylvain; Bonne, Mélanie; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou; Zerbib, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism that controls space-time coordination of elongation and division of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is critical for fighting the tubercle bacillus. Most of the numerous enzymes involved in the synthesis of Mycolic acid - Arabinogalactan-Peptidoglycan complex (MAPc) in the cell wall are essential in vivo. Using a dynamic approach, we localized Mtb enzymes belonging to the fatty acid synthase-II (FAS-II) complexes and involved in mycolic acid (MA) biosynthesis in a mycobacterial model of Mtb: M. smegmatis. Results also showed that the MA transporter MmpL3 was present in the mycobacterial envelope and was specifically and dynamically accumulated at the poles and septa during bacterial growth. This localization was due to its C-terminal domain. Moreover, the FAS-II enzymes were co-localized at the poles and septum with Wag31, the protein responsible for the polar localization of mycobacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The dynamic localization of FAS-II and of the MA transporter with Wag31, at the old-growing poles and at the septum suggests that the main components of the mycomembrane may potentially be synthesized at these precise foci. This finding highlights a major difference between mycobacteria and other rod-shaped bacteria studied to date. Based on the already known polar activities of envelope biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we propose the existence of complex polar machinery devoted to the biogenesis of the entire envelope. As a result, the mycobacterial pole would represent the Achilles' heel of the bacillus at all its growing stages. PMID:24817274

  10. Dietary omega 3 fatty acid alters prostaglandin synthesis, glucose transport and protein turnover in skeletal muscle of healthy and diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, P S; Baracos, V E; Clandinin, M T

    1992-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine if dietary-fat-induced alterations in the fatty acid composition of skeletal-muscle lipid alters insulin-dependent and basal muscle metabolism, including glucose and amino acid transport, prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and protein turnover. Rats were fed on high-fat semi-purified diets providing 19% or 1% omega 3 fatty acids in the form of fish oil, for 6 weeks. After 3 weeks, half of the rats were made diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body wt.). After a further 3 weeks, contralateral epitrochlearis and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from each rat were incubated in vitro. High levels of dietary omega 3 fatty acids decreased PGE2 and PGF2 alpha synthesis in EDL and epitrochlearis muscle (P less than 0.0001). Diabetes and insulin had no effect on PG synthesis. Diet did not alter basal glucose or amino acid transport in EDL muscle from healthy or diabetic rats. Insulin increased glucose and amino acid transport (P less than 0.0001); the increase in glucose transport by insulin was significantly greater in muscles of rats fed on high levels of omega 3 fatty acids (P less than 0.05). Epitrochlearis from rats fed on high levels of omega 3 fatty acids showed decreased net protein degradation in the presence and absence of insulin, owing to decreased rates of protein degradation and synthesis. The data suggest that high levels of dietary omega 3 fatty acids that alter muscle membrane composition also result in alterations in glucose transport and the metabolism of muscle protein. PMID:1530573

  11. A putative amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, NMB1612, from Neisseria meningitidis, induces murine bactericidal antibodies against meningococci expressing heterologous NMB1612 proteins.

    PubMed

    Hung, Miao-Chiu; Humbert, María Victoria; Laver, Jay R; Phillips, Renee; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron

    2015-08-26

    The nmb1612 (NEIS1533) gene encoding the ~27-kDa putative amino acid ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, periplasmic substrate-binding protein from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) strain MC58 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant (r)NMB1612 was used for animal immunization studies. Immunization of mice with rNMB1612 adsorbed to Al(OH)3 and in liposomes with and without MPLA, induced antiserum with bactericidal activity in an assay using baby rabbit complement, against the homologous strain MC58 (encoding protein representative of Allele 62) and killed heterologous strains encoding proteins of three other alleles (representative of Alleles 1, 64 and 68), with similar SBA titres. However, strain MC58 was not killed (titre <4) in a human serum bactericidal assay (hSBA) using anti-rNMB1612 sera, although another strain (MC168) expressing the same protein was killed (median titres of 16-64 in the hSBA). Analysis of the NMB1612 amino acid sequences from 4351 meningococcal strains in the pubmlst.org/Neisseria database and a collection of 13 isolates from colonized individuals and from patients, showed that antibodies raised against rNMB1612 could potentially kill at least 72% of the MenB strains in the complete sequence database. For MenB disease occurring specifically in the UK from 2013 to 2015, >91% of the isolates causing disease in this recent period expressed NMB1612 protein encoded by Allele 1 and could be potentially killed by sera raised to the recombinant antigen in the current study. The NMB1612 protein was surface-accessible and expressed by different meningococcal strains. In summary, the properties of (i) NMB1612 protein conservation and expression, (ii) limited amino acid sequence variation between proteins encoded by different alleles, and (iii) the ability of a recombinant protein to induce cross-strain bactericidal antibodies, would all suggest a promising antigen for consideration for inclusion in new

  12. Effects of reducing dietary protein on the expression of nutrition sensing genes (amino acid transporters) in weaned piglets*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li; He, Liu-qin; Cui, Zhi-jie; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Fei; Li, Jun; Li, Tie-jun

    2015-01-01

    The effects of crude protein (CP) levels in the diet on the mRNA expression of amino acid (AA) transporters were studied in a 45-d trial. Eighteen piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 9.57 kg were assigned to three groups (14%, 17%, and 20% CP in the diet) in a completely randomized design (six replicates per treatment). Diets were supplemented with crystalline AA to achieve equal standardized ileal digestible contents of Lys, Met plus Cys, Thr, and Trp, and were provided ad libitum. After 45 d, all piglets were slaughtered to collect small intestine samples. Compared with the values in the 14% CP group, the expressions of ASCT2, 4F2hc, and ATB0 mRNA in the jejunum were increased by 23.00%, 12.00%, 6.00% and 48.00%, 47.00%, 56.00% in the 17% and 20% CP groups, respectively. These results indicate that a 14% CP diet supplemented with crystalline AA may not transport enough AA into the body and maintain growth performance of piglets. However, a reduction of dietary 17% CP may reduce the excretion of nitrogen into the environment while supporting the development of piglets. Therefore, the 17% CP level is more suitable than 14% CP level. PMID:26055911

  13. The ileal lipid binding protein is required for efficient absorption and transport of bile acids in the distal portion of the murine small intestine.

    PubMed

    Praslickova, Dana; Torchia, Enrique C; Sugiyama, Michael G; Magrane, Elijah J; Zwicker, Brittnee L; Kolodzieyski, Lev; Agellon, Luis B

    2012-01-01

    The ileal lipid binding protein (ilbp) is a cytoplasmic protein that binds bile acids with high affinity. However evidence demonstrating the role of this protein in bile acid transport and homeostasis is missing. We created a mouse strain lacking ilbp (Fabp6(-/-) mice) and assessed the impact of ilbp deficiency on bile acid homeostasis and transport in vivo. Elimination of ilbp increased fecal bile acid excretion (54.2%, P<0.05) in female but not male Fabp6(-/-) mice. The activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (cyp7a1), the rate-controlling enzyme of the classical bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was significantly increased in female (63.5%, P<0.05) but not in male Fabp6(-/-) mice. The amount of [(3)H]taurocholic acid (TCA) excreted by 24 h after oral administration was 102% (P<0.025) higher for female Fabp6(-/-) mice whereas it was 57.3% (P<0.01) lower for male Fabp6(-/-) mice, compared to wild-type mice. The retained fraction of the [(3)H]TCA localized in the small and large intestines was increased by 22% (P<0.02) and decreased by 62.7% (P<0.01), respectively, in male Fabp6(-/-) mice relative wild-type mice, whereas no changes were seen in female Fabp6(-/-) mice. Mucosal to serosal bile acid transport using everted distal gut sacs was decreased by 74% (P<0.03) in both sexes of Fabp6(-/-) mice as compared to wild-type mice. The results demonstrate that ilbp is involved in the apical to basolateral transport of bile acids in ileal enterocytes, and is vital for the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis in the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) in mice.

  14. Exercise-induced translocation of protein kinase C and production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid in rat skeletal muscle in vivo. Relationship to changes in glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Cleland, P J; Appleby, G J; Rattigan, S; Clark, M G

    1989-10-25

    Contraction-induced translocation of protein kinase C (Richter E.A., Cleland, P.J.F., Rattigan, S., and Clark, M.G. (1987) FEBS Lett. 217, 232-236) implies a role for this enzyme in muscle contraction or the associated metabolic adjustments. In the present study, this role is further examined particularly in relation to changes in glucose transport. Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve of the anesthetized rat in vivo led to a time-dependent translocation of protein kinase C and a 2-fold increase in the concentrations of both diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. Maximum values for the latter were reached at 2 min and preceded the maximum translocation of protein kinase C (10 min). Stimulation of muscles in vitro increased the rate of glucose transport, but this required 20 min to reach maximum. There was no reversal of translocation or decrease in the concentrations of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid even after 30 min of rest following a 5-min period of stimulation in vivo. Translocation was not influenced by variations in applied load at maximal fiber recruitment but was dependent on the frequency of nontetanic stimuli, reaching a maximum at 4 Hz. The relationship between protein kinase C and glucose transport was also explored by varying the number of tetanic stimuli. Whereas only one train of stimuli (200 ms, 100 Hz) was required for maximal effects on protein kinase C, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid, more than 35 trains of stimuli were required to activate glucose transport. It is concluded that the production of diacylglycerol and the translocation of protein kinase C may be causally related. However, if the translocated protein kinase C is involved in the activation of glucose transport during muscle contractions, an accumulated exposure to Ca2+, resulting from multiple contractions, would appear to be necessary.

  15. Palmitate activation by fatty acid transport protein 4 as a model system for hepatocellular apoptosis and steatosis.

    PubMed

    Seeßle, Jessica; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Chamulitrat, Walee

    2015-05-01

    Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 is a minor FATP in the liver but it has some activity towards palmitate 16:0 (Pal). We here chose FATP4 as a representative model enzyme for acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), and FATPs to determine whether Pal activation would lead to apoptosis and alteration in lipid metabolism. By using FATP4 overexpressed (FATP4) Huh-7 cells, we showed that FATP4 was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria of FATP4 cells. FATP4 cells were more responsive to Pal than the control GFP cells in increasing palmitoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA activities as well as apoptosis by ~2-3 folds. The lipoapoptosis susceptibility by FATP4 was coupled with the increased JNK, PUMA, caspase3, PARP-1 activation as well as Rac-1-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization, and decreased insulin sensitivity. This was associated with increased contents of neutral lipids and significant alteration in composition of phospholipids and sphingolipids including increased lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), ceramide, and hexosylceramide, as well as an increase of saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in LPC and PC, but a decrease of this ratio in phosphatidylethanolamine pool. By use of ceramide synthase inhibitors, our results showed that FATP4-sensitized lipoapoptosis was not mediated by ceramides. Moreover, FATP4 expression was increased in fatty livers in vivo. Thus, our model system has provided a clue that Pal activation FATP4 triggers hepatocellular apoptosis via altered phospholipid composition and steatosis by acylation into complex lipids. This may be a redundant mechanism for other ER-localizing ACSs and FATPs in the liver, and hence their involvement in the development of fatty liver disease.

  16. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  17. Functional Dependence between Septal Protein SepJ from Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 and an Amino Acid ABC-Type Uptake Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Leticia; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the diazotrophic filaments of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, two different cell types, the CO2-fixing vegetative cells and the N2-fixing heterocysts, exchange nutrients, including some amino acids. In the model organism Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the SepJ protein, composed of periplasmic and integral membrane (permease) sections, is located at the intercellular septa joining adjacent cells in the filament. The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 bears a gene, Synpcc7942_1024 (here designated dmeA), encoding a permease homologous to the SepJ permease domain. Synechococcus strains lacking dmeA or lacking dmeA and expressing Anabaena sepJ were constructed. The Synechococcus dmeA mutant showed a significant 22 to 32% decrease in the uptake of aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine, a phenotype that could be partially complemented by Anabaena sepJ. Synechococcus mutants of an ATP-binding-cassette (ABC)-type transporter for polar amino acids showed >98% decreased uptake of glutamate irrespective of the presence of dmeA or Anabaena sepJ in the same strain. Thus, Synechococcus DmeA or Anabaena SepJ is needed to observe full (or close to full) activity of the ABC transporter. An Anabaena sepJ deletion mutant was significantly impaired in glutamate and aspartate uptake, which also in this cyanobacterium requires the activity of an ABC-type transporter for polar amino acids. SepJ appears therefore to generally stimulate the activity of cyanobacterial ABC-type transporters for polar amino acids. Conversely, an Anabaena mutant of three ABC-type transporters for amino acids was impaired in the intercellular transfer of 5-carboxyfluorescein, a SepJ-related property. Our results unravel possible functional interactions in transport elements important for diazotrophic growth. IMPORTANCE Membrane transporters are essential for many aspects of cellular life, from uptake and export of substances in unicellular organisms to intercellular

  18. Transport of long chain fatty acids in Escherichia coli. Identification of a membrane protein associated with the fadL gene.

    PubMed

    Ginsburgh, C L; Black, P N; Nunn, W D

    1984-07-10

    The fadL gene is required for the transport of long chain fatty acids in Escherichia coli (Maloy, S. R., Ginsburgh, C. L., Simons, R. W., and Nunn, W. D. (1981) J. Biol Chem. 256, 3735-3742). In an effort to define the fadL gene product(s), the membrane proteins of 16 independently isolated fadL mutants and wild type strains were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis. These studies indicated that (i) whenever a fadL mutation was present, a 33,000-dalton inner membrane protein was consistently absent, (ii) genetic restoration of mutant alleles to fadL+ resulted in the reappearance of this 33-kDa protein, and (iii) a reversion event mapping to the fadL gene produced a 33-kDa protein with altered electrophoretic properties. Mutations in the other known fad structural genes do not affect 33-kDa protein synthesis and the expression of the 33-kDa protein is physiologically regulated in a manner similar to the known fad enzymes. Overall, these studies suggest there is a close relationship between the 33-kDa inner membrane protein and the fadL gene which putatively codes for a fatty acid transport component(s).

  19. Prolactin and the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio regulate the expression of SNAT2 amino acid transporter in the mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; López-Barradas, Adriana M; Torres, Nimbe; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Granados, Omar; Ortíz, Victor; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-05-01

    The sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2/SAT2/ATA2) is expressed in the mammary gland (MG) and plays an important role in the uptake of alanine and glutamine which are the most abundant amino acids transported into this tissue during lactation. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the amount and localization of SNAT2 before delivery and during lactation in rat MG, and to evaluate whether prolactin and the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio might influence SNAT2 expression in the MG, liver and adipose tissue during lactation. Our results showed that SNAT2 protein abundance in the MG increased during lactation and this increase was maintained along this period, while 24 h after weaning it tended to decrease. To study the effect of prolactin on SNAT2 expression, we incubated MG explants or T47D cells transfected with the SNAT2 promoter with prolactin, and we observed in both studies an increase in the SNAT2 expression or promoter activity. Consumption of a high-protein/low carbohydrate diet increased prolactin concentration, with a concomitant increase in SNAT2 expression not only in the MG during lactation, but also in the liver and adipose tissue. There was a correlation between SNAT2 expression and serum prolactin levels depending on the amount of dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio consumed. These findings suggest that prolactin actively supports lactation providing amino acids to the gland through SNAT2 for the synthesis of milk proteins.

  20. Pod removal responsive change in phytohormones and its impact on protein degradation and amino acid transport in source leaves of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bok-Rye; Zhang, Qian; Bae, Dong-Won; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    To characterize the hormonal regulation of nitrogen remobilization from source to pod filling in Brassica napus, the hormonal level, proteolytic process, and amino acid transport were assessed in mature leaves of pod-removed or control at the early pod-filling stage. Pod (sink) removal decreased salicylic acid (SA), and significantly increased jasmonic acid (JA). The SA/JA ratio decreased with pod removal, accompanied by low degradation of foliar proteins and Rubisco content. A significant decrease in protease activity was observed in pod-removed leaves, confirmed by in-gel staining of protease. Pod removal reduced the expression of four amino acid transporter genes (BnAAP1, BnAAP2, BnAAP4, and BnAAP6) in mature leaves and reduced amino acid loading into phloem. These results indicated that a decrease in SA resulting from pod removal down-regulated nitrogen remobilization accompanied by a decrease in proteolytic activity and amino acid transport in mature leaves at the pod-filling stage. PMID:27161582

  1. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  2. Role of fatty acid transporters in epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Jeffrey H; Jahnsen, Frode

    2011-01-01

    Skin epidermis is an active site of lipid synthesis. The intercellular lipids of human stratum corneum (SC) are unique in composition and quite different from the lipids found in most biological membranes. The three major lipids in the SC are free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides. Fatty acids can be synthesized by keratinocytes de novo and, in addition, need to be taken up from the circulation. The latter process has been shown to be protein mediated, and several fatty acid transporters are expressed in skin. Recent studies of transgenic and knockout animal models for fatty acid transporters and the identification of fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 or SLC27A4) mutations as causative for Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome highlight the vital roles of fatty acid transport and metabolism in skin homeostasis. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the role of fatty acids and their transporters in cutaneous biology, including their involvement in epidermal barrier generation and skin inflammation. PMID:21695012

  3. Identification of a membrane protein, LAT-2, that Co-expresses with 4F2 heavy chain, an L-type amino acid transport activity with broad specificity for small and large zwitterionic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M; Fernández, E; Torrents, D; Estévez, R; López, C; Camps, M; Lloberas, J; Zorzano, A; Palacín, M

    1999-07-01

    We have identified a new human cDNA, L-amino acid transporter-2 (LAT-2), that induces a system L transport activity with 4F2hc (the heavy chain of the surface antigen 4F2, also named CD98) in oocytes. Human LAT-2 is the fourth member of the family of amino acid transporters that are subunits of 4F2hc. The amino acid transport activity induced by the co-expression of 4F2hc and LAT-2 was sodium-independent and showed broad specificity for small and large zwitterionic amino acids, as well as bulky analogs (e.g. BCH (2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid)). This transport activity was highly trans-stimulated, suggesting an exchanger mechanism of transport. Expression of tagged N-myc-LAT-2 alone in oocytes did not induce amino acid transport, and the protein had an intracellular location. Co-expression of N-myc-LAT-2 and 4F2hc gave amino acid transport induction and expression of N-myc-LAT-2 at the plasma membrane of the oocytes. These data suggest that LAT-2 is an additional member of the family of 4F2 light chain subunits, which associates with 4F2hc to express a system L transport activity with broad specificity for zwitterionic amino acids. Human LAT-2 mRNA is expressed in kidney > placenta > brain, liver > spleen, skeletal muscle, heart, small intestine, and lung. Human LAT-2 gene localizes at chromosome 14q11.2-13 (13 cR or approximately 286 kb from marker D14S1349). The high expression of LAT-2 mRNA in epithelial cells of proximal tubules, the basolateral location of 4F2hc in these cells, and the amino acid transport activity of LAT-2 suggest that this transporter contributes to the renal reabsorption of neutral amino acids in the basolateral domain of epithelial proximal tubule cells.

  4. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Melton, Elaina M; Cerny, Ronald L; DiRusso, Concetta C; Black, Paul N

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  5. Increased placental fatty acid transporter 6 and binding protein 3 expression and fetal liver lipid accumulation in a mouse model of obesity in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Paula; Harris, Jessica; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-12-15

    Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased fetal growth and adiposity, which, in part, is determined by transplacental nutrient supply. Trophoblast uptake and intracellular trafficking of lipids are dependent on placental fatty acid transport proteins (FATP), translocase (FAT/CD36), and fatty acid binding proteins (FABP). We hypothesized that maternal obesity in mice leads to increased placental expression of FAT/CD36, FATPs, and FABPs, and lipid accumulation in the fetal liver. C57/BL6J female mice were fed either a control (C; n = 10) or an obesogenic (OB; n = 10) high-fat, high-sugar diet before mating and throughout pregnancy. At E18.5, placentas and fetal livers were collected. Trophoblast plasma membranes (TPM) were isolated from placental homogenates. Expression of FAT/CD36 and FATP (TPM) and FABP (homogenates) was determined by immunoblotting. Gene expression was assessed by RT-quantitative PCR. Sections of fetal livers were stained for Oil Red O, and lipid droplets were quantified. TPM protein expression of FAT/CD36, FATP 2, and FATP 4 was comparable between C and OB groups. Conversely, TPM FATP 6 expression was increased by 35% in OB compared with C placentas without changes in mRNA expression. FABPs 1, 3-5 and PPARγ were expressed in homogenates, and FABP 3 expression increased 27% in OB compared with C placentas; however, no changes were observed in mRNA expression. Lipid droplet accumulation was 10-fold higher in the livers of fetuses from OB compared with C group. We propose that increased lipid transport capacity in obese mice promotes transplacental fatty acid transport and contributes to excess lipid accumulation in the fetal liver.

  6. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid transport between the ER and plasma membrane during PLC activation requires the Nir2 protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeun Ju; Guzman-Hernandez, Maria Luisa; Wisniewski, Eva; Echeverria, Nicolas; Balla, Tamas

    2016-02-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated hydrolysis of the limited pool of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] requires replenishment from a larger pool of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) via sequential phosphorylation by PtdIns 4-kinases and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) 5-kinases. Since PtdIns is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and PtdIns(4,5)P2 is generated in the PM, it has been postulated that PtdIns transfer proteins (PITPs) provide the means for this lipid transfer function. Recent studies identified the large PITP protein, Nir2 as important for PtdIns transfer from the ER to the PM. It was also found that Nir2 was required for the transfer of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) from the PM to the ER. In Nir2-depleted cells, activation of PLC leads to PtdOH accumulation in the PM and PtdIns synthesis becomes severely impaired. In quiescent cells, Nir2 is localized to the ER via interaction of its FFAT domain with ER-bound VAMP-associated proteins VAP-A and-B. After PLC activation, Nir2 also binds to the PM via interaction of its C-terminal domains with diacylglycerol (DAG) and PtdOH. Through these interactions, Nir2 functions in ER-PM contact zones. Mutations in VAP-B that have been identified in familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou-Gehrig's disease) cause aggregation of the VAP-B protein, which then impairs its binding to several proteins, including Nir2. These findings have shed new lights on the importance of non-vesicular lipid transfer of PtdIns and PtdOH in ER-PM contact zones with a possible link to a devastating human disease.

  7. Regulation of cellular transport by klotho protein.

    PubMed

    Sopjani, Mentor; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Almilaji, Ahmad; Ahmeti, Salih; Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane

    2014-01-01

    The antiaging protein of Klotho is a transmembrane protein mainly expressed in the kidney, parathyroid glands and choroid plexus of the brain. The Klotho protein exists in two forms, a full-length membrane form and a soluble secreted form. The extracellular domain of Klotho can be enzymatically cleaved off and released into the systemic circulation where it acts as β-glucuronidase and a hormone. Soluble Klotho can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and the urine of mammals. Klotho deficiency results in early appearance of multiple age-related disorders and premature death, whereas overexpression of Klotho exerts the opposite effect. Klotho may influence cellular transport processes across the cell membrane by inhibiting calcitriol (1,25(OH) (2)D(3)), formation or by directly affecting transporter proteins, including ion channels, carriers and pumps. Accordingly, Klotho protein is a powerful regulator of transport mechanisms across the cell membrane. Klotho regulates diverse calcium and potassium ion channels, as well as several carriers including the Na(+)-coupled excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT3 and EAAT4, the Na(+)-coupled phosphate cotransporters, NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIb, and a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. All those cellular transport regulations contribute in the aging suppressor role of Klotho. Future studies will help to determine if the Klotho protein regulates cell-surface expression of other transport proteins and is affecting underlying mechanisms.

  8. Identification of a novel system L amino acid transporter structurally distinct from heterodimeric amino acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Babu, Ellappan; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Kim, Do Kyung; Iribe, Yuji; Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Jutabha, Promsuk; Li, Yuewei; Ahmed, Nesar; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Anzai, Naohiko; Nagamori, Seishi; Endou, Hitoshi

    2003-10-31

    A cDNA that encodes a novel Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter was isolated from FLC4 human hepatocarcinoma cells by expression cloning. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the encoded protein designated LAT3 (L-type amino acid transporter 3) transported neutral amino acids such as l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, and l-phenylalanine. The LAT3-mediated transport was Na+-independent and inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, consistent with the properties of system L. Distinct from already known system L transporters LAT1 and LAT2, which form heterodimeric complex with 4F2 heavy chain, LAT3 was functional by itself in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence of LAT3 was identical to the gene product of POV1 reported as a prostate cancer-up-regulated gene whose function was not determined, whereas it did not exhibit significant similarity to already identified transporters. The Eadie-Hofstee plots of LAT3-mediated transport were curvilinear, whereas the low affinity component is predominant at physiological plasma amino acid concentration. In addition to amino acid substrates, LAT3 recognized amino acid alcohols. The transport of l-leucine was electroneutral and mediated by a facilitated diffusion. In contrast, l-leucinol, l-valinol, and l-phenylalaninol, which have a net positive charge induced inward currents under voltage clamp, suggesting these compounds are transported by LAT3. LAT3-mediated transport was inhibited by the pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide, consistent with the property of system L2 originally characterized in hepatocyte primary culture. Based on the substrate selectivity, affinity, and N-ethylmaleimide sensitivity, LAT3 is proposed to be a transporter subserving system L2. LAT3 should denote a new family of organic solute transporters. PMID:12930836

  9. Inositol transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sabine

    2015-04-28

    The cyclic polyol myo-inositol is a key molecule in many different metabolic pathways among all organisms; in addition, it is fundamental for osmotic balance in the mammalian brain. This review sums up inositol transporters from eukaryotic organisms, elucidating their vital role in regulating the intracellular distribution and uptake of inositol. They can be divided into two groups according to their transport mechanisms: (1) sodium ion coupled inositol transporters that belong to the Solute Carrier Families 5 and 6-like Superfamily and, (2) proton coupled inositol symporters that are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily. Intriguingly members of both families offer promising targets for medical treatment of a variety of diseases.

  10. Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Karpen, Saul J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their classical roles as detergents to aid in the process of digestion, bile acids have been identified as important signaling molecules that function through various nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors to regulate a myriad of cellular and molecular functions across both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways. Signaling via these pathways will vary depending on the tissue and the concentration and chemical structure of the bile acid species. Important determinants of the size and composition of the bile acid pool are their efficient enterohepatic recirculation, their host and microbial metabolism, and the homeostatic feedback mechanisms connecting hepatocytes, enterocytes, and the luminal microbiota. This review focuses on the mammalian intestine, discussing the physiology of bile acid transport, the metabolism of bile acids in the gut, and new developments in our understanding of how intestinal metabolism, particularly by the gut microbiota, affects bile acid signaling. PMID:25210150

  11. MmpL11 Protein Transports Mycolic Acid-containing Lipids to the Mycobacterial Cell Wall and Contributes to Biofilm Formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis*

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Sophia A.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Powers, Katelyn M.; Purdy, Georgiana E.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that MmpL (mycobacterial membrane protein large) transporters are dedicated to cell wall biosynthesis and transport mycobacterial lipids. How MmpL transporters function and the identities of their substrates have not been fully elucidated. We report the characterization of Mycobacterium smegmatis MmpL11. We showed previously that M. smegmatis lacking MmpL11 has reduced membrane permeability that results in resistance to host antimicrobial peptides. We report herein the further characterization of the M. smegmatis mmpL11 mutant and identification of the MmpL11 substrates. We found that biofilm formation by the M. smegmatis mmpL11 mutant was distinct from that by wild-type M. smegmatis. Analysis of cell wall lipids revealed that the mmpL11 mutant failed to export the mycolic acid-containing lipids monomeromycolyl diacylglycerol and mycolate ester wax to the bacterial surface. In addition, analysis of total lipids indicated that the mycolic acid-containing precursor molecule mycolyl phospholipid accumulated in the mmpL11 mutant compared with wild-type mycobacteria. MmpL11 is encoded at a chromosomal locus that is conserved across pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria. Phenotypes of the M. smegmatis mmpL11 mutant are complemented by the expression of M. smegmatis or M. tuberculosis MmpL11, suggesting that MmpL11 plays a conserved role in mycobacterial cell wall biogenesis. PMID:23836904

  12. Mycophenolic acid glucuronide is transported by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and this transport is not inhibited by cyclosporine, tacrolimus or sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag G; Ogasawara, Ken; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2013-03-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of MRP2 to the efflux of mycophenolic acid (MPA), and its phenyl glucuronide (MPAG) and acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG) metabolites, using Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells stably transfected with human MRP2 gene (MDCKII/MRP2 cells). 2. Compared to parental MDCKII cells, MPAG was significantly translocated from basolateral (BL) to apical (AP) side in MDCKII/MRP2 cells, indicating MPAG is a substrate for MRP2. AcMPAG is highly translocated from BL to AP side in both cells, suggesting that AcMPAG is actively secreted possibly through an efflux transporter other than MRP2. Appreciable translocation of MPA was not observed in MDCKII/MRP2 cells. 3. Furthermore, using MRP2-expressing Sf9 membrane vesicles, the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) value for MRP2-mediated MPAG transport was calculated at 224.2 ± 42.7 µM. In the vesicle system, cyclosporine, tacrolimus and sirolimus did not inhibit the uptake of MPAG via MRP2. 4. These findings indicate that only MPAG not MPA and AcMPAG is a substrate for MRP2 and that the interaction between MPAG and concomitantly administered immunosuppressive agents does not occur at MRP2 level. PMID:22934787

  13. Molecular Basis for the Interaction of the Mammalian Amino Acid Transporters B0AT1 and B0AT3 with Their Ancillary Protein Collectrin*

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, Stephen J.; Bröer, Angelika; Subramanian, Nandhitha; Tumer, Emrah; Cheng, Qi; Schmoll, Dieter; O'Mara, Megan L.; Bröer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Many solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family transporters require ancillary subunits to modify their expression and activity. The main apical membrane neutral amino acid transporters in mouse intestine and kidney, B0AT1 and B0AT3, require the ancillary protein collectrin or ACE2 for plasma membrane expression. Expression and activity of SLC6 neurotransmitter transporters are modulated by interaction with syntaxin 1A. Utilizing monocarboxylate-B0AT1/3 fusion constructs, we discovered that collectrin is also necessary for B0AT1 and B0AT3 catalytic function. Syntaxin 1A and syntaxin 3 inhibit the membrane expression of B0AT1 by competing with collectrin for access. A mutagenesis screening approach identified residues on trans-membrane domains 1α, 5, and 7 on one face of B0AT3 as a key region involved in interaction with collectrin. Mutant analysis established residues that were involved in collectrin-dependent functions as follows: plasma membrane expression of B0AT3, catalytic activation, or both. These results identify a potential binding site for collectrin and other SLC6 ancillary proteins. PMID:26240152

  14. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOEpatents

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  15. Acid rain: chemistry and transport.

    PubMed

    Irwin, J G; Williams, M L

    1988-01-01

    This review describes the more important features of the emission, chemistry, transport and deposition of pollutants involved in acid deposition. Global emissions, both natural and man-made, of sulphur and nitrogen oxides are discussed and examples of spatial distributions and trends over the last century presented. The more significant chemical and physical processes involved in the transformation of the primary emissions into their acidic end products are described, including a summary of the approximate timescales of the processes involved. Measurements and modelled calculations of spatial and temporal patterns in the deposition of acidic pollutants by both wet and dry pathways are presented.

  16. Role of amino acid transporters in amino acid sensing1234

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) transporters may act as sensors, as well as carriers, of tissue nutrient supplies. This review considers recent advances in our understanding of the AA-sensing functions of AA transporters in both epithelial and nonepithelial cells. These transporters mediate AA exchanges between extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments, delivering substrates to intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters on endosomal (eg, lysosomal) membranes may themselves function as intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters at the cell surface, particularly those for large neutral AAs such as leucine, interact functionally with intracellular nutrient-signaling pathways that regulate metabolism: for example, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which promotes cell growth, and the general control non-derepressible (GCN) pathway, which is activated by AA starvation. Under some circumstances, upregulation of AA transporter expression [notably a leucine transporter, solute carrier 7A5 (SLC7A5)] is required to initiate AA-dependent activation of the mTORC1 pathway. Certain AA transporters may have dual receptor-transporter functions, operating as “transceptors” to sense extracellular (or intracellular) AA availability upstream of intracellular signaling pathways. New opportunities for nutritional therapy may include targeting of AA transporters (or mechanisms that upregulate their expression) to promote protein-anabolic signals for retention or recovery of lean tissue mass. PMID:24284439

  17. Low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets for growing pigs: effect on expression of amino acid transporters, serum concentration, performance, and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Buenabad, L; Castillo, G; Arce, N; Araiza, B A; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M

    2015-05-01

    Pigs fed protein-bound AA appear to have a higher abundance of AA transporters for their absorption in the jejunum compared with the duodenum. However, there is limited data about the effect of dietary free AA, readily available in the duodenum, on the duodenal abundance of AA transporters and its impact on pig performance. Forty-eight pigs (24.3 kg initial BW) distributed in 4 treatments were used to evaluate the effect of the CP level and form (free vs. protein bound) in which AA are added to diets on the expression of AA transporters in the 3 small intestine segments, serum concentration of AA, and performance. Dietary treatments based on wheat and soybean meal (SBM) were 1) low-CP (14%) diet supplemented with L-Lys, L-Thr, DL-Met, L-Leu, L-Ile, L-Val, L-His, L-Trp, and L-Phe (LPAA); 2) as in the LPAA but with added L-Gly as a N source (LPAA+N); 3) intermediate CP content (16%) supplemented with L-Lys HCl, L-Thr, and DL-Met (MPAA); and 4) high-CP (22%) diet (HP) without free AA. At the end of the experiment, 8 pigs from LPAA and HP were sacrificed to collect intestinal mucosa and blood samples and to dissect the carcasses. There were no differences in ADG, ADFI, G:F, and weights of carcass components and some visceral organs between treatments. Weights of the large intestine and kidney were higher in HP pigs (P < 0.01). Expression of b(0,+) in the duodenum was higher in pigs fed the LPAA compared with the HP diet (P= 0.036) but there was no difference in the jejunum and ileum. In the ileum, y+ L expression tended to be higher in pigs fed the LPAA diet (P = 0.098). Expression of b(0,+) in LPAA pigs did not differ between the duodenum and the jejunum, but in HP pigs, the expression of all AA transporters was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum or ileum (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Phe, and Val was higher but serum Lys and Met were lower in pigs fed the HP diet (P < 0.05). These results indicate that LPAA can substitute up to 8

  18. Novel Lactate Transporters from Carboxylic Acid-Producing Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  19. The gut microbiota ellagic acid-derived metabolite urolithin A and its sulfate conjugate are substrates for the drug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Miguel, Verónica; Merino, Gracia; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Alvarez, Ana I; Espín, Juan C

    2013-05-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a drug efflux transporter that can affect the pharmacological and toxicological properties of many molecules. Urolithins, metabolites produced by the gut microbiota from ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannins, have been acknowledged with in vivo anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated whether urolithins (Uro-A, -B, -C, and -D) and their main phase II metabolites Uro-A sulfate, Uro-A glucuronide, and Uro-B glucuronide as well as their precursor EA were substrates for ABCG2/BCRP. Parental and Bcrp1-transduced MDCKII cells were used for active transport assays. Uro-A and, to a lesser extent, Uro-A sulfate showed a significant increase in apically directed translocation in Bcrp1-transduced cells. Bcrp1 did not show affinity for the rest of the tested compounds. Data were confirmed for murine, human, bovine, and ovine BCRP-transduced subclones as well as with the use of the selective BCRP inhibitor Ko143. The transport inhibition by Uro-A was analyzed by flow cytometry compared to Ko143 using the antineoplastic agent mitoxantrone as a model substrate. Results showed that Uro-A was able to inhibit mitoxantrone transport in a dose-dependent manner. This study reports for the first time that Uro-A and its sulfate conjugate are ABCG2/BCRP substrates. The results suggest that physiologically relevant concentrations of these gut microbiota-derived metabolites could modulate ABCG2/BCRP-mediated transport processes and mechanisms of cancer drug resistance. Further in vivo investigations are warranted.

  20. The gut microbiota ellagic acid-derived metabolite urolithin A and its sulfate conjugate are substrates for the drug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Miguel, Verónica; Merino, Gracia; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Alvarez, Ana I; Espín, Juan C

    2013-05-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a drug efflux transporter that can affect the pharmacological and toxicological properties of many molecules. Urolithins, metabolites produced by the gut microbiota from ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannins, have been acknowledged with in vivo anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated whether urolithins (Uro-A, -B, -C, and -D) and their main phase II metabolites Uro-A sulfate, Uro-A glucuronide, and Uro-B glucuronide as well as their precursor EA were substrates for ABCG2/BCRP. Parental and Bcrp1-transduced MDCKII cells were used for active transport assays. Uro-A and, to a lesser extent, Uro-A sulfate showed a significant increase in apically directed translocation in Bcrp1-transduced cells. Bcrp1 did not show affinity for the rest of the tested compounds. Data were confirmed for murine, human, bovine, and ovine BCRP-transduced subclones as well as with the use of the selective BCRP inhibitor Ko143. The transport inhibition by Uro-A was analyzed by flow cytometry compared to Ko143 using the antineoplastic agent mitoxantrone as a model substrate. Results showed that Uro-A was able to inhibit mitoxantrone transport in a dose-dependent manner. This study reports for the first time that Uro-A and its sulfate conjugate are ABCG2/BCRP substrates. The results suggest that physiologically relevant concentrations of these gut microbiota-derived metabolites could modulate ABCG2/BCRP-mediated transport processes and mechanisms of cancer drug resistance. Further in vivo investigations are warranted. PMID:23586460

  1. Mutation of G234 amino acid residue in Candida albicans drug-resistance-related protein Rta2p is associated with fluconazole resistance and dihydrosphingosine transport

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Qun; Miao, Qi; Li, Li-Ping; Zhang, Lu-lu; Yan, Lan; Jia, Yu; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Widespread and repeated use of azoles has led to the rapid development of drug resistance in Candida albicans. Our previous study found Rta2p, a membrane protein with 7 transmembrane domains, was involved in calcineurin-mediated azole resistance and sphingoid long-chain base release in C. albicans. Conserved amino acids in the transmembrane domain of Rta2p were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. The sensitivity of C. albicans to fluconazole in vitro was examined by minimum inhibitory concentration and killing assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole in vivo was performed by systemic mice candidiasis model. Furthermore, dihydrosphingosine transport activity was detected by NBD labeled D-erythro-dihydrosphingosine uptake and release assay, and the sensitivity to sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors. We successfully constructed 14 mutant strains of Rta2p, screened them by minimum inhibitory concentration and found Ca2+ did not completely induce fluconazole resistance with G158E and G234S mutations. Furthermore, we confirmed that G234S mutant enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole against systemic candidiasis and significantly increased the accumulation of dihydrosphingosine by decreasing its release. However, G158E mutant didn't affect drug therapeutic efficacy in vivo and dihydrosphingosine transport in C. albicans. G234 of Rta2p in C. albicans is crucial in calcineurin-mediated fluconazole resistance and dihydrosphingosine transport. PMID:26220356

  2. Mutation of G234 amino acid residue in candida albicans drug-resistance-related protein Rta2p is associated with fluconazole resistance and dihydrosphingosine transport.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Qun; Miao, Qi; Li, Li-Ping; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Yan, Lan; Jia, Yu; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Widespread and repeated use of azoles has led to the rapid development of drug resistance in Candida albicans. Our previous study found Rta2p, a membrane protein with 7 transmembrane domains, was involved in calcineurin-mediated azole resistance and sphingoid long-chain base release in C. albicans. Conserved amino acids in the transmembrane domain of Rta2p were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. The sensitivity of C. albicans to fluconazole in vitro was examined by minimum inhibitory concentration and killing assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole in vivo was performed by systemic mice candidiasis model. Furthermore, dihydrosphingosine transport activity was detected by NBD labeled D-erythro-dihydrosphingosine uptake and release assay, and the sensitivity to sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors. We successfully constructed 14 mutant strains of Rta2p, screened them by minimum inhibitory concentration and found Ca(2+) did not completely induce fluconazole resistance with G158E and G234S mutations. Furthermore, we confirmed that G234S mutant enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole against systemic candidiasis and significantly increased the accumulation of dihydrosphingosine by decreasing its release. However, G158E mutant didn't affect drug therapeutic efficacy in vivo and dihydrosphingosine transport in C. albicans. G234 of Rta2p in C. albicans is crucial in calcineurin-mediated fluconazole resistance and dihydrosphingosine transport.

  3. Mutation of G234 amino acid residue in candida albicans drug-resistance-related protein Rta2p is associated with fluconazole resistance and dihydrosphingosine transport.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Qun; Miao, Qi; Li, Li-Ping; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Yan, Lan; Jia, Yu; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Widespread and repeated use of azoles has led to the rapid development of drug resistance in Candida albicans. Our previous study found Rta2p, a membrane protein with 7 transmembrane domains, was involved in calcineurin-mediated azole resistance and sphingoid long-chain base release in C. albicans. Conserved amino acids in the transmembrane domain of Rta2p were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. The sensitivity of C. albicans to fluconazole in vitro was examined by minimum inhibitory concentration and killing assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole in vivo was performed by systemic mice candidiasis model. Furthermore, dihydrosphingosine transport activity was detected by NBD labeled D-erythro-dihydrosphingosine uptake and release assay, and the sensitivity to sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors. We successfully constructed 14 mutant strains of Rta2p, screened them by minimum inhibitory concentration and found Ca(2+) did not completely induce fluconazole resistance with G158E and G234S mutations. Furthermore, we confirmed that G234S mutant enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole against systemic candidiasis and significantly increased the accumulation of dihydrosphingosine by decreasing its release. However, G158E mutant didn't affect drug therapeutic efficacy in vivo and dihydrosphingosine transport in C. albicans. G234 of Rta2p in C. albicans is crucial in calcineurin-mediated fluconazole resistance and dihydrosphingosine transport. PMID:26220356

  4. Coordinated Regulation of the Neutral Amino Acid Transporter SNAT2 and the Protein Phosphatase Subunit GADD34 Promotes Adaptation to Increased Extracellular Osmolarity*

    PubMed Central

    Krokowski, Dawid; Jobava, Raul; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Farabaugh, Kenneth; Wu, Jing; Majumder, Mithu; Bianchi, Massimiliano G.; Snider, Martin D.; Bussolati, Ovidio; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to shrinkage induced by increased extracellular osmolarity via programmed changes in gene transcription and mRNA translation. The immediate response to this stress includes the induction of expression of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2. Increased SNAT2-mediated uptake of neutral amino acids is an essential adaptive mechanism for restoring cell volume. In contrast, stress-induced phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2α) can promote apoptosis. Here we show that the response to mild hyperosmotic stress involves regulation of the phosphorylation of eIF2α by increased levels of GADD34, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The induction of GADD34 was dependent on transcriptional control by the c-Jun-binding cAMP response element in the GADD34 gene promoter and posttranscriptional stabilization of its mRNA. This mechanism differs from the regulation of GADD34 expression by other stresses that involve activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). ATF4 was not translated during hyperosmotic stress despite an increase in eIF2α phosphorylation. The SNAT2-mediated increase in amino acid uptake was enhanced by increased GADD34 levels in a manner involving decreased eIF2α phosphorylation. It is proposed that the induction of the SNAT2/GADD34 axis enhances cell survival by promoting the immediate adaptive response to stress. PMID:26041779

  5. Uric acid transport and disease

    PubMed Central

    So, Alexander; Thorens, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. It has antioxidant properties that may be protective but can also be pro-oxidant, depending on its chemical microenvironment. Hyperuricemia predisposes to disease through the formation of urate crystals that cause gout, but hyperuricemia, independent of crystal formation, has also been linked with hypertension, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and diabetes. We discuss here the biology of urate metabolism and its role in disease. We also cover the genetics of urate transport, including URAT1, and recent studies identifying SLC2A9, which encodes the glucose transporter family isoform Glut9, as a major determinant of plasma uric acid levels and of gout development. PMID:20516647

  6. Unique and selective expression of L-amino acid transporter 1 in human tissue as well as being an aspect of oncofetal protein.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Norihiro; Mikami, Tetuo; Hana, Kiyomi; Ichinoe, Masaaki; Yanagisawa, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Endou, Hitoshi; Okayasu, Isao

    2014-02-01

    Dysregulated expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), which transports large neutral amino acids, is a characteristic of various human cancers and possibly offers a molecular target for chemotherapy. LAT2, in contrast, shows lower expression in neoplasms. LAT1 is presumed to be a biomarker of many cancers, suggesting a kind of oncoprotein. However, no precise analysis of LAT1 and LAT2 expression has been performed in systemic normal tissues. To see characteristics of LAT1 and LAT2, immunohistochemical expression of LAT1 and LAT2 was assessed and compared in normal human systemic organs and tissues from 3 adults, 3 children and 3 fetuses in the present study. Cardiac muscles, hepatocytes, thymic epithelial cells and primitive neuroectodermal cells in fetus were positive with LAT1, whereas no expression was found in the respective adult tissues, indicating an aspect of oncofetal protein. In adult tissues, LAT1 was found to be expressed proximal to proliferative zones in gastrointestinal mucosa by double immunostaining of LAT1 and Ki-67. Testicular Sertoli cells, ovarian follicular cells, and pancreatic islet cells showed strong expression. Although the systemic capillary endothelium did not express LAT1, but did express LAT2, capillaries corresponding to the blood-brain, blood-follicle, and blood-retinal barriers demonstrated strong LAT1 immunoreactions. In conclusion, LAT1 was expressed in gonad tissues and several kinds of cells having special functions, as well as being discovered to be an aspect of oncofetal protein. In addition, ubiquitous LAT2 expression was confirmed immunohistochemically in systemic tissues, indicating constitutional function.

  7. Fatty Acid Transport Protein 4 (FATP4) Prevents Light-Induced Degeneration of Cone and Rod Photoreceptors by Inhibiting RPE65 Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songhua; Lee, Jungsoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gordon, William C.; Hill, James M.; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Jin, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    While Rhodopsin is essential for sensing light for vision, it also mediates light-induced apoptosis of photoreceptors in mouse. RPE65, which catalyzes isomerization of all-trans retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis retinol (11cROL) in the visual cycle, controls the rhodopsin regeneration rate and photoreceptor susceptibility to light-induced degeneration. Mutations in RPE65 have been linked to blindness in affected children. Despite such importance, the mechanism that regulates RPE65 function remains unclear. Through unbiased expression screening of a bovine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cDNA library, we have identified elongation of very long-chain fatty acids-like 1 (ELOVL1) and fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4), which each have very long-chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCFA-ACS) activity, as negative regulators of RPE65. We found that the VLCFA derivative lignoceroyl (C24:0)-CoA inhibited synthesis of 11cROL, whereas palmitoyl (C16:0)-CoA promoted synthesis of 11cROL. We further found that competition of FATP4 with RPE65 for the substrate of RPE65 was also involved in the mechanisms by which FATP4 inhibits synthesis of 11cROL. FATP4 was predominantly expressed in RPE, and the FATP4-deficient RPE showed significantly higher isomerase activity. Consistent with these results, the regeneration rate of 11-cis retinaldehyde and the recovery rate for rod light sensitivity were faster in FATP4-deficient mice than wild-type mice. Moreover, FATP4-deficient mice displayed increased accumulation of the cytotoxic all-trans retinaldehyde and hyper susceptibility to light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Our findings demonstrate that ELOVL1, FATP4, and their products comprise the regulatory elements of RPE65 and play important roles in protecting photoreceptors from degeneration induced by light damage. PMID:23407971

  8. Risk Factors for Development of Cholestatic Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Inhibition of Hepatic Basolateral Bile Acid Transporters Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins 3 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Köck, Kathleen; Ferslew, Brian C.; Netterberg, Ida; Yang, Kyunghee; Urban, Thomas J.; Swaan, Peter W.; Stewart, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired hepatic bile acid export may contribute to development of cholestatic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 3 and 4 are postulated to be compensatory hepatic basolateral bile acid efflux transporters when biliary excretion by the bile salt export pump (BSEP) is impaired. BSEP inhibition is a risk factor for cholestatic DILI. This study aimed to characterize the relationship between MRP3, MRP4, and BSEP inhibition and cholestatic potential of drugs. The inhibitory effect of 88 drugs (100 μM) on MRP3- and MRP4-mediated substrate transport was measured in membrane vesicles. Drugs selected for investigation included 50 BSEP non-inhibitors (24 non-cholestatic; 26 cholestatic) and 38 BSEP inhibitors (16 non-cholestatic; 22 cholestatic). MRP4 inhibition was associated with an increased risk of cholestatic potential among BSEP non-inhibitors. In this group, for each 1% increase in MRP4 inhibition, the odds of the drug being cholestatic increased by 3.1%. Using an inhibition cutoff of 21%, which predicted a 50% chance of cholestasis, 62% of cholestatic drugs inhibited MRP4 (P < 0.05); in contrast, only 17% of non-cholestatic drugs were MRP4 inhibitors. Among BSEP inhibitors, MRP4 inhibition did not provide additional predictive value of cholestatic potential; almost all BSEP inhibitors were also MRP4 inhibitors. Inclusion of pharmacokinetic predictor variables (e.g., maximal unbound concentration in plasma) in addition to percent MRP4 inhibition in logistic regression models did not improve cholestasis prediction. Association of cholestasis with percent MRP3 inhibition was not statistically significant, regardless of BSEP-inhibition status. Inhibition of MRP4, in addition to BSEP, may be a risk factor for the development of cholestatic DILI. PMID:24154606

  9. The structure of the gene ATRC1 coding for a cationic amino acid transport system in man: Molecular studies in lysinuric protein intolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Incerti, B.; Sebastio, G.; Parenti, G.

    1994-09-01

    The human cDNA (ATRC1) homologue of a murine gene encoding for a transporter specific for cationic amino acid (CAA) has been isolated. ATRC1 stimulates the uptake of CAA and shows the kinetic properties of system y+ when expressed in frog oocytes. To characterize the organization of the ATRC1 gene, a {lambda} phages genomic DNA library has been screened using an ATRC1 full length cDNA clone as a probe. Nine positive phages have been subcloned in plasmids and sequenced using cDNA specific primers to identify intron-exon junctions. The ATRC1 gene consists of 13 exons with an alternative first exon. Analysis of the intron/exon boundaries showed canonical sequences at the splice junction sites. ATRC1 expression pattern has been analyzed by RT-PCR. ATRC1 is expressed in adult fibroblasts and enterocytes, in fetal kidney, brain and heart, and in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The knowledge of structure and organization of ATRC1 can help in studying inborn errors of CAA transport. The best characterized among these diseases is Lysinuric Protein Intolerance (LPI) a multisystem disorder with impaired formation of urea and hyperammonemia after protein ingestion. Linkage analysis performed on 10 LPI patients from 9 Italian families using two intragenic RFLPs revealed 3 informative families and no recombinations. Using the CA-repeat microsatellite D12S120 (2 cM far from ATRC-1 locus) we found 7 informative families and 3 recombinational events. The sequence of the entire coding region of an LPI patient failed to show mutations. The data so far obtained do not seem to support the hypothesis that ATRC1 is the LPI gene.

  10. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-10-15

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 μM), OA (100 μM), or PA (100 μM). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced IκBα expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus.

  11. Abscisic acid transport in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Guida, Lucrezia; Millo, Enrico; Fresia, Chiara; Turco, Emilia; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-05-22

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in the response to environmental stress. Recently, ABA has been shown to be present and active also in mammals, where it stimulates the functional activity of innate immune cells, of mesenchymal and hemopoietic stem cells, and insulin-releasing pancreatic β-cells. LANCL2, the ABA receptor in mammalian cells, is a peripheral membrane protein that localizes at the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Here we investigated the mechanism enabling ABA transport across the plasmamembrane of human red blood cells (RBC). Both influx and efflux of [(3)H]ABA occur across intact RBC, as detected by radiometric and chromatographic methods. ABA binds specifically to Band 3 (the RBC anion transporter), as determined by labeling of RBC membranes with biotinylated ABA. Proteoliposomes reconstituted with human purified Band 3 transport [(3)H]ABA and [(35)S]sulfate, and ABA transport is sensitive to the specific Band 3 inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. Once inside RBC, ABA stimulates ATP release through the LANCL2-mediated activation of adenylate cyclase. As ATP released from RBC is known to exert a vasodilator response, these results suggest a role for plasma ABA in the regulation of vascular tone.

  12. Reversible Oxygenation of Oxygen Transport Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drain, C. M.; Corden, Barry B.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration which illustrates changes in the visible spectra of oxygen transport proteins upon reversible oxygen binding. Provides a comparison of the physical characteristics of oxygen storage and transport proteins. Reviews essentials for preparation of the materials. (ML)

  13. Expression of heteromeric amino acid transporters along the murine intestine.

    PubMed

    Dave, Mital H; Schulz, Nicole; Zecevic, Marija; Wagner, Carsten A; Verrey, Francois

    2004-07-15

    Members of the new heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are composed of two subunits, a catalytic multitransmembrane spanning protein (light chain) and a type II glycoprotein (heavy chain). These transporters function as exchangers and thereby extend the transmembrane amino acid transport selectivity to specific amino acids. The heavy chain rBAT associates with the light chain b degrees (,+)AT to form a cystine and cationic amino acid transporter. The other heavy chain, 4F2hc, can interact with seven different light chains to form various transporters corresponding to systems L, y(+)L, asc or x(-)(c). The importance of some of these transporters in intestinal and renal (re)absorption of amino acids is highlighted by the fact that mutations in either the rBAT or b degrees (,+)AT subunit result in cystinuria whereas a defect in the y(+)-LAT1 light chain causes lysinuric protein intolerance. Here we investigated the localization of these transporters in intestine since both diseases are also characterized by altered intestinal amino acid absorption. Real time PCR showed organ-specific expression patterns for all transporter subunit mRNAs along the intestine and Western blotting confirmed these findings on the protein level. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated basolateral coexpression of 4F2hc, LAT2 and y(+)-LAT1 in stomach and small intestine, whereas rBAT and b degrees (,+)AT were found colocalizing on the apical side of small intestine epithelium. In stomach, 4F2hc and LAT2 were localized in H(+)/K(+)-ATPase-expressing parietal cells. The abundant expression of several members of the heterodimeric transporter family along the murine small intestine suggests their involvement in amino acids absorption. Furthermore, strong expression of rBAT, b degrees (,+)AT and y(+)-LAT1 in the small intestine explains the reduced intestinal absorption of some amino acid in patients with cystinuria or lysinuric protein intolerance.

  14. Transporter taxonomy - a comparison of different transport protein classification schemes.

    PubMed

    Viereck, Michael; Gaulton, Anna; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are more than 800 well characterized human membrane transport proteins (including channels and transporters) and there are estimates that about 10% (approx. 2000) of all human genes are related to transport. Membrane transport proteins are of interest as potential drug targets, for drug delivery, and as a cause of side effects and drug–drug interactions. In light of the development of Open PHACTS, which provides an open pharmacological space, we analyzed selected membrane transport protein classification schemes (Transporter Classification Database, ChEMBL, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology, and Gene Ontology) for their ability to serve as a basis for pharmacology driven protein classification. A comparison of these membrane transport protein classification schemes by using a set of clinically relevant transporters as use-case reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different taxonomy approaches.

  15. Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Washko, P.; Rotrosen, D.; Levine, M. )

    1989-11-15

    The transport, accumulation, and distribution of ascorbic acid were investigated in isolated human neutrophils utilizing a new ascorbic acid assay, which combined the techniques of high performance liquid chromatography and coulometric electrochemical detection. Freshly isolated human neutrophils contained 1.0-1.4 mM ascorbic acid, which was localized greater than or equal to 94% to the cytosol, was not protein bound, and was present only as ascorbic acid and not as dehydroascorbic acid. Upon addition of ascorbic acid to the extracellular medium in physiologic amounts, ascorbic acid was accumulated in neutrophils in millimolar concentrations. Accumulation was mediated by a high affinity and a low affinity transporter; both transporters were responsible for maintenance of concentration gradients as large as 50-fold. The high affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 2-5 microns by Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee analyses, and the low affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 6-7 mM by similar analyses. Each transporter was saturable and temperature dependent. In normal human blood the high affinity transporter should be saturated, whereas the low affinity transporter should be in its linear phase of uptake.

  16. The second extracellular loop of pore-forming subunits of ATP-binding cassette transporters for basic amino acids plays a crucial role in interaction with the cognate solute binding protein(s).

    PubMed

    Eckey, Viola; Weidlich, Daniela; Landmesser, Heidi; Bergmann, Ulf; Schneider, Erwin

    2010-04-01

    In the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the uptake of basic amino acids is mediated by an ABC transporter composed of the substrate binding protein (receptor) ArtJ and a homodimer each of the pore-forming subunit, ArtM, and the nucleotide-binding subunit, ArtP. We recently identified two putative binding sites in ArtJ that might interact with the Art(MP)(2) complex, thereby initiating the transport cycle (A. Vahedi-Faridi et al., J. Mol. Biol. 375:448-459, 2008). Here we investigated the contribution of charged amino acid residues in the second extracellular loop of ArtM to contact with ArtJ. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for residues K177, R185, and E188, since mutations to oppositely charged amino acids or glutamine led to a complete loss of ArtJ-stimulated ATPase activity of the complex variants in proteoliposomes. The defects could not be suppressed by ArtJ variants carrying mutations in site I (K39E and K152E) or II (E163K and D170K), suggesting a more complex interplay than that by a single salt bridge. These findings were supported by cross-linking assays demonstrating physical proximity between ArtJ(N166C) and ArtM(E182C). The importance of positively charged residues for receptor-transporter interaction was underscored by mutational analysis of the closely related transporter HisJ/LAO-HisQMP(2) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. While transporter variants with mutated positively charged residues in HisQ displayed residual ATPase activities, corresponding mutants of HisM could no longer be stimulated by HisJ/LAO. Interestingly, the ATPase activity of the HisQM(K187E)P(2) variant was inhibited by l- and d-histidine in detergent, suggesting a role of the residue in preventing free histidine from gaining access to the substrate binding site within HisQM. PMID:20154136

  17. Methylarsonous acid transport by aquaglyceroporins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zijuan; Styblo, Miroslav; Rosen, Barry P

    2006-04-01

    Many mammals methylate trivalent inorganic arsenic in liver to species that are released into the bloodstream and excreted in urine and feces. This study addresses how methylated arsenicals pass through cell membranes. We have previously shown that aquaglyceroporin channels, including Escherichia coli GlpF, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fps1p, AQP7, and AQP9 from rat and human, conduct trivalent inorganic arsenic [As(III)] as arsenic trioxide, the protonated form of arsenite. One of the initial products of As(III) methylation is methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)], which is considerably more toxic than inorganic As(III). In this study, we investigated the ability of GlpF, Fps1p, and AQP9 to facilitate movement of MAs(III) and found that rat aquaglyceroporin conducted MAs(III) at a higher rate than the yeast homologue. In addition, rat AQP9 facilitates MAs(III) at a higher rate than As(III). These results demonstrate that aquaglyceroporins differ both in selectivity for and in transport rates of trivalent arsenicals. In this study, the requirement of AQP9 residues Phe-64 and Arg-219 for MAs(III) movement was examined. A hydrophobic residue at position 64 is not required for MAs(III) transport, whereas an arginine at residue 219 may be required. This is similar to that found for As(III), suggesting that As(III) and MAs(III) use the same translocation pathway in AQP9. Identification of MAs(III) as an AQP9 substrate is an important step in understanding physiologic responses to arsenic in mammals, including humans.

  18. Amino acid transporters: roles in amino acid sensing and signalling in animal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Russell; Taylor, Peter M; Hundal, Harinder S

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid availability regulates cellular physiology by modulating gene expression and signal transduction pathways. However, although the signalling intermediates between nutrient availability and altered gene expression have become increasingly well documented, how eukaryotic cells sense the presence of either a nutritionally rich or deprived medium is still uncertain. From recent studies it appears that the intracellular amino acid pool size is particularly important in regulating translational effectors, thus, regulated transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane represents a means by which the cellular response to amino acids could be controlled. Furthermore, evidence from studies with transportable amino acid analogues has demonstrated that flux through amino acid transporters may act as an initiator of nutritional signalling. This evidence, coupled with the substrate selectivity and sensitivity to nutrient availability classically associated with amino acid transporters, plus the recent discovery of transporter-associated signalling proteins, demonstrates a potential role for nutrient transporters as initiators of cellular nutrient signalling. Here, we review the evidence supporting the idea that distinct amino acid "receptors" function to detect and transmit certain nutrient stimuli in higher eukaryotes. In particular, we focus on the role that amino acid transporters may play in the sensing of amino acid levels, both directly as initiators of nutrient signalling and indirectly as regulators of external amino acid access to intracellular receptor/signalling mechanisms. PMID:12879880

  19. Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.

    PubMed

    Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    1994-04-01

    Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P < 0.001) were observed in protein-deficient rats. In protein deficiency, triacylglycerol and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in both liver and VLDL showed a decreased polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. This ratio was higher with the salmon oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Aging differentially affects human skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression when essential amino acids are ingested after exercise

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Jared M.; Drummond, Micah J.; Coben, Jennifer R.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Amino acid transporters have been proposed as regulators of protein synthesis. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether amino acid transporter expression is increased in human muscle following resistance exercise (RE) coupled with essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion, and whether a differential response occurs with aging. Secondly, we aimed to compare this response to a previous study examining RE alone. Methods Young (n=7, 30±2yr) and older men (n=6, 70±2yr) ingested EAA 1h after RE. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 3 and 6h postexercise to examine amino acid transporter mRNA and protein expression. Results In both age groups, RE+EAA increased mRNA of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)/solute linked carrier (SLC)7A5, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2)/SLC38A2, and cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1 (p<0.05). SNAT2 protein increased in young at 3 and 6h (p<0.05), whereas old maintained higher LAT1 protein (p<0.05). Compared to RE alone, RE+EAA enhanced amino acid transporter expression only in young (p<0.05). Conclusions RE increases muscle amino acid transporter expression in young and older adults, however, postexercise EAA ingestion enhances amino acid transporter expression only in young indicating that aging may influence the function of specific amino acid transporters. PMID:22889597

  1. Ca2+ Binding/Permeation via Calcium Channel, CaV1.1, Regulates the Intracellular Distribution of the Fatty Acid Transport Protein, CD36, and Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Dimitra K; Dagnino-Acosta, Adan; Lee, Chang Seok; Griffin, Deric M; Wang, Hui; Lagor, William R; Pautler, Robia G; Dirksen, Robert T; Hamilton, Susan L

    2015-09-25

    Ca(2+) permeation and/or binding to the skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1) facilitates activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase type II (CaMKII) and Ca(2+) store refilling to reduce muscle fatigue and atrophy (Lee, C. S., Dagnino-Acosta, A., Yarotskyy, V., Hanna, A., Lyfenko, A., Knoblauch, M., Georgiou, D. K., Poché, R. A., Swank, M. W., Long, C., Ismailov, I. I., Lanner, J., Tran, T., Dong, K., Rodney, G. G., Dickinson, M. E., Beeton, C., Zhang, P., Dirksen, R. T., and Hamilton, S. L. (2015) Skelet. Muscle 5, 4). Mice with a mutation (E1014K) in the Cacna1s (α1 subunit of CaV1.1) gene that abolishes Ca(2+) binding within the CaV1.1 pore gain more body weight and fat on a chow diet than control mice, without changes in food intake or activity, suggesting that CaV1.1-mediated CaMKII activation impacts muscle energy expenditure. We delineate a pathway (Cav1.1→ CaMKII→ NOS) in normal skeletal muscle that regulates the intracellular distribution of the fatty acid transport protein, CD36, altering fatty acid metabolism. The consequences of blocking this pathway are decreased mitochondrial β-oxidation and decreased energy expenditure. This study delineates a previously uncharacterized CaV1.1-mediated pathway that regulates energy utilization in skeletal muscle.

  2. Ca2+ Binding/Permeation via Calcium Channel, CaV1.1, Regulates the Intracellular Distribution of the Fatty Acid Transport Protein, CD36, and Fatty Acid Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Dimitra K.; Dagnino-Acosta, Adan; Lee, Chang Seok; Griffin, Deric M.; Wang, Hui; Lagor, William R.; Pautler, Robia G.; Dirksen, Robert T.; Hamilton, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Ca2+ permeation and/or binding to the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1) facilitates activation of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase type II (CaMKII) and Ca2+ store refilling to reduce muscle fatigue and atrophy (Lee, C. S., Dagnino-Acosta, A., Yarotskyy, V., Hanna, A., Lyfenko, A., Knoblauch, M., Georgiou, D. K., Poché, R. A., Swank, M. W., Long, C., Ismailov, I. I., Lanner, J., Tran, T., Dong, K., Rodney, G. G., Dickinson, M. E., Beeton, C., Zhang, P., Dirksen, R. T., and Hamilton, S. L. (2015) Skelet. Muscle 5, 4). Mice with a mutation (E1014K) in the Cacna1s (α1 subunit of CaV1.1) gene that abolishes Ca2+ binding within the CaV1.1 pore gain more body weight and fat on a chow diet than control mice, without changes in food intake or activity, suggesting that CaV1.1-mediated CaMKII activation impacts muscle energy expenditure. We delineate a pathway (Cav1.1→ CaMKII→ NOS) in normal skeletal muscle that regulates the intracellular distribution of the fatty acid transport protein, CD36, altering fatty acid metabolism. The consequences of blocking this pathway are decreased mitochondrial β-oxidation and decreased energy expenditure. This study delineates a previously uncharacterized CaV1.1-mediated pathway that regulates energy utilization in skeletal muscle. PMID:26245899

  3. Xenobiotic, bile acid, and cholesterol transporters: function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Curtis D; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2010-03-01

    Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1 to 9, breast cancer resistance protein, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G members 5 and 8, are responsible for the unidirectional export of endogenous and exogenous substances. Other efflux transporters [ATPase copper-transporting beta polypeptide (ATP7B) and ATPase class I type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1) as well as organic solute transporters (OST) alpha and beta] also play major roles in the transport of some endogenous chemicals across biological membranes. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of these transporters (both rodent and human) with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and substrate preferences. Because uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in multiple cell types, the roles of transporters in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidneys, intestine, brain, heart, placenta, mammary glands, immune cells, and testes are discussed. Attention is also placed upon a variety of

  4. Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1 to 9, breast cancer resistance protein, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G members 5 and 8, are responsible for the unidirectional export of endogenous and exogenous substances. Other efflux transporters [ATPase copper-transporting β polypeptide (ATP7B) and ATPase class I type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1) as well as organic solute transporters (OST) α and β] also play major roles in the transport of some endogenous chemicals across biological membranes. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of these transporters (both rodent and human) with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and substrate preferences. Because uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in multiple cell types, the roles of transporters in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidneys, intestine, brain, heart, placenta, mammary glands, immune cells, and testes are discussed. Attention is also placed upon a variety of regulatory

  5. Ascorbic acid transport into cultured pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, E.I.; May, V.; Eipper, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    An amidating enzyme designated peptidyl-glycine ..cap alpha..-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) has been studied in a variety of tissues and is dependent on molecular oxygen and stimulated by copper and ascorbic acid. To continue investigating the relationship among cellular ascorbic acid concentrations, amidating ability, and PAM activity, the authors studied ascorbic acid transport in three cell preparations that contain PAM and produce amidated peptides: primary cultures of rat anterior and intermediate pituitary and mouse AtT-20 tumor cells. When incubated in 50 ..mu..M (/sup 14/C)ascorbic acid all three cell preparations concentrated ascorbic acid 20- to 40-fold, producing intracellular ascorbate concentrations of 1 to 2 mM, based on experimentally determined cell volumes. All three cell preparations displayed saturable ascorbic acid uptake with half-maximal initial rates occurring between 9 and 18 ..mu..M ascorbate. Replacing NaCl in the uptake buffer with choline chloride significantly diminished ascorbate uptake in all three preparations. Ascorbic acid efflux from these cells was slow, displaying half-lives of 7 hours. Unlike systems that transport dehydroascorbic acid, the transport system for ascorbic acid in these cells was not inhibited by glucose. Thus, ascorbate is transported into pituitary cells by a sodium-dependent, active transport system.

  6. Metabolism and transport of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, D V; Tews, J K; Harper, A E; Suttie, J W

    1978-03-01

    gamma-Carboxyglutamic acid residues have beeh shown to be present in prothrombin, the other vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, and more recently in bone and kidney proteins. This amino acid is formed by a posttranslational vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of glutamyl residues in polypeptide precursors of these protens. It has now been demonstrated that this amino acid, either in the free or peptide-bound form, is not metabolically degraded by the rat, but is quantitatively excreted in the urine. In nephrectomized rats, the tissue concentration of intravenously administered gamma-carboxyglutamic acid is increased, but there is still no evidence of any oxidative metabolism of this amino acid. These amino acid is transported by kidney slices against a concentration gradient, but does not accumulate in liver, intestinal or brain tissues. Preliminary data suggest that gamma-carboxyglutamic acid may be concentrated by a carrier system different from that utilized by other amino acids. PMID:629998

  7. Regulation of amino acid metabolic enzymes and transporters in plants.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    Amino acids play several critical roles in plants, from providing the building blocks of proteins to being essential metabolites interacting with many branches of metabolism. They are also important molecules that shuttle organic nitrogen through the plant. Because of this central role in nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, degradation, and transport are tightly regulated to meet demand in response to nitrogen and carbon availability. While much is known about the feedback regulation of the branched biosynthesis pathways by the amino acids themselves, the regulation mechanisms at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and protein levels remain to be identified. This review focuses mainly on the current state of our understanding of the regulation of the enzymes and transporters at the transcript level. Current results describing the effect of transcription factors and protein modifications lead to a fragmental picture that hints at multiple, complex levels of regulation that control and coordinate transport and enzyme activities. It also appears that amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and stress signal integration can influence each other in a so-far unpredictable fashion.

  8. Transport Function of Rice Amino Acid Permeases (AAPs).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Margaret R; Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M

    2015-07-01

    The transport function of four rice (Oryza sativa) amino acid permeases (AAPs), OsAAP1 (Os07g04180), OsAAP3 (Os06g36180), OsAAP7 (Os05g34980) and OsAAP16 (Os12g08090), was analyzed by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiology. OsAAP1, OsAAP7 and OsAAP16 functioned, similarly to Arabidopsis AAPs, as general amino acid permeases. OsAAP3 had a distinct substrate specificity compared with other rice or Arabidopsis AAPs. OsAAP3 transported the basic amino acids lysine and arginine well but selected against aromatic amino acids. The transport of basic amino acids was further analyzed for OsAAP1 and OsAAP3, and the results support the transport of both neutral and positively charged forms of basic amino acids by the rice AAPs. Cellular localization using the tandem enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter pHusion showed that OsAAP1 and OsAAP3 localized to the plasma membrane after transient expression in onion epidermal cells or stable expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:25907566

  9. Co-dependence of genotype and dietary protein intake to affect expression on amino acid/peptide transporters in porcine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Kong, X; Li, F; Tan, B; Li, Y; Duan, Y; Yin, Y; He, J; Hu, C; Blachier, F; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    A total of 96 barrows (48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs representing fatty genotype, and 48 Landrace pigs representing lean genotype) were randomly assigned to either a low- or adequate-protein treatment diet. The experimental period commenced at 5 weeks of age and extended to the finishing period. After euthanasia, blood and skeletal muscle samples were collected from pigs at the nursery, growing, and finishing phases. Our results indicate that the concentrations of free AAs in the plasma and muscle decreased as the age of the pigs increased. In addition, a strain × growth phase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for the free AA pool in the plasma and muscle. The low-protein diet upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels for T1R1/T1R3 involved in glutamate binding, but downregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels for PAT1, PAT2, and ASCT2, which transport neutral AAs into muscles. Bama mini-pigs had higher (P < 0.05) mRNA levels for LAT1, SNAT2, and EAAC1, but a lower (P < 0.05) mRNA level for PepT1, compared with Landrace pigs. Collectively, our findings indicate that adequate provision of dietary protein plays an important role in regulating profiles of free AA pools and expression of key AA/peptide transporters/transceptors in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner.

  10. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine-histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  11. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine–histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  12. Proteins and acids from petroleum.

    PubMed

    Zaki, D; el-Badrawy, S

    1978-01-01

    The wax distillate fraction (boiling range 300 up to 400 degrees C) from the crude oil "El-Alameen" was found to be a good substrate for the biosynthesis of proteins and/or amino acids by bacteria under special culture conditions. The fermentation processes were accompanied by a refining effect to the oil fraction, elevating its refraction index and lowering its melting point, giving dewaxing effect to the oil fraction. PMID:735504

  13. Quinone-amino acid conjugates targeting Leishmania amino acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Prati, Federica; Goldman-Pinkovich, Adele; Lizzi, Federica; Belluti, Federica; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7) to import these nutrients. Probes 1-15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. The toxicity of the synthesized conjugates against Leishmania extracellular (promastigotes) and intracellular (amastigotes) forms was investigated, as well their inhibition of the relevant amino acid transporters. We observed that some conjugates indeed displayed toxicity against the parasites; in particular, 7 was identified as the most potent derivative (at concentrations of 1 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL residual cell viability was reduced to 15% and 48% in promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively). Notably, 6, while retaining the cytotoxic activity of quinone II, displayed no toxicity against mammalian THP1 cells. Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that the toxic conjugates might be translocated by the transporters into the cells. The non-toxic probes that inhibited transport competed with the natural substrates for binding to the transporters without being translocated. Thus, it is likely that 6, by exploiting amino acid transporters, can selectively deliver its toxic effects to Leishmania cells. This work provides the first evidence that amino acid transporters of the human pathogen Leishmania might be modulated by small molecules, and warrants their further investigation from drug discovery and chemical biology perspectives. PMID:25254495

  14. Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) Localizes in Mitochondria in Mouse Skeletal Muscle and Regulates Lipid and Ketone Body Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Guitart, Maria; Osorio-Conles, Óscar; Pentinat, Thais; Cebrià, Judith; García-Villoria, Judit; Sala, David; Sebastián, David; Zorzano, Antonio; Ribes, Antonia; Jiménez-Chillarón, Josep C.; García-Martínez, Celia; Gómez-Foix, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    FATP1 mediates skeletal muscle cell fatty acid import, yet its intracellular localization and metabolic control role are not completely defined. Here, we examine FATP1 localization and metabolic effects of its overexpression in mouse skeletal muscle. The FATP1 protein was detected in mitochondrial and plasma membrane fractions, obtained by differential centrifugation, of mouse gastrocnemius muscle. FATP1 was most abundant in purified mitochondria, and in the outer membrane and soluble intermembrane, but not in the inner membrane plus matrix, enriched subfractions of purified mitochondria. Immunogold electron microscopy localized FATP1-GFP in mitochondria of transfected C2C12 myotubes. FATP1 was overexpressed in gastrocnemius mouse muscle, by adenovirus-mediated delivery of the gene into hindlimb muscles of newborn mice, fed after weaning a chow or high-fat diet. Compared to GFP delivery, FATP1 did not alter body weight, serum fed glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels, and whole-body glucose tolerance, in either diet. However, fatty acid levels were lower and β-hydroxybutyrate levels were higher in FATP1- than GFP-mice, irrespective of diet. Moreover, intramuscular triglyceride content was lower in FATP1- versus GFP-mice regardless of diet, and β-hydroxybutyrate content was unchanged in high-fat-fed mice. Electroporation-mediated FATP1 overexpression enhanced palmitate oxidation to CO2, but not to acid-soluble intermediate metabolites, while CO2 production from β-hydroxybutyrate was inhibited and that from glucose unchanged, in isolated mouse gastrocnemius strips. In summary, FATP1 was localized in mitochondria, in the outer membrane and intermembrane parts, of mouse skeletal muscle, what may be crucial for its metabolic effects. Overexpressed FATP1 enhanced disposal of both systemic fatty acids and intramuscular triglycerides. Consistently, it did not contribute to the high-fat diet-induced metabolic dysregulation. However, FATP1 lead to hyperketonemia

  15. Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) localizes in mitochondria in mouse skeletal muscle and regulates lipid and ketone body disposal.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Maria; Osorio-Conles, Oscar; Pentinat, Thais; Cebrià, Judith; García-Villoria, Judit; Sala, David; Sebastián, David; Zorzano, Antonio; Ribes, Antonia; Jiménez-Chillarón, Josep C; García-Martínez, Celia; Gómez-Foix, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    FATP1 mediates skeletal muscle cell fatty acid import, yet its intracellular localization and metabolic control role are not completely defined. Here, we examine FATP1 localization and metabolic effects of its overexpression in mouse skeletal muscle. The FATP1 protein was detected in mitochondrial and plasma membrane fractions, obtained by differential centrifugation, of mouse gastrocnemius muscle. FATP1 was most abundant in purified mitochondria, and in the outer membrane and soluble intermembrane, but not in the inner membrane plus matrix, enriched subfractions of purified mitochondria. Immunogold electron microscopy localized FATP1-GFP in mitochondria of transfected C2C12 myotubes. FATP1 was overexpressed in gastrocnemius mouse muscle, by adenovirus-mediated delivery of the gene into hindlimb muscles of newborn mice, fed after weaning a chow or high-fat diet. Compared to GFP delivery, FATP1 did not alter body weight, serum fed glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels, and whole-body glucose tolerance, in either diet. However, fatty acid levels were lower and β-hydroxybutyrate levels were higher in FATP1- than GFP-mice, irrespective of diet. Moreover, intramuscular triglyceride content was lower in FATP1- versus GFP-mice regardless of diet, and β-hydroxybutyrate content was unchanged in high-fat-fed mice. Electroporation-mediated FATP1 overexpression enhanced palmitate oxidation to CO2, but not to acid-soluble intermediate metabolites, while CO2 production from β-hydroxybutyrate was inhibited and that from glucose unchanged, in isolated mouse gastrocnemius strips. In summary, FATP1 was localized in mitochondria, in the outer membrane and intermembrane parts, of mouse skeletal muscle, what may be crucial for its metabolic effects. Overexpressed FATP1 enhanced disposal of both systemic fatty acids and intramuscular triglycerides. Consistently, it did not contribute to the high-fat diet-induced metabolic dysregulation. However, FATP1 lead to hyperketonemia

  16. Amino acid transport in the intestine of the caiman.

    PubMed

    Coulson, R A; Hernandez, T

    1983-01-01

    Seventeen amino acids were fed singly to small caimans and the rates of their disappearance from the gut lumen, and of their appearance in intestinal mucosa, whole intestine, whole stomach, and plasma were determined. The results were compared with those in which massive amounts of protein were fed. When single amino acids were fed, only traces of arginine, ornithine, lysine, aspartate and asparagine were absorbed intact. Glycine, alanine and serine were absorbed rapidly reaching mucosal concentrations as high as 40 mM. The others were not concentrated as highly and most were absorbed by the mucosa more slowly than the glycine group. Protein feeding did not result in high amino acid concentrations in the mucosa. Whether amino acids were ingested as protein or in the free state, glycine, alanine and glutamine increased in the mucosa, suggesting these three incorporate nitrogen released from the others. It appeared that several transport systems operate if amino acids are given singly, and that a different more efficient transport system operates during protein digestion.

  17. Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes

  18. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  19. All-trans retinoic acid enhances the transport of phase II metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene by inducing the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hessel, Stefanie; Lampen, Alfonso

    2010-08-16

    All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is the most active metabolite of vitamin A. It is a ligand of retinoic acid receptors (RAR) as well as of retinoid X receptors (RXR) and effectively stimulates the RAR/RXR signalling pathway. In this study effects of atRA on the detoxification of the food contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was elucidated by using the Caco-2 cell line as model system for the human small intestine. Caco-2 cells express a number of phase I and II xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes as well as several transport proteins of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Pre-treatment of the cells with atRA resulted in enhanced apical excretion of B[a]P-3-sulfate, a phase II metabolite of B[a]P. Gene expression analysis revealed that the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP), an ABC-transporter known to be involved in B[a]P-3-sulfate excretion, was strongly stimulated already at low concentrations of atRA. Furthermore co-incubation of the intestinal cell with RAR agonist and RXR agonist resulted in a strong additive induction of mRNA expression of BCRP. Thus, atRA was shown to induce BCRP gene expression probably via the RAR/RXR signalling pathway, resulting in effective removal of B[a]P metabolites from intestinal cells.

  20. Cooperative protein transport in cellular organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieff, S.; Sens, P.

    2011-04-01

    Compartmentalization into biochemically distinct organelles constantly exchanging material is one of the hallmarks of eukaryotic cells. In the most naive picture of interorganelle transport driven by concentration gradients, concentration differences between organelles should relax. We determine the conditions under which cooperative transport, i.e., based on molecular recognition, allows for the existence and maintenance of distinct organelle identities. Cooperative transport is also shown to control the flux of material transiting through a compartmentalized system, dramatically increasing the transit time under high incoming flux. By including chemical processing of the transported species, we show that this property provides a strong functional advantage to a system responsible for protein maturation and sorting.

  1. Modeling Electrical Transport through Nucleic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianqing

    Nucleic acids play a vital role in many biological systems and activities. In recent years, engineers and scientists have been interested in studying their electrical properties. The motivation for these studies stems from the following facts: (1) the bases, which form the building blocks of nucleic acids, have unique ionization potentials. Further, nucleic acids are one of the few nanomaterials that can be reproducibly manufactured with a high degree of accuracy (though admittedly their placement at desired locations remains a challenge). As a result, designed strands with specific sequences may offer unique device properties; (2) electrical methods offer potential for sequencing nucleic acids based on a single molecule; (3) electrical methods for disease detection based on the current flowing through nucleic acids are beginning to be demonstrated. While experiments in the above mentioned areas is promising, a deeper understanding of the electrical current flow through the nucleic acids needs to be developed. The modeling of current flowing in these molecules is complex because: (1) they are based on atomic scale contacts between nucleic acids and metal, which cannot be reproducibly built; (2) the conductivity of nucleic acids is easily influenced by the environment, which is constantly changing; and (3) the nucleic acids by themselves are floppy. This thesis focuses on the modeling of electrical transport through nucleic acids that are connected to two metal electrodes at nanoscale. We first develop a decoherent transport model for the double-stranded helix based on the Landauer-Buttiker framework. This model is rationalized by comparison with an experiment that measured the conductance of four different DNA strands. The developed model is then used to study the: (1) potential to make barriers and wells for quantum transport using specifically engineered sequences; (2) change in the electrical properties of a specific DNA strand with and without methylation; (3

  2. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  3. Binding-protein-dependent lactose transport in Agrobacterium radiobacter.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, J A; Cornish, A; Jones, C W

    1990-04-01

    Agrobacterium radiobacter NCIB 11883 was grown in lactose-limited continuous culture at a dilution rate of 0.045/h. Washed cells transported [14C]lactose and [methyl-14C]beta-D-thiogalactoside, a nonmetabolisable analog of lactose, at similar rates and with similar affinities (Km for transport, less than 1 microM). Transport was inhibited to various extents by the uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, by unlabeled beta-galactosides and D-galactose, and by osmotic shock. The accumulation ratio for methyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside was greater than or equal to 4,100. An abundant protein (molecular weight, 41,000) was purified from osmotic-shock fluid and shown by equilibrium dialysis to bind lactose and methyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside, the former with very high affinity (binding constant, 0.14 microM). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this lactose-binding protein exhibited some homology with several other sugar-binding proteins from bacteria. Antiserum raised against the lactose-binding protein did not cross-react with two glucose-binding proteins from A. radiobacter or with extracts of other bacteria grown under lactose limitation. Lactose transport and beta-galactosidase were induced in batch cultures by lactose, melibiose [O-alpha-D-galactoside-(1----6)alpha-D-glucose], and isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside and were subject to catabolite repression by glucose, galactose, and succinate which was not alleviated by cyclic AMP. We conclude that lactose is transported into A. radiobacter via a binding protein-dependent active transport system (in contrast to the H+ symport and phosphotransferase systems found in other bacteria) and that the expression of this transport system is closely linked to that of beta-galactosidase.

  4. Portage transport of sulfanilamide and sulfanilic acid.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S Y; Berges, D A; Taggart, J J; Gilvarg, C

    1989-03-01

    Sulfanilic acid, in contrast to sulfanilamide, has poor in vitro antibacterial activity. Paradoxically, it has been shown to be a more effective inhibitor than sulfanilamide of dihydropteroic acid synthase. In order to circumvent the presumed permeability barrier to sulfanilic acid, advantage was taken of the technique of portage transport. Derivatives of the compound were prepared in which it was linked via its primary amino group to the alpha-carbon of glycine residues in di- and tripeptides. L-Alanyl-L-alanyl-L-2-[(4-sulfophenyl)amino]glycine proved to be 207 times more potent than sulfanilic acid and 8 times more active than either sulfanilamide or L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-2-[[4-(aminosulfonyl)-phenyl]amino]glycine when tested against Escherichia coli. These findings confirm that the weak in vitro activity of sulfanilic acid is due to its limited ability to penetrate the bacterial membrane. They also emphasize the ability of portage transport to reveal therapeutic capability that had been attenuated by poor drug permeation.

  5. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation enhances insulin sensitivity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucose transporter type 4 protein expression in the skeletal muscles of rats during endurance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kangok; Song, Youngju; Kwon, Daekeun

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study examined whether conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation affects insulin sensitivity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4) protein expressions in the skeletal muscles of rats during endurance exercise. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into HS (high-fat diet (HFD) sedentary group, n = 8), CS (1.0% CLA supplemented HFD sedentary group, n = 8), and CE (1.0% CLA supplemented HFD exercise group, n = 8). The rats in the CE swam for 60 min a day, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Results: The serum glucose and insulin contents and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value of the CS and CE were significantly decreased compared to those of the HS. The PPAR-γ protein expressions in the soleus muscle (SOM) and extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) were significantly higher in the CE than in the HS. In addition, the PPAR-γ protein expression in the SOM of the CS was significantly higher than that in the HS. On the other hand, the GLUT-4 protein expression of the SOM in the CE was significantly higher compared to that in the HS. However, there was no significant difference in GLUT-4 protein expression in the EDL among the groups. Conclusion: CLA supplementation with/without endurance exercise has role in improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, when CLA supplementation was accompanied by endurance exercise, the PPAR-γ protein expression in SOM and EDL and the GLUT-4 protein expression in SOM were enhanced compared with the control group. PMID:27096060

  7. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  8. Sequencing proteins with transverse ionic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Paul; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2015-03-01

    De novo protein sequencing is essential for understanding cellular processes that govern the function of living organisms. By obtaining the order of the amino acids that composes a given protein one can determine both its secondary and tertiary structures through protein structure prediction, which is used to create models for protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease. Mass spectrometry is the current technique of choice for de novo sequencing, but because some amino acids have the same mass the sequence cannot be completely determined in many cases. In this paper we propose a new technique for de novo protein sequencing that involves translocating a polypeptide through a synthetic nanochannel and measuring the ionic current of each amino acid through an intersecting perpendicular nanochannel, similar to that proposed in for DNA sequencing. Indeed, we find that the distribution of ionic currents for each of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids encoded by eukaryotic genes is statistically distinct, showing this technique's potential for de novo protein sequencing.

  9. Protein biosynthesis with conformationally restricted amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, D. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Ellman, J.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1993-05-19

    The incorporation of conformationally constrained amino acids into peptides is a powerful approach for generating structurally defined peptides as conformational probes and bioactive agents. The ability to site-specifically introduce constrained amino acids into large polypeptide chains would provide a similar opportunity to probe the flexibility, conformation, folding and stability of proteins. To this end, we have examined the competence of the Escherichia coli protein biosynthetic machinery to incorporate a number of these unnatural amino acids into the 164 residue protein T4 lysozyme (T4L). Results clearly demonstrate that the protein biosynthetic machinery can accommodate a wide variety of conformationally constrained amino acids. The expansion of structural motifs that can be biosynthetically incorporated into proteins to include a large number of conformationally constrained amino acids significantly increases the power of mutagenesis methods as probes of protein structure and function and provides additional insights into the steric requirements of the translational machinery. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Distinguishing proteins from arbitrary amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Yau, Stephen S-T; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

  11. The Second Extracellular Loop of Pore-Forming Subunits of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters for Basic Amino Acids Plays a Crucial Role in Interaction with the Cognate Solute Binding Protein(s)▿

    PubMed Central

    Eckey, Viola; Weidlich, Daniela; Landmesser, Heidi; Bergmann, Ulf; Schneider, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    In the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the uptake of basic amino acids is mediated by an ABC transporter composed of the substrate binding protein (receptor) ArtJ and a homodimer each of the pore-forming subunit, ArtM, and the nucleotide-binding subunit, ArtP. We recently identified two putative binding sites in ArtJ that might interact with the Art(MP)2 complex, thereby initiating the transport cycle (A. Vahedi-Faridi et al., J. Mol. Biol. 375:448-459, 2008). Here we investigated the contribution of charged amino acid residues in the second extracellular loop of ArtM to contact with ArtJ. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for residues K177, R185, and E188, since mutations to oppositely charged amino acids or glutamine led to a complete loss of ArtJ-stimulated ATPase activity of the complex variants in proteoliposomes. The defects could not be suppressed by ArtJ variants carrying mutations in site I (K39E and K152E) or II (E163K and D170K), suggesting a more complex interplay than that by a single salt bridge. These findings were supported by cross-linking assays demonstrating physical proximity between ArtJ(N166C) and ArtM(E182C). The importance of positively charged residues for receptor-transporter interaction was underscored by mutational analysis of the closely related transporter HisJ/LAO-HisQMP2 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. While transporter variants with mutated positively charged residues in HisQ displayed residual ATPase activities, corresponding mutants of HisM could no longer be stimulated by HisJ/LAO. Interestingly, the ATPase activity of the HisQM(K187E)P2 variant was inhibited by l- and d-histidine in detergent, suggesting a role of the residue in preventing free histidine from gaining access to the substrate binding site within HisQM. PMID:20154136

  12. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Protein and amino acid metabolism and requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells of the body. Enzymes, membrane carriers, blood transport molecules, intracellular matrix, and even hair and fingernails are proteins, as are many hormones. Proteins also constitute a major portion of all membranes, and the cons...

  14. A new acidic protein in porcine brain.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, N; Isobe, T; Okuyama, T; Numata, Y; Wada, H

    1980-10-21

    An extremely acidic protein has been isolated in a purified form from porcine rain extract, by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation followed by column chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and on Sephadex G-75. The purified protein was tentatively named as glutamic acid-rich protein because it was characterized by its remarkably high content of glutamic acid which accounted for 49% of the total amino acid composition. The protein appeared to be a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 56 000-58 000, and had an isoelectric point of 4.6. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was Asp-Glu-Pro-Pro-Ser-Glu-Gly. The immunochemical analysis using rabbit antiserum prepared to the porcine protein has suggested that it is present in the brain of human, cow, cat, dog and goat as well as in various goat organs including liver, kidney, heart, small intestine and spleen.

  15. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. PMID:26854723

  16. Identification and characterization of an amino acid transporter expressed differentially in liver

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sumin; Roderick, Hywel Llewelyn; Camacho, Patricia; Jiang, Jean X.

    2000-01-01

    Cellular metabolic needs are fulfilled by transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane by means of specialized transporter proteins. Although many of the classical amino acid transporters have been characterized functionally, less than half of these proteins have been cloned. In this report, we identify and characterize a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane amino acid transporter. The deduced amino acid sequence is 505 residues and is highly hydrophobic with the likely predicted structure of 9 transmembrane domains, which putatively place the amino terminus in the cytoplasm and the carboxy terminus on the cell surface. Expression of the cRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed strong transport activities specific for histidine and glutamine. This protein is a Na+- and pH-dependent transporter and tolerates substitution of Na+ by Li+. Furthermore, this transporter is not an obligatory exchanger because efflux occurs in the absence of influx. This transporter is expressed predominantly in the liver, although it is also present in the kidney, brain, and heart. In the liver, it is located in the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, and the strongest expression was detected in those adjacent to the central vein, gradually decreasing towards the portal tract. Because this protein displays functional similarities to the N-system amino acid transport, we have termed it mNAT, for murine N-system amino acid transporter. This is the first transporter gene identified within the N-system, one of the major amino acid transport systems in the body. The expression pattern displayed by mNAT suggests a potential role in hepatocyte physiology. PMID:10716701

  17. Dehydroeburicoic Acid from Antrodia camphorata Prevents the Diabetic and Dyslipidemic State via Modulation of Glucose Transporter 4, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Expression and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Shih, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of dehydroeburicoic acid (TT), a triterpenoid compound from Antrodia camphorata, in vitro and examined the effects and mechanisms of TT on glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice. The in vitro study examined the effects of a MeOH crude extract (CruE) of A. camphorata and Antcin K (AnK; the main constituent of fruiting body of this mushroom) on membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt in C2C12 myoblasts cells. The in vitro study demonstrated that treatment with CruE, AnK and TT increased the membrane levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt at different concentrations. The animal experiments were performed for 12 weeks. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups after 8 weeks of HFD-induction and treated with daily oral gavage doses of TT (at three dose levels), fenofibrate (Feno) (at 0.25 g/kg body weight), metformin (Metf) (at 0.3 g/kg body weight) or vehicle for another 4 weeks while on an HFD diet. HFD-fed mice exhibited increased blood glucose levels. TT treatment dramatically lowered blood glucose levels by 34.2%~43.4%, which was comparable to the antidiabetic agent-Metf (36.5%). TT-treated mice reduced the HFD-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in CruE-treated groups in vitro. Skeletal muscle membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in TT-treated mice. These groups of mice also displayed lower mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase), an inhibitor of hepatic glucose production. The combination of these agents produced a net hypoglycemic effect in TT-treated mice. TT treatment enhanced the expressions of hepatic and skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in mice. TT-treated mice exhibited enhanced expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes, including peroxisome proliferator

  18. Dehydroeburicoic Acid from Antrodia camphorata Prevents the Diabetic and Dyslipidemic State via Modulation of Glucose Transporter 4, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Expression and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Shih, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of dehydroeburicoic acid (TT), a triterpenoid compound from Antrodia camphorata, in vitro and examined the effects and mechanisms of TT on glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice. The in vitro study examined the effects of a MeOH crude extract (CruE) of A. camphorata and Antcin K (AnK; the main constituent of fruiting body of this mushroom) on membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt in C2C12 myoblasts cells. The in vitro study demonstrated that treatment with CruE, AnK and TT increased the membrane levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt at different concentrations. The animal experiments were performed for 12 weeks. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups after 8 weeks of HFD-induction and treated with daily oral gavage doses of TT (at three dose levels), fenofibrate (Feno) (at 0.25 g/kg body weight), metformin (Metf) (at 0.3 g/kg body weight) or vehicle for another 4 weeks while on an HFD diet. HFD-fed mice exhibited increased blood glucose levels. TT treatment dramatically lowered blood glucose levels by 34.2%~43.4%, which was comparable to the antidiabetic agent-Metf (36.5%). TT-treated mice reduced the HFD-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in CruE-treated groups in vitro. Skeletal muscle membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in TT-treated mice. These groups of mice also displayed lower mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase), an inhibitor of hepatic glucose production. The combination of these agents produced a net hypoglycemic effect in TT-treated mice. TT treatment enhanced the expressions of hepatic and skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in mice. TT-treated mice exhibited enhanced expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes, including peroxisome proliferator

  19. Regulatory signals for intestinal amino acid transporters and peptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, R.P.; Kwan, W.W.; Diamond, J. )

    1988-08-01

    Dietary protein ultimately regulates many processes involved in protein digestion, but it is often unclear whether proteins themselves, peptides, or amino acids (AAs) are the proximate regulatory signal. Hence the authors compared several processes involved in protein digestion in mice adapted to one of three rations, identical except for containing 54% of either casein, a partial hydrolysate of casein, or a free AA mixture simulating a complete hydrolysate of casein. The authors measured brush-border uptakes of seven AAs that variously serve as substrates for four AA transporters, and brush-border and cytosolic activities of four peptidases. The three rations yielded essentially the same AA uptake rates. Peptidase activities tended to be lower on the AA ration than on the protein ration. In other studies, all three rations yielded the same rates of brush-border peptide uptake; protein is only modestly more effective than AAs at inducing synthesis of pancreatic proteases; and, depending on the animal species, protein is either much less or much more effective than AAs at stimulating release of cholecystokinin and hence of pancreatic enzymes. Thus the regulators of each process involved in protein digestion are not necessarily that process's substrate.

  20. Characterization of Transport Proteins for Aromatic Compounds Derived from Lignin: Benzoate Derivative Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Karolina; Chang, Changsoo; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro growth experiments have demonstrated that aromatic compounds derived from lignin can be metabolized and represent a major carbon resource for many soil bacteria. However, the proteins that mediate the movement of these metabolites across the cell membrane have not been thoroughly characterized. To address this deficiency, we used a library representative of lignin degradation products and a thermal stability screen to determine ligand specificity for a set of solute-binding proteins (SBPs) from ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The ligand mapping process identified a set of proteins from Alphaproteobacteria that recognize various benzoate derivatives. Seven high-resolution crystal structures of these proteins in complex with four different aromatic compounds were obtained. The protein–ligand complexes provide details of molecular recognition that can be used to infer binding specificity. This structure–function characterization provides new insight for the biological roles of these ABC transporters and their SBPs, which had been previously annotated as branched-chain amino-acid-binding proteins. The knowledge derived from the crystal structures provides a foundation for development of sequencebased methods to predict the ligand specificity of other uncharacterized transporters. These results also demonstrate that Alphaproteobacteria possess a diverse set of transport capabilities for lignin-derived compounds. Characterization of this new class of transporters improves genomic annotation projects and provides insight into the metabolic potential of soil bacteria. PMID:22925578

  1. Boramino acid as a marker for amino acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Haojun; Chen, Kai; Shao, Yihan; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) are a series of integral channels for uphill cellular uptake of nutrients and neurotransmitters. Abnormal expression of AATs is often associated with cancer, addiction, and multiple mental diseases. Although methods to evaluate in vivo expression of AATs would be highly useful, efforts to develop them have been hampered by a lack of appropriate tracers. We describe a new class of AA mimics—boramino acids (BAAs)—that can serve as general imaging probes for AATs. The structure of a BAA is identical to that of the corresponding natural AA, except for an exotic replacement of the carboxylate with -BF3−. Cellular studies demonstrate strong AAT-mediated cell uptake, and animal studies show high tumor-specific accumulation, suggesting that BAAs hold great promise for the development of new imaging probes and smart AAT-targeting drugs. PMID:26601275

  2. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  3. The appropriate standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio improves pig performance and regulates hormones and muscular amino acid transporters in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ma, W F; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, X T; Xie, C Y; Zhang, G J; Qiao, S Y

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of various standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp to Lys ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low-CP (9.6%) diets supplemented with crystalline AA. Ninety gilts (89.1 ± 5.1 kg) were used in a dose-response study conducted for 35 d. Crystalline Trp (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 g/kg) was added to a corn-wheat bran basal diet providing SID Trp to Lys ratios of 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, 0.21, or 0.24. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 3 gilts per pen. At the end of the experiment, 30 gilts (1 pig per pen) were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality (BW = 121 kg). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ADG (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also improved G:F (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased as the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased (linear and quadratic effects, < 0.05). A quadratic effect of L* light and marbling in the longissimus dorsi was observed as the dietary SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ( < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the level of serum GH (quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also increased the level of serum IGF-1 (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) in the longissimus dorsi muscle (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). The optimum SID Trp to Lys ratios to maximize ADG and G:F as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.16, 0.17, and 0.16 using a linear-breakpoint model and 0.20, 0.20, and 0.20 using a quadratic model. Tryptophan could influence serum GH and IGF-1 secretion and protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of SNAT2 in the longissimus dorsi muscle in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets.

  4. Effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and papaverine on intrahepatocytic bile acid transport. Role of vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, M; Ohiwa, T; Hayakawa, T; Kamiya, Y; Tanaka, A; Hirano, A; Kumai, T; Katagiri, K; Miyaji, M; Takeuchi, T

    1993-09-01

    The secondary messenger cyclic AMP plays an important role in regulating biliary excretory function by stimulating the transcytotic vesicle transport system, whereas papaverine exerts an inhibitory effect on this system. We therefore investigated their effects on bile acid-induced cytotoxicity and intrahepatocytic content of bile acid in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Simultaneous addition of 1 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP), an analogue of cAMP, with 1 mM taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) significantly decreased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as compared with the case with 1 mM TCDCA alone (7.1 +/- 0.13% of total versus 10.7 +/- 0.3%). In contrast, 0.1 mM papaverine approximately doubled the amount of LDH (22.0 +/- 0.6% of total versus 10.7 +/- 0.3%; P < 0.01). The intracellular content of TCDCA 180 min after the administration of 1 mM TCDCA alone was 20.8 +/- 0.7 nmol/mg protein, that after simultaneous administration of 1 mM DBcAMP, 16.2 +/- 1.0 nmol/mg protein, and that after the simultaneous administration of 0.1 mM papaverine, 38.5 +/- 1.9 nmol/mg protein. A clear correlation between the release of LDH from hepatocytes and the intracellular content of TCDCA was thus observed. When given together with 1 mM taurocholic acid (TCA) or 1 mM tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), papaverine exerted little effect on cytotoxicity or intrahepatocytic bile acid content. When cells were bathed in a medium free of bile acid after pretreatment with 1 mM TCDCA and 1 mM DBcAMP, additional exposure to DBcAMP for 30 min significantly stimulated reduction of intracellular TCDCA content (30.2 +/- 0.4% of total versus 44.0 +/- 1.4%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. BIOPOLYMERS FROM POLYLACTIC ACID AND MILK PROTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a commercially available biodegradable polymer derived from lactic acid and is used in many nonfood products as an alternative to petrochemical-derived polymers. However, its physical properties limit its use in many applications. Using dairy proteins to substitute for por...

  6. Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transporter Is a Cl−/γ-Aminobutyrate Co-transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Juge, Narinobu; Muroyama, Akiko; Hiasa, Miki; Omote, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    The vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) is a synaptic vesicle protein responsible for the vesicular storage of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and glycine which plays an essential role in GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission. The transport mechanism of VIAAT remains largely unknown. Here, we show that proteoliposomes containing purified VIAAT actively took up GABA upon formation of membrane potential (Δψ) (positive inside) but not ΔpH. VIAAT-mediated GABA uptake had an absolute requirement for Cl− and actually accompanied Cl− movement. Kinetic analysis indicated that one GABA molecule and two Cl− equivalents were transported during one transport cycle. VIAAT in which Glu213 was specifically mutated to alanine completely lost the ability to take up both GABA and Cl−. Essentially the same results were obtained with glycine, another substrate of VIAAT. These results demonstrated that VIAAT is a vesicular Cl− transporter that co-transports Cl− with GABA or glycine in a Δψ dependent manner. It is concluded that Cl− plays an essential role in vesicular storage of GABA and glycine. PMID:19843525

  7. Tormentic acid, a major component of suspension cells of Eriobotrya japonica, suppresses high-fat diet-induced diabetes and hyperlipidemia by glucose transporter 4 and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Ho, Hui-Ya; Shih, Chun-Ching

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of tormentic acid (PTA) on diabetes and dyslipidemia in high-fat (HF)-fed mice. Feeding C57BL/6J mice with a HF diet for 12 weeks induced type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. During the last 4 weeks, the mice were given orally PTA (at two dosages) or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or water. In this study, the HF diet increased glucose, triglyceride, insulin, and leptin levels, whereas PTA effectively prevented these phenomena and ameliorated insulin resistance. PTA reduced visceral fat mass and hepatic triacylglycerol contents; moreover, PTA significantly decreased both the area of adipocytes and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. PTA caused increased skeletal muscular AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins, but reduced the hepatic expressions of phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase) genes. PTA enhanced skeletal muscular Akt phosphorylation and increased insulin sensitivity. PTA also enhanced phospho-AMPK in the liver. Therefore, it is possible that the activation of AMPK by PTA results in decreasing hepatic glucose production while increasing skeletal muscular GLUT4 contents, thus contributing to attenuating the diabetic state. Moreover, PTA exhibits an antihyperlipidemic effect by down-regulations of the hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) and an increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α expression, thus resulting in decreases in blood triglycerides. These findings demonstrated that PTA was effective for the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia in HF-fed mice.

  8. Acid rain and transported air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book considers aspects of the air pollutant controversy. It discusses the following: the policy dilemma - including impact on terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems, effects on human health, diplomatic issues, and how control would benefit some industries and hurt others; scientific uncertainties about the extent and location of current damage, future damage, the origin of transported air pollutants, and the efficacy of current and proposed emissions control programs; how three major pollutants - sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, and reactive hydrocarbons - are distributed geographically; the effect of current legislation on acid rain and its distribution; how geographic and economic risks are dispersed throughout the United States; and other risks, such as potential damage to buildings and metals.

  9. Actin binding proteins, spermatid transport and spermiation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, Yan-Ho; Tang, Elizabeth I; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M; Wong, Elissa W P; Cheng, C Yan

    2014-06-01

    The transport of germ cells across the seminiferous epithelium is composed of a series of cellular events during the epithelial cycle essential to the completion of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids during spermiogenesis, spermatozoa that are transformed from step 19 spermatids in the rat testis fail to reach the luminal edge of the apical compartment and enter the tubule lumen at spermiation, thereby arriving the epididymis for further maturation. Step 19 spermatids and/or sperms that remain in the epithelium beyond stage VIII of the epithelial cycle will be removed by the Sertoli cell via phagocytosis to form phagosomes and be degraded by lysosomes, leading to subfertility and/or infertility. However, the biology of spermatid transport, in particular the final events that lead to spermiation remain elusive. Based on recent data in the field, we critically evaluate the biology of spermiation herein by focusing on the actin binding proteins (ABPs) that regulate the organization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, which is crucial for spermatid transport during this event. The hypothesis we put forth herein also highlights some specific areas of research that can be pursued by investigators in the years to come.

  10. Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana NRT1/PTR FAMILY (NPF) proteins capable of transporting plant hormones.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yasutaka; Shimizu, Takafumi; Miyakawa, Shinya; Kanno, Yuri; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamiya, Yuji; Seo, Mitsunori

    2015-07-01

    NRT1/PTR FAMILY (NPF) proteins were originally identified as nitrate or di/tri-peptide transporters. Recent studies revealed that this transporter family also transports the plant hormones auxin (indole-3-acetic acid), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellin (GA), as well as secondary metabolites (glucosinolates). We developed modified yeast two-hybrid systems with receptor complexes for GA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), to detect GA and JA-Ile transport activities of proteins expressed in the yeast cells. Using these GA and JA-Ile systems as well as the ABA system that we had introduced previously, we determined the capacities of Arabidopsis NPFs to transport these hormones. Several NPFs induced the formation of receptor complexes under relatively low hormone concentrations. Hormone transport activities were confirmed for some NPFs by direct analysis of hormone uptake of yeast cells by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that at least some NPFs could function as hormone transporters.

  11. Mitochondrial ascorbic acid transport is mediated by a low-affinity form of the sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Montesino, Carola; Roa, Francisco J; Peña, Eduardo; González, Mauricio; Sotomayor, Kirsty; Inostroza, Eveling; Muñoz, Carolina A; González, Iván; Maldonado, Mafalda; Soliz, Carlos; Reyes, Alejandro M; Vera, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Coralia I

    2014-05-01

    Despite the fundamental importance of the redox metabolism of mitochondria under normal and pathological conditions, our knowledge regarding the transport of vitamin C across mitochondrial membranes remains far from complete. We report here that human HEK-293 cells express a mitochondrial low-affinity ascorbic acid transporter that molecularly corresponds to SVCT2, a member of the sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter family 2. The transporter SVCT1 is absent from HEK-293 cells. Confocal colocalization experiments with anti-SVCT2 and anti-organelle protein markers revealed that most of the SVCT2 immunoreactivity was associated with mitochondria, with minor colocalization at the endoplasmic reticulum and very low immunoreactivity at the plasma membrane. Immunoblotting of proteins extracted from highly purified mitochondrial fractions confirmed that SVCT2 protein was associated with mitochondria, and transport analysis revealed a sigmoidal ascorbic acid concentration curve with an apparent ascorbic acid transport Km of 0.6mM. Use of SVCT2 siRNA for silencing SVCT2 expression produced a major decrease in mitochondrial SVCT2 immunoreactivity, and immunoblotting revealed decreased SVCT2 protein expression by approximately 75%. Most importantly, the decreased protein expression was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the mitochondrial ascorbic acid transport rate. Further studies using HEK-293 cells overexpressing SVCT2 at the plasma membrane revealed that the altered kinetic properties of mitochondrial SVCT2 are due to the ionic intracellular microenvironment (low in sodium and high in potassium), with potassium acting as a concentration-dependent inhibitor of SVCT2. We discarded the participation of two glucose transporters previously described as mitochondrial dehydroascorbic acid transporters; GLUT1 is absent from mitochondria and GLUT10 is not expressed in HEK-293 cells. Overall, our data indicate that intracellular SVCT2 is localized in mitochondria, is

  12. Prediction of Membrane Transport Proteins and Their Substrate Specificities Using Primary Sequence Information

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nitish K.; Chang, Junil; Zhao, Patrick X.

    2014-01-01

    Background Membrane transport proteins (transporters) move hydrophilic substrates across hydrophobic membranes and play vital roles in most cellular functions. Transporters represent a diverse group of proteins that differ in topology, energy coupling mechanism, and substrate specificity as well as sequence similarity. Among the functional annotations of transporters, information about their transporting substrates is especially important. The experimental identification and characterization of transporters is currently costly and time-consuming. The development of robust bioinformatics-based methods for the prediction of membrane transport proteins and their substrate specificities is therefore an important and urgent task. Results Support vector machine (SVM)-based computational models, which comprehensively utilize integrative protein sequence features such as amino acid composition, dipeptide composition, physico-chemical composition, biochemical composition, and position-specific scoring matrices (PSSM), were developed to predict the substrate specificity of seven transporter classes: amino acid, anion, cation, electron, protein/mRNA, sugar, and other transporters. An additional model to differentiate transporters from non-transporters was also developed. Among the developed models, the biochemical composition and PSSM hybrid model outperformed other models and achieved an overall average prediction accuracy of 76.69% with a Mathews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.49 and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) of 0.833 on our main dataset. This model also achieved an overall average prediction accuracy of 78.88% and MCC of 0.41 on an independent dataset. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that evolutionary information (i.e., the PSSM) and the AAIndex are key features for the substrate specificity prediction of transport proteins. In comparison, similarity-based methods such as BLAST, PSI-BLAST, and hidden Markov models do not provide

  13. Probing protein stability with unnatural amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, D.; Ellman, J.A.; Zhiyuh Chang; Veenstra, D.L.; Kollman, P.A.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1992-06-26

    Unnatural amino acid mutagenesis, in combination with molecular modeling and simulation techniques, was used to probe the effect of side chain structure on protein stability. Specific replacements at position 133 in T4 lysozyme included (1) leucine (wt), norvaline, ethylglycine, and alanine to measure the cost of stepwise removal of methyl groups from the hydrophobic core, (2) norvaline and O-methyl serine to evaluate the effects of side chain solvation, and (3) leucine, S,S-2-amino-4-methylhexanoic acid, and S-2-amino-3-cyclopentylpropanoic acid to measure the influence of packing density and side chain conformational entropy on protein stability. All of these factors (hydrophobicity, packing, conformational entropy, and cavity formation) significantly influence protein stability and must be considered when analyzing any structural change to proteins.

  14. A Numbering System for MFS Transporter Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna; Sands, Zara A.; Biggin, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) is one of the largest classes of secondary active transporters and is widely expressed in many domains of life. It is characterized by a common 12-transmembrane helix motif that allows the selective transport of a vast range of diverse substrates across the membrane. MFS transporters play a central role in many physiological processes and are increasingly recognized as potential drug targets. Despite intensive efforts, there are still only a handful of crystal structures and therefore homology modeling is likely to be a necessary process for providing models to interpret experiments for many years to come. However, the diversity of sequences and the multiple conformational states these proteins can exist in makes the process significantly more complicated, especially for sequences for which there is very little sequence identity to known templates. Inspired by the approach adopted many years ago for GPCRs, we have analyzed the large number of MFS sequences now available alongside the current structural information to propose a series of conserved contact points that can provide additional guidance for the homology modeling process. To enable cross-comparison across MFS models we also present a numbering scheme that can be used to provide a point of reference within each of the 12 transmembrane regions. PMID:27314000

  15. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family of nucleoside and nucleobase transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Young, J D; Yao, S Y M; Sun, L; Cass, C E; Baldwin, S A

    2008-07-01

    1. The human (h) SLC29 family of integral membrane proteins is represented by four members, designated equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) because of the properties of the first-characterized family member, hENT1. They belong to the widely distributed eukaryotic ENT family of equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside/nucleobase transporter proteins. 2. A predicted topology of eleven transmembrane helices has been experimentally confirmed for hENT1. The best-characterized members of the family, hENT1 and hENT2, possess similar broad permeant selectivities for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, but hENT2 also efficiently transports nucleobases. hENT3 has a similar broad permeant selectivity for nucleosides and nucleobases and appears to function in intracellular membranes, including lysosomes. 3. hENT4 is uniquely selective for adenosine, and also transports a variety of organic cations. hENT3 and hENT4 are pH sensitive, and optimally active under acidic conditions. ENTs, including those in parasitic protozoa, function in nucleoside and nucleobase uptake for salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis and, in humans, are also responsible for the cellular uptake of nucleoside analogues used in the treatment of cancers and viral diseases. 4. By regulating the concentration of adenosine available to cell surface receptors, mammalian ENTs additionally influence physiological processes ranging from cardiovascular activity to neurotransmission.

  16. Detection of non-protein amino acids in the presence of protein amino acids. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapshak, P.; Okaji, M.

    1972-01-01

    Studies conducted with the JEOL 5AH amino acid analyzer are described. This instrument makes possible the programming of the chromatographic process. Data are presented showing the separations of seventeen non-protein amino acids in the presence of eighteen protein amino acids. It is pointed out that distinct separations could be obtained in the case of a number of chemically similar compounds, such as ornithine and lysine, N-amidino alanine and arginine, and iminodiacetic acid and S-carboxymethyl cysteine and aspartic acid.

  17. Nucleic acids, proteins, and chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Profy, A. T.; Walstrum, S. A.; Needels, M. C.; Bulack, S. C.; Lo, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with experimental results related, in one case, to the chirality of nucleotides, and, in another case, to the possibility of a link between the chirality of nucleic acids, and that of peptides. It has been found that aminoacylation of the 'internal' hydroxyl group of a dinucleoside monophosphate can occur stereoselectively. However, this reaction has not yet been made a part of a working peptide synthesis scheme. The formation and cleavage of oligonucleotides is considered. In the event of the formation of a helical complex between the oligonucleotide and the polymer, 1-prime,5-prime-bonds in the oligomer are found to become more resistant towards cleavage. The conditions required for peptide bond formation are examined, taking into account the known structures of RNA and possible mechanisms for prebiotic peptide bond formation. The possibility is considered that the 2-prime,5-prime-internucleotide linkage could have played an important part in the early days of biological peptide synthesis.

  18. Transport mechanism and regulatory properties of the human amino acid transporter ASCT2 (SLC1A5).

    PubMed

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Pochini, Lorena; Panni, Simona; Pingitore, Piero; Hedfalk, Kristina; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-11-01

    The kinetic mechanism of the transport catalyzed by the human glutamine/neutral amino acid transporter hASCT2 over-expressed in P. pastoris was determined in proteoliposomes by pseudo-bi-substrate kinetic analysis of the Na(+)-glutamineex/glutaminein transport reaction. A random simultaneous mechanism resulted from the experimental analysis. Purified functional hASCT2 was chemically cross-linked to a stable dimeric form. The oligomeric structure correlated well with the kinetic mechanism of transport. Half-saturation constants (Km) of the transporter for the other substrates Ala, Ser, Asn and Thr were measured both on the external and internal side. External Km were much lower than the internal ones confirming the asymmetry of the transporter. The electric nature of the transport reaction was determined imposing a negative inside membrane potential generated by K(+) gradients in the presence of valinomycin. The transport reaction resulted to be electrogenic and the electrogenicity originated from external Na(+). Internal Na(+) exerted a stimulatory effect on the transport activity which could be explained by a regulatory, not a counter-transport, effect. Native and deglycosylated hASCT2 extracted from HeLa showed the same transport features demonstrating that the glycosyl moiety has no role in transport function. Both in vitro and in vivo interactions of hASCT2 with the scaffold protein PDZK1 were revealed.

  19. Transport of Corilagin, Gallic Acid, and Ellagic Acid from Fructus Phyllanthi Tannin Fraction in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-juan; Liang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Wen-Jing; Han, Shu-Xian; Qi, Qi; Cui, Ya-Ping; Li, Shi; Yang, Guang-Hui; Shao, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the absorption property of the representative hydrolyzable tannin, namely corilagin, and its hydrolysates gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) from the Fructus Phyllanthi tannin fraction (PTF) in vitro. Methods. Caco-2 cells monolayer model was established. Influences of PTF on Caco-2 cells viability were detected with MTT assay. The transport across monolayers was examined for different time points, concentrations, and secretory directions. The inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) and sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and tight junction modulators were used to study the transport mechanism. LC-MS method was employed to quantify the absorption concentration. Results. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values of the three compounds were below 1.0 × 10−6 cm/s. The absorption of corilagin and GA were much lower than their efflux, and the uptake of both compounds was increased in the presence of inhibitors of P-gp and MRPs. The absorption of EA was decreased in the company of OATP and SGLT1 inhibitors. Moreover, the transport of corilagin, GA, and EA was enhanced by tight junction modulators. Conclusion. These observations indicated that the three compounds in PTF were transported via passive diffusion combined with protein mediated transport. P-gp and MRPs might get involved in the transport of corilagin and GA. The absorption of EA could be attributed to OATP and SGLT1 protein. PMID:27738446

  20. Alimentary proteins, amino acids and cholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Blachier, François; Lancha, Antonio H; Boutry, Claire; Tomé, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Numerous data from both epidemiological and experimental origins indicate that some alimentary proteins and amino acids in supplements can modify the blood LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol. After an initial approval of the health claim for soy protein consumption for the prevention of coronary heart disease, more recently it has been concluded from an overall analysis of literature that isolated soy protein with isoflavones only slightly decrease LDL and total cholesterol. Other plant extracts and also some proteins from animal origin have been reported to exert a lowering effect on blood cholesterol when compared with a reference protein (often casein). The underlying mechanisms are still little understood. Individual amino acids and mixture of amino acids have also been tested (mostly in animal studies) for their effects on cholesterol parameters and on cholesterol metabolism. Methionine, lysine, cystine, leucine, aspartate and glutamate have been tested individually and in combination in different models of either normo or hypercholesterolemic animals and found to be able to modify blood cholesterol and/or LDL cholesterol and/or HDL cholesterol. It is however not known if these results are relevant to human nutrition.

  1. Transporters for cationic amino acids in animal cells: discovery, structure, and function.

    PubMed

    Devés, R; Boyd, C A

    1998-04-01

    The structure and function of the four cationic amino acid transporters identified in animal cells are discussed. The systems differ in specificity, cation dependence, and physiological role. One of them, system y+, is selective for cationic amino acids, whereas the others (B[0,+], b[0,+], and y+ L) also accept neutral amino acids. In recent years, cDNA clones related to these activities have been isolated. Thus two families of proteins have been identified: 1) CAT or cationic amino acid transporters and 2) BAT or broad-scope transport proteins. In the CAT family, three genes encode for four different isoforms [CAT-1, CAT-2A, CAT-2(B) and CAT-3]; these are approximately 70-kDa proteins with multiple transmembrane segments (12-14), and despite their structural similarity, they differ in tissue distribution, kinetics, and regulatory properties. System y+ is the expression of the activity of CAT transporters. The BAT family includes two isoforms (rBAT and 4F2hc); these are 59- to 78-kDa proteins with one to four membrane-spanning segments, and it has been proposed that these proteins act as transport regulators. The expression of rBAT and 4F2hc induces system b[0,+] and system y+ L activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes, respectively. The roles of these transporters in nutrition, endocrinology, nitric oxide biology, and immunology, as well as in the genetic diseases cystinuria and lysinuric protein intolerance, are reviewed. Experimental strategies, which can be used in the kinetic characterization of coexpressed transporters, are also discussed.

  2. Structural basis of the alternating-access mechanism in a bile acid transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Levin, Elena J.; Pan, Yaping; McCoy, Jason G.; Sharma, Ruchika; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned to the liver for resecretion. In humans, there are two Na+-dependent bile acid transporters involved in enterohepatic recirculation, the Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP; also known as SLC10A1) expressed in hepatocytes, and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; also known as SLC10A2) expressed on enterocytes in the terminal ileum. In recent years, ASBT has attracted much interest as a potential drug target for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia, because inhibition of ASBT reduces reabsorption of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. However, a lack of three-dimensional structures of bile acid transporters hampers our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and transport, and to interpret the wealth of existing functional data. The crystal structure of an ASBT homologue from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBTNM) in detergent was reported recently, showing the protein in an inward-open conformation bound to two Na+ and a taurocholic acid. However, the structural changes that bring bile acid and Na+ across the membrane are difficult to infer from a single structure. To understand the structural changes associated with the coupled transport of Na+ and bile acids, here we solved two structures of an ASBT homologue from Yersinia frederiksenii (ASBTYf) in a lipid environment, which reveal that a large rigid-body rotation of a substrate-binding domain gives the conserved `crossover' region, where two discontinuous helices cross each other, alternating accessibility from either side of the cell membrane. This result has implications

  3. Greater Transport Efficiencies of the Membrane Fatty Acid Transporters FAT/CD36 and FATP4 Compared with FABPpm and FATP1 and Differential Effects on Fatty Acid Esterification and Oxidation in Rat Skeletal Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, James G.; Alkhateeb, Hakam; Benton, Carley R.; Lally, James; Nickerson, Jennifer; Han, Xiao-Xia; Wilson, Meredith H.; Jain, Swati S.; Snook, Laelie A.; Glatz, Jan F. C.; Chabowski, Adrian; Luiken, Joost J. F. P.; Bonen, Arend

    2009-01-01

    In selected mammalian tissues, long chain fatty acid transporters (FABPpm, FAT/CD36, FATP1, and FATP4) are co-expressed. There is controversy as to whether they all function as membrane-bound transporters and whether they channel fatty acids to oxidation and/or esterification. Among skeletal muscles, the protein expression of FABPpm, FAT/CD36, and FATP4, but not FATP1, correlated highly with the capacities for oxidative metabolism (r ≥ 0.94), fatty acid oxidation (r ≥ 0.88), and triacylglycerol esterification (r ≥ 0.87). We overexpressed independently FABPpm, FAT/CD36, FATP1, and FATP4, within a normal physiologic range, in rat skeletal muscle, to determine the effects on fatty acid transport and metabolism. Independent overexpression of each fatty acid transporter occurred without altering either the expression or plasmalemmal content of other fatty acid transporters. All transporters increased fatty acid transport, but FAT/CD36 and FATP4 were 2.3- and 1.7-fold more effective than FABPpm and FATP1, respectively. Fatty acid transporters failed to alter the rates of fatty acid esterification into triacylglycerols. In contrast, all transporters increased the rates of long chain fatty acid oxidation, but the effects of FABPpm and FAT/CD36 were 3-fold greater than for FATP1 and FATP4. Thus, fatty acid transporters exhibit different capacities for fatty acid transport and metabolism. In vivo, FAT/CD36 and FATP4 are the most effective fatty acid transporters, whereas FABPpm and FAT/CD36 are key for stimulating fatty acid oxidation. PMID:19380575

  4. Regulation of hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Bsep expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xingguo; Buckley, David; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and bile salt export pump (Bsep) are two key transporters for hepatic bile acid uptake and excretion. Alterations in Ntcp and Bsep expression have been reported in pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effects of age, gender, and various chemicals on the regulation of these two transporters were characterized in mice. Ntcp and Bsep mRNA levels in mouse liver were low in the fetus, but increased to its highest expression at parturition. After birth, mouse Ntcp and Bsep mRNA decreased by more than 50%, and then gradually increased to adult levels by day 30. Expression of mouse Ntcp mRNA and protein exhibit higher levels in female than male livers, which is consistent with the trend of human NTCP mRNA expression between men and women. No gender difference exists in BSEP/Bsep expression in human and mouse livers. Hormone replacements conducted in gonadectomized, hypophysectomized, and lit/lit mice indicate that female-predominant Ntcp expression in mouse liver is due to the inhibitory effect of male-pattern GH secretion, but not sex hormones. Ntcp and Bsep expression are in general resistant to induction by a large battery of microsomal enzyme inducers. Administration of cholestyramine increased Ntcp, whereas chenodeoxycholic acid increased Bsep mRNA expression. In silico analysis indicates that female-predominant mouse and human Ntcp/NTCP expression may be due to GH. In conclusion, mouse Ntcp and Bsep are regulated by age, gender, cholestyramine, and bile acid, but resistant to induction by most microsomal enzyme inducers. PMID:17897632

  5. Amino acid repletion does not decrease muscle protein catabolism during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Raj, Dominic S C; Adeniyi, Oladipo; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Boivin, Michel A; McClelland, Sandra; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Morgan, Nancy; Gonzales, Lawrence; Wolfe, Robert; Ferrando, Arny

    2007-06-01

    Intradialytic protein catabolism is attributed to loss of amino acids in the dialysate. We investigated the effect of amino acid infusion during hemodialysis (HD) on muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport kinetics by using stable isotopes of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine in eight patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Subjects were studied at baseline (pre-HD), 2 h of HD without amino acid infusion (HD-O), and 2 h of HD with amino acid infusion (HD+AA). Amino acid depletion during HD-O augmented the outward transport of amino acids from muscle into the vein. Increased delivery of amino acids to the leg during HD+AA facilitated the transport of amino acids from the artery into the intracellular compartment. Increase in muscle protein breakdown was more than the increase in synthesis during HD-O (46.7 vs. 22.3%, P < 0.001). Net balance (nmol.min(-1).100 ml (-1)) was more negative during HD-O compared with pre-HD (-33.7 +/- 1.5 vs. -6.0 +/- 2.3, P < 0.001). Despite an abundant supply of amino acids, the net balance (-16.9 +/- 1.8) did not switch from net release to net uptake. HD+AA induced a proportional increase in muscle protein synthesis and catabolism. Branched chain amino acid catabolism increased significantly from baseline during HD-O and did not decrease during HD+AA. Protein synthesis efficiency, the fraction of amino acid in the intracellular pool that is utilized for muscle protein synthesis decreased from 42.1% pre-HD to 33.7 and 32.6% during HD-O and HD+AA, respectively (P < 0.01). Thus amino acid repletion during HD increased muscle protein synthesis but did not decrease muscle protein breakdown. PMID:17264222

  6. Characterization of mammalian glucose transport proteins using photoaffinity labeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wadzinski, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    A carrier-free radioiodinated phenylazide derivative of forskolin, 3-iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-O-succinyl-deacetyl-forskolin (({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin), has been shown to be a highly selective photoaffinity probe for the human erythrocyte glucose transported and the glucose transport proteins found in several mammalian tissues and cultured cells where the glucose transport protein is present at a low concentration. The photoincorporation of ({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin into these glucose transporters was blocked by D- (but not L-) glucose, cytochalasin B, and forskolin. In addition to labeling the mammalian glucose transport proteins, ({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin also labeled the L-arabinose transporter from E. coli. In muscle and adipose tissues, glucose transport is markedly increased in response to insulin. ({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin was shown to selectivity tag the glucose transporter in membranes derived from these cells. In addition, the covalent derivatization of the transport protein in subcellular fractions of the adipocyte has provided a means to study the hormonal regulation of glucose transport. ({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin has also been used to label the purified human erythrocyte glucose transporter. The site of insertion has therefore been localized by analysis of the radiolabeled peptides which were produced following chemical and proteolytic digestion of the labeled transport protein.

  7. An overview of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Andre, B

    1995-12-01

    All eukaryotic cells contain a wide variety of proteins embedded in the plasma and internal membranes, which ensure transmembrane solute transport. It is now established that a large proportion of these transport proteins can be grouped into families apparently conserved throughout organisms. This article presents the data of an in silicio analysis aimed at establishing a preliminary classification of membrane transport proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was conducted at a time when about 65% of all yeast genes were available in public databases. In addition to approximately 60 transport proteins whose function was at least partially known, approximately 100 deduced protein sequences of unknown function display significant sequence similarity to membrane transport proteins characterized in yeast and/or other organisms. While some protein families have been well characterized by classical genetic experimental approaches, others have largely if not totally escaped characterization. The proteins revealed by this in silicio analysis also include a putative K+ channel, proteins similar to aquaporins of plant and animal origin, proteins similar to Na+-solute symporters, a protein very similar to electroneural cation-chloride cotransporters, and a putative Na+-H+ antiporter. A new research area is anticipated: the functional analysis of many transport proteins whose existence was revealed by genome sequencing.

  8. Insight into determinants of substrate binding and transport in a multidrug efflux protein

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Kamela O.; Paul, Stephanie; Labarbuta, Paola; Law, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance arising from the activity of integral membrane transporter proteins presents a global public health threat. In bacteria such as Escherichia coli, transporter proteins belonging to the major facilitator superfamily make a considerable contribution to multidrug resistance by catalysing efflux of myriad structurally and chemically different antimicrobial compounds. Despite their clinical relevance, questions pertaining to mechanistic details of how these promiscuous proteins function remain outstanding, and the role(s) played by individual amino acid residues in recognition, binding and subsequent transport of different antimicrobial substrates by multidrug efflux members of the major facilitator superfamily requires illumination. Using in silico homology modelling, molecular docking and mutagenesis studies in combination with substrate binding and transport assays, we identified several amino acid residues that play important roles in antimicrobial substrate recognition, binding and transport by Escherichia coli MdtM, a representative multidrug efflux protein of the major facilitator superfamily. Furthermore, our studies suggested that ‘aromatic clamps’ formed by tyrosine and phenylalanine residues located within the substrate binding pocket of MdtM may be important for antimicrobial substrate recognition and transport by the protein. Such ‘clamps’ may be a structurally and functionally important feature of all major facilitator multidrug efflux proteins. PMID:26961153

  9. Identification and application of keto acids transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Peiran; Madzak, Catherine; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-30

    Production of organic acids by microorganisms is of great importance for obtaining building-block chemicals from sustainable biomass. Extracellular accumulation of organic acids involved a series of transporters, which play important roles in the accumulation of specific organic acid while lack of systematic demonstration in eukaryotic microorganisms. To circumvent accumulation of by-product, efforts have being orchestrated to carboxylate transport mechanism for potential clue in Yarrowia lipolytica WSH-Z06. Six endogenous putative transporter genes, YALI0B19470g, YALI0C15488g, YALI0C21406g, YALI0D24607g, YALI0D20108g and YALI0E32901g, were identified. Transport characteristics and substrate specificities were further investigated using a carboxylate-transport-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. These transporters were expressed in Y. lipolytica WSH-Z06 to assess their roles in regulating extracellular keto acids accumulation. In a Y. lipolytica T1 line over expressing YALI0B19470g, α-ketoglutarate accumulated to 46.7 g·L(-1), whereas the concentration of pyruvate decreased to 12.3 g·L(-1). Systematic identification of these keto acids transporters would provide clues to further improve the accumulation of specific organic acids with higher efficiency in eukaryotic microorganisms.

  10. Identification and application of keto acids transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Peiran; Madzak, Catherine; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Production of organic acids by microorganisms is of great importance for obtaining building-block chemicals from sustainable biomass. Extracellular accumulation of organic acids involved a series of transporters, which play important roles in the accumulation of specific organic acid while lack of systematic demonstration in eukaryotic microorganisms. To circumvent accumulation of by-product, efforts have being orchestrated to carboxylate transport mechanism for potential clue in Yarrowia lipolytica WSH-Z06. Six endogenous putative transporter genes, YALI0B19470g, YALI0C15488g, YALI0C21406g, YALI0D24607g, YALI0D20108g and YALI0E32901g, were identified. Transport characteristics and substrate specificities were further investigated using a carboxylate-transport-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. These transporters were expressed in Y. lipolytica WSH-Z06 to assess their roles in regulating extracellular keto acids accumulation. In a Y. lipolytica T1 line over expressing YALI0B19470g, α-ketoglutarate accumulated to 46.7 g·L−1, whereas the concentration of pyruvate decreased to 12.3 g·L−1. Systematic identification of these keto acids transporters would provide clues to further improve the accumulation of specific organic acids with higher efficiency in eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:25633653

  11. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O

    2016-07-01

    Protein forms an essential component of a healthy diet in humans to support both growth and maintenance. During pregnancy, an exceptional stage of life defined by rapid growth and development, adequate dietary protein is crucial to ensure a healthy outcome. Protein deposition in maternal and fetal tissues increases throughout pregnancy, with most occurring during the third trimester. Dietary protein intake recommendations are based on factorial estimates because the traditional method of determining protein requirements, nitrogen balance, is invasive and undesirable during pregnancy. The current Estimated Average Requirement and RDA recommendations of 0.88 and 1.1 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), respectively, are for all stages of pregnancy. The single recommendation does not take into account the changing needs during different stages of pregnancy. Recently, with the use of the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation method, we defined the requirements to be, on average, 1.2 and 1.52 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) during early (∼16 wk) and late (∼36 wk) stages of pregnancy, respectively. Although the requirements are substantially higher than current recommendations, our values are ∼14-18% of total energy and fit within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range. Using swine as an animal model we showed that the requirements for several indispensable amino acids increase dramatically during late gestation compared with early gestation. Additional studies should be conducted during pregnancy to confirm the newly determined protein requirements and to determine the indispensable amino acid requirements during pregnancy in humans. PMID:27422521

  12. Potency of individual bile acids to regulate bile acid synthesis and transport genes in primary human hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Hong; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Lei, Xiaohong; Cui, Julia Yue; Ellis, Ewa; Strom, Stephen C; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate their own homeostasis, but the potency of individual bile acids is not known. This study examined the effects of cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on expression of BA synthesis and transport genes in human primary hepatocyte cultures. Hepatocytes were treated with the individual BAs at 10, 30, and 100μM for 48 h, and RNA was extracted for real-time PCR analysis. For the classic pathway of BA synthesis, BAs except for UDCA markedly suppressed CYP7A1 (70-95%), the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid synthesis, but only moderately (35%) down-regulated CYP8B1 at a high concentration of 100μM. BAs had minimal effects on mRNA of two enzymes of the alternative pathway of BA synthesis, namely CYP27A1 and CYP7B1. BAs increased the two major target genes of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), namely the small heterodimer partner (SHP) by fourfold, and markedly induced fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) over 100-fold. The BA uptake transporter Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide was unaffected, whereas the efflux transporter bile salt export pump was increased 15-fold and OSTα/β were increased 10-100-fold by BAs. The expression of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3; sixfold), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter G5 (ABCG5; sixfold), multidrug associated protein-2 (MRP2; twofold), and MRP3 (threefold) were also increased, albeit to lesser degrees. In general, CDCA was the most potent and effective BA in regulating these genes important for BA homeostasis, whereas DCA and CA were intermediate, LCA the least, and UDCA ineffective.

  13. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions.

  14. Nuclear protein accumulation by facilitated transport and intranuclear binding.

    PubMed

    Paine, P L

    1993-10-01

    Nuclear proteins are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus via nuclear envelope pore complexes (NPCs). At the molecular level, the mechanisms responsible for this transport remain obscure. However, it is known that, for many proteins, the process requires ATP and proceeds against formidable nucleocytoplasmic concentration gradients. Therefore, the NPC is often thought of as an active transport site. In this article, Philip Paine presents the alternative hypothesis that, on current evidence, protein translocation across the nuclear envelope and accumulation in the nucleus can equally well be explained by facilitated transport through the NPC and subsequent intranuclear binding.

  15. Identification of four nuclear transport signal-binding proteins that interact with diverse transport signals.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, L; Kanda, P; Lanford, R E

    1989-07-01

    The transport of proteins into the nucleus requires not only the presence of a nuclear transport signal on the targeted protein but also the signal recognition proteins and the nuclear pore translocation apparatus. Complicating the search for the signal recognition proteins is the fact that the nuclear transport signals identified share little obvious homology. In this study, synthetic peptides homologous to the nuclear transport signals from the simian virus 40 large T antigen, Xenopus oocyte nucleoplasmin, adenovirus E1A, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAT alpha 2 proteins were coupled to a UV-photoactivable cross-linker and iodinated for use in an in vitro cross-linking reaction with cellular lysates. Four proteins, p140, p100, p70, and p55, which specifically interacted with the nuclear transport signal peptides were identified. Unique patterns of reactivity were observed with closely related pairs of nuclear transport signal peptides. Competition experiments with labeled and unlabeled peptides demonstrated that heterologous signals were able to bind the same protein and suggested that diverse signals use a common transport pathway. The subcellular distribution of the four nuclear transport signal-binding proteins suggested that nuclear transport involves both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors. The four proteins were not bound by wheat germ agglutinin and were not associated tightly with the nuclear pore complex.

  16. The mRNA expression of amino acid transporters, aminopeptidase, and the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 in the intestine and liver of post-hatch broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acid transporter (AAT) proteins are responsible for the movement of amino acids (AA) in and out of cells. Aminopeptidase (APN) cleaves AAs from the N terminus of polypeptides making them available for transport, while PepT1 is a di- and tri- peptide transporter. In the intestine, these prote...

  17. Trapping the dynamic acyl carrier protein in fatty acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chi; Haushalter, Robert W.; Lee, D. John; Markwick, Phineus R. L.; Bruegger, Joel; Caldara-Festin, Grace; Finzel, Kara; Jackson, David R.; Ishikawa, Fumihiro; O’Dowd, Bing; McCammon, J. Andrew; Opella, Stanley J.; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Burkart, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) transports the growing fatty acid chain between enzyme domains of fatty acid synthase (FAS) during biosynthesis.1 Because FAS enzymes operate upon ACP-bound acyl groups, ACP must stabilize and transport the growing lipid chain.2 The transient nature of ACP-enzyme interactions imposes a major obstacle to gaining high-resolution structural information about fatty acid biosynthesis, and a new strategy is required to properly study protein-protein interactions. In this work, we describe the application of a mechanism-based probe that allows site-selective covalent crosslinking of AcpP to FabA, the E. coli ACP and fatty acid 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase. We report the 1.9 Å crystal structure of the crosslinked AcpP=FabA complex as a homo-dimer, in which AcpP exhibits two different conformations likely representing snapshots of ACP in action: the 4′-phosphopantetheine (PPant) group of AcpP first binds an arginine-rich groove of FabA, followed by an AcpP helical conformational change that locks the AcpP and FabA in place. Residues at the interface of AcpP and FabA are identified and validated by solution NMR techniques, including chemical shift perturbations and RDC measurements. These not only support our interpretation of the crystal structures but also provide an animated view of ACP in action during fatty acid dehydration. Combined with molecular dynamics simulations, we show for the first time that FabA extrudes the sequestered acyl chain from the ACP binding pocket before dehydration by repositioning helix III. Extensive sequence conservation among carrier proteins suggests that the mechanistic insights gleaned from our studies will prove general for fatty acid, polyketide and non-ribosomal biosyntheses. Here the foundation is laid for defining the dynamic action of carrier protein activity in primary and secondary metabolism, providing insight into pathways that can play major roles in the treatment of cancer, obesity and infectious

  18. Characterization of 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport in Neurospora crassa: a general amino acid permease-specific substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie-Villa, S; DeBusk, R M; DeBusk, A G

    1981-01-01

    We report the characterization of an amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid was transported solely by the general amino acid permease and not by the neutral amino acid permease. Furthermore, this substrate was not metabolized after transport. The potential for a system-specific nonmetabolizable substrate as a tool in the analysis of amino acid transport and its regulation is discussed. PMID:6456264

  19. Prohibitin/annexin 2 interaction regulates fatty acid transport in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Ahmad; Daquinag, Alexes C.; Staquicini, Daniela I.; An, Zhiqiang; Pasqualini, Renata; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified prohibitin (PHB) and annexin A2 (ANX2) as proteins interacting on the surface of vascular endothelial cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) of humans and mice. Here, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB also interact in adipocytes. Mice lacking ANX2 have normal WAT vascularization, adipogenesis, and glucose metabolism but display WAT hypotrophy due to reduced fatty acid uptake by WAT endothelium and adipocytes. By using cell culture systems in which ANX2/PHB binding is disrupted either genetically or through treatment with a blocking peptide, we show that fatty acid transport efficiency relies on this protein complex. We also provide evidence that the interaction between ANX2 and PHB mediates fatty acid transport from the endothelium into adipocytes. Moreover, we demonstrate that ANX2 and PHB form a complex with the fatty acid transporter CD36. Finally, we show that the colocalization of PHB and CD36 on adipocyte surface is induced by extracellular fatty acids. Together, our results suggest that an unrecognized biochemical interaction between ANX2 and PHB regulates CD36-mediated fatty acid transport in WAT, thus revealing a new potential pathway for intervention in metabolic diseases. PMID:27468426

  20. The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Franchi-Gazzola, R; Dall'Asta, V; Sala, R; Visigalli, R; Bevilacqua, E; Gaccioli, F; Gazzola, G C; Bussolati, O

    2006-01-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly energized, system A substrates, such as glutamine, glycine, proline and alanine, reach high transmembrane gradients and constitute major components of the intracellular amino acid pool. Moreover, through a complex array of exchange fluxes, involving other amino acid transporters, and of metabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of glutamate from glutamine, SNAT2 activity influences the cell content of most amino acids, thus determining the overall size and the composition of the intracellular amino acid pool. As amino acids represent a large fraction of cell organic osmolytes, changes of SNAT2 activity are followed by modifications in both cell amino acids and cell volume. This mechanism is utilized by many cell types to perform an effective regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon hypertonic exposure. Under these conditions, the expression of SNAT2 gene is induced and newly synthesized SNAT2 proteins are preferentially targeted to the cell membrane, leading to a significant increase of system A transport Vmax. In cultured human fibroblasts incubated under hypertonic conditions, the specific silencing of SNAT2 expression, obtained with anti-SNAT2 siRNAs, prevents the increase in system A transport activity, hinders the expansion of intracellular amino acid pool, and significantly delays cell volume recovery. These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells.

  1. Amino Acid Recycling in Relation to Protein Turnover 1

    PubMed Central

    Davies, David D.; Humphrey, Thomas J.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of measuring amino acid recycling in Lemna minor are described. The extent to which the recycling of individual amino acids may underestimate protein turnover has been measured for a number of amino acids. The methods have been used to study the relationship between protein turnover and amino acid recycling during nitrogen starvation. It is concluded that following the removal of nitrate from the environment, protein turnover is enhanced, the partitioning of amino acids between protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism is relatively constant, but the total amount of amino acids recycling is increased. PMID:16660236

  2. Nucleic acids encoding metal uptake transporters and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Antosiewicz, Danuta M.; Schachtman, Daniel P.; Clemens, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides LCT1 nucleic acids which encode metal ion uptake transporters. The invention also provides methods of modulating heavy metal and alkali metal uptake in plants. The methods involve producing transgenic plants comprising a recombinant expression cassette containing an LCT1 nucleic acid linked to a plant promoter.

  3. Putative ABC transporter responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. The aatA mutation with an insertion of the neomycin resistance gene within the aatA coding region showed reduced resistance to acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid, whereas the aatA mutation exerted no effects on resistance to various drugs, growth at low pH (adjusted with HCl), assimilation of acetic acid, or resistance to citric acid. Introduction of plasmid pABC101 containing aatA under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter into the aatA mutant restored the defect in acetic acid resistance. In addition, pABC101 conferred acetic acid resistance on E. coli. These findings showed that AatA was a putative ABC transporter conferring acetic acid resistance on the host cell. Southern blot analysis and subsequent nucleotide sequencing predicted the presence of aatA orthologues in a variety of acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The fermentation with A. aceti containing aatA on a multicopy plasmid resulted in an increase in the final yield of acetic acid.

  4. Homologous sugar transport proteins in Escherichia coli and their relatives in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Henderson, P J; Maiden, M C

    1990-01-30

    Separate proteins for proton-linked transport of D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-rhamnose and L-fucose into Escherichia coli are being studied. By cloning and sequencing the appropriate genes, the amino acid sequences of proteins for D-xylose/H+ symport (XylE), L-arabinose/H+ symport (AraE), and part of the protein for D-galactose/H+ symport (GalP) have been determined. These are homologous, with at least 28% identical amino acid residues conserved in the aligned sequences, although their primary sequences are not similar to those of other E. coli transport proteins for lactose, melibiose, or D-glucose. However, they are equally homologous to the passive D-glucose transport proteins from yeast, rat brain, rat adipocytes, human erythrocytes, human liver, and a human hepatoma cell line. The substrate specificity of GalP from E. coli is similar to that of the mammalian glucose transporters. Furthermore, the activities of GalP, AraE and the mammalian glucose transporters are all inhibited by cytochalasin B and N-ethylmaleimide. Conserved residues in the aligned sequences of the bacterial and mammalian transporters are identified, and the possible roles of some in sugar binding, cation binding, cytochalasin binding, and reaction with N-ethylmaleimide are discussed. Each protein is independently predicted to form 12 hydrophobic, membrane-spanning alpha-helices with a central hydrophilic segment, also comprised of alpha-helix. This unifying structural model of the sugar transporters shares features with other ion-linked transport proteins for citrate or tetracycline.

  5. Role of the Intestinal Bile Acid Transporters in Bile Acid and Drug Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane transporters expressed by the hepatocyte and enterocyte play critical roles in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, an effective recycling and conservation mechanism that largely restricts these potentially cytotoxic detergents to the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. In doing so, the hepatic and enterocyte transport systems ensure a continuous supply of bile acids to be used repeatedly during the digestion of multiple meals throughout the day. Absorption of bile acids from the intestinal lumen and export into the portal circulation is mediated by a series of transporters expressed on the enterocyte apical and basolateral membranes. The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter (abbreviated ASBT; gene symbol, SLC10A2) is responsible for the initial uptake of bile acids across the enterocyte brush border membrane. The bile acids are then efficiently shuttled across the cell and exported across the basolateral membrane by the heteromeric Organic Solute Transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. This chapter briefly reviews the tissue expression, physiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and transport properties of the ASBT and OSTα-OSTα. In addition, the chapter discusses the relationship between the intestinal bile acid transporters and drug metabolism, including development of ASBT inhibitors as novel hypocholesterolemic or hepatoprotective agents, prodrug targeting of the ASBT to increase oral bioavailability, and involvement of the intestinal bile acid transporters in drug absorption and drug-drug interactions. PMID:21103970

  6. Carrier-mediated placental transport of cimetidine and valproic acid across differentiating JEG-3 cell layers.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, K; Ueda, C; Yamada, K; Nakamura, A; Hatsuda, Y; Kawanishi, S; Nishii, S; Ogawa, M

    2015-07-01

    Human choriocarcinoma has been used as a model to study trophoblast transcellular drug transport in the placenta. Previous models had limitations regarding low molecular weight drug transport through the intracellular gap junction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate placental carrier-mediated transport across a differentiating JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cell (DJEGs) layer model in which the intracellular gap junction was restricted. Cimetidine is the substrate of an efflux transporter, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). BCRP highly expressed in the placenta, and its function in the DJEGs model was investigated. In addition, the placental drug transport of another efflux transporter, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), and an influx transporter, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT), were examined with various substrates. Cimetidine permeated from the fetal side to the maternal side at significantly high levels and saturated in a dose-dependent manner. The permeability coefficient of a MRP substrate, fluorescein, across the DJEGs model was significantly increased by inhibiting MRP function with probenecid. On the other hand, permeation in the influx direction to the fetal side with a substrate of MCT, valproic acid, had a gentle dose-dependent saturation. These findings suggest that the DJEGs model could be used to evaluate transcellular placental drug transport mediated by major placental transporters.

  7. Characterization of methylaminoisobutyric acid transport by system A in rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Tovar, A R; Avila, E; DeSantiago, S; Torres, N

    2000-07-01

    During lactation, the mammary gland has a large demand for amino acids for the synthesis of milk proteins and fatty acids. Arteriovenous differences in amino acids across the mammary gland show an elevated uptake of small neutral amino acids that are mainly transported via system A. The purpose of this study was to characterize the transport of methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), an amino acid analog used to model transport by system A in lactating rat mammary gland explants. MeAIB accumulation in mammary gland cells increased steadily, and after 3 hours of incubation, the intracellular concentration of the analog was 8-fold higher than the concentration in the medium. MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants showed a Km of 3.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/L and a maximal velocity (Vmax) of 555 +/- 23 pmol/microL intracellular fluid (ICF) x min, indicating a system with high capacity but low affinity for its substrate. MeAIB transport into mammary tissue depended highly on Na+, and the uptake was inhibited by addition of natural and analog small neutral amino acids. Cationic, anionic, and large neutral amino acids did not reduce MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants. Preincubation of mammary gland explants in an amino acid-free medium stimulated MeAIB transport, suggesting an adaptive regulation. The addition of an equimolar mixture of alanine, glycine, and serine to the preincubation medium inhibited stimulation of MeAIB transport. Furthermore, stimulation of MeAIB uptake by amino acid starvation was also prevented by the addition of actinomycin D, cycloheximide, tunicamycin, and colchicine. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increased MeAIB uptake, whereas phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) did not stimulate MeAIB transport. During the first postweaning days, kinetic analyses showed a decrease of 27% in the Vmax. Injection of rat lactating mammary gland mRNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes induced expression of the MeAIB transport system; however, the

  8. Multiple Pathways for Protein Transport to Peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, P.K.; Hettema, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are unique among the organelles of the endomembrane system. Unlike other organelles that derive most if not all of their proteins from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), peroxisomes contain dedicated machineries for import of matrix proteins and insertion of membrane proteins. However, peroxisomes are also able to import a subset of their membrane proteins from the ER. One aspect of peroxisome biology that has remained ill defined is the role the various import pathways play in peroxisome maintenance. In this review, we discuss the available data on matrix and membrane protein import into peroxisomes. PMID:25681696

  9. Multiple pathways for protein transport to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, P K; Hettema, E H

    2015-03-27

    Peroxisomes are unique among the organelles of the endomembrane system. Unlike other organelles that derive most if not all of their proteins from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), peroxisomes contain dedicated machineries for import of matrix proteins and insertion of membrane proteins. However, peroxisomes are also able to import a subset of their membrane proteins from the ER. One aspect of peroxisome biology that has remained ill defined is the role the various import pathways play in peroxisome maintenance. In this review, we discuss the available data on matrix and membrane protein import into peroxisomes.

  10. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA in WP-USA supplements, as compared to the WP-BRA supplements; however, there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  11. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  12. The Role of the Renal Ammonia Transporter Rhcg in Metabolic Responses to Dietary Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bounoure, Lisa; Ruffoni, Davide; Müller, Ralph; Kuhn, Gisela Anna; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    High dietary protein imposes a metabolic acid load requiring excretion and buffering by the kidney. Impaired acid excretion in CKD, with potential metabolic acidosis, may contribute to the progression of CKD. Here, we investigated the renal adaptive response of acid excretory pathways in mice to high-protein diets containing normal or low amounts of acid-producing sulfur amino acids (SAA) and examined how this adaption requires the RhCG ammonia transporter. Diets rich in SAA stimulated expression of enzymes and transporters involved in mediating NH4+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The SAA-rich diet increased diuresis paralleled by downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels. The absence of Rhcg transiently reduced NH4+ excretion, stimulated the ammoniagenic pathway more strongly, and further enhanced diuresis by exacerbating the downregulation of the Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC2) and AQP2, with less phosphorylation of AQP2 at serine 256. The high protein acid load affected bone turnover, as indicated by higher Ca2+ and deoxypyridinoline excretion, phenomena exaggerated in the absence of Rhcg. In animals receiving a high-protein diet with low SAA content, the kidney excreted alkaline urine, with low levels of NH4+ and no change in bone metabolism. Thus, the acid load associated with high-protein diets causes a concerted response of various nephron segments to excrete acid, mostly in the form of NH4+, that requires Rhcg. Furthermore, bone metabolism is altered by a high-protein acidogenic diet, presumably to buffer the acid load. PMID:24652796

  13. Requirement for the heart-type fatty acid binding protein in cardiac fatty acid utilization.

    PubMed

    Binas, B; Danneberg, H; McWhir, J; Mullins, L; Clark, A J

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are abundantly expressed in many animal tissues with high rates of fatty acid metabolism. No physiological role has been demonstrated for any FABP, although these proteins have been implicated in transport of free long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and protection against LCFA toxicity. We report here that mice lacking heart-type FABP (H-FABP) exhibit a severe defect of peripheral (nonhepatic, non-fat) LCFA utilization. In these mice, the heart is unable to efficiently take up plasma LCFAs, which are normally its main fuel, and switches to glucose usage. Altered plasma levels of LCFAs, glucose, lactate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are consistent with depressed peripheral LCFA utilization, intensified carbohydrate usage, and increased hepatic LCFA oxidation; these changes are most pronounced under conditions favoring LCFA oxidation. H-FABP deficiency is only incompletely compensated, however, causing acute exercise intolerance and, at old age, a localized cardiac hypertrophy. These data establish a requirement for H-FABP in cardiac intracellular lipid transport and fuel selection and a major role in metabolic homeostasis. This new animal model should be particularly useful for investigating the significance of peripheral LCFA utilization for heart function, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure.

  14. Mammalian target of rapamycin signalling modulates amino acid uptake by regulating transporter cell surface abundance in primary human trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes for the development of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating placental amino acid transport are largely unknown. Here we combined small interfering (si) RNA-mediated silencing approaches with protein expression/localization and functional studies in cultured primary human trophoblast cells to test the hypothesis that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) regulate amino acid transporters by post-translational mechanisms. Silencing raptor (inhibits mTORC1) or rictor (inhibits mTORC2) markedly decreased basal System A and System L amino acid transport activity but had no effect on growth factor-stimulated amino acid uptake. Simultaneous inhibition of mTORC1 and 2 completely inhibited both basal and growth factor-stimulated amino acid transport activity. In contrast, mTOR inhibition had no effect on serotonin transport. mTORC1 or mTORC2 silencing markedly decreased the plasma membrane expression of specific System A (SNAT2, SLC38A2) and System L (LAT1, SLC7A5) transporter isoforms without affecting global protein expression. In conclusion, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate human trophoblast amino acid transporters by modulating the cell surface abundance of specific transporter isoforms. This is the first report showing regulation of amino acid transport by mTORC2. Because placental mTOR activity and amino acid transport are decreased in human intrauterine growth restriction our data are consistent with the possibility that dysregulation of placental mTOR plays an important role in the development of abnormal fetal growth.

  15. Intestinal dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) transport mediated by the facilitative sugar transporters, GLUT2 and GLUT8.

    PubMed

    Corpe, Christopher P; Eck, Peter; Wang, Jin; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Levine, Mark

    2013-03-29

    Intestinal vitamin C (Asc) absorption was believed to be mediated by the Na(+)-dependent ascorbic acid transporter SVCT1. However, Asc transport across the intestines of SVCT1 knock-out mice is normal indicating that alternative ascorbic acid transport mechanisms exist. To investigate these mechanisms, rodents were gavaged with Asc or its oxidized form dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), and plasma Asc concentrations were measured. Asc concentrations doubled following DHA but not Asc gavage. We hypothesized that the transporters responsible were facilitated glucose transporters (GLUTs). Using Xenopus oocyte expression, we investigated whether facilitative glucose transporters GLUT2 and GLUT5-12 transported DHA. Only GLUT2 and GLUT8, known to be expressed in intestines, transported DHA with apparent transport affinities (Km) of 2.33 and 3.23 mm and maximal transport rates (Vmax) of 25.9 and 10.1 pmol/min/oocyte, respectively. Maximal rates for DHA transport mediated by GLUT2 and GLUT8 in oocytes were lower than maximal rates for 2-deoxy-d-glucose (Vmax of 224 and 32 pmol/min/oocyte for GLUT2 and GLUT8, respectively) and fructose (Vmax of 406 and 116 pmol/min/oocyte for GLUT2 and GLUT8, respectively). These findings may be explained by differences in the exofacial binding of substrates, as shown by inhibition studies with ethylidine glucose. DHA transport activity in GLUT2- and GLUT8-expressing oocytes was inhibited by glucose, fructose, and by the flavonoids phloretin and quercetin. These studies indicate intestinal DHA transport may be mediated by the facilitative sugar transporters GLUT2 and GLUT8. Furthermore, dietary sugars and flavonoids in fruits and vegetables may modulate Asc bioavailability via inhibition of small intestinal GLUT2 and GLUT8.

  16. Function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ABC proteins in lipid transport.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Antje; Devaux, Philippe F; Herrmann, Andreas

    2005-03-21

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic origins are implicated in the transport of lipids. In humans, members of the ABC protein families A, B, C, D and G are mutated in a number of lipid transport and metabolism disorders, such as Tangier disease, Stargardt syndrome, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, adrenoleukodystrophy or sitosterolemia. Studies employing transfection, overexpression, reconstitution, deletion and inhibition indicate the transbilayer transport of endogenous lipids and their analogs by some of these proteins, modulating lipid transbilayer asymmetry. Other proteins appear to be involved in the exposure of specific lipids on the exoplasmic leaflet, allowing their uptake by acceptors and further transport to specific sites. Additionally, lipid transport by ABC proteins is currently being studied in non-human eukaryotes, e.g. in sea urchin, trypanosomatides, arabidopsis and yeast, as well as in prokaryotes such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis. Here, we review current information about the (putative) role of both pro- and eukaryotic ABC proteins in the various phenomena associated with lipid transport. Besides providing a better understanding of phenomena like lipid metabolism, circulation, multidrug resistance, hormonal processes, fertilization, vision and signalling, studies on pro- and eukaryotic ABC proteins might eventually enable us to put a name on some of the proteins mediating transbilayer lipid transport in various membranes of cells and organelles. It must be emphasized, however, that there are still many uncertainties concerning the functions and mechanisms of ABC proteins interacting with lipids. In particular, further purification and reconstitution experiments with an unambiguous role of ATP hydrolysis are needed to demonstrate a clear involvement of ABC proteins in lipid transbilayer asymmetry. PMID:15749056

  17. Transported acid aerosols measured in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Gerald J.; Spengler, John D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Allen, George A.; Raizenne, Mark; Stern, Bonnie

    During the period 29 June 1986-9 August 1986, a field health study assessing the acute health effects of air pollutants on children was conducted at a summer girls' camp on the northern shore of Lake Erie in SW Ontario. Continuous air pollution measurements of SO 2, O 3, NO x, particulate sulfates, light scattering, and meteorological measurements including temperature, dew point, and wind speed and direction were made. Twelve-hour integrated samples of size fractioned particles were also obtained using dichotomous samplers and Harvard impactors equipped with an ammonia denuder for subsequent hydrogen ion determination. Particulate samples were analyzed for trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and Neutron Activation, and for organic and elemental carbon by a thermal/optical technique. The measured aerosol was periodically very acidic with observed 12-h averaged H + concentrations in the range < 10-560 nmoles m -3. The aerosol H + appeared to represent the net strong acidity after H 2SO 4 reaction with NH 3(g). Average daytime concentrations were higher than night-time for aerosol H +, sulfate, fine mass and ozone. Prolonged episodes of atmospheric acidity, sulfate, and ozone were associated with air masses arriving at the measurement site from the west and from the southwest over Lake Erie. Sulfate concentrations measured at the lakeshore camp were more than twice those measured at inland sites during extreme pollution episodes. The concentration gradient observed with onshore flow was potentially due to enhanced deposition near the lakeshore caused by discontinuities in the meteorological fields in this region.

  18. Migration-induced variation of fatty acid transporters and cellular metabolic intensity in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; King, Marisa O; Harmon, Erin; Eyster, Kathleen; Swanson, David L

    2015-10-01

    Because lipids are the main fuel supporting avian endurance activity, lipid transport and oxidation capacities may increase during migration. We measured enzyme activities, mRNA expression and protein levels in pectoralis and heart for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolism pathways to investigate whether these pathways were upregulated during migration. We used yellow-rumped (Setophaga coronata) and yellow (S. petechia) warblers and warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus) as study species because they all show migration-induced increases in organismal metabolic capacities. For yellow-rumped warblers, β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD) activities and fatty acid transporter mRNA and/or protein levels were higher during spring than fall in pectoralis and heart, except that fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) protein levels showed the opposite pattern in heart. Lipid transporter protein levels, but not mRNA expression, in pectoralis and heart of warbling vireos were higher either during spring or fall than summer, but this was not true for HOAD activities. For yellow warblers, pectoralis, but not heart, protein levels of lipid transporters were upregulated during migration relative to summer, but this pattern was not evident for mRNA expression or HOAD activity. Finally, muscle and heart citrate synthase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities showed little seasonal variation for any species. These data suggest that pectoralis and heart lipid transport and catabolism capacities are often, but not universally, important correlates of elevated organismal metabolic capacity during migration. In contrast, migration-induced variation in cellular metabolic intensity and mitochondrial membrane transport are apparently not common correlates of the migratory phenotype in passerines.

  19. Migration-induced variation of fatty acid transporters and cellular metabolic intensity in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; King, Marisa O; Harmon, Erin; Eyster, Kathleen; Swanson, David L

    2015-10-01

    Because lipids are the main fuel supporting avian endurance activity, lipid transport and oxidation capacities may increase during migration. We measured enzyme activities, mRNA expression and protein levels in pectoralis and heart for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolism pathways to investigate whether these pathways were upregulated during migration. We used yellow-rumped (Setophaga coronata) and yellow (S. petechia) warblers and warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus) as study species because they all show migration-induced increases in organismal metabolic capacities. For yellow-rumped warblers, β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD) activities and fatty acid transporter mRNA and/or protein levels were higher during spring than fall in pectoralis and heart, except that fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) protein levels showed the opposite pattern in heart. Lipid transporter protein levels, but not mRNA expression, in pectoralis and heart of warbling vireos were higher either during spring or fall than summer, but this was not true for HOAD activities. For yellow warblers, pectoralis, but not heart, protein levels of lipid transporters were upregulated during migration relative to summer, but this pattern was not evident for mRNA expression or HOAD activity. Finally, muscle and heart citrate synthase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities showed little seasonal variation for any species. These data suggest that pectoralis and heart lipid transport and catabolism capacities are often, but not universally, important correlates of elevated organismal metabolic capacity during migration. In contrast, migration-induced variation in cellular metabolic intensity and mitochondrial membrane transport are apparently not common correlates of the migratory phenotype in passerines. PMID:26194862

  20. Role of ion transporters in the bile acid-induced esophageal injury.

    PubMed

    Laczkó, Dorottya; Rosztóczy, András; Birkás, Klaudia; Katona, Máté; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Tiszlavicz, László; Róka, Richárd; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter; Venglovecz, Viktória

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is considered to be the most severe complication of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which the prolonged, repetitive episodes of combined acidic and biliary reflux result in the replacement of the squamous esophageal lining by columnar epithelium. Therefore, the acid-extruding mechanisms of esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) may play an important role in the defense. Our aim was to identify the presence of acid/base transporters on EECs and to investigate the effect of bile acids on their expressions and functions. Human EEC lines (CP-A and CP-D) were acutely exposed to bile acid cocktail (BAC) and the changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured by microfluorometry. mRNA and protein expression of ion transporters was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We have identified the presence of a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter (NBC), and a Cl(-)-dependent HCO3 (-) secretory mechanism in CP-A and CP-D cells. Acute administration of BAC stimulated HCO3 (-) secretion in both cell lines and the NHE activity in CP-D cells by an inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium release. Chronic administration of BAC to EECs increased the expression of ion transporters compared with nontreated cells. A similar expression pattern was observed in biopsy samples from BE compared with normal epithelium. We have shown that acute administration of bile acids differently alters ion transport mechanisms of EECs, whereas chronic exposure to bile acids increases the expression of acid/base transporters. We speculate that these adaptive processes of EECs represent an important mucosal defense against the bile acid-induced epithelial injury. PMID:27198194

  1. Basolateral protein transport in streptolysin O-permeabilized MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have reconstituted polarized protein transport in streptolysin O- permeabilized MDCK cells from the TGN to the basolateral surface and to the apical surface. These transport steps are dependent on temperature, energy and exogenously supplied cytosol. Using this in vitro system we show that a whole tail peptide (WT peptide) corresponding to the cytoplasmic tail of a basolaterally sorted protein, the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) inhibits the TGN to basolateral transport but does not affect any other transport step. Inhibition of VSV G transport to basolateral surface by WT peptide did not result in missorting of the protein to the apical surface. Mutation of the single tyrosine residue in the WT peptide reduced its inhibitory potency four- to fivefold. These results suggest that the VSV G tail physically interacts with a component of the sorting machinery. Using a cross- linking approach, we have identified proteins that associate with the cytoplasmic tail domain of VSV G. One of these polypeptides, Tin-2 (Tail interacting protein-2), associates with VSV G in the TGN, the site of protein sorting, but not in the ER nor at the cell surface. Tin- 2 does not associate with apically targeted hemagglutinin. WT peptide that inhibited the basolateral transport of VSV G also inhibited the association of Tin-2 with VSV G. Together, these properties make Tin-2 a candidate basolateral sorter. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the SLO-permeabilized cell system in dissecting the sorting machinery. PMID:8195286

  2. Proton-dependent glutamine uptake by aphid bacteriocyte amino acid transporter ApGLNT1.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Wilson, Alex C C; Luetje, Charles W

    2015-10-01

    Aphids house large populations of the gammaproteobacterial symbiont Buchnera aphidicola in specialized bacteriocyte cells. The combined biosynthetic capability of the holobiont (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Buchnera) is sufficient for biosynthesis of all twenty protein coding amino acids, including amino acids that animals alone cannot synthesize; and that are present at low concentrations in A. pisum's plant phloem sap diet. Collaborative holobiont amino acid biosynthesis depends on glutamine import into bacteriocytes, which serves as a nitrogen-rich amino donor for biosynthesis of other amino acids. Recently, we characterized A. pisum glutamine transporter 1 (ApGLNT1), a member of the amino acid/auxin permease family, as the dominant bacteriocyte plasma membrane glutamine transporter. Here we show ApGLNT1 to be structurally and functionally related to mammalian proton-dependent amino acid transporters (PATs 1-4). Using functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, combined with two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we demonstrate that ApGLNT1 is electrogenic and that glutamine induces large inward currents. ApGLNT1 glutamine induced currents are dependent on external glutamine concentration, proton (H+) gradient across the membrane, and membrane potential. Based on these transport properties, ApGLNT1-mediated glutamine uptake into A. pisum bacteriocytes can be regulated by changes in either proton gradients across the plasma membrane or membrane potential. PMID:26028424

  3. Sequencing proteins with transverse ionic transport in nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Paul; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2016-05-01

    De novo protein sequencing is essential for understanding cellular processes that govern the function of living organisms and all sequence modifications that occur after a protein has been constructed from its corresponding DNA code. By obtaining the order of the amino acids that compose a given protein one can then determine both its secondary and tertiary structures through structure prediction, which is used to create models for protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease. Here, we propose a new technique for de novo protein sequencing that involves translocating a polypeptide through a synthetic nanochannel and measuring the ionic current of each amino acid through an intersecting perpendicular nanochannel. We find that the distribution of ionic currents for each of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids encoded by eukaryotic genes is statistically distinct, showing this technique’s potential for de novo protein sequencing.

  4. Sequencing proteins with transverse ionic transport in nanochannels

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Paul; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    De novo protein sequencing is essential for understanding cellular processes that govern the function of living organisms and all sequence modifications that occur after a protein has been constructed from its corresponding DNA code. By obtaining the order of the amino acids that compose a given protein one can then determine both its secondary and tertiary structures through structure prediction, which is used to create models for protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease. Here, we propose a new technique for de novo protein sequencing that involves translocating a polypeptide through a synthetic nanochannel and measuring the ionic current of each amino acid through an intersecting perpendicular nanochannel. We find that the distribution of ionic currents for each of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids encoded by eukaryotic genes is statistically distinct, showing this technique’s potential for de novo protein sequencing. PMID:27140520

  5. Fatty acid transport and utilization for the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Edmond, J; Higa, T A; Korsak, R A; Bergner, E A; Lee, W N

    1998-03-01

    To determine the transport and utilization of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the developing brain and other organs, artificially reared rat pups were fed a rat milk substitute containing the perdeuterated (each 97 atom% deuterium) fatty acids, i.e., palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic, from day 7 after birth to day 14 as previously described. Fatty acids in lipid extracts of the liver, lung, kidney, and brain were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their content of each of the deuterated fatty acids. The uptake and metabolism of perdeuterated fatty acid lead to the appearance of three distinct groups of isotopomers: the intact perdeuterated, the newly synthesized (with recycled deuterium), and the natural unlabeled fatty acid. The quantification of these isotopomers permits the estimation of uptake and de novo synthesis of these fatty acids. Intact perdeuterated palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids from the diet were found in liver, lung, and kidney, but not in brain. By contrast, perdeuterated linoleic acid was found in all these organs. Isotopomers of fatty acid from de novo synthesis were observed in palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids in all tissues. The highest enrichment of isotopomers with recycled deuterium was found in the brain. The data indicate that, during the brain growth spurt and the prelude to myelination, the major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in brain lipids are exclusively produced locally by de novo biosynthesis. Consequently, the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids must be transported and delivered to the brain by highly specific mechanisms.

  6. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Atshaves, B.P.; Martin, G.G.; Hostetler, H.A.; McIntosh, A.L.; Kier, A.B.; Schroeder, F.

    2010-01-01

    While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them for rapid removal in oxidative (mitochondria, peroxisomes) or storage (endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets) organelles. Mammals have a large (15 member) family of FABPs with multiple members occurring within a single cell type. The first described FABP, liver-FABP (L-FABP, or FABP1), is expressed in very high levels (2-5% of cytosolic protein) in liver as well as intestine and kidney. Since L-FABP facilitates uptake and metabolism of LCFAs in vitro and in cultured cells, it was expected that abnormal function or loss of L-FABP would reduce hepatic LCFA uptake/oxidation and thereby increase LCFAs available for oxidation in muscle and/or storage in adipose. This prediction was confirmed in vitro with isolated liver slices and cultured primary hepatocytes from L-FABP gene-ablated mice. Despite unaltered food consumption when fed a control diet ad libitum, the L-FABP null mice exhibited age- and sex-dependent weight gain and increased fat tissue mass. The obese phenotype was exacerbated in L-FABP null mice pair-fed a high fat diet. Taken together with other findings, these data suggest that L-FABP could have an important role in preventing age- or diet-induced obesity. PMID:20537520

  7. Primordial transport of sugars and amino acids via Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, William; Rau, Aruna

    1981-09-01

    Experimental support is given for a model concerning the origin of a primordial transport system. The model is based on the facilitated diffusion of amino acids stimulated by aliphatic aldehyde carriers and sugars stimulated by aliphatic amine carriers. The lipid-soluble diffusing species is the Schiff base. The possible role of this simple transport system in the origin of an early protocell is discussed.

  8. The effect of transport stress on turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) liver acute phase proteins gene expression.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andreia Tomás; Lecchi, Cristina; Grilli, Guido; Giudice, Chiara; Nodari, Sara Rota; Vinco, Leonardo J; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transport-related stress on the liver gene expression of four acute phase proteins (APP), namely α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and PIT54, in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A group of seven BUT BIG 6 commercial hens was subjected to a two-hour long road transportation and the quantitative gene expression of APP in the liver was compared to that of a non transported control group. The expression of AGP and CRP mRNA was found to be increased in animals slaughtered after road transport. The presence of AGP protein was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results of this study showed that road-transport may induce the mRNA expression of immune related proteins. The finding that AGP and CRP can be upregulated during transport could suggest their use as for the assessment of turkey welfare during transport.

  9. Transport Vesicle Tethering at the Trans Golgi Network: Coiled Coil Proteins in Action.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pak-Yan P; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi complex is decorated with so-called Golgin proteins that share a common feature: a large proportion of their amino acid sequences are predicted to form coiled-coil structures. The possible presence of extensive coiled coils implies that these proteins are highly elongated molecules that can extend a significant distance from the Golgi surface. This property would help them to capture or trap inbound transport vesicles and to tether Golgi mini-stacks together. This review will summarize our current understanding of coiled coil tethers that are needed for the receipt of transport vesicles at the trans Golgi network (TGN). How do long tethering proteins actually catch vesicles? Golgi-associated, coiled coil tethers contain numerous binding sites for small GTPases, SNARE proteins, and vesicle coat proteins. How are these interactions coordinated and are any or all of them important for the tethering process? Progress toward understanding these questions and remaining, unresolved mysteries will be discussed.

  10. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  11. Dual capacity for nutrient uptake in Tetrahymena. V. Utilization of amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    Orias, E; Rasmussen, L

    1979-04-01

    We investigated the relative contributions of phagocytosis and plasma membrane transport to the uptake of amino acids and a protein (egg albumin) in amounts which allow Tetrahymena thermophila to grow and multiply. We used a mutant capable of indefinite growth without food vacuole formation (phagocytosis) and its wild type (phagocytosis-competent) isogenic parental strain. Our results suggest that phagocytosis is not required for free amino acid uptake, most or all of which can be attributed to carrier-mediated transport systems, apparently located on the plasma membrane. In contrast, phagocytosis is required for utilization of the protein. Proteins can supply required amino acids in amounts sufficient for growth only when food vacuoles are formed. We conclude that Tetrahymena thermophila either possesses no endocytic mechanisms at the cell surface other than food vacuole formation or, if it does, these putative mechanisms are not capable of nutritionally meaningful rates of protein uptake.

  12. Biomimetic materials for protein storage and transport

    DOEpatents

    Firestone, Millicent A.; Laible, Philip D.

    2012-05-01

    The invention provides a method for the insertion of protein in storage vehicles and the recovery of the proteins from the vehicles, the method comprising supplying isolated protein; mixing the isolated protein with a fluid so as to form a mixture, the fluid comprising saturated phospholipids, lipopolymers, and a surfactant; cycling the mixture between a first temperature and a second temperature; maintaining the mixture as a solid for an indefinite period of time; diluting the mixture in detergent buffer so as to disrupt the composition of the mixture, and diluting to disrupt the fluid in its low viscosity state for removal of the guest molecules by, for example, dialysis, filtering or chromatography dialyzing/filtering the emulsified solid.

  13. Nucleic acids encoding human trithorax protein

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Glen A.; Djabali, Malek; Selleri, Licia; Parry, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an isolated peptide having the characteristics of human trithorax protein (as well as DNA encoding same, antisense DNA derived therefrom and antagonists therefor). The invention peptide is characterized by having a DNA binding domain comprising multiple zinc fingers and at least 40% amino acid identity with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein and at least 70% conserved sequence with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein, and wherein said peptide is encoded by a gene located at chromosome 11 of the human genome at q23. Also provided are methods for the treatment of subject(s) suffering from immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer by administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of one of the above-described agents (i.e., peptide, antagonist therefor, DNA encoding said peptide or antisense DNA derived therefrom). Also provided is a method for the diagnosis, in a subject, of immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer associated with disruption of chromosome 11 at q23.

  14. Membrane transporter proteins: a challenge for CNS drug development

    PubMed Central

    Girardin, François

    2006-01-01

    Drug transporters are membrane proteins present in various tissues such as the lymphocytes, intestine, liver, kidney, testis, placenta, and central nervous system. These transporters play a significant role in drug absorption and distribution to organic systems, particularly if the organs are protected by blood-organ barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier or the maternal-fetal barrier. In contrast to neurotransmitters and receptor-coupled transporters or other modes of interneuronal transmission, drug transporters are not directly involved in specific neuronal functions, but provide global protection to the central nervous system. The lack of capillary fenestration, the low pinocytic activity, and the tight junctions between brain capillary and choroid plexus endothelial cells represent further gatekeepers limiting the entrance of endogenous and exogenous compounds into the central nervous system. Drug transport is a result of the concerted action of efflux and influx pumps (transporters) located both in the basolateral and apical membranes of brain capillary and choroid plexus endothelial cells. By regulating efflux and influx of endogenous or exogenous substances, the blood-brain barrier and, to a lesser extent, the blood-cerebrospinal barrier in the ventricles, represents the main interface between the central nervous system and the blood, ie, the rest of the body. As drug distribution to organs is dependent on the affinity of a substrate for a specific transport system, membrane transporter proteins are increasingly recognized as a key determinant of drug disposition. Many drug transporters are members of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily or the solute-linked carrier (SLC) class. The multidrug resistance protein MDR1 (ABCB1), also called P-glycoprotein, the multidrug resistance-associated proteins MRP1 (ABCC1) and MRP2 (ABCC2), and the breast cancer-resistance protein BCRP (ABCG2) are ATP-dependent efflux

  15. SCMMTP: identifying and characterizing membrane transport proteins using propensity scores of dipeptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying putative membrane transport proteins (MTPs) and understanding the transport mechanisms involved remain important challenges for the advancement of structural and functional genomics. However, the transporter characters are mainly acquired from MTP crystal structures which are hard to crystalize. Therefore, it is desirable to develop bioinformatics tools for the effective large-scale analysis of available sequences to identify novel transporters and characterize such transporters. Results This work proposes a novel method (SCMMTP) based on the scoring card method (SCM) using dipeptide composition to identify and characterize MTPs from an existing dataset containing 900 MTPs and 660 non-MTPs which are separated into a training dataset consisting 1,380 proteins and an independent dataset consisting 180 proteins. The SCMMTP produced estimating propensity scores for amino acids and dipeptides as MTPs. The SCMMTP training and test accuracy levels respectively reached 83.81% and 76.11%. The test accuracy of support vector machine (SVM) using a complicated classification method with a low possibility for biological interpretation and position-specific substitution matrix (PSSM) as a protein feature is 80.56%, thus SCMMTP is comparable to SVM-PSSM. To identify MTPs, SCMMTP is applied to three datasets including: 1) human transmembrane proteins, 2) a photosynthetic protein dataset, and 3) a human protein database. MTPs showing α-helix rich structure is agreed with previous studies. The MTPs used residues with low hydration energy. It is hypothesized that, after filtering substrates, the hydrated water molecules need to be released from the pore regions. Conclusions SCMMTP yields estimating propensity scores for amino acids and dipeptides as MTPs, which can be used to identify novel MTPs and characterize transport mechanisms for use in further experiments. Availability http://iclab.life.nctu.edu.tw/iclab_webtools/SCMMTP/ PMID:26677931

  16. Placenta Copper Transport Proteins in Preeclampsia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Placental insufficiency underlying preeclampsia (PE) is associated with impaired placental angiogenesis. As copper (Cu) is essential to angiogenesis, we investigated differences in the expression of placental Cu transporters Menkes (ATP7A), Wilsons (ATP7B) and the Cu chaperone (CCS) for superoxide d...

  17. The Sec translocon mediated protein transport in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Denks, Kärt; Vogt, Andreas; Sachelaru, Ilie; Petriman, Narcis-Adrian; Kudva, Renuka; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Protein transport via the Sec translocon represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism for delivering cytosolically-synthesized proteins to extra-cytosolic compartments. The Sec translocon has a three-subunit core, termed Sec61 in Eukaryotes and SecYEG in Bacteria. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of Eukaryotes and in the cytoplasmic membrane of Bacteria where it constitutes a channel that can be activated by multiple partner proteins. These partner proteins determine the mechanism of polypeptide movement across the channel. During SRP-dependent co-translational targeting, the ribosome threads the nascent protein directly into the Sec channel. This pathway is in Bacteria mainly dedicated for membrane proteins but in Eukaryotes also employed by secretory proteins. The alternative pathway, leading to post-translational translocation across the Sec translocon engages an ATP-dependent pushing mechanism by the motor protein SecA in Bacteria and a ratcheting mechanism by the lumenal chaperone BiP in Eukaryotes. Protein transport and biogenesis is also assisted by additional proteins at the lateral gate of SecY/Sec61α and in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the periplasm of bacterial cells. The modular assembly enables the Sec complex to transport a vast array of substrates. In this review we summarize recent biochemical and structural information on the prokaryotic and eukaryotic Sec translocons and we describe the remarkably complex interaction network of the Sec complexes.

  18. Effect of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transport in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Udey, M C; Parker, C W

    1982-02-01

    The role of arachidonic acid metabolism (or metabolites) in the modulation of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transport in resting and concanavalin A-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated using previously characterized inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. Nordihydroguairetic acid (a nonselective antioxidant), 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (an inhibitor of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities), indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid (selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors), and 1-benzylimidazole, Ro-22-3581 and Ro-22-3582 (thromboxane synthetase inhibitors) proved to be potent inhibitors of amino acid transport activity in normal resting and lectin-activated lymphocytes at concentrations known to decrease thromboxane A2 production. The rank order of effectiveness of these various inhibitors compared favorably with their relative potencies as inhibitors of thromboxane B2 synthesis under the same conditions, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Inhibitory effects noted were not due to overt cytotoxicity and seemed to involve changes primarily in the Vmax and not the Km of the transport process. Drug-induced alterations in the magnitude of concanavalin A binding were not observed. These results suggest that the activity of amino acid transport systems can be influenced by certain arachidonic acid metabolites, probably thromboxanes, in both stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes. In addition, these findings may provide a partial explanation for the observation that inhibitors of thromboxane formation prevent lymphocyte mitogenesis.

  19. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2009-04-28

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  20. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  1. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  2. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-12-06

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  3. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-03-22

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  4. Intracellular delivery of functional proteins via decoration with transporter peptides.

    PubMed

    Siprashvili, Zurab; Reuter, Jason A; Khavari, Paul A

    2004-05-01

    Despite numerous attractive intracellular targets, protein therapeutics have been principally confined to the extracellular space due to the lack of a straightforward way to deliver functional polypeptides to the cell interior. Peptide sequences facilitating intracellular protein delivery have been identified; however, current strategies to apply them require problematic steps, such as generation of new in-frame fusion proteins, covalent chemical conjugation, and denaturation. We have developed a new approach to protein transfer into cells and tissues that relies on single-step decoration by cysteine-flanked, arginine-rich transporter peptides. This approach facilitated cell and tissue delivery of a variety of functional proteins, including antibodies and enzymes. Decoration with transporter peptides thus provides an attractive general means of intracellular delivery of functional proteins in vitro and in tissue.

  5. IFT-Cargo Interactions and Protein Transport in Cilia.

    PubMed

    Lechtreck, Karl F

    2015-12-01

    The motile and sensory functions of cilia and flagella are indispensable for human health. Cilia assembly requires a dedicated protein shuttle, intraflagellar transport (IFT), a bidirectional motility of multi-megadalton protein arrays along ciliary microtubules. IFT functions as a protein carrier delivering hundreds of distinct proteins into growing cilia. IFT-based protein import and export continue in fully grown cilia and are required for ciliary maintenance and sensing. Large ciliary building blocks might depend on IFT to move through the transition zone, which functions as a ciliary gate. Smaller, freely diffusing proteins, such as tubulin, depend on IFT to be concentrated or removed from cilia. As I discuss here, recent work provides insights into how IFT interacts with its cargoes and how the transport is regulated. PMID:26498262

  6. Cellular distribution of the neutral amino acid transporter subtype ASCT2 in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, Catherine M; Shao, Zongjun; LeMaistre, Jillian L; Anderson, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    ASCT2 is an ASC (alanine-, serine-, cysteine-preferring) neutral amino acid exchanger that may regulate CNS function by transporting amino acid substrates including L-serine, L-cysteine, L-glutamine, L-glutamate and D-serine. Despite the potentially important role of ASCT2 in influencing metabolic and signaling functions of these amino acids in brain, there has been little description of its distribution in brain tissue. We employed a commercially available human ASCT2 antibody in immunohistochemistry studies in adult mouse brain and found a wide regional distribution for ASCT2 that was limited to dendrites labeled by anti-microtubule-associated protein-2 in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. No ASCT2 immunoreactivity was observed in areas labeled by antibodies against a neuronal cell body marker (NeuN), or either of the astrocyte markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein or S100beta. In cerebellum both Purkinje cell bodies and dendrites were positive for ASCT2 immunoreactivity. In support of a dendritic localization for ASCT2 in cortex, low affinity (K(T) > 1 mM), Na(+)-dependent D-serine and L-glutamine uptake characteristic of ASCT2-mediated transport was observed in P2 synaptosomal preparations. These results suggest that ASCT2 may be an important neuronal neutral amino acid transporter and highlight a discrepancy between findings of astrocyte ASCT2 function in tissue culture and brain in situ.

  7. The Involvement of Transport Proteins in Transcriptional and Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Västermark, Åke; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Transport proteins have sometimes gained secondary regulatory functions that influence gene expression and metabolism. These functions allow communication with the external world via mechanistically distinctive signal transduction pathways. In this brief review we focus on three transport systems in Escherichia coli that control and coordinate carbon, exogenous hexose-phosphate and phosphorous metabolism. The transport proteins that play central roles in these processes are (1) the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system, PTS, (2) the glucose-6-phosphate receptor, UhpC, and (3) the phosphate-specific transporter, PstSABC, respectively. While the PTS participates in multiple complex regulatory processes, three of which are discussed here, UhpC and the Pst transporters exemplify differing strategies. PMID:24513656

  8. Substrate specificity of amino acid transport in sheep erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Young, J D; Ellory, J C

    1977-01-01

    The specificity of amino acid transport in normal (high-glutathione) sheep erythrocytes was investigated by studying the interaction of various neutral and dibasic amino acids in both competition and exchange experiments. Apparent Ki values were obtained for amino acids as inhibitors of L-alanine influx. Amino acids previously found to be transported by high-glutathione cells at fast rates (L-cysteine, L-alpha-amino-n-butyrate) were the most effective inhibitors. D-Alanine and D-alpha-amino-n-butyrate were without effect. Of the remaining amino acids studied, only L-norvaline, L-valine, L-norleucine, L-serine and L-2,4-diamino-n-butyrate significantly inhibited L-alanine uptake. L-Alanine efflux from pre-loaded cells was markedly stimulated by extracellular L-alanine. Those amino acids that inhibited L-alanine influx also stimulated L-alanine efflux. In addition, D-alanine, D-alpha-amino-n-biutyrate, L-threonine, L-asparagine, L-alpha, beta-diaminoproprionate, L-ornithine, L-lysine and S-2-aminoethyl-L-cysteine also significantly stimulated L-alanine efflux. L-Lysine uptake was inhibited by L-alanine but not by D-alanine, and the inhibitory potency of L-alanine was not influenced by the replacement of Na+ in the incubation medium with choline. L-Lysine efflux from pre-loaded cells was stimulated by L-alanine but not by D-alanine. It is concluded that these cells possess a highly selective stero-specific amino acid-transport system. Although the optimum substrates are small neutral amino acids, this system also has a significant affinity for dibasic amino acids. PMID:849280

  9. The SLC36 family of proton-coupled amino acid transporters and their potential role in drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, David T; Anderson, Catriona MH

    2011-01-01

    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) 36 family are involved in transmembrane movement of amino acids and derivatives. SLC36 consists of four members. SLC36A1 and SLC36A2 both function as H+-coupled amino acid symporters. SLC36A1 is expressed at the luminal surface of the small intestine but is also commonly found in lysosomes in many cell types (including neurones), suggesting that it is a multipurpose carrier with distinct roles in different cells including absorption in the small intestine and as an efflux pathway following intralysosomal protein breakdown. SLC36A1 has a relatively low affinity (Km 1–10 mM) for its substrates, which include zwitterionic amino and imino acids, heterocyclic amino acids and amino acid-based drugs and derivatives used experimentally and/or clinically to treat epilepsy, schizophrenia, bacterial infections, hyperglycaemia and cancer. SLC36A2 is expressed at the apical surface of the human renal proximal tubule where it functions in the reabsorption of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. SLC36A2 also transports amino acid derivatives but has a narrower substrate selectivity and higher affinity (Km 0.1–0.7 mM) than SLC36A1. Mutations in SLC36A2 lead to hyperglycinuria and iminoglycinuria. SLC36A3 is expressed only in testes and is an orphan transporter with no known function. SLC36A4 is widely distributed at the mRNA level and is a high-affinity (Km 2–3 µM) transporter for proline and tryptophan. We have much to learn about this family of transporters, but from current knowledge, it seems likely that their function will influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of amino acid-based drugs by mediating transport in both the small intestine and kidney. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Transporters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-7 PMID:21501141

  10. A rapid method of reconstituting human erythrocyte sugar transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, A; Melchior, D L

    1984-06-01

    A rapid reconstitution procedure for human erythrocyte hexose transfer activity is described. The procedure (reverse-phase evaporation) avoids exposure of the isolated proteins to detergent, organic solvent, sonication, or freeze-thaw steps during insertion into synthetic membranes and may be effected within 15 min. The so-formed vesicles are unilamellar structures with a large encapsulated volume, narrow size range, and low passive permeabilities. Contamination by carry-through of endogenous (red cell) lipids is less than 1%. Reconstituted hexose transfer activity was examined by using unfractionated proteins (bands 3, 4.5, and 6) and purified proteins (bands 4.5 and 3). With unfractionated proteins, hexose transport activity is low [0.34 mumol X (mg of protein)-1 X min-1], is inhibited by cytochalasin B, and increases monotonically with protein concentration. Kinetic analysis indicates that Vmax values for both influx and efflux of D-glucose are identical. Reconstitution of the cytochalasin B binding protein (band 4.5) results in hexose transport with high specific activity [5 mumol X (mg of protein)-1 X min-1] and symmetry in transfer kinetics. Band 3 proteins also appear to mediate cytochalasin B sensitive D-glucose transport activity.

  11. The role of Monosaccharide Transport Proteins in carbohydrate assimilation, distribution, metabolism and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cura, Anthony J.; Carruthers, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The facilitated diffusion of glucose, galactose, fructose, urate, myoinositol and dehydroascorbic acid in mammals is catalyzed by a family of 14 monosaccharide transport proteins called GLUTs. These transporters may be divided into 3 classes according to sequence similarity and function/substrate specificity. GLUT1 appears to be highly expressed in glycolytically active cells and has been co-opted in vitamin C auxotrophs to maintain the redox state of the blood through transport of dehydroascorbate. Several GLUTs are definitive glucose/galactose transporters, GLUT2 and GLUT5 are physiologically important fructose transporters, GLUT9 appears to be a urate transporter while GLUT13 (HMIT1) is a proton/myoinositol co-transporter. The physiologic substrates of some GLUTs remain to be established. The GLUTs are expressed in a tissue specific manner where affinity, specificity and capacity for substrate transport are paramount for tissue function. Although great strides have been made in characterizing GLUT-catalyzed monosaccharide transport and mapping GLUT membrane topography and determinants of substrate specificity, a unifying model for GLUT structure and function remains elusive. The GLUTs play a major role in carbohydrate homeostasis and the redistribution of sugar-derived carbons among the various organ systems. This is accomplished through a multiplicity of GLUT-dependent glucose sensing and effector mechanisms that regulate monosaccharide ingestion, absorption, distribution, cellular transport and metabolism and recovery/retention. Glucose transport and metabolism have co-evolved in mammals to support cerebral glucose utilization. PMID:22943001

  12. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in regulating asymmetric auxin distribution in multiple developmental processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue differentiation and tropic responses. All PIN proteins have a similar structure with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains separated by a central hydrophilic domain. The structure of the hydrophobic domains is well conserved. The hydrophilic domain is more divergent and it determines eight groups within the protein family. The activity of PIN proteins is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, protein stability, subcellular localization and transport activity. Different endogenous and environmental signals can modulate PIN activity and thus modulate auxin-distribution-dependent development. A large group of PIN proteins, including the most ancient members known from mosses, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and they regulate the subcellular compartmentalization of auxin and thus auxin metabolism. Further work is needed to establish the physiological importance of this unexpected mode of auxin homeostasis regulation. Furthermore, the evolution of PIN-based transport, PIN protein structure and more detailed biochemical characterization of the transport function are important topics for further studies. PMID:20053306

  13. Acid-base transport in pancreas—new challenges

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ivana; Haanes, Kristian A.; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+) and base (HCO−3) transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges of transporting acid and bases across epithelia and effectively regulating their intracellular pH. In this review, we will make use of comparative physiology to enlighten the cellular mechanisms of pancreatic HCO−3 and fluid secretion, which is still challenging physiologists. Some of the novel transporters to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H+-K+-ATPases), as well as the calcium-activated K+ and Cl− channels, such as KCa3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signaling, fine-tune, and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport contributes to pancreatic diseases including cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, and cancer. PMID:24391597

  14. Microscopic modeling of charge transport in sensing proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, Lino; Millithaler, Jean-Francois; Pennetta, Cecilia

    2012-06-01

    Sensing proteins (receptors) are nanostructures that exhibit very complex behaviors (ions pumping, conformational change, reaction catalysis, etc). They are constituted by a specific sequence of amino acids within a codified spatial organization. The functioning of these macromolecules is intrinsically connected with their spatial structure, which modifications are normally associated with their biological function. With the advance of nanotechnology, the investigation of the electrical properties of receptors has emerged as a demanding issue. Beside the fundamental interest, the possibility to exploit the electrical properties for the development of bioelectronic devices of new generations has attracted major interest. From the experimental side, we investigate three complementary kinds of measurements: (1) current-voltage (I-V) measurements in nanometric layers sandwiched between macroscopic contacts, (2) I-V measurements within an AFM environment in nanometric monolayers deposited on a conducting substrate, and (3) electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements on appropriate monolayers of self-assembled samples. From the theoretical side, a microscopic interpretation of these experiments is still a challenging issue. This paper reviews recent theoretical results carried out within the European project, Bioelectronic Olfactory Neuron Device, which provides a first quantitative interpretation of charge transport experiments exploiting static and dynamic electrical properties of several receptors. To this purpose, we have developed an impedance network protein analogue (INPA) which considers the interaction between neighboring amino acids within a given radius as responsible of charge transfer throughout the protein. The conformational change, due to the sensing action produced by the capture of the ligand (photon, odour), induces a modification of the spatial structure and, thus, of the electrical properties of the receptor. By a scaling procedure, the

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of fatty acid transporters and MCT1 in the sebaceous glands of mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Miao; Lee, Shinhye; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The sebaceous glands secrete sebum to protect the epidermis and hairs by the oily products. The glands express several transporters and binding proteins for the production of fatty acids and uptake of their sources. The present immunohistochemical study examined the expression and localization of CD36, MCT1, FATP4, and E-FABP in the sebaceous glands, including the meibomian and preputial glands of mice. CD36 and MCT1 in sebaceous glands were largely co-localized along the plasma membrane of secretory cells, while they were separately expressed in the glandular portion of meibomian and preputial glands. Immunoreactivities for FATP4 and E-FABP appeared diffusely in the cytoplasm of secretory cells. Genetic deletion of CD36 did not affect the immunolocalization of the three other molecules. The sebaceous glands were judged to be useful for analyzing the functions and relation of fatty acid transporters and binding proteins. PMID:27545003

  16. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  17. Hydrofluoric and nitric acid transport through lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, J; Walter, A

    1981-06-01

    Hydrofluoric and nitric acid transport through lipid bilayer membranes were studied by a combination of electrical conductance and pH electrode techniques. Transport occurs primarily by nonionic diffusion of molecular HF and HNO3. Membrane permeabilities to HF and HNO3 ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-3) cm . s-1, five to seven orders of magnitude higher than the permeabilities to NO-3, F- and H+. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that F- transport through biological membranes occurs mainly by nonionic diffusion of HF. Our results also suggest that of the two principal components of 'acid rain', HNO3 may be more toxic than H2SO4.

  18. Direct observation of electrogenic NH4+ transport in ammonium transport (Amt) proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Tobias; Garcia-Celma, Juan J.; Lewe, Philipp; Andrade, Susana L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium transport (Amt) proteins form a ubiquitous family of integral membrane proteins that specifically shuttle ammonium across membranes. In prokaryotes, archaea, and plants, Amts are used as environmental NH4+ scavengers for uptake and assimilation of nitrogen. In the eukaryotic homologs, the Rhesus proteins, NH4+/NH3 transport is used instead in acid–base and pH homeostasis in kidney or NH4+/NH3 (and eventually CO2) detoxification in erythrocytes. Crystal structures and variant proteins are available, but the inherent challenges associated with the unambiguous identification of substrate and monitoring of transport events severely inhibit further progress in the field. Here we report a reliable in vitro assay that allows us to quantify the electrogenic capacity of Amt proteins. Using solid-supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology, we have investigated the three Amt orthologs from the euryarchaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Af-Amt1 and Af-Amt3 are electrogenic and transport the ammonium and methylammonium cation with high specificity. Transport is pH-dependent, with a steep decline at pH values of ∼5.0. Despite significant sequence homologies, functional differences between the three proteins became apparent. SSM electrophysiology provides a long-sought-after functional assay for the ubiquitous ammonium transporters. PMID:24958855

  19. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    PubMed Central

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states. PMID:25004958

  20. Transport of phytanic acid on lipoproteins in Refsum disease.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, A S; Sankaralingam, A; Lumb, P J; Hardman, T C; Sidey, M C; Gibberd, F B

    1999-02-01

    Patients with Refsum disease accumulate significant quantities of phytanic acid in adipose and neural tissue. The accumulation can be reversed by following a diet low in phytanic acid, yet the mechanism of transport of this fatty acid is obscure. We investigated the distribution of phytanic acid in different lipoprotein subfractions in 11 patients with Refsum disease and 9 unaffected siblings. Plasma phytanic acid was distributed on VLDL (16.2% +/- 12.2%), IDL (1.77% +/- 1.64%), LDL (34.8% +/- 12.6%) and HDL (14.3% +/- 7.87%). No correlations with any parameter were seen with total phytanic acid content. Weak nonsignificant correlations were found with the fractional distribution of phytanic acid and VLDL triglyceride (r = 0.35; p = 0.12) and plasma HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.32; p = 0.16) and with LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio (r = 0.33; p = 0.14). Significant correlation of the fractional distribution of phytanic acid on lipoprotein particles was noted with the ratio of apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A1-containing particles (r = 0.46; p = 0.03) and apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A1 in HDL2 (r = 0.53; p = 0.01). This suggests that the import-export balance for phytanic acid in plasma is related to forward and reverse cholesterol transport on lipoprotein particles, and only weakly to plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. These ratios of apolipoprotein particles may play a significant role in determining the rate of phytanic acid elimination in patients with Refsum disease.

  1. Regulation of protein synthesis by amino acids in muscle of neonates.

    PubMed

    Suryawan, Agus; Davis, Teresa A

    2011-01-01

    The marked increase in skeletal muscle mass during the neonatal period is largely due to a high rate of postprandial protein synthesis that is modulated by an enhanced sensitivity to insulin and amino acids. The amino acid signaling pathway leading to the stimulation of protein synthesis has not been fully elucidated. Among the amino acids, leucine is considered to be a principal anabolic agent that regulates protein synthesis. mTORC1, which controls protein synthesis, has been implicated as a target for leucine. Until recently, there have been few studies exploring the role of amino acids in enhancing muscle protein synthesis in vivo. In this review, we discuss amino acid-induced protein synthesis in muscle in the neonate, focusing on current knowledge of the role of amino acids in the activation of mTORC1 leading to mRNA translation. The role of the amino acid transporters, SNAT2, LAT1, and PAT, in the modulation of mTORC1 activation and the role of amino acids in the activation of putative regulators of mTORC1, i.e., raptor, Rheb, MAP4K3, Vps34, and Rag GTPases, are discussed.

  2. Intracellular cholesterol transport proteins: roles in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Soffientini, Ugo; Graham, Annette

    2016-11-01

    Effective cholesterol homoeostasis is essential in maintaining cellular function, and this is achieved by a network of lipid-responsive nuclear transcription factors, and enzymes, receptors and transporters subject to post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation, whereas loss of these elegant, tightly regulated homoeostatic responses is integral to disease pathologies. Recent data suggest that sterol-binding sensors, exchangers and transporters contribute to regulation of cellular cholesterol homoeostasis and that genetic overexpression or deletion, or mutations, in a number of these proteins are linked with diseases, including atherosclerosis, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, cancer, autosomal dominant hearing loss and male infertility. This review focuses on current evidence exploring the function of members of the 'START' (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer) and 'ORP' (oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins) families of sterol-binding proteins in sterol homoeostasis in eukaryotic cells, and the evidence that they represent valid therapeutic targets to alleviate human disease.

  3. Intracellular cholesterol transport proteins: roles in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Soffientini, Ugo; Graham, Annette

    2016-11-01

    Effective cholesterol homoeostasis is essential in maintaining cellular function, and this is achieved by a network of lipid-responsive nuclear transcription factors, and enzymes, receptors and transporters subject to post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation, whereas loss of these elegant, tightly regulated homoeostatic responses is integral to disease pathologies. Recent data suggest that sterol-binding sensors, exchangers and transporters contribute to regulation of cellular cholesterol homoeostasis and that genetic overexpression or deletion, or mutations, in a number of these proteins are linked with diseases, including atherosclerosis, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, cancer, autosomal dominant hearing loss and male infertility. This review focuses on current evidence exploring the function of members of the 'START' (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer) and 'ORP' (oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins) families of sterol-binding proteins in sterol homoeostasis in eukaryotic cells, and the evidence that they represent valid therapeutic targets to alleviate human disease. PMID:27660308

  4. Cytoplasmic protein aggregates interfere with nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA.

    PubMed

    Woerner, Andreas C; Frottin, Frédéric; Hornburg, Daniel; Feng, Li R; Meissner, Felix; Patra, Maria; Tatzelt, Jörg; Mann, Matthias; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hipp, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-like protein aggregation is associated with neurodegeneration and other pathologies. The nature of the toxic aggregate species and their mechanism of action remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the compartment specificity of aggregate toxicity using artificial β-sheet proteins, as well as fragments of mutant huntingtin and TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43). Aggregation in the cytoplasm interfered with nucleocytoplasmic protein and RNA transport. In contrast, the same proteins did not inhibit transport when forming inclusions in the nucleus at or around the nucleolus. Protein aggregation in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus, caused the sequestration and mislocalization of proteins containing disordered and low-complexity sequences, including multiple factors of the nuclear import and export machinery. Thus, impairment of nucleocytoplasmic transport may contribute to the cellular pathology of various aggregate deposition diseases. PMID:26634439

  5. Membrane transporters for the special amino acid glutamine: Structure/function relationships and relevance to human health.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Indiveri, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    Glutamine together with glucose is essential for body’s homeostasis. It is the most abundant amino acid and is involved in many biosynthetic, regulatory and energy production processes. Several membrane transporters which differ in transport modes, ensure glutamine homeostasis by coordinating its absorption, reabsorption and delivery to tissues. These transporters belong to different protein families, are redundant and ubiquitous. Their classification, originally based on functional properties, has recently been associated with the SLC nomenclature. Function of glutamine transporters is studied in cells over-expressing the transporters or, more recently in proteoliposomes harboring the proteins extracted from animal tissues or over-expressed in microorganisms. The role of the glutamine transporters is linked to their transport modes and coupling with Na+ and H+. Most transporters share specificity for other neutral or cationic amino acids. Na+-dependent co-transporters efficiently accumulate glutamine while antiporters regulate the pools of glutamine and other amino acids. The most acknowledged glutamine transporters belong to the SLC1, 6, 7 and 38 families. The members involved in the homeostasis are the co-transporters B0AT1 and the SNAT members 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7; the antiporters ASCT2, LAT1 and 2. The last two are associated to the ancillary CD98 protein. Some information on regulation of the glutamine transporters exist, which, however, need to be deepened. No information at all is available on structures, besides some homology models obtained using similar bacterial transporters as templates. Some models of rat and human glutamine transporters highlight very similar structures between the orthologues. Moreover the presence of glycosylation and/or phosphorylation sites located at the extracellular or intracellular faces has been predicted. ASCT2 and LAT1 are over-expressed in several cancers, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological intervention.

  6. Vertebrate gastrointestinal fermentation: transport mechanisms for volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Titus, E; Ahearn, G A

    1992-04-01

    Symbiotic microbial fermentation of plant polysaccharides can potentially provide significant levels of nutrients to host organisms in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Microbial fermentation can account for as much as 10% of maintenance energy requirements in carnivores and omnivores, and up to 80% in ruminant herbivores. In this review epithelial transport processes for the products of microbial fermentation are described in various mammalian and lower vertebrate species. Studies of transepithelial movement of VFA in vertebrate gastrointestinal systems have mostly been investigated in the mammals. In these it is widely held that the transmural movement of VFA is a concentration-dependent passive diffusion process whereby VFA is transported in the protonated form. A different model is described in this paper for carrier-mediated VFA transport, by way of anionic exchange with intracellular bicarbonate, in the intestine of a fermenting herbivorous teleost. These models for diffusive and carrier-mediated transport are compared and discussed from both physiological and experimental viewpoints.

  7. Structural basis for amino acid export by DMT superfamily transporter YddG.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hirotoshi; Doki, Shintaro; Takemoto, Mizuki; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Fukui, Keita; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Tabuchi, Eri; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Koichi; Dohmae, Naoshi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-05-30

    The drug/metabolite transporter (DMT) superfamily is a large group of membrane transporters ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and includes exporters for a remarkably wide range of substrates, such as toxic compounds and metabolites. YddG is a bacterial DMT protein that expels aromatic amino acids and exogenous toxic compounds, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis. Here we present structural and functional analyses of YddG. Using liposome-based analyses, we show that Escherichia coli and Starkeya novella YddG export various amino acids. The crystal structure of S. novella YddG at 2.4 Å resolution reveals a new membrane transporter topology, with ten transmembrane segments in an outward-facing state. The overall structure is basket-shaped, with a large substrate-binding cavity at the centre of the molecule, and is composed of inverted structural repeats related by two-fold pseudo-symmetry. On the basis of this intramolecular symmetry, we propose a structural model for the inward-facing state and a mechanism of the conformational change for substrate transport, which we confirmed by biochemical analyses. These findings provide a structural basis for the mechanism of transport of DMT superfamily proteins.

  8. Structural basis for amino acid export by DMT superfamily transporter YddG.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hirotoshi; Doki, Shintaro; Takemoto, Mizuki; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Fukui, Keita; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Tabuchi, Eri; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Koichi; Dohmae, Naoshi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-06-16

    The drug/metabolite transporter (DMT) superfamily is a large group of membrane transporters ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and includes exporters for a remarkably wide range of substrates, such as toxic compounds and metabolites. YddG is a bacterial DMT protein that expels aromatic amino acids and exogenous toxic compounds, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis. Here we present structural and functional analyses of YddG. Using liposome-based analyses, we show that Escherichia coli and Starkeya novella YddG export various amino acids. The crystal structure of S. novella YddG at 2.4 Å resolution reveals a new membrane transporter topology, with ten transmembrane segments in an outward-facing state. The overall structure is basket-shaped, with a large substrate-binding cavity at the centre of the molecule, and is composed of inverted structural repeats related by two-fold pseudo-symmetry. On the basis of this intramolecular symmetry, we propose a structural model for the inward-facing state and a mechanism of the conformational change for substrate transport, which we confirmed by biochemical analyses. These findings provide a structural basis for the mechanism of transport of DMT superfamily proteins. PMID:27281193

  9. Position-dependent Effects of Polylysine on Sec Protein Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K.; Musser, Siegfried M.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or “pause sites,” were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport. PMID:22367204

  10. Characterization of a broad-scope amino acid transport system in sand dollars

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.P.; Bellis, S.; Stephens, G.C. )

    1988-03-01

    Both echinoderm embryos and adults take up {sup 14}C-labelled-{alpha}-amino acids by an apparent broad-scope transport system. This transporter can be characterized as follows: alanine transport is not blocked by {alpha}-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. Leucine and other lipophilic neutral amino acids are preferentially transported. Transport is sodium dependent and blocked by 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxyclic acid. Lysine and aspartate transport is inhibited by lipophilic neutral amino acids. Taurine, a {beta}-neutral amino acid is translocated via a second and independent carrier.

  11. A branched-chain amino acid metabolite drives vascular fatty acid transport and causes insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cholsoon; Oh, Sungwhan F; Wada, Shogo; Rowe, Glenn C; Liu, Laura; Chan, Mun Chun; Rhee, James; Hoshino, Atsushi; Kim, Boa; Ibrahim, Ayon; Baca, Luisa G; Kim, Esl; Ghosh, Chandra C; Parikh, Samir M; Jiang, Aihua; Chu, Qingwei; Forman, Daniel E; Lecker, Stewart H; Krishnaiah, Saikumari; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Weljie, Aalim M; Baur, Joseph A; Kasper, Dennis L; Arany, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data implicate branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms that underlie this link remain unclear. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle stems from the excess accumulation of lipid species, a process that requires blood-borne lipids to initially traverse the blood vessel wall. How this trans-endothelial transport occurs and how it is regulated are not well understood. Here we leveraged PPARGC1a (also known as PGC-1α; encoded by Ppargc1a), a transcriptional coactivator that regulates broad programs of fatty acid consumption, to identify 3-hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB), a catabolic intermediate of the BCAA valine, as a new paracrine regulator of trans-endothelial fatty acid transport. We found that 3-HIB is secreted from muscle cells, activates endothelial fatty acid transport, stimulates muscle fatty acid uptake in vivo and promotes lipid accumulation in muscle, leading to insulin resistance in mice. Conversely, inhibiting the synthesis of 3-HIB in muscle cells blocks the ability of PGC-1α to promote endothelial fatty acid uptake. 3-HIB levels are elevated in muscle from db/db mice with diabetes and from human subjects with diabetes, as compared to those without diabetes. These data unveil a mechanism in which the metabolite 3-HIB, by regulating the trans-endothelial flux of fatty acids, links the regulation of fatty acid flux to BCAA catabolism, providing a mechanistic explanation for how increased BCAA catabolic flux can cause diabetes. PMID:26950361

  12. Channel-mediated lactic acid transport: a novel function for aquaglyceroporins in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Gerd P; Desguin, Benoît; Chaumont, François; Hols, Pascal

    2013-09-15

    MIPs (major intrinsic proteins), also known as aquaporins, are membrane proteins that channel water and/or uncharged solutes across membranes in all kingdoms of life. Considering the enormous number of different bacteria on earth, functional information on bacterial MIPs is scarce. In the present study, six MIPs [glpF1 (glycerol facilitator 1)-glpF6] were identified in the genome of the Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that GlpF2, GlpF3 and GlpF4 each facilitated the transmembrane diffusion of water, dihydroxyacetone and glycerol. As several lactic acid bacteria have GlpFs in their lactate racemization operon (GlpF1/F4 phylogenetic group), their ability to transport this organic acid was tested. Both GlpF1 and GlpF4 facilitated the diffusion of D/L-lactic acid. Deletion of glpF1 and/or glpF4 in Lb. plantarum showed that both genes were involved in the racemization of lactic acid and, in addition, the double glpF1 glpF4 mutant showed a growth delay under conditions of mild lactic acid stress. This provides further evidence that GlpFs contribute to lactic acid metabolism in this species. This lactic acid transport capacity was shown to be conserved in the GlpF1/F4 group of Lactobacillales. In conclusion, we have functionally analysed the largest set of bacterial MIPs and demonstrated that the lactic acid membrane permeability of bacteria can be regulated by aquaglyceroporins.

  13. Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response, and lateral root growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, A. M.; DeLong, A.; Muday, G. K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin transport is required for important growth and developmental processes in plants, including gravity response and lateral root growth. Several lines of evidence suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation regulates auxin transport. Arabidopsis rcn1 mutant seedlings exhibit reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity and defects in differential cell elongation. Here we report that reduced phosphatase activity alters auxin transport and dependent physiological processes in the seedling root. Root basipetal transport was increased in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings but showed normal sensitivity to the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Phosphatase inhibition reduced root gravity response and delayed the establishment of differential auxin-induced gene expression across a gravity-stimulated root tip. An NPA treatment that reduced basipetal transport in rcn1 and cantharidin-treated wild-type plants also restored a normal gravity response and asymmetric auxin-induced gene expression, indicating that increased basipetal auxin transport impedes gravitropism. Increased auxin transport in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings did not require the AGR1/EIR1/PIN2/WAV6 or AUX1 gene products. In contrast to basipetal transport, root acropetal transport was normal in phosphatase-inhibited seedlings in the absence of NPA, although it showed reduced NPA sensitivity. Lateral root growth also exhibited reduced NPA sensitivity in rcn1 seedlings, consistent with acropetal transport controlling lateral root growth. These results support the role of protein phosphorylation in regulating auxin transport and suggest that the acropetal and basipetal auxin transport streams are differentially regulated.

  14. Comparative genomics of transport proteins in developmental bacteria: Myxococcus xanthus and Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two of the largest fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes are those of the actinobacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor (Sco), and the δ-proteobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus (Mxa), both differentiating, sporulating, antibiotic producing, soil microbes. Although the genomes of Sco and Mxa are the same size (~9 Mbp), Sco has 10% more genes that are on average 10% smaller than those in Mxa. Results Surprisingly, Sco has 93% more identifiable transport proteins than Mxa. This is because Sco has amplified several specific types of its transport protein genes, while Mxa has done so to a much lesser extent. Amplification is substrate- and family-specific. For example, Sco but not Mxa has amplified its voltage-gated ion channels but not its aquaporins and mechano-sensitive channels. Sco but not Mxa has also amplified drug efflux pumps of the DHA2 Family of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) (49 versus 6), amino acid transporters of the APC Family (17 versus 2), ABC-type sugar transport proteins (85 versus 6), and organic anion transporters of several families. Sco has not amplified most other types of transporters. Mxa has selectively amplified one family of macrolid exporters relative to Sco (16 versus 1), consistent with the observation that Mxa makes more macrolids than does Sco. Conclusions Except for electron transport carriers, there is a poor correlation between the types of transporters found in these two organisms, suggesting that their solutions to differentiative and metabolic needs evolved independently. A number of unexpected and surprising observations are presented, and predictions are made regarding the physiological functions of recognizable transporters as well as the existence of yet to be discovered transport systems in these two important model organisms and their relatives. The results provide insight into the evolutionary processes by which two dissimilar prokaryotes evolved complexity, particularly through selective chromosomal gene

  15. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder. PMID:25639618

  16. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder.

  17. Fatty acid-binding site environments of serum vitamin D-binding protein and albumin are different

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Narasimha; Ray, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin (ALB) are abundant serum proteins and both possess high-affinity binding for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. However, certain differences exist. We surmised that in cases where serum albumin level is low, DBP presumably can act as a transporter of fatty acids. To explore this possibility we synthesized several alkylating derivatives of 14C-palmitic acid to probe the fatty acid binding pockets of DBP and ALB. We observed that N-ethyl-5-phenylisooxazolium-3′-sulfonate-ester (WRK ester) of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled DBP; but p-nitrophenyl- and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-esters failed to do so. However, p-nitrophenyl ester of 14C-palmitic acid specifically labeled bovine ALB, indicating that the micro-environment of the fatty acid-binding domains of DBP and ALB may be different; and DBP may not replace ALB as a transporter of fatty acids. PMID:18374965

  18. Adaptive transport of folic acid across renal epithelia in folate-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2012-11-01

    Folate (vitamin B(9)) is an essential vitamin for a wide spectrum of biochemical reactions; however, unlike bacteria and plants, mammals are devoid of folate biosynthesis and thus must obtain this cofactor from exogenous sources. The activities of folate transporters on the kidneys play an important role in conserving folate excretion and reabsorption across the apical membrane of the renal proximal tubules. The different transport system activities may become identifiable in response to external stimuli, such as folate availability and exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. We have explored the effect of folate deficiency on the activity and expression of folate transporters in rat kidneys. Wistar rats were fed a folate-containing diet (2 mg folic acid kg(-1) diet) or a folic acid-free diet over a 3-month period, and mechanisms of folate transport were studied in renal brush border membrane vesicles and basolateral membrane vesicles. The renal folate uptake process is saturable and pH dependent, and it involves the folate receptor and reduced folate carrier (RFC) systems and possibly the proton coupled folate transporter (PCFT) system. We found that folate deficiency increased the renal brush border membrane and basolateral folate uptake by increasing the number of transporter molecules. The observed up-regulation of mRNA expression was also associated with a significant increase in RFC and PCFT expression at the protein level.

  19. Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Tome, Daniel

    2004-08-01

    The influence of protein and amino acid on the control of food intake and the specific control of protein and amino acid intakes remains incompletely understood. The most commonly accepted conclusions are: (1) the existence of an aversive response to diets deficient in or devoid of protein or deficient in at least one essential amino acid; (2) the existence of a mechanism that enables attainment of the minimum requirement for N and essential amino acids by increasing intake of a low-protein diet; (3) a decrease in the intake of a high-protein diet is associated with different processes, including the high satiating effect of protein. Ingested proteins are believed to generate pre- and post-absorptive signals that contribute to the control of gastric kinetics, pancreatic secretion and food intake. At the brain level, two major afferent pathways are involved in protein and amino acid monitoring: the indirect neuro-mediated (mainly vagus-mediated) pathway and the direct blood pathway. The neuro-mediated pathway transfers pre-absorptive and visceral information. This information is for the main part transferred through the vagus nerve that innervates part of the oro-sensory zone: the stomach, the duodenum and the liver. Other information is directly monitored in the blood. It is likely that the system responds precisely when protein and essential amino acid intake is inadequate, but in contrast allows a large range of adaptive capacities through amino acid degradation and substrate interconversion.

  20. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes.

  1. Transport of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by pancreatic islet cells from neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, A; Nielsen, J H; Farver, O; Thorn, N A

    1991-01-01

    Several amidated biologically active peptides such as pancreastatin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, pancreatic polypeptide and amylin are produced in endocrine pancreatic tissue which contains the enzyme necessary for their final processing, i.e. peptidylglycine alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (EC 1.14.17.3). The enzyme needs ascorbic acid for activity as well as copper and molecular oxygen. The present work shows that pancreatic islet cells prepared from overnight cultures of isolated islets from 5-7-day-old rats accumulate 14C-labelled ascorbic acid by a Na(+)-dependent active transport mechanism which involves a saturable process (estimated Km 17.6 microM). Transport was inhibited by ouabain, phloridzin, cytochalasin B, amiloride and probenecid. Glucose inhibited or stimulated uptake, depending on the length of incubation time of the cells. The uptake of dehydroascorbic acid was linearly dependent on concentration. Dehydroascorbic acid was converted to ascorbic acid by an unknown mechanism after uptake. The uptake of both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid was inhibited by tri-iodothyronine, and uptake of ascorbic acid, but not of dehydroascorbic acid, was inhibited by glucocorticoids. Isolated secretory granules contained a fairly low concentration of iron but a high concentration of copper. Images Fig. 6. PMID:2012602

  2. Regulation of taurine transporter activity in LLC-PK1 cells: role of protein synthesis and protein kinase C activation.

    PubMed

    Jones, D P; Miller, L A; Dowling, C; Chesney, R W

    1991-11-01

    Taurine transporter activity increases after exposure of cultured renal epithelial cells to taurine-free medium for 24 h and decreases after incubation in high (500 microM) taurine. This adaptive response mimics that observed in rat kidney after manipulation of dietary taurine. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in the regulation of beta-amino acid transporter activity, the role of RNA transcription, protein synthesis, and protein import (trafficking), as well as protein kinase C activation, on the control of taurine transport was examined in the continuous proximally derived LLC-PK1 renal cell line. Inhibition of RNA transcription with actinomycin D did not alter the up-regulatory and down-regulatory adaptive responses. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide prevented the increased taurine transport in response to taurine-free medium as well as the decrease in taurine transport after exposure to high taurine. Colchicine prevented the response to taurine-free medium but had no effect on the response to high-taurine medium. Exposure of confluent cell monolayers to the active phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, resulted in a reduction in taurine uptake. The effect was seen within minutes of exposure but was not observed in the presence of the inactive phorbol 4-alpha. This inhibitory action was blocked by staurosporin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Treatment of cells with the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022, which results in increased intracellular diacylglycerol, a natural stimulant of PKC, also inhibited taurine uptake, providing further evidence for a specific effect of PKC activation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Abscisic acid transporters cooperate to control seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Yim, Sojeong; Choi, Hyunju; Kim, Areum; Lee, Keun Pyo; Lopez-Molina, Luis; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process that has to be tightly controlled to avoid germination under unfavourable conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential repressor of seed germination. In Arabidopsis, it has been shown that the endosperm, a single cell layer surrounding the embryo, synthesizes and continuously releases ABA towards the embryo. The mechanism of ABA transport from the endosperm to the embryo was hitherto unknown. Here we show that four AtABCG transporters act in concert to deliver ABA from the endosperm to the embryo: AtABCG25 and AtABCG31 export ABA from the endosperm, whereas AtABCG30 and AtABCG40 import ABA into the embryo. Thus, this work establishes that radicle extension and subsequent embryonic growth are suppressed by the coordinated activity of multiple ABA transporters expressed in different tissues. PMID:26334616

  4. Transport in Halobacterium Halobium: Light-Induced Cation-Gradients, Amino Acid Transport Kinetics, and Properties of Transport Carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    Cell envelope vesicles prepared from H. halobium contain bacteriorhodopsin and upon illumination protons are ejected. Coupled to the proton motive force is the efflux of Na(+). Measurements of Na-22 flux, exterior pH change, and membrane potential, Delta(psi) (with the dye 3,3'-dipentyloxadicarbocyanine) indicate that the means of Na(+) transport is sodium/proton exchange. The kinetics of the pH changes and other evidence suggests that the antiport is electrogenic (H(+)/Na(++ greater than 1). The resulting large chemical gradient for Na(+) (outside much greater than inside), as well as the membrane potential, will drive the transport of 18 amino acids. The I9th, glutamate, is unique in that its accumulation is indifferent to Delta(psi): this amino acid is transported only when a chemical gradient for Na(+) is present. Thus, when more and more NaCl is included in the vesicles glutamate transport proceeds with longer and longer lags. After illumination the gradient of H+() collapses within 1 min, while the large Na(+) gradient and glutamate transporting activity persists for 10- 15 min, indicating that proton motive force is not necessary for transport. A chemical gradient of Na(+), arranged by suspending vesicles loaded with KCl in NaCl, drives glutamate transport in the dark without other sources of energy, with V(sub max) and K(sub m) comparable to light-induced transport. These and other lines of evidence suggest that the transport of glutamate is facilitated by symport with Na(+), in an electrically neutral fashion, so that only the chemical component of the Na(+) gradient is a driving force.

  5. Identification of functional amino acid residues involved in polyamine and agmatine transport by human organic cation transporter 2.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Kyohei; Imamura, Masataka; Fudo, Satoshi; Uemura, Takeshi; Saiki, Ryotaro; Hoshino, Tyuji; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-01-01

    Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues.

  6. Characteristics of Mammalian Rh Glycoproteins (SLC42 transporters) and Their Role in Acid-Base Transport

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih L.; Hamm, L. Lee

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Rh glycoproteins belong to the solute transporter family SLC42 and include RhAG, present in red blood cells, and two non-erythroid members RhBG and RhCG that are expressed in various tissues, including kidney, liver, skin and the GI tract. The Rh proteins in the red blood cell form an “Rh complex” made up of one D-subunit, one CE-subunit and two RhAG subunits. The Rh complex has a well-known antigenic effect but also contributes to the stability of the red cell membrane. RhBG and RhCG are related to the NH4+ transporters of the yeast and bacteria but their exact function is yet to be determined. This review describes the expression and molecular properties of these membrane proteins and their potential role as NH3/NH4+ and CO2 transporters. The likelihood that these proteins transport gases such as CO2 or NH3 is novel and significant. The review also describes the physiological importance of these proteins and their relevance to human disease. PMID:23506896

  7. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases

    PubMed Central

    Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport, allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, polar auxin transport is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell-to-cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the ‘non-genomic’ regulation of auxin transport, putting an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some Receptor-Like Kinases (RLK) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in polar auxin transport, noticing that there are likely RLKs involved in coordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  8. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport.

    PubMed Central

    Hempe, J M; Cousins, R J

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. We have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPLC and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein [Birkenmeier, E. H. & Gordon, J. I. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 2516-2520]. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient. Images PMID:1946385

  9. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  10. Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona.

    PubMed

    Alves, S F; Lefebvre, R B; Probert, W

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.

  11. INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT. Phosphatidylserine transport by ORP/Osh proteins is driven by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Moser von Filseck, Joachim; Čopič, Alenka; Delfosse, Vanessa; Vanni, Stefano; Jackson, Catherine L; Bourguet, William; Drin, Guillaume

    2015-07-24

    In eukaryotic cells, phosphatidylserine (PS) is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but is highly enriched in the plasma membrane (PM), where it contributes negative charge and to specific recruitment of signaling proteins. This distribution relies on transport mechanisms whose nature remains elusive. Here, we found that the PS transporter Osh6p extracted phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and exchanged PS for PI4P between two membranes. We solved the crystal structure of Osh6p:PI4P complex and demonstrated that the transport of PS by Osh6p depends on PI4P recognition in vivo. Finally, we showed that the PI4P-phosphatase Sac1p, by maintaining a PI4P gradient at the ER/PM interface, drove PS transport. Thus, PS transport by oxysterol-binding protein-related protein (ORP)/oxysterol-binding homology (Osh) proteins is fueled by PI4P metabolism through PS/PI4P exchange cycles.

  12. Protein quality of supplements and meal replacements. Amino acids and calculated indicators of protein quality.

    PubMed

    Marable, N L; Hinners, M L; Hardison, N W; Kehrberg, N L

    1980-09-01

    The amino acid composition of several types of dietary supplements and meal replacements was measured and compared with label values when available and to published values for egg. Calculated indicators of protein quality, such as chemical score, protein calorie:total calorie ratio, individual essential amino acid:total essential amino acid ratio, and total essential amino acid:total amino acid ratio were also compared for products, egg, and the estimated pattern of adult requirements. Predigested liquid protein products were notably lower in protein quality than other products. All non-predigested products compared favorably with egg in terms of protein quality, but were more expensive and had no advantages over regular meals in terms of protein quality as reducing aids or protein supplements.

  13. Retinoids activate proton transport by the uncoupling proteins UCP1 and UCP2.

    PubMed

    Rial, E; González-Barroso, M; Fleury, C; Iturrizaga, S; Sanchis, D; Jiménez-Jiménez, J; Ricquier, D; Goubern, M; Bouillaud, F

    1999-11-01

    In mammalian brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis is explained by uncoupling mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) is responsible for this uncoupled state, because it allows proton re-entry into the matrix and thus dissipates the proton gradient generated by the respiratory chain. Proton transport by UCP1 is regulated negatively by nucleotides and positively by fatty acids. Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes stimulates lipolysis and therefore enhances uncoupling and thermogenesis. Adrenergic stimulation also boosts ucp1 gene transcription. Since retinoic acid also promotes ucp1 gene transcription and its structure makes it a possible activator of UCP1, we hypothesized that retinoic acid, like noradrenaline, could have a dual action and trigger the activity of the protein UCP1 itself. Here we show that retinoic acid strongly increases proton transport by UCP1 in brown adipose tissue mitochondria and that it is much more potent than fatty acids. These data are corroborated with yeast mitochondria where UCP1 was introduced by genetic manipulation. The yeast expression system allows the comparison of the UCP1 with the newly described homologues UCP2 and UCP3. The search for regulators of UCP2 has demonstrated that it is positively regulated by retinoids in a pH-dependent manner.

  14. TNF-α stimulates System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2015-10-01

    Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increase the risk of delivering infants that are large for gestational age with greater adiposity, who are prone to the development of metabolic disease in childhood and beyond. These maternal conditions are also associated with increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in maternal tissues and the placenta. Recent evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport contribute to altered fetal growth. TNF-α was previously shown to stimulate System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), however the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TNF-α regulates amino acid uptake in cultured PHTs by a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. Treatment of PHTs with TNF-α significantly increased System A amino acid transport, as well as Erk and p38 MAPK signaling. Pharmacological antagonism of p38, but not Erk MAPK activity, inhibited TNF-α stimulated System A activity. Silencing of p38 MAPK using siRNA transfections prevented TNF-α stimulated System A transport in PHTs. TNF-α significantly increased the protein expression of System A transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2, but did not affect their mRNA expression. The effects of TNF-α on SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein expression were reversed by p38 MAPK siRNA silencing. In conclusion, TNF-α regulates System A activity through increased SNAT1 and SNAT2 transporter protein expression in PHTs. These findings suggest that p38 MAPK may represent a critical mechanistic link between elevated proinflammatory cytokines and increased placental amino acid transport in obese and GDM pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth.

  15. TNF-α stimulates System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2015-10-01

    Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increase the risk of delivering infants that are large for gestational age with greater adiposity, who are prone to the development of metabolic disease in childhood and beyond. These maternal conditions are also associated with increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in maternal tissues and the placenta. Recent evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport contribute to altered fetal growth. TNF-α was previously shown to stimulate System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), however the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TNF-α regulates amino acid uptake in cultured PHTs by a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. Treatment of PHTs with TNF-α significantly increased System A amino acid transport, as well as Erk and p38 MAPK signaling. Pharmacological antagonism of p38, but not Erk MAPK activity, inhibited TNF-α stimulated System A activity. Silencing of p38 MAPK using siRNA transfections prevented TNF-α stimulated System A transport in PHTs. TNF-α significantly increased the protein expression of System A transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2, but did not affect their mRNA expression. The effects of TNF-α on SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein expression were reversed by p38 MAPK siRNA silencing. In conclusion, TNF-α regulates System A activity through increased SNAT1 and SNAT2 transporter protein expression in PHTs. These findings suggest that p38 MAPK may represent a critical mechanistic link between elevated proinflammatory cytokines and increased placental amino acid transport in obese and GDM pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth. PMID:26508738

  16. Neutralizing Aspartate 83 Modifies Substrate Translocation of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 (EAAT3) Glutamate Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Hotzy, Jasmin; Machtens, Jan-Philipp; Fahlke, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) terminate glutamatergic synaptic transmission by removing glutamate from the synaptic cleft into neuronal and glial cells. EAATs are not only secondary active glutamate transporters but also function as anion channels. Gating of EAAT anion channels is tightly coupled to transitions within the glutamate uptake cycle, resulting in Na+- and glutamate-dependent anion currents. A point mutation neutralizing a conserved aspartic acid within the intracellular loop close to the end of transmembrane domain 2 was recently shown to modify the substrate dependence of EAAT anion currents. To distinguish whether this mutation affects transitions within the uptake cycle or directly modifies the opening/closing of the anion channel, we used voltage clamp fluorometry. Using three different sites for fluorophore attachment, V120C, M205C, and A430C, we observed time-, voltage-, and substrate-dependent alterations of EAAT3 fluorescence intensities. The voltage and substrate dependence of fluorescence intensities can be described by a 15-state model of the transport cycle in which several states are connected to branching anion channel states. D83A-mediated changes of fluorescence intensities, anion currents, and secondary active transport can be explained by exclusive modifications of substrate translocation rates. In contrast, sole modification of anion channel opening and closing is insufficient to account for all experimental data. We conclude that D83A has direct effects on the glutamate transport cycle and that these effects result in changed anion channel function. PMID:22532568

  17. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25616451

  19. Phosphate acceptor amino acid residues in structural proteins of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sokol, F; Tan, K B; McFalls, M L; Madore, P

    1974-07-01

    Partial acid hydrolysates of the [(32)P]phosphate- or [(3)H]serine-labeled proteins of purified vesicular stomatitis, rabies, Lagos bat, Mokola, or spring viremia of carp virions and of purified intracellular nucleocapsids of these viruses have been analyzed by paper electrophoresis for the presence of phosphorylated amino acids. Both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, with the former predominant, were present in virion and nucleocapsid preparations that contained phosphoproteins. An exception was the fish rhabdovirus, which contained only phosphoserine. When vesicular stomatitis or rabies virus proteins were phosphorylated in a cell-free system by the virion-associated protein kinase and analyzed for the presence of phosphorylated amino acid residues, phosphoserine was again found to be more abundant than phosphothreonine. After in vitro protein phosphorylation, another phospho-compound, possibly a third phosphoamino acid, was detected in the partial acid hydrolysates of these viruses. PMID:4365328

  20. Measuring protein-protein and protein-nucleic Acid interactions by biolayer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Azmiri; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Biolayer interferometry (BLI) is a simple, optical dip-and-read system useful for measuring interactions between proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, small molecules, and/or lipids in real time. In BLI, a biomolecular bait is immobilized on a matrix at the tip of a fiber-optic sensor. The binding between the immobilized ligand and another molecule in an analyte solution produces a change in optical thickness at the tip and results in a wavelength shift proportional to binding. BLI provides direct binding affinities and rates of association and dissociation. This unit describes an efficient approach using streptavidin-based BLI to analyze DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. A quantitative set of equilibrium binding affinities (K(d)) and rates of association and dissociation (k(a)/k(d)) can be measured in minutes using nanomole quantities of sample.

  1. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  2. Characteristics of the protein carrier of the peptide-transport system in the scutellum of germinating barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Walker-Smith, D J; Payne, J W

    1984-09-01

    Through the use of the protein reagents N-ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzenesulphonic acid and phenylarsine oxide, it is shown that in the scutellum of the germinating barley embryo, the transport of peptides, but not the transport of amino acids or glucose is specifically thiol-dependent. Furthermore, these essential thiol groups are shown to exist as redox-sensitive, vicinal-dithiols that lie at the substrate-binding sites of the peptide-transport proteins. The binding of N-ethylmaleimide to these dithiols is shown to be very fast, matching the kinetics of inhibition of peptide transport by this reagent. A technique for the specific labelling of the dithiols with N-ethyl[2,3-(14)C]maleimide is described, which allows the carrier proteins to be visualized at the scutellar epithelium using radioautography and permits calculation of the approximate amount of peptide-transport protein present per scutellum. In related studies, the importance of arginyl and histidyl residues to both amino-acid and peptide transport is shown, although other residues, e.g. carboxyl ligands do not seem to be critically involved.

  3. The role of mass transport in protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Otálora, Fermín; García-Caballero, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Mass transport takes place within the mesoscopic to macroscopic scale range and plays a key role in crystal growth that may affect the result of the crystallization experiment. The influence of mass transport is different depending on the crystallization technique employed, essentially because each technique reaches supersaturation in its own unique way. In the case of batch experiments, there are some complex phenomena that take place at the interface between solutions upon mixing. These transport instabilities may drastically affect the reproducibility of crystallization experiments, and different outcomes may be obtained depending on whether or not the drop is homogenized. In diffusion experiments with aqueous solutions, evaporation leads to fascinating transport phenomena. When a drop starts to evaporate, there is an increase in concentration near the interface between the drop and the air until a nucleation event eventually takes place. Upon growth, the weight of the floating crystal overcomes the surface tension and the crystal falls to the bottom of the drop. The very growth of the crystal then triggers convective flow and inhomogeneities in supersaturation values in the drop owing to buoyancy of the lighter concentration-depleted solution surrounding the crystal. Finally, the counter-diffusion technique works if, and only if, diffusive mass transport is assured. The technique relies on the propagation of a supersaturation wave that moves across the elongated protein chamber and is the result of the coupling of reaction (crystallization) and diffusion. The goal of this review is to convince protein crystal growers that in spite of the small volume of the typical protein crystallization setup, transport plays a key role in the crystal quality, size and phase in both screening and optimization experiments.

  4. The role of mass transport in protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Otálora, Fermín; García-Caballero, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Mass transport takes place within the mesoscopic to macroscopic scale range and plays a key role in crystal growth that may affect the result of the crystallization experiment. The influence of mass transport is different depending on the crystallization technique employed, essentially because each technique reaches supersaturation in its own unique way. In the case of batch experiments, there are some complex phenomena that take place at the interface between solutions upon mixing. These transport instabilities may drastically affect the reproducibility of crystallization experiments, and different outcomes may be obtained depending on whether or not the drop is homogenized. In diffusion experiments with aqueous solutions, evaporation leads to fascinating transport phenomena. When a drop starts to evaporate, there is an increase in concentration near the interface between the drop and the air until a nucleation event eventually takes place. Upon growth, the weight of the floating crystal overcomes the surface tension and the crystal falls to the bottom of the drop. The very growth of the crystal then triggers convective flow and inhomogeneities in supersaturation values in the drop owing to buoyancy of the lighter concentration-depleted solution surrounding the crystal. Finally, the counter-diffusion technique works if, and only if, diffusive mass transport is assured. The technique relies on the propagation of a supersaturation wave that moves across the elongated protein chamber and is the result of the coupling of reaction (crystallization) and diffusion. The goal of this review is to convince protein crystal growers that in spite of the small volume of the typical protein crystallization setup, transport plays a key role in the crystal quality, size and phase in both screening and optimization experiments. PMID:26841759

  5. Aluminum in acidic surface waters: chemistry, transport, and effects.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, C T

    1985-01-01

    Ecologically significant concentrations of Al have been reported in surface waters draining "acid-sensitive" watersheds that are receiving elevated inputs of acidic deposition. It has been hypothesized that mineral acids from atmospheric deposition have remobilized Al previously precipitated within the soil during soil development. This Al is then thought to be transported to adjacent surface waters. Dissolved mononuclear Al occurs as aquo Al, as well as OH-, F-, SO4(2-), and organic complexes. Although past investigations have often ignored non-hydroxide complexes of Al, it appears that organic and F complexes are the predominant forms of Al in dilute (low ionic strength) acidic surface waters. The concentration of inorganic forms of Al increases exponentially with decreases in solution pH. This response is similar to the theoretical pH dependent solubility of Al mineral phases. The concentration of organic forms of Al, however, is strongly correlated with variations in organic carbon concentration of surface waters rather than pH. Elevated concentrations of Al in dilute acidic waters are of interest because: Al is an important pH buffer; Al may influence the cycling of important elements like P, organic carbon, and trace metals; and Al is potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. An understanding of the aqueous speciation of Al is essential for an evaluation of these processes. PMID:3935428

  6. Aluminum in acidic surface waters: chemistry, transport, and effects.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, C T

    1985-11-01

    Ecologically significant concentrations of Al have been reported in surface waters draining "acid-sensitive" watersheds that are receiving elevated inputs of acidic deposition. It has been hypothesized that mineral acids from atmospheric deposition have remobilized Al previously precipitated within the soil during soil development. This Al is then thought to be transported to adjacent surface waters. Dissolved mononuclear Al occurs as aquo Al, as well as OH-, F-, SO4(2-), and organic complexes. Although past investigations have often ignored non-hydroxide complexes of Al, it appears that organic and F complexes are the predominant forms of Al in dilute (low ionic strength) acidic surface waters. The concentration of inorganic forms of Al increases exponentially with decreases in solution pH. This response is similar to the theoretical pH dependent solubility of Al mineral phases. The concentration of organic forms of Al, however, is strongly correlated with variations in organic carbon concentration of surface waters rather than pH. Elevated concentrations of Al in dilute acidic waters are of interest because: Al is an important pH buffer; Al may influence the cycling of important elements like P, organic carbon, and trace metals; and Al is potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. An understanding of the aqueous speciation of Al is essential for an evaluation of these processes.

  7. Automated protein hydrolysis delivering sample to a solid acid catalyst for amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akiko; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we developed an automatic protein hydrolysis system using strong cation-exchange resins as solid acid catalysts. Examining several kinds of inorganic solid acids and cation-exchange resins, we found that a few cation-exchange resins worked as acid catalysts for protein hydrolysis when heated in the presence of water. The most efficient resin yielded amounts of amino acids that were over 70% of those recovered after conventional hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and resulted in amino acid compositions matching the theoretical values. The solid-acid hydrolysis was automated by packing the resin into columns, combining the columns with a high-performance liquid chromatography system, and heating them. The amino acids that constitute a protein can thereby be determined, minimizing contamination from the environment.

  8. Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pietribiasi, Mauro; Waniewski, Jacek; Załuska, Alicja; Załuska, Wojciech; Lindholm, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Background The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD) sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters. Methods The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space) and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP) and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS) of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio. Results The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation) and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value). Conclusions The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and

  9. Interaction of α-Lipoic Acid with the Human Na+/Multivitamin Transporter (hSMVT)*

    PubMed Central

    Zehnpfennig, Britta; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Carlson, David A.; Quick, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The human Na+/multivitamin transporter (hSMVT) has been suggested to transport α-lipoic acid (LA), a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent used in therapeutic applications, e.g. in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy and Alzheimer disease. However, the molecular basis of the cellular delivery of LA and in particular the stereospecificity of the transport process are not well understood. Here, we expressed recombinant hSMVT in Pichia pastoris and used affinity chromatography to purify the detergent-solubilized protein followed by reconstitution of hSMVT in lipid bilayers. Using a combined approach encompassing radiolabeled LA transport and equilibrium binding studies in conjunction with the stabilized R-(+)- and S-(−)-enantiomers and the R,S-(+/−) racemic mixture of LA or lipoamide, we identified the biologically active form of LA, R-LA, to be the physiological substrate of hSMVT. Interaction of R-LA with hSMVT is strictly dependent on Na+. Under equilibrium conditions, hSMVT can simultaneously bind ∼2 molecules of R-LA in a biphasic binding isotherm with dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.9 and 7.4 μm. Transport of R-LA in the oocyte and reconstituted system is exclusively dependent on Na+ and exhibits an affinity of ∼3 μm. Measuring transport with known amounts of protein in proteoliposomes containing hSMVT in outside-out orientation yielded a catalytic turnover number (kcat) of about 1 s−1, a value that is well in agreement with other Na+-coupled transporters. Our data suggest that hSMVT-mediated transport is highly specific for R-LA at our tested concentration range, a finding with wide ramifications for the use of LA in therapeutic applications. PMID:25971966

  10. MATE Transporter-Dependent Export of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides.

    PubMed

    Dobritzsch, Melanie; Lübken, Tilo; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Gorzolka, Karin; Blum, Elke; Matern, Andreas; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Böttcher, Christoph; Dräger, Birgit; Rosahl, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to successfully prevent colonization by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), depends on multilayered defense responses. To address the role of surface-localized secondary metabolites for entry control, droplets of a P. infestans zoospore suspension, incubated on Arabidopsis leaves, were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling. The hydroxycinnamic acid amide coumaroylagmatine was among the metabolites secreted into the inoculum. In vitro assays revealed an inhibitory activity of coumaroylagmatine on P. infestans spore germination. Mutant analyses suggested a requirement of the p-coumaroyl-CoA:agmatine N4-p-coumaroyl transferase ACT for the biosynthesis and of the MATE transporter DTX18 for the extracellular accumulation of coumaroylagmatine. The host plant potato is not able to efficiently secrete coumaroylagmatine. This inability is overcome in transgenic potato plants expressing the two Arabidopsis genes ACT and DTX18. These plants secrete agmatine and putrescine conjugates to high levels, indicating that DTX18 is a hydroxycinnamic acid amide transporter with a distinct specificity. The export of hydroxycinnamic acid amides correlates with a decreased ability of P. infestans spores to germinate, suggesting a contribution of secreted antimicrobial compounds to pathogen defense at the leaf surface. PMID:26744218

  11. The Arabidopsis NPF3 protein is a GA transporter

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Iris; Zhang, Yi; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Pisanty, Odelia; Barbosa, Inês C. R.; Zourelidou, Melina; Regnault, Thomas; Crocoll, Christoph; Erik Olsen, Carl; Weinstain, Roy; Schwechheimer, Claus; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Estelle, Mark; Shani, Eilon

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that promote a wide range of developmental processes. While GA signalling is well understood, little is known about how GA is transported or how GA distribution is regulated. Here we utilize fluorescently labelled GAs (GA-Fl) to screen for Arabidopsis mutants deficient in GA transport. We show that the NPF3 transporter efficiently transports GA across cell membranes in vitro and GA-Fl in vivo. NPF3 is expressed in root endodermis and repressed by GA. NPF3 is targeted to the plasma membrane and subject to rapid BFA-dependent recycling. We show that abscisic acid (ABA), an antagonist of GA, is also transported by NPF3 in vitro. ABA promotes NPF3 expression and GA-Fl uptake in plants. On the basis of these results, we propose that GA distribution and activity in Arabidopsis is partly regulated by NPF3 acting as an influx carrier and that GA–ABA interaction may occur at the level of transport. PMID:27139299

  12. The Arabidopsis NPF3 protein is a GA transporter.

    PubMed

    Tal, Iris; Zhang, Yi; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Pisanty, Odelia; Barbosa, Inês C R; Zourelidou, Melina; Regnault, Thomas; Crocoll, Christoph; Olsen, Carl Erik; Weinstain, Roy; Schwechheimer, Claus; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Estelle, Mark; Shani, Eilon

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that promote a wide range of developmental processes. While GA signalling is well understood, little is known about how GA is transported or how GA distribution is regulated. Here we utilize fluorescently labelled GAs (GA-Fl) to screen for Arabidopsis mutants deficient in GA transport. We show that the NPF3 transporter efficiently transports GA across cell membranes in vitro and GA-Fl in vivo. NPF3 is expressed in root endodermis and repressed by GA. NPF3 is targeted to the plasma membrane and subject to rapid BFA-dependent recycling. We show that abscisic acid (ABA), an antagonist of GA, is also transported by NPF3 in vitro. ABA promotes NPF3 expression and GA-Fl uptake in plants. On the basis of these results, we propose that GA distribution and activity in Arabidopsis is partly regulated by NPF3 acting as an influx carrier and that GA-ABA interaction may occur at the level of transport. PMID:27139299

  13. Assessment of Amino Acid/Drug Transporters for Renal Transport of [18F]Fluciclovine (anti-[18F]FACBC) in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Masahiro; Baden, Atsumi; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Masato; Kawai, Keiichi; Oka, Shuntaro; Yoshimura, Hirokatsu

    2016-01-01

    [18F]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid; anti-[18F]FACBC), a positron emission tomography tracer used for the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer, is transported via amino acid transporters (AATs) with high affinity (Km: 97–230 μM). However, the mechanism underlying urinary excretion is unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of AATs and drug transporters in renal [18F]fluciclovine reuptake. [14C]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-fluoro[1-14C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid) was used because of its long half-life. The involvement of AATs in [14C]fluciclovine transport was measured by apical-to-basal transport using an LLC-PK1 monolayer as model for renal proximal tubules. The contribution of drug transporters herein was assessed using vesicles/cells expressing the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) , organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3). The apical-to-basal transport of [14C]fluciclovine was attenuated by l-threonine, the substrate for system alanine-serine-cysteine (ASC) AATs. [14C]Fluciclovine uptake by drug transporter-expressing vesicles/cells was not significantly different from that of control vesicles/cells. Fluciclovine inhibited P-gp, MRP4, OAT1, OCT2, and OATP1B1 (IC50 > 2.95 mM). Therefore, system ASC AATs may be partly involved in the renal reuptake of [18F]fluciclovine. Further, given that [18F]fluciclovine is recognized as an inhibitor with millimolar affinity for the tested drug transporters, slow urinary excretion of [18F]fluciclovine may be mediated by system ASC AATs, but not by drug transporters. PMID:27754421

  14. Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long N; Ma, Dongliang; Shui, Guanghou; Wong, Peiyan; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wenk, Markus R; Goh, Eyleen L K; Silver, David L

    2014-05-22

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for normal brain growth and cognitive function. Consistent with its importance in the brain, DHA is highly enriched in brain phospholipids. Despite being an abundant fatty acid in brain phospholipids, DHA cannot be de novo synthesized in brain and must be imported across the blood-brain barrier, but mechanisms for DHA uptake in brain have remained enigmatic. Here we identify a member of the major facilitator superfamily--Mfsd2a (previously an orphan transporter)--as the major transporter for DHA uptake into brain. Mfsd2a is found to be expressed exclusively in endothelium of the blood-brain barrier of micro-vessels. Lipidomic analysis indicates that Mfsd2a-deficient (Mfsd2a-knockout) mice show markedly reduced levels of DHA in brain accompanied by neuronal cell loss in hippocampus and cerebellum, as well as cognitive deficits and severe anxiety, and microcephaly. Unexpectedly, cell-based studies indicate that Mfsd2a transports DHA in the form of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not unesterified fatty acid, in a sodium-dependent manner. Notably, Mfsd2a transports common plasma LPCs carrying long-chain fatty acids such LPC oleate and LPC palmitate, but not LPCs with less than a 14-carbon acyl chain. Moreover, we determine that the phosphor-zwitterionic headgroup of LPC is critical for transport. Importantly, Mfsd2a-knockout mice have markedly reduced uptake of labelled LPC DHA, and other LPCs, from plasma into brain, demonstrating that Mfsd2a is required for brain uptake of DHA. Our findings reveal an unexpected essential physiological role of plasma-derived LPCs in brain growth and function.

  15. Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long N; Ma, Dongliang; Shui, Guanghou; Wong, Peiyan; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wenk, Markus R; Goh, Eyleen L K; Silver, David L

    2014-05-22

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for normal brain growth and cognitive function. Consistent with its importance in the brain, DHA is highly enriched in brain phospholipids. Despite being an abundant fatty acid in brain phospholipids, DHA cannot be de novo synthesized in brain and must be imported across the blood-brain barrier, but mechanisms for DHA uptake in brain have remained enigmatic. Here we identify a member of the major facilitator superfamily--Mfsd2a (previously an orphan transporter)--as the major transporter for DHA uptake into brain. Mfsd2a is found to be expressed exclusively in endothelium of the blood-brain barrier of micro-vessels. Lipidomic analysis indicates that Mfsd2a-deficient (Mfsd2a-knockout) mice show markedly reduced levels of DHA in brain accompanied by neuronal cell loss in hippocampus and cerebellum, as well as cognitive deficits and severe anxiety, and microcephaly. Unexpectedly, cell-based studies indicate that Mfsd2a transports DHA in the form of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not unesterified fatty acid, in a sodium-dependent manner. Notably, Mfsd2a transports common plasma LPCs carrying long-chain fatty acids such LPC oleate and LPC palmitate, but not LPCs with less than a 14-carbon acyl chain. Moreover, we determine that the phosphor-zwitterionic headgroup of LPC is critical for transport. Importantly, Mfsd2a-knockout mice have markedly reduced uptake of labelled LPC DHA, and other LPCs, from plasma into brain, demonstrating that Mfsd2a is required for brain uptake of DHA. Our findings reveal an unexpected essential physiological role of plasma-derived LPCs in brain growth and function. PMID:24828044

  16. Application of MS Transport Assays to the Four Human γ-Aminobutyric Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sebastian; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2015-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters (GATs) are promising drug targets for various diseases associated with imbalances in GABAergic neurotransmission. For the development of new drugs or pharmacological tools addressing GATs, screening techniques to identify new inhibitors and to characterize their potency at each GAT subtype are indispensable. By now, the technique by far dominating is based on radiolabeled GABA. We recently described "MS Transport Assays" for hGAT-1 by employing ((2) H6 )GABA as the substrate. In the present study, we applied this approach to all four human GAT subtypes and determined the KM values for GAT-mediated transport of ((2) H6 )GABA at each subtype. Furthermore, a comprehensive set of GAT inhibitors reflecting the whole range of potency and subtype selectivity known so far was evaluated for their potency. The comparison of pIC50 values obtained in conventional [(3) H]GABA uptake assays with those obtained in MS Transport Assays indicated the reliability of the latter. The MS Transport Assays enable a throughput similar to that of conventional radiometric transport assays performed in a 96-well format but avoid the use of radiolabeled substrates.

  17. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

    2015-04-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.

  18. Perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) atmospheric formation and transport to the Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike-thackray, C.; Selin, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are highly persistent and toxic environmental contaminants that have been found in remote locations such as the Arctic, far from emission sources. These persistent organic pollutants are emitted directly to the atmosphere as well as being produced by the degradation of precursor compounds in the atmosphere, but recent trends towards increasing precursor emissions and decreasing direct emissions raise the importance of production in the atmosphere. Our work aims to improve understanding of the atmospheric degradation of fluorotelomer precursor compounds to form the long-chain PFCAs PFOA (C8) and PFNA (C9).Using the atmospheric chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, which uses assimilated meteorology to simulate the atmospheric transport of trace gas species, we investigate the interaction of the atmospheric formation of PFCAs and the atmospheric transport of their precursor species. Our simulations are a first application of the GEOS-Chem framework to PFCA chemistry. We highlight the importance of the spatial and temporal variability of background atmospheric chemical conditions experienced during transport. We find that yields and formation times of PFOA and PFNA respond differently and strongly to the photochemical conditions of the atmosphere, such as the abundance of NO, HO2, and other photochemical species.

  19. Golgi Localized Barley MTP8 Proteins Facilitate Mn Transport

    PubMed Central

    Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species. PMID:25486417

  20. Nanoscale Electron Transport Measurements of Immobilized Cytochrome P450 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bostick, Christopher D.; Flora, Darcy R.; Gannett, Peter M.; Tracy, Timothy S.; Lederman, David

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanopillars, functionalized with an organic self-assembled monolayer, can be used to measure the electrical conductance properties of immobilized proteins without aggregation. Measurements of the conductance of nanopillars with cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) proteins using conducting probe atomic force microscopy demonstrate that a correlation exists between the energy barrier height between hopping sites and CYP2C9 metabolic activity. Measurements performed as a function of tip force indicate that, when subjected to a large force, the protein is more stable in the presence of a substrate. This agrees with the hypothesis that substrate entry into the active site helps to stabilize the enzyme. The relative distance between hopping sites also increases with increasing force, possibly because protein functional groups responsible for electron transport depend on the structure of the protein. The inhibitor sulfaphenazole, in addition to the previously studied aniline, increased the barrier height for electron transfer and thereby makes CYP2C9 reduction more difficult and inhibits metabolism. This suggests that P450 Type II binders may decrease the ease of electron transport processes in the enzyme, in addition to occupying the active site. PMID:25804257

  1. Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Barberá, Maria José; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a phytol-derived branched-chain fatty acid present in dietary products. Phytanic acid increased uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Phytanic acid induced the expression of the UCP1 gene promoter, which was enhanced by co-transfection with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) expression vector but not with other expression vectors driving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARgamma or a form of RXR devoid of ligand-dependent sensitivity. The effect of phytanic acid on the UCP1 gene required the 5' enhancer region of the gene and the effects of phytanic acid were mediated in an additive manner by three binding sites for RXR. Moreover, phytanic acid activates brown adipocyte differentiation: long-term exposure of brown preadipocytes to phytanic acid promoted the acquisition of the brown adipocyte morphology and caused a co-ordinate induction of the mRNAs for gene markers of brown adipocyte differentiation, such as UCP1, adipocyte lipid-binding protein aP2, lipoprotein lipase, the glucose transporter GLUT4 or subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase. In conclusion, phytanic acid is a natural product of phytol metabolism that activates brown adipocyte thermogenic function. It constitutes a potential nutritional signal linking dietary status to adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:11829740

  2. Facilitated transporters mediate net efflux of amino acids to the fetus across the basal membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast.

    PubMed

    Cleal, J K; Glazier, J D; Ntani, G; Crozier, S R; Day, P E; Harvey, N C; Robinson, S M; Cooper, C; Godfrey, K M; Hanson, M A; Lewis, R M

    2011-02-15

    Fetal growth depends on placental transfer of amino acids from maternal to fetal blood. The mechanisms of net amino acid efflux across the basal membrane (BM) of the placental syncytiotrophoblast to the fetus, although vital for amino acid transport, are poorly understood. We examined the hypothesis that facilitated diffusion by the amino acid transporters TAT1, LAT3 and LAT4 plays an important role in this process, with possible effects on fetal growth. Amino acid transfer was measured in isolated perfused human placental cotyledons (n = 5 per experiment) using techniques which distinguish between different transport processes. Placental TAT1, LAT3 and LAT4 proteins were measured, and mRNA expression levels (measured using real-time quantitative-PCR) were related to fetal and neonatal anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of neonatal lean mass in 102 Southampton Women's Survey (SWS) infants. Under conditions preventing transport by amino acid exchangers, all amino acids appearing in the fetal circulation were substrates of TAT1, LAT3 or LAT4. Western blots demonstrated the presence of TAT1, LAT3 and LAT4 in placental BM preparations. Placental TAT1 and LAT3 mRNA expression were positively associated with measures of fetal growth in SWS infants (P < 0.05). We provide evidence that the efflux transporters TAT1, LAT3 and LAT4 are present in the human placental BM, and may play an important role in the net efflux of amino acids to the fetus. Unlike other transporters they can increase fetal amino acid concentrations. Consistent with a role in placental amino acid transfer capacity and fetal growth TAT1 and LAT3 mRNA expression showed positive associations with infant size at birth.

  3. Fluctuation driven active molecular transport in passive channel proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosztin, Ioan

    2006-03-01

    Living cells interact with their extracellular environment through the cell membrane, which acts as a protective permeability barrier for preserving the internal integrity of the cell. However, cell metabolism requires controlled molecular transport across the cell membrane, a function that is fulfilled by a wide variety of transmembrane proteins, acting as either passive or active transporters. In this talk it is argued that, contrary to the general belief, in active cell membranes passive and spatially asymmetric channel proteins can act as active transporters by consuming energy from nonequilibrium fluctuations fueled by cell metabolism. This assertion is demonstrated in the case of the E. coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF channel protein, whose high resolution crystal structure is manifestly asymmetric. By calculating the glycerol flux through GlpF within the framework of a stochastic model, it is found that, as a result of channel asymmetry, glycerol uptake driven by a concentration gradient is enhanced significantly in the presence of non-equilibrium fluctuations. Furthermore, the enhancement caused by a ratchet-like mechanism is larger for the outward, i.e., from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, flux than for the inward one, suggesting that the same non-equilibrium fluctuations also play an important role in protecting the interior of the cell against poisoning by excess uptake of glycerol. Preliminary data on water and sugar transport through aquaporin and maltoporin channels, respectively, are indicative of the universality of the proposed nonequilibrium-fluctuation-driven active transport mechanism. This work was supported by grants from the Univ. of Missouri Research Board, the Institute for Theoretical Sciences and the Department of Energy (DOE Contract W-7405-ENG-36), and the National Science Foundation (FIBR-0526854).

  4. Increased ubiquitination and reduced plasma membrane trafficking of placental amino acid transporter SNAT-2 in human IUGR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Yung; Rosario, Fredrick J; Shehab, Majida Abu; Powell, Theresa L; Gupta, Madhulika B; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Placental amino acid transport is decreased in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We have shown that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling regulates system A amino acid transport by modulating the ubiquitination and plasma membrane trafficking of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT-2) in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. We hypothesize that IUGR is associated with (1) inhibition of placental mTORC1 and mTORC2 signalling pathways, (2) increased amino acid transporter ubiquitination in placental homogenates and (3) decreased protein expression of SNAT-2 in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane (MVM). To test this hypothesis, we collected placental tissue and isolated MVM from women with pregnancies complicated by IUGR (n=25) and gestational age-matched women with appropriately grown control infants (n=19, birth weights between the twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth percentiles). The activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2 was decreased whereas the protein expression of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2; +72%, P<0.0001) and the ubiquitination of SNAT-2 (+180%, P<0.05) were increased in homogenates of IUGR placentas. Furthermore, IUGR was associated with decreased system A amino acid transport activity (-72%, P<0.0001) and SNAT-1 (-42%, P<0.05) and SNAT-2 (-31%, P<0.05) protein expression in MVM. In summary, these findings are consistent with the possibility that decreased placental mTOR activity causes down-regulation of placental system A activity by shifting SNAT-2 trafficking towards proteasomal degradation, thereby contributing to decreased fetal amino acid availability and restricted fetal growth in IUGR. PMID:26374858

  5. Stimulation of the amino acid transporter SLC6A19 by JAK2

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, Shefalee K.; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Merches, Katja; Gu, Shuchen; Broeer, Stefan; Lang, Florian

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino acid transporter SLC6A19 is upregulated by Janus kinase-2 JAK2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {sup V617F}JAK2 mutant, causing myeloproliferative disease, is more effective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JAK2 inhibitor AG490 reverses stimulation of SLC6A19 by {sup V617F}JAK2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JAK2 enhances SLC6A19 protein insertion into the cell membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SLC6A19 may contribute to amino acid uptake into {sup V617F}JAK2 expressing tumor cells. -- Abstract: JAK2 (Janus kinase-2) is expressed in a wide variety of cells including tumor cells and contributes to the proliferation and survival of those cells. The gain of function mutation {sup V617F}JAK2 mutant is found in the majority of myeloproliferative diseases. Cell proliferation depends on the availability of amino acids. Concentrative cellular amino acid uptake is in part accomplished by Na{sup +} coupled amino acid transport through SLC6A19 (B(0)AT). The present study thus explored whether JAK2 activates SLC6A19. To this end, SLC6A19 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without wild type JAK2, {sup V617F}JAK2 or inactive {sup K882E}JAK2 and electrogenic amino acid transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. In SLC6A19-expressing oocytes but not in oocytes injected with water or JAK2 alone, the addition of leucine (2 mM) to the bath generated a current (I{sub le}), which was significantly increased following coexpression of JAK2 or {sup V617F}JAK2, but not by coexpression of {sup K882E}JAK2. Coexpression of JAK2 enhanced the maximal transport rate without significantly modifying the affinity of the carrier. Exposure of the oocytes to the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 (40 {mu}M) resulted in a gradual decline of I{sub le}. According to chemiluminescence JAK2 enhanced the carrier protein abundance in the cell membrane. The decline of I{sub le} following inhibition of carrier insertion by brefeldin A (5 {mu}M) was similar

  6. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases.

    PubMed

    Armengot, Laia; Marquès-Bueno, Maria Mar; Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-07-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport (PAT), allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima, and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, PAT is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell to cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the 'non-genomic' regulation of auxin transport, placing an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability, and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK, and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in PAT, noting that there are probably RLKs involved in co-ordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition, as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  7. Protein and amino acid metabolism in the human newborn.

    PubMed

    Kalhan, Satish C; Bier, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    Birth and adaptation to extrauterine life involve major shifts in the protein and energy metabolism of the human newborn. These include a shift from a state of continuous supply of nutrients including amino acids from the mother to cyclic periodic oral intake, a change in the redox state of organs, thermogenesis, and a significant change in the mobilization and use of oxidative substrates. The development of safe, stable isotopic tracer methods has allowed the study of protein and amino acid metabolism not only in the healthy newborn but also in those born prematurely and of low birth weight. These studies have identified the unique and quantitative aspects of amino acid/protein metabolism in the neonate, thus contributing to rational nutritional care of these babies. The present review summarizes the contemporary data on some of the significant developments in essential and dispensable amino acids and their relationship to overall protein metabolism. Specifically, the recent data of kinetics of leucine, phenylalanine, glutamine, sulfur amino acid, and threonine and their relation to whole-body protein turnover are presented. Finally, the physiological rationale and the impact of nutrient (amino acids) interventions on the dynamics of protein metabolism are discussed.

  8. Fatty acid transfer between multilamellar liposomes and fatty acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brecher, P; Saouaf, R; Sugarman, J M; Eisenberg, D; LaRosa, K

    1984-11-10

    A simple experimental system was developed for studying the movement of long-chain fatty acids between multilamellar liposomes and soluble proteins capable of binding fatty acids. Oleic acid was incorporated into multilamellar liposomes containing cholesterol and egg yolk lecithin and incubated with albumin or hepatic fatty acid-binding protein. It was found that the fatty acid transferred from the liposomes to either protein rapidly and selectively under conditions where phospholipid and cholesterol transfer did not occur. More than 50% of the fatty acid contained within liposomes could become protein bound, suggesting that the fatty acid moved readily between and across phospholipid bilayers. Transfer was reduced at low pH, and this reduction appeared to result from decreased dissociation of the protonated fatty acid from the bilayer. Liposomes made with dimyristoyl or dipalmitoyl lecithin and containing 1 mol per cent palmitic acid were used to show the effect of temperature on fatty acid transfer. Transfer to either protein did not occur at temperatures where the liposomes were in a gel state but occurred rapidly at temperatures at or above the transition temperatures of the phospholipid used. PMID:6490659

  9. The importance of company: Na+ and Cl- influence substrate interaction with SLC6 transporters and other proteins.

    PubMed

    Reith, M E A; Zhen, J; Chen, N

    2006-01-01

    SLC6 transporters, which include transporters for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, glycine, taurine, L-proline, creatine, betaine, and neutral cationic amino acids, require Na+ and Cl- for their function, and this review covers the interaction between transporters of this family with Na+ and Cl- from a structure-function standpoint. Because detailed structure-function information regarding ion interactions with SLC6 transporters is limited, we cover other proteins cotransporting Na+ or Cl- with substrate (SLClA2, PutP, SLC5A1, melB), or ion binding to proteins in general (rhodanese, ATPase, LacY, thermolysine, angiotensin-converting enzyme, halorhodopsin, CFTR). Residues can be involved in directly binding Na+ or Cl-, in coupling ion binding to conformational changes in transporter, in coupling Na+ or Cl- movement to transport, or in conferring ion selectivity. Coordination of ions can involve a number of residues, and portions of the substrate and coupling ion binding sites can be distal in space in the tertiary structure of the transporter, with other portions that are close in space thought to be crucial for the coupling process. The reactivity with methanethiosulfonate reagents of cysteines placed in strategic positions in the transporter provides a readout for conformational changes upon ion or substrate binding. More work is needed to establish the relationships between ion interactions and oligomerization of SLC6 transporters.

  10. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-01-01

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory’s isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method. PMID:26138206

  11. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-07-03

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory's isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method.

  12. HALOACETIC ACIDS PERTURB PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IN MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    HALOACETIC ACIDS PERTURB PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IN MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO. MR Blanton and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Sponsor: JM Rogers.
    Haloacetic Acids (HAAs) formed during the disinfection process are present in drin...

  13. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Giudetti, Anna M.; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V.; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  14. Analysis of protein transport in the Brassica oleracea vasculature reveals protein-specific destinations.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chenxing; Anstead, James; Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the vascular transport properties of exogenously applied proteins to Brassica oleracea plants and compared their delivery to various aerial parts of the plant with carboxy fluorescein (CF) dye. We identified unique properties for each protein. Alexafluor-tagged bovine serum albumin (Alexa-BSA) and Alexafluor-tagged Histone H1 (Alexa-Histone) moved slower than CF dye throughout the plant. Interestingly, Alexa-Histone was retained in the phloem and phloem parenchyma while Alexa-BSA moved into the apoplast. One possibility is that Alexa-Histone sufficiently resembles plant endogenous proteins and is retained in the vascular stream, while Alexa-BSA is exported from the cell as a foreign protein. Both proteins diffuse from the leaf veins into the leaf lamina. Alexa-BSA accumulated in the leaf epidermis while Alexa-Histone accumulated mainly in the mesophyll layers. Fluorescein-tagged hepatitis C virus core protein (fluorescein-HCV) was also delivered to B. oleracea plants and is larger than Alexa-BSA. This protein moves more rapidly than BSA through the plant and was restricted to the leaf veins. Fluorescein-HCV failed to unload to the leaf lamina. These combined data suggest that there is not a single default pathway for the vascular transfer of exogenous proteins in B. oleracea plants. Specific protein properties appear to determine their destination and transport properties within the phloem. PMID:22476467

  15. Hedgehog signalling in the mouse requires intraflagellar transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Danwei; Liu, Aimin; Rakeman, Andrew S; Murcia, Noel S; Niswander, Lee; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2003-11-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins were first identified as essential factors for the growth and maintenance of flagella in the single-celled alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In a screen for embryonic patterning mutations induced by ethylnitrosourea, here we identify two mouse mutants, wimple (wim) and flexo (fxo), that lack ventral neural cell types and show other phenotypes characteristic of defects in Sonic hedgehog signalling. Both mutations disrupt IFT proteins: the wim mutation is an allele of the previously uncharacterized mouse homologue of IFT172; and fxo is a new hypomorphic allele of polaris, the mouse homologue of IFT88. Genetic analysis shows that Wim, Polaris and the IFT motor protein Kif3a are required for Hedgehog signalling at a step downstream of Patched1 (the Hedgehog receptor) and upstream of direct targets of Hedgehog signalling. Our data show that IFT machinery has an essential and vertebrate-specific role in Hedgehog signal transduction. PMID:14603322

  16. Isolation of intraflagellar transport particle proteins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Richey, Elizabeth; Qin, Hongmin

    2013-01-01

    Cilia, the hair-like protrusions found on most eukaryotic cells, were once considered vestigial organelles. The recent renaissance of research in cilia arose from the discoveries of intraflagellar transport (IFT) and the involvement of IFT particle proteins in human diseases. Many IFT particle proteins have since been identified, and research on IFT particle complexes and their protein components continues to provide insight into the mechanism of IFT and the etiology of ciliopathies. In this chapter, we describe the methods of isolating IFT particles from the flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Two methods, sucrose density gradient fractionation and immunoprecipitation, are explained in detail. Troubleshooting information is presented to illustrate the critical steps of the procedure to ensure successful implementation of these methods in individual labs.

  17. Chloroplast Iron Transport Proteins - Function and Impact on Plant Physiology.

    PubMed

    López-Millán, Ana F; Duy, Daniela; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts originated about three billion years ago by endosymbiosis of an ancestor of today's cyanobacteria with a mitochondria-containing host cell. During evolution chloroplasts of higher plants established as the site for photosynthesis and thus became the basis for all life dependent on oxygen and carbohydrate supply. To fulfill this task, plastid organelles are loaded with the transition metals iron, copper, and manganese, which due to their redox properties are essential for photosynthetic electron transport. In consequence, chloroplasts for example represent the iron-richest system in plant cells. However, improvement of oxygenic photosynthesis in turn required adaptation of metal transport and homeostasis since metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes oxidative damage. This is most acute in chloroplasts, where radicals and transition metals are side by side and ROS-production is a usual feature of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, on the one hand when bound by proteins, chloroplast-intrinsic metals are a prerequisite for photoautotrophic life, but on the other hand become toxic when present in their highly reactive, radical generating, free ionic forms. In consequence, transport, storage and cofactor-assembly of metal ions in plastids have to be tightly controlled and are crucial throughout plant growth and development. In the recent years, proteins for iron transport have been isolated from chloroplast envelope membranes. Here, we discuss their putative functions and impact on cellular metal homeostasis as well as photosynthetic performance and plant metabolism. We further consider the potential of proteomic analyses to identify new players in the field. PMID:27014281

  18. Heteromeric amino acid transporters. In search of the molecular bases of transport cycle mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palacín, Manuel; Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Rosell, Albert

    2016-06-15

    Heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are relevant targets for structural studies. On the one hand, HATs are involved in inherited and acquired human pathologies. On the other hand, these molecules are the only known examples of solute transporters composed of two subunits (heavy and light) linked by a disulfide bridge. Unfortunately, structural knowledge of HATs is scarce and limited to the atomic structure of the ectodomain of a heavy subunit (human 4F2hc-ED) and distant prokaryotic homologues of the light subunits that share a LeuT-fold. Recent data on human 4F2hc/LAT2 at nanometer resolution revealed 4F2hc-ED positioned on top of the external loops of the light subunit LAT2. Improved resolution of the structure of HATs, combined with conformational studies, is essential to establish the structural bases for light subunit recognition and to evaluate the functional relevance of heavy and light subunit interactions for the amino acid transport cycle.

  19. Intestinal transport of monosaccharides and amino acids during postnatal development of mink.

    PubMed

    Buddington, R K; Malo, C; Sangild, P T; Elnif, J

    2000-12-01

    Intestinal development is typically studied using omnivores. For comparative purposes, we examined an altricial carnivore, the mink (Mustela vison). In mink, intestinal dimensions increase up to 8 wk after birth and then remain constant (length) or decrease (mass) into maturity despite continuing gains in body mass. Rates of glucose and fructose transport decline after birth for intact tissues but increase for brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Rates of absorption for five amino acids that are substrates for the acidic (aspartate), basic (lysine), neutral (leucine and methionine), and imino acid (proline) carriers increase between birth and 24 h for intact tissues before declining, but increase after 2 wk for BBMV. The proportion of BBMV amino acid uptake that is Na(+)-dependent increases during development but for aspartate is nearly 100% at all ages. Tracer uptake by BBMV can be inhibited by 100 mmol/l of unlabeled amino acid, except for lysine. BBMV uptake of the dipeptide glycyl-sarcosine does not differ between ages, is not Na(+) dependent, and is only partially inhibited by 100 mmol/l unlabeled dipeptide. Despite the ability to rapidly and efficiently digest high dietary loads of protein, rates of amino acid and peptide absorption are not markedly higher than those of other mammals.

  20. Predicting protein disorder by analyzing amino acid sequence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jack Y; Yang, Mary Qu

    2008-01-01

    Background Many protein regions and some entire proteins have no definite tertiary structure, presenting instead as dynamic, disorder ensembles under different physiochemical circumstances. These proteins and regions are known as Intrinsically Unstructured Proteins (IUP). IUP have been associated with a wide range of protein functions, along with roles in diseases characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. Results Identifying IUP is important task in structural and functional genomics. We exact useful features from sequences and develop machine learning algorithms for the above task. We compare our IUP predictor with PONDRs (mainly neural-network-based predictors), disEMBL (also based on neural networks) and Globplot (based on disorder propensity). Conclusion We find that augmenting features derived from physiochemical properties of amino acids (such as hydrophobicity, complexity etc.) and using ensemble method proved beneficial. The IUP predictor is a viable alternative software tool for identifying IUP protein regions and proteins. PMID:18831799

  1. Acid rain and transported air pollutants: implications for public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Acid rain, ozone, and fine particles in the air are endangering US resources, but controlling these pollutants will be expensive. These air pollutants harm lakes and streams, lower crop yields, damage manmade materials, decrease visibility and pose a threat to forests and human health. The costs to control these pollutants include higher electricity rates, fewer jobs for high-sulfur coal miners and financial strain to utilities and industries. Acid rain and other transported air pollutants pose a special problem for policymakers: how to balance the concerns of those who bear the risk of damage with those who will pay for the control. Scientific uncertainty about many aspects of the problem complicates the decision of whether or when to control. Additional scientific research will not provide an unambiguous answer in the near future, nor will it ever resolve value conflicts. The report synthesizes what is known about pollutant emissions, movements, and effects, and estimates the risk of potential damages to resources. OTA focuses on the public policy implications of the acid rain problems and estimates the costs and potential effectiveness of various control options.

  2. Functional relationship between cationic amino acid transporters and beta-defensins: implications for dry skin diseases and the dry eye.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Kristin; Garreis, Fabian; Posa, Andreas; Dunse, Matthias; Paulsen, Friedrich P

    2010-04-20

    The ocular surface, constantly exposed to environmental pathogens, is particularly vulnerable to infection. Hence an advanced immune defence system is essential to protect the eye from microbial attack. Antimicrobial peptides, such as beta-defensins, are essential components of the innate immune system and are the first line of defence against invaders of the eye. High concentrations of L-arginine and L-lysine are necessary for the expression of beta-defensins. These are supplied by epithelial cells in inflammatory processes. The limiting factor for initiation of beta-defensin production is the transport of L-arginine and L-lysine into the cell. This transport is performed to 80% by only one transporter system in the human, the y(+)-transporter. This group of proteins exclusively transports the cationic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine and is also known under the term cationic amino acid transporter proteins (CAT-proteins). Various infections associated with L-arginine deficiency (for example psoriasis, keratoconjuctivitis sicca) are also associated with an increase in beta-defensin production. For the first time, preliminary work has shown the expression of human CATs in ocular surface epithelia and tissues of the lacrimal apparatus indicating their relevance for diseases of the ocular surface. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the human CATs that appear to be integrated in causal regulation cascades of beta-defensins, thereby offering novel concepts for therapeutic perspectives.

  3. IR-UV photochemistry of protein-nucleic acid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kozub, J.; Edwards, G.

    1995-12-31

    UV light has often been used to induce the formation of covalent bonds between DNA (or RNA) and tightly-bound protein molecules. However, the internal photoreactions of nucleic acids and proteins limit the yield and complicate the analysis of intermolecular crosslinks. In an ongoing search for improved reaction specificity or new photoreactions in these systems, we have employed UV photons from a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser and mid-IR photons from the Vanderbilt FEL. Having crosslinked several protein-nucleic acid systems with nanosecond UV laser pulses, we are currently studying the effect of various IR wavelengths on a model system (gene 32 protein and poly[dT]). We have found that irradiation with sufficiently intense FEL macropulses creates an altered form of gene 32 protein which was not observed with UV-only irradiation. The electrophoretic nobility of the product is consistent with the formation of a specific protein-protein crosslink. No evidence of the non-specific protein damage typically induced by UV light is found. The yield of the new photoproduct is apparently enhanced by exposure to FEL macropulses which are synchronized with UV laser pulses. With ideal exposure parameters, the two-color reaction effectively competes with UV-only reactions. Experiments designed to determine the reaction mechanism and to demonstrate FEL-induced reactions in other protein-nucleic acid systems are currently underway.

  4. Molecular Evolution Directs Protein Translation Using Unnatural Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Cox, Vanessa E; Gaucher, Eric A

    2015-12-02

    Unnatural amino acids have in recent years established their importance in a wide range of fields, from pharmaceuticals to polymer science. Unnatural amino acids can increase the number of chemical groups within proteins and thus expand or enhance biological function. Our ability to utilize these important building blocks, however, has been limited by the inherent difficulty in incorporating these molecules into proteins. To address this challenge, researchers have examined how the canonical twenty amino acids are incorporated, regulated, and modified in nature. This review focuses on achievements and techniques used to engineer the ribosomal protein-translation machinery, including the introduction of orthogonal translation components, how directed evolution enhances the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, and the potential utility of ancient biomolecules for this process.

  5. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  6. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    PubMed Central

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts. PMID:10639127

  7. Effects of altered cytoplasmic domains on transport of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein are transferable to other proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Guan, J L; Ruusala, A; Cao, H; Rose, J K

    1988-01-01

    Alterations of the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G protein) were shown previously to affect transport of the protein from the endoplasmic reticulum, and recent studies have shown that this occurs without detectable effects on G protein folding and trimerization (R. W. Doms et al., J. Cell Biol., in press). Deletions within this domain slowed exit of the mutant proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, and replacement of this domain with a foreign 12-amino-acid sequence blocked all transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum. To extend these studies, we determined whether such effects of cytoplasmic domain changes were transferable to other proteins. Three different assays showed that the effects of the mutations on transport of two membrane-anchored secretory proteins were the same as those observed with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. In addition, possible effects on oligomerization were examined for both transported and nontransported forms of membrane-anchored human chorionic gonadotropin-alpha. These membrane-anchored forms, like the nonanchored human chorionic gonadotropin-alpha, had sedimentation coefficients consistent with a monomeric structure. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence that these cytoplasmic mutations affect transport by affecting interactions at or near the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Images PMID:2841589

  8. Chemical approaches to detect and analyze protein sulfenic acids

    PubMed Central

    Furdui, Cristina M.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Orchestration of many processes relying on intracellular signal transduction is recognized to require the generation of hydrogen peroxide as a second messenger, yet relatively few molecular details of how this oxidant acts to regulate protein function are currently understood. This review describes emerging chemical tools and approaches that can be applied to study protein oxidation in biological systems, with a particular emphasis on a key player in protein redox regulation, cysteine sulfenic acid. While sulfenic acids (within purified proteins or simple mixtures) are detectable by physical approaches like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, the propensity of these moieties to undergo further modification in complex biological systems has necessitated the development of chemical probes, reporter groups and analytical approaches to allow for their selective detection and quantification. Provided is an overview of techniques that are currently available for the study of sulfenic acids, and some of the biologically meaningful data that have been collected using such approaches. PMID:24105931

  9. Chemical approaches to detect and analyze protein sulfenic acids.

    PubMed

    Furdui, Cristina M; Poole, Leslie B

    2014-01-01

    Orchestration of many processes relying on intracellular signal transduction is recognized to require the generation of hydrogen peroxide as a second messenger, yet relatively few molecular details of how this oxidant acts to regulate protein function are currently understood. This review describes emerging chemical tools and approaches that can be applied to study protein oxidation in biological systems, with a particular emphasis on a key player in protein redox regulation, cysteine sulfenic acid. While sulfenic acids (within purified proteins or simple mixtures) are detectable by physical approaches like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, the propensity of these moieties to undergo further modification in complex biological systems has necessitated the development of chemical probes, reporter groups and analytical approaches to allow for their selective detection and quantification. Provided is an overview of techniques that are currently available for the study of sulfenic acids, and some of the biologically meaningful data that have been collected using such approaches.

  10. Structural and functional interaction of fatty acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-05-01

    The human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed using human recombinant wild-type (WT) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC and CC). The T94A substitution did not alter or only slightly altered L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, nor did it change the affinity for intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Nevertheless, the T94A substitution markedly altered the secondary structural response of L-FABP induced by binding long chain fatty acids or intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Finally, the T94A substitution markedly decreased the levels of induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-regulated proteins such as L-FABP, fatty acid transport protein 5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α itself meditated by the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Thus, although the T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for long chain fatty acids, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure and stability, as well as the conformational and functional response to these ligands.

  11. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO₂ over O₂, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO₂concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca²⁺ via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  12. Protein expression and subcellular localization of the general purine transporter UapC from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Taubas, J; Diallinas, G; Scazzocchio, C; Rosa, A L

    2000-07-01

    The uapC gene of Aspergillus nidulans belongs to a family of nucleobase-specific transporters conserved in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. We report the use of immunological and green fluorescent protein based strategies to study protein expression and subcellular distribution of UapC. A chimeric protein containing a plant-adapted green fluorescent protein (sGFP) fused to the C-terminus of UapC was shown to be functional in vivo, as it complements a triple mutant (i.e., uapC(-) uapA(-) azgA(-)) unable to grow on uric acid as the sole nitrogen source. UapC-GFP is located in the plasma membrane and, secondarily, in internal structures observed as fluorescent dots. A strong correlation was found between cellular levels of UapC-GFP fluorescence and known patterns of uapC gene expression. This work represents the first in vivo study of protein expression and subcellular localization of a filamentous fungal nucleobase transporter.

  13. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  14. TTC26/DYF13 is an intraflagellar transport protein required for transport of motility-related proteins into flagella

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Ide, Takahiro; Yagi, Toshiki; Jiang, Xue; Hirono, Masafumi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Wemmer, Kimberly A; Stainier, Didier YR; Qin, Hongmin; Kamiya, Ritsu; Marshall, Wallace F

    2014-01-01

    Cilia/flagella are assembled and maintained by the process of intraflagellar transport (IFT), a highly conserved mechanism involving more than 20 IFT proteins. However, the functions of individual IFT proteins are mostly unclear. To help address this issue, we focused on a putative IFT protein TTC26/DYF13. Using live imaging and biochemical approaches we show that TTC26/DYF13 is an IFT complex B protein in mammalian cells and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Knockdown of TTC26/DYF13 in zebrafish embryos or mutation of TTC26/DYF13 in C. reinhardtii, produced short cilia with abnormal motility. Surprisingly, IFT particle assembly and speed were normal in dyf13 mutant flagella, unlike in other IFT complex B mutants. Proteomic and biochemical analyses indicated a particular set of proteins involved in motility was specifically depleted in the dyf13 mutant. These results support the concept that different IFT proteins are responsible for different cargo subsets, providing a possible explanation for the complexity of the IFT machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01566.001 PMID:24596149

  15. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P.; Walsh, Kathleen A.; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Steidl, Rebecca J.; Tessmer, Stuart H.; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors. PMID:27009596

  16. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P; Walsh, Kathleen A; Feliciano, Gustavo T; Steidl, Rebecca J; Tessmer, Stuart H; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors. PMID:27009596

  17. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-04-23

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion.

  18. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion. PMID:25915115

  19. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion. PMID:25915115

  20. Transport and Growth Kinetics in Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otalora, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Carotenuto, L.; Castagnolo, D.; Novella, M. L.; Chernov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic coupling between mass transport and incorporation of growth units into the surface of a crystal growing from solution in microgravity is used to derive quantitative information on the crystal growth kinetics. To this end, new procedures for experiment preparation, interferometric data processing and model fitting have been developed. The use of experimental data from the bulk diffusive maw transport together with a model for steady state stagnant crystal growth allows the detailed quantitative understanding of the kinetics of both the concentration depletion zone around the crystal and the growth of the crystal interface. The protein crystal used in the experiment is shown to be growing in the mixed kinetic regime (0.2 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second less than beta R/D less than 0.9 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second).

  1. Plasmodesmata Localizing Proteins Regulate Transport and Signaling during Systemic Acquired Immunity in Plants.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gah-Hyun; Shine, M B; de Lorenzo, Laura; Yu, Keshun; Cui, Weier; Navarre, Duroy; Hunt, Arthur G; Lee, Jung-Youn; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2016-04-13

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants is mediated by the signaling molecules azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), and salicylic acid (SA). Here, we show that AzA and G3P transport occurs via the symplastic route, which is regulated by channels known as plasmodesmata (PD). In contrast, SA moves via the extracytosolic apoplast compartment. We found that PD localizing proteins (PDLP) 1 and 5 were required for SAR even though PD permeability in pdlp1 and 5 mutants was comparable to or higher than wild-type plants, respectively. Furthermore, PDLP function was required in the recipient cell, suggesting regulatory function in SAR. Interestingly, overexpression of PDLP5 drastically reduced PD permeability, yet also impaired SAR. PDLP1 interacted with AZI1 (lipid transfer-like protein required for AzA- and G3P-induced SAR) and contributed to its intracellular partitioning. Together, these results reveal the transport routes of SAR chemical signals and highlight the regulatory role of PD-localizing proteins in SAR. PMID:27078071

  2. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Taro Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  3. Mitochondrial phosphate transport. N-ethylmaleimide insensitivity correlates with absence of beef heart-like Cys42 from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphate transport protein.

    PubMed

    Guérin, B; Bukusoglu, C; Rakotomanana, F; Wohlrab, H

    1990-11-15

    The mitochondrial phosphate transport protein (PTP) has been purified in a reconstitutively active form from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida parapsilosis. ADP/ATP carriers that copurify have been identified. The PTP from S. cerevisiae migrates as a single band (35 kDa) in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the same mobility as the N-ethylmaleimide-alkylated beef heart PTP. It does not cross-react with anti-sera against beef heart PTP. The CNBr peptide maps of the yeast and beef proteins are very different. The rate of unidirectional phosphate uptake into reconstituted proteoliposomes is stimulated about 2.5-fold to a Vmax of 170 mumol of phosphate min-1 (mg PTP)-1 (22 degrees C) by increasing the pHi of the proteoliposomes from 6.8 (same as pHe) to 8.0. The Km for Pi of this reconstituted activity is 2.2 mM. The transport is sensitive to mersalyl (50% inhibition at 60 microM) and insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide. We have purified peptides matching the highly conserved motif Pro-X-(Asp/glu)-X-X-(Lys/Arg)-X-(Arg/lys) (X is an unspecified amino acid) of the triplicate gene structure sequence of the beef heart PTP. The N-ethylmaleimide-reactive Cys42 of the beef heart protein, located between the two basic amino acids of this motif (Lys41-Cys42-Arg43), is replaced with a Thr in the yeast protein. This substitution most likely is responsible for the lack of N-ethylmaleimide sensitivity of the yeast protein and mersalyl thus reacts with another cysteine to inhibit the transport. Finally it is concluded that Cys42 has no essential role in the catalysis of inorganic phosphate transport by the mitochondrial phosphate transport protein.

  4. Mapping protein and nucleic acid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednyakov, I. V.; Zrelov, P. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Polozov, R. V.; Sivozhelezov, V. S.; Stepanenko, V. A.; Chirgadze, Yu. N.

    2013-09-01

    Methods and algorithms to analyze surfaces of globular and fibrillar proteins, DNA, and RNA have been developed. These methods for the construction of maps of fragments of these objects in the original cylindrical projection developed herein essentially broaden the possibilities for studying the distribution of charges and surface topography of biological structures. This approach significantly supplements the qualitative characteristics of methods of visualizing biopolymer structures.

  5. The contribution of SNAT1 to system A amino acid transporter activity in human placental trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Desforges, M.; Greenwood, S.L.; Glazier, J.D.; Westwood, M.; Sibley, C.P.

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} mRNA levels for SNAT1 are higher than other system A subtype mRNAs in primary human cytotrophoblast. {yields} SNAT1 knockdown in cytotrophoblast cells significantly reduces system A activity. {yields} SNAT1 is a key contributor to system A-mediated amino acid transport in human placenta. -- Abstract: System A-mediated amino acid transport across the placenta is important for the supply of neutral amino acids needed for fetal growth. All three system A subtypes (SNAT1, 2, and 4) are expressed in human placental trophoblast suggesting there is an important biological role for each. Placental system A activity increases as pregnancy progresses, coinciding with increased fetal nutrient demands. We have previously shown SNAT4-mediated system A activity is higher in first trimester than at term, suggesting that SNAT1 and/or SNAT2 are responsible for the increased system A activity later in gestation. However, the relative contribution of each subtype to transporter activity in trophoblast at term has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant subtype of system A in cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placenta, maintained in culture for 66 h, by: (1) measuring mRNA expression of the three subtypes and determining the Michaelis-Menten constants for uptake of the system A-specific substrate, {sup 14}C-MeAIB, (2) investigating the contribution of SNAT1 to total system A activity using siRNA. Results: mRNA expression was highest for the SNAT1 subtype of system A. Kinetic analysis of {sup 14}C-MeAIB uptake revealed two distinct transport systems; system 1: K{sub m} = 0.38 {+-} 0.12 mM, V{sub max} = 27.8 {+-} 9.0 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which resembles that reported for SNAT1 and SNAT2 in other cell types, and system 2: K{sub m} = 45.4 {+-} 25.0 mM, V{sub max} = 1190 {+-} 291 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which potentially represents SNAT4. Successful knockdown of SNAT1 mRNA using target-specific si

  6. Identification of amino acid sequences in the polyomavirus capsid proteins that serve as nuclear localization signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Haynes, J. I. Jr; Brady, J. N.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The molecular mechanism participating in the transport of newly synthesized proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in mammalian cells is poorly understood. Recently, the nuclear localization signal sequences (NLS) of many nuclear proteins have been identified, and most have been found to be composed of a highly basic amino acid stretch. A genetic "subtractive" and a biochemical "additive" approach were used in our studies to identify the NLS's of the polyomavirus structural capsid proteins. An NLS was identified at the N-terminus (Ala1-Pro-Lys-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Val-Ser-Lys-Cys11) of the major capsid protein VP1 and at the C-terminus (Glu307 -Glu-Asp-Gly-Pro-Glu-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Arg-Leu318) of the VP2/VP3 minor capsid proteins.

  7. Electrical Transport Properties of Au-Doped Deoxyribonucleic Acid Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jong Seung; Hong, Su Heon; Kim, Hyung Kwon; Kwon, Young Whan; Jin, Jung Il; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyeol

    2005-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules were doped with Au atoms and their electrical transport properties were measured. The Au doping was carried out by incubating a mixture of HAuCl4\\cdot3H2O and DNA solutions. The binding of Au atoms to DNA bases was identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The Au-doped DNA molecules were deposited on nanoelectrodes and the presence of the molecules between the electrodes was determined by both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurement of the current-voltage characteristics showed that the Au-doped DNA molecules exhibited a higher conductivity than undoped DNA molecules. Detailed analysis of the chemical composition shows that there is a strong possibility of reliably controlling the conductivity of DNA molecules using this method.

  8. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU) from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions. PMID:20384985

  9. Inhibition of ABC transport proteins by oil sands process affected water.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Saunders, David M V; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Alcorn, Jane; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporter proteins is important for detoxification of xenobiotics. For example, ABC transporters from the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) subfamily are important for excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites. Effects of chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of relatively fresh oil sands process affected water (OSPW) from Base Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) and aged OSPW from Pond 9 (P9-OSPW) on the activity of MRP transporters were investigated in vivo by use of Japanese medaka at the fry stage of development. Activities of MRPs were monitored by use of the lipophilic dye calcein, which is transported from cells by ABC proteins, including MRPs. To begin to identify chemicals that might inhibit activity of MRPs, BML-OSPW and P9-OSPW were fractionated into acidic, basic, and neutral fractions by use of mixed-mode sorbents. Chemical compositions of fractions were determined by use of ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in ESI(+) and ESI(-) mode. Greater amounts of calcein were retained in fry exposed to BML-OSPW at concentration equivalents greater than 1× (i.e., full strength). The neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW, but not the acidic fraction, caused greater retention of calcein. Exposure to P9-OSPW did not affect the amount of calcein in fry. Neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW contained relatively greater amounts of several oxygen-, sulfur, and nitrogen-containing chemical species that might inhibit MRPs, such as O(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, although secondary fractionation will be required to conclusively identify the most potent inhibitors. Naphthenic acids (O2(-)), which were dominant in the acidic fraction, did not appear to be the cause of the inhibition. This is the first study to demonstrate that chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of this important class of proteins. However, aging of OSPW attenuates

  10. Inhibition of ABC transport proteins by oil sands process affected water.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Saunders, David M V; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Alcorn, Jane; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporter proteins is important for detoxification of xenobiotics. For example, ABC transporters from the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) subfamily are important for excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites. Effects of chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of relatively fresh oil sands process affected water (OSPW) from Base Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) and aged OSPW from Pond 9 (P9-OSPW) on the activity of MRP transporters were investigated in vivo by use of Japanese medaka at the fry stage of development. Activities of MRPs were monitored by use of the lipophilic dye calcein, which is transported from cells by ABC proteins, including MRPs. To begin to identify chemicals that might inhibit activity of MRPs, BML-OSPW and P9-OSPW were fractionated into acidic, basic, and neutral fractions by use of mixed-mode sorbents. Chemical compositions of fractions were determined by use of ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in ESI(+) and ESI(-) mode. Greater amounts of calcein were retained in fry exposed to BML-OSPW at concentration equivalents greater than 1× (i.e., full strength). The neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW, but not the acidic fraction, caused greater retention of calcein. Exposure to P9-OSPW did not affect the amount of calcein in fry. Neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW contained relatively greater amounts of several oxygen-, sulfur, and nitrogen-containing chemical species that might inhibit MRPs, such as O(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, although secondary fractionation will be required to conclusively identify the most potent inhibitors. Naphthenic acids (O2(-)), which were dominant in the acidic fraction, did not appear to be the cause of the inhibition. This is the first study to demonstrate that chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of this important class of proteins. However, aging of OSPW attenuates

  11. PtAAP11, a high affinity amino acid transporter specifically expressed in differentiating xylem cells of poplar.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Jérémy; de Faÿ, Elisabeth; Fitz, Michael; Wipf, Daniel; Blaudez, Damien; Chalot, Michel

    2010-06-01

    Amino acids are the currency of nitrogen exchange between source and sink tissues in plants and constitute a major source of the components used for cellular growth and differentiation. The characterization of a new amino acid transporter belonging to the amino acid permease (AAP) family, AAP11, expressed in the perennial species Populus trichocarpa is reported here. PtAAP11 expression analysis was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and GUS activity after poplar transformation. PtAAP11 function was studied in detail by heterologous expression in yeast. The poplar genome contains 14 putative AAPs which is quite similar to other species analysed except Arabidopsis. PtAAP11 was mostly expressed in differentiating xylem cells in different organs. Functional characterization demonstrated that PtAAP11 was a high affinity amino acid transporter, more particularly for proline. Compared with other plant amino acid transporters, PtAAP11 represents a novel high-affinity system for proline. Thus, the functional characterization and expression studies suggest that PtAAP11 may play a major role in xylogenesis by providing proline required for xylem cell wall proteins. The present study provides important information highlighting the role of a specific amino acid transporter in xylogenesis in poplar.

  12. Homologue gene of bile acid transporters ntcp, asbt, and ost-alpha in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: tissue expression, effect of fasting, and response to bile acid administration.

    PubMed

    Murashita, Koji; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Chisada, Shin-Ichi; Furuita, Hirofumi; Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Matsunari, Hiroyuki; Iwashita, Yasuro; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    Bile acid transporters belonging to the SLC10A protein family, Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP or SLC10A1), apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2), and organic solute transporter alpha (Ost-alpha) have been known to play critical roles in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in mammals. In this study, ntcp, asbt, and ost-alpha-1/-2 cDNA were cloned, their tissue distributions were characterized, and the effects of fasting and bile acid administration on their expression were examined in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The structural characteristics of Ntcp, Asbt, and Ost-alpha were well conserved in trout, and three-dimensional structure analysis showed that Ntcp and Asbt were similar to each other. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that trout asbt was primarily expressed in the hindgut, while ntcp expression occurred in the brain, and ost-alpha-1/-2 was mainly expressed in the liver or ovary. Although asbt and ost-alpha-1 mRNA levels in the gut increased in response to fasting for 4 days, ost-alpha-1 expression in the liver decreased. Similarly, bile acid administration increased asbt and ost-alpha-1 expression levels in the gut, while those of ntcp and ost-alpha-2 in the liver decreased. These results suggested that the genes asbt, ntcp, and ost-alpha are involved in bile acid transport in rainbow trout.

  13. Protein Mediators of Sterol Transport Across Intestinal Brush Border Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Mark; Yu, Liqing

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of cholesterol balance contributes significantly to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of death in the United States. The intestine has the unique capability to act as a gatekeeper for entry of cholesterol into the body, and inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption is now widely regarded as an attractive non-statin therapeutic strategy for ASCVD prevention. In this chapter we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding sterol transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. The purpose of this work is to summarize substantial progress made in the last decade in regards to protein-mediated sterol trafficking, and to discuss this in the context of human disease. PMID:20213550

  14. Sequence, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of mRNA encoding a human glucose transporter-like protein

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Hirofumi; Seino, Susumu; Imura, Hiroo; Seino, Yutaka; Eddy, R.L.; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Byers, M.G.; Shows, T.B.; Bell, G.I. )

    1988-08-01

    Recombinant DNA clones encoding a glucose transporter-like protein have been isolated from adult human liver and kidney cDNA libraries by cross-hybridization with the human HepG2/erythrocyte glucose transporter cDNA. Analysis of the sequence of this 524-amino acid glucose transporter-like protein indicates that is has 55.5% identity with the HepG2/erythrocyte glucose transporter as well as a similar structural organization. Studies of the tissue distribution of the mRNA coding for this glucose transporter-like protein in adult human tissues indicate that the highest amounts are present in liver with lower amounts in kidney and small intestine. The amounts of glucose transporter-like mRNA in other tissues, including colon, stomach, cerebrum, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, were below the level of sensitivity of our assay. The single-copy gene encoding this glucose transporter-like protein has been localized to the q26.1{yields}q26.3 region of chromosome 3.

  15. Coordination of platinum therapeutic agents to met-rich motifs of human copper transport protein1.

    PubMed

    Crider, Sarah E; Holbrook, Robert J; Franz, Katherine J

    2010-01-01

    Platinum therapeutic agents are widely used in the treatment of several forms of cancer. Various mechanisms for the transport of the drugs have been proposed including passive diffusion across the cellular membrane and active transport via proteins. The copper transport protein Ctr1 is responsible for high affinity copper uptake but has also been implicated in the transport of cisplatin into cells. Human hCtr1 contains two methionine-rich Mets motifs on its extracellular N-terminus that are potential platinum-binding sites: the first one encompasses residues 7-14 with amino acid sequence Met-Gly-Met-Ser-Tyr-Met-Asp-Ser and the second one spans residues 39-46 with sequence Met-Met-Met-Met-Pro-Met-Thr-Phe. In these studies, we use liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the binding interactions between cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin with synthetic peptides corresponding to hCtr1 Mets motifs. The interactions of cisplatin and carboplatin with Met-rich motifs that contain three or more methionines result in removal of the carrier ligands of both platinum complexes. In contrast, oxaliplatin retains its cyclohexyldiamine ligand upon platinum coordination to the peptide.

  16. A mutation in protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A affects auxin transport in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbers, C.; DeLong, A.; Deruere, J.; Bernasconi, P.; Soll, D.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecular mechanism of auxin transport is not well understood. Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and other inhibitors of auxin transport block tropic curvature responses and inhibit root and shoot elongation. We have isolated a novel Arabidopsis thaliana mutant designated roots curl in NPA (rcn1). Mutant seedlings exhibit altered responses to NPA in root curling and hypocotyl elongation. Auxin efflux in mutant seedlings displays increased sensitivity to NPA. The rcn1 mutation was transferred-DNA (T-DNA) tagged and sequences flanking the T-DNA insert were cloned. Analysis of the RCN1 cDNA reveals that the T-DNA insertion disrupts a gene for the regulatory A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-A). The RCN1 gene rescues the rcn1 mutant phenotype and also complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PP2A-A mutation, tpd3-1. These data implicate protein phosphatase 2A in the regulation of auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

  17. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, R. F.; Linke, K.; Teichert, H.; Ehrmann, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

  18. Ultrastructural localization of acid protein polysaccharides and calcium in the vacuoles of the chicken thrombocyte.

    PubMed

    Daimon, T; Uchida, K; Mizuhira, V

    1977-04-20

    The coexistence of acid protein polysaccharides and calcium in the vacuoles of chicken thrombocytes were studied by means of ultrahistochemical methods and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The thrombocytes possessed large vacuoles of a surface connected membrane system. After both ruthenium red staining and tannic acid fixation the innersurface coat of vacuoles was always strongly and continously visualized. Electron microscopic X-ray microprobe analysis of antimonate precipitates in thrombocytes fixed in K-antimonate-OsO4 revealed calcium localization on the innersurface of vacuoles. From these facts it seems likely that the vacuoles of the surface connected membrane system may take part in the pool or the transport of calcium.

  19. Review: the liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Hugo L

    2009-12-01

    The liver bile acid-binding proteins, L-BABPs, formerly called the liver "basic" fatty acid-binding proteins, are a subfamily of the fatty acid-binding proteins, FABPs. All the members of this protein group share the same fold: a 10 stranded beta barrel in which two short helices are inserted in between the first and the second strand of antiparallel beta sheet. The barrel encloses the ligand binding cavity of the protein while the two helices are believed to be involved in ligand accessibility to the binding site. The L-BABP subfamily has been found to be present in the liver of several vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds but not in mammals. The members of the FABP family present in mammals that appear to be more closely related to the L-BABPs are the liver FABPs and the ileal BABPs, both very extensively studied. Several L-BABP X-ray structures are available and chicken L-BABP has also been studied using NMR spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of ligand binding for bile acids, first determined by X-ray crystallography for the chicken liver protein, is of two cholates per protein molecule with the only exception of zebrafish L-BABP which, due to the presence of a disulfide bridge, has a stoichiometry of 1:1. The stoichiometry of ligand binding for fatty acids, determined with several different techniques, is 1:1. An unanswered question of great relevance is the identity of the protein that in mammals performs the function that in other vertebrates is carried out by the L-BABPS.

  20. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Lara A.; Boron, Walter F.; Zhou, Yuehan

    2015-01-01

    Each day, the kidneys filter 180 L of blood plasma, equating to some 4,300 mmol of the major blood buffer, bicarbonate (HCO3−). The glomerular filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule (PT), and the majority of filtered HCO3− is reclaimed along the early (S1) and convoluted (S2) portions of the PT in a manner coupled to the secretion of H+ into the lumen. The PT also uses the secreted H+ to titrate non-HCO3− buffers in the lumen, in the process creating “new HCO3−” for transport into the blood. Thus, the PT – along with more distal renal segments – is largely responsible for regulating plasma [HCO3−]. In this review we first focus on the milestone discoveries over the past 50+ years that define the mechanism and regulation of acid-base transport by the proximal tubule. Further on in the review, we will summarize research still in progress from our laboratory, work that addresses the problem of how the PT is able to finely adapt to acid–base disturbances by rapidly sensing changes in basolateral levels of HCO3− and CO2 (but not pH), and thereby to exert tight control over the acid–base composition of the blood plasma. PMID:21170887

  1. [Fractional and amino acid composition of krill proteins and the potential for obtaining protein preparations].

    PubMed

    Orlova, T A; Churina, E E; Kuranova, L K

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the fractional composition of krill proteins demonstrated that the content of protein fractions changes depending on the time of krill catch. The highest amount of water-soluble proteins is contained by krill caught in December (64%), of salt-soluble by krill caught in June (12%), base-soluble by krill caught in May, September and February (34%). Krill protein contains from 50 to 60% of water- and salt-soluble fractions. Analysis of the amino acid composition of krill proteins showed that it does not differ essentially from that of adequate food proteins.

  2. Structure of a Bacterial ABC Transporter Involved in the Import of an Acidic Polysaccharide Alginate.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yukie; Itoh, Takafumi; Kaneko, Ai; Nishitani, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-09-01

    The acidic polysaccharide alginate represents a promising marine biomass for the microbial production of biofuels, although the molecular and structural characteristics of alginate transporters remain to be clarified. In Sphingomonas sp. A1, the ATP-binding cassette transporter AlgM1M2SS is responsible for the import of alginate across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we present the substrate-transport characteristics and quaternary structure of AlgM1M2SS. The addition of poly- or oligoalginate enhanced the ATPase activity of reconstituted AlgM1M2SS coupled with one of the periplasmic solute-binding proteins, AlgQ1 or AlgQ2. External fluorescence-labeled oligoalginates were specifically imported into AlgM1M2SS-containing proteoliposomes in the presence of AlgQ2, ATP, and Mg(2+). The crystal structure of AlgQ2-bound AlgM1M2SS adopts an inward-facing conformation. The interaction between AlgQ2 and AlgM1M2SS induces the formation of an alginate-binding tunnel-like structure accessible to the solvent. The translocation route inside the transmembrane domains contains charged residues suitable for the import of acidic saccharides.

  3. Involvement of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter Lat2 in the Transport of 3,3'-Diiodothyronine across the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Kinne, Anita; Wittner, Melanie; Wirth, Eva K; Hinz, Katrin M; Schülein, Ralf; Köhrle, Josef; Krause, Gerd

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones are transported across cell membranes by transmembrane transporter proteins, for example by members of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) and the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) families. LATs consist of a light chain (e.g. LAT2) and a heavy chain (CD98), which is essential for their cell surface expression and functionality. The specificity of Lat2 for thyroid hormones and their metabolites and its role in their transport was not fully clear. This fact motivated us to establish a cell system to elucidate the uptake of thyroid hormones and their metabolites by mouse Lat2. The coinjection of cRNA coding for Lat2 and CD98 into Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a markedly increased level of 3,3'-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,3'-T2) and to some extent also enhanced T3 transport. To gain insight into properties of thyroid hormones and their metabolites transported by Lat2, we inhibited 3,3'-T2 uptake by various iodothyronine derivatives. T1 and T2 derivatives as well as 2-aminobicyclo-[2, 2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid strongly competed with 3,3'-T2 uptake. In addition, we performed T2 uptake measurements with the thyroid hormone-specific transporter MCT8. For both Lat2 and MCT8, Km values in a low micromolar range were calculated. We demonstrated that oocytes are a suitable system for thyroid hormone transport studies mediated by Lat2. Our data indicates that Lat2 compared to other thyroid hormone transporters prefers 3,3'-T2 as the substrate. Thus, Lat2 might contribute to the availability of thyroid hormone by importing and/or exporting 3,3'-T2, which is generated either by T3 inactivation or by rapid deiodinase 1-mediated rT3 degradation. PMID:26601072

  4. Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids: Role in Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nutten, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are polymers composed of 30 or more amino acids; some of them are essential dietary components, since they are not synthetized by human metabolic processes. They are crucial for healthy growth and development and influence major functions of the body. The infant's first year is a critical time of rapid growth and development, which must be supported by a high rate of protein synthesis. Breast milk, as a single specific food source in the first months of life, is providing the total protein and essential amino acids required. Infant formulas have been designed for infants who cannot be breastfed. They should be similar to breast milk in their composition and their functional outcomes, insuring appropriate growth, optimal development, maturation of the immune system, easy digestion and healthy metabolic programming. By modifying their protein components, specific infant formulas have also been developed for specific needs. For example, partially hydrolyzed (prevention of atopic dermatitis) and extensively hydrolyzed or amino-acid-based infant formulas (reduction in allergy symptoms) have been designed for the management of cow's milk protein allergy. In conclusion, proteins provided via breast milk or infant formula are essential components of the infant's diet; therefore, the specific quality, quantity and conformation of proteins are of utmost importance for healthy growth and development. PMID:27336588

  5. Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids: Role in Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nutten, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are polymers composed of 30 or more amino acids; some of them are essential dietary components, since they are not synthetized by human metabolic processes. They are crucial for healthy growth and development and influence major functions of the body. The infant's first year is a critical time of rapid growth and development, which must be supported by a high rate of protein synthesis. Breast milk, as a single specific food source in the first months of life, is providing the total protein and essential amino acids required. Infant formulas have been designed for infants who cannot be breastfed. They should be similar to breast milk in their composition and their functional outcomes, insuring appropriate growth, optimal development, maturation of the immune system, easy digestion and healthy metabolic programming. By modifying their protein components, specific infant formulas have also been developed for specific needs. For example, partially hydrolyzed (prevention of atopic dermatitis) and extensively hydrolyzed or amino-acid-based infant formulas (reduction in allergy symptoms) have been designed for the management of cow's milk protein allergy. In conclusion, proteins provided via breast milk or infant formula are essential components of the infant's diet; therefore, the specific quality, quantity and conformation of proteins are of utmost importance for healthy growth and development.

  6. Acid-extrusion from tissue: the interplay between membrane transporters and pH buffers.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Swietach, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    The acid-base balance of cells is related to the concentration of free H⁺ ions. These are highly reactive, and their intracellular concentration must be regulated to avoid detrimental effects to the cell. H⁺ ion dynamics are influenced by binding to chelator substances ('buffering'), and by the production, diffusion and membrane-transport of free H⁺ ions or of the H⁺-bound chelators. Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation aims to balance this system of diffusion-reaction-transport processes at a favourable steady-state pHi. The ability of cells to regulate pHi may set a limit to tissue growth and can be subject to selection pressures. Cancer cells have been postulated to respond favourably to such selection pressures by evolving a better means of pHi regulation. A particularly important feature of tumour pHi regulation is acid-extrusion, which involves H⁺-extrusion and HCO₃⁻-uptake by membrane-bound transporter-proteins. Extracellular CO₂/HCO₃⁻ buffer facilitates these membrane-transport processes. As a mobile pH-buffer, CO₂/HCO₃⁻ protects the extracellular space from excessive acidification that could otherwise inhibit further acid-extrusion. CO₂/HCO₃⁻ also provides substrate for HCO₃⁻-transporters. However, the inherently slow reaction kinetics of CO₂/HCO₃⁻ can be rate-limiting for acid-extrusion. To circumvent this, cells can express extracellular-facing carbonic anhydrase enzymes to accelerate the attainment of equilibrium between CO₂, HCO₃⁻ and H⁺. The acid-extrusion apparatus has been proposed as a target for anti-cancer therapy. The major targets include H⁺ pumps, Na⁺/H⁺ exchangers and carbonic anhydrases. The effectiveness of such therapy will depend on the correct identification of rate-limiting steps in pHi regulation in a specific type of cancer. PMID:22360560

  7. A role for phosphorylation in the regulation of the barley scutellar peptide transporter HvPTR1 by amino acids.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Ashley, Merewyn K; West, Christopher E; Sunderland, Paul A; Bray, Clifford M

    2005-06-01

    Protein reserves in the cereal endosperm are sequentially degraded to small peptides and amino acids during germination and these are translocated across the scutellum to support growth of the embryo. Peptide transport in the germinating barley grain is mediated by specific carriers localized to the plasma membrane of the scutellar epithelium. In isolated barley embryos peptide transport is rapidly inhibited by amino acid concentrations comparable with those found in the post-germination barley grain. However, this inhibition of HvPTR1 activity is not effected at either the transcriptional or translational level. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid repressed transport of Ala-[14C]Phe, but not [14C]Ala, into the barley scutellar epithelium. In vivo [32P]orthophosphate labelling studies of barley scutellar tissue in combination with immunoprecipitation studies using antiserum raised to HvPTR1 showed that HvPTR1 (66 kDa) is phosphorylated in the presence of amino acids. Immunopurified HvPTR1 was further demonstrated to be phosphorylated on serine residues. Digestion with the N-glycosidase enzyme PNGase F results in a shift in the molecular mass of the protein by 10 kDa, indicating that HvPTR1 is an N-linked glycoprotein. These results provide strong circumstantial evidence that HvPTR1 peptide transport activity in the germinating barley grain is regulated at the post-translational level by phosphorylation in response to rising levels of amino acids emanating from the endosperm as a result of storage protein breakdown and mobilization. This is potentially an important element in balancing the flux of organic nitrogen and carbon from the endosperm to embryo during germination and seedling establishment.

  8. Expression, solubilisation, and purification of a functional CMP-sialic acid transporter in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Andrea; Hadley, Barbara; von Itzstein, Mark; Tiralongo, Joe

    2014-09-01

    Membrane proteins, including solute transporters play crucial roles in cellular function and have been implicated in a variety of important diseases, and as such are considered important targets for drug development. Currently the drug discovery process is heavily reliant on the structural and functional information discerned from high-resolution crystal structures. However, membrane protein structure determination is notoriously difficult, due in part to challenges faced in their expression, solubilisation and purification. The CMP-sialic acid transporter (CST) is considered to be an attractive target for drug discovery. CST inhibition reduces cancer cell sialylation and decreases the metastatic potential of cancer cells and to date, no crystal structure of the CST, or any other nucleotide sugar transporter exists. Here we describe the optimised conditions for expression in Pichia pastoris, solubilisation using n-nonyl β-d-maltopyranoside (NM) and single step purification of a functional CST. Importantly we show that despite being able to solubilise and purify the CST using a number of different detergents, only NM was able to maintain CST functionality.

  9. Vacuolar amino acid transporters upregulated by exogenous proline and involved in cellular localization of proline in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Ikuhisa; Watanabe, Daisuke; Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Kaino, Tomohiro; Ohtsu, Iwao; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-07-14

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the AVT genes (AVT1-7), which encode vacuolar amino acid transporters belonging to the amino acid vacuolar transport (AVT)-family, were significantly upregulated in response to exogenous proline. To reveal a novel role of the Avt proteins in proline homeostasis, we analyzed the effects of deletion or overexpression of the AVT genes on the subcellular distribution of amino acids after the addition of proline to the cells grown in minimal medium. Among seven AVT gene disruptants, avt1Δ and avt7Δ showed the lowest ratios of vacuolar proline. Consistently, overexpression of the AVT1 gene specifically enhanced the vacuolar localization of proline. Since double disruption of the AVT1 and AVT7 genes did not completely abrogate vacuolar accumulation of proline, it is presumed that Avt1 has a dominant role, and Avt7 and other Avt proteins have redundant functions, in the localization of proline into the vacuolar lumen. In contrast, deletion of the AVT3 gene increased vacuolar proline, although the highly expressed AVT3 gene interfered with the accumulation of proline in the vacuole. Based on these results, it appears that Avt3 is the major protein involved in the export of proline from the vacuole. We also observed vacuolar membrane localization of GFP-fused Avt1, Avt3, and Avt7 proteins. Taken together, our data suggest that the AVT genes induced by exogenous proline are involved in the bidirectional transport of proline across the vacuolar membrane. PMID:27246536

  10. A general method of protein purification for recombinant unstructured non-acidic proteins.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco; Guillén, Gabriel; Reyes, José L; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2011-11-01

    Typical late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate in response to water deficit imposed by the environment or by plant developmental programs. Because of their physicochemical properties, they can be considered as hydrophilins and as a paradigm of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) in plants. To study their biophysical and biochemical characteristics large quantities of highly purified protein are required. In this work, we report a fast and simple purification method for non-acidic recombinant LEA proteins that does not need the addition of tags and that preserves their in vitro protective activity. The method is based on the enrichment of the protein of interest by boiling the bacterial protein extract, followed by a differential precipitation with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Using this procedure we have obtained highly pure recombinant LEA proteins of groups 1, 3, and 4 and one recombinant bacterial hydrophilin. This protocol will facilitate the purification of this type of IUPs, and could be particularly useful in proteomic projects/analyses.

  11. Protein-based microhydraulic transport for controllable actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Vishnu Baba; Leo, Donald J.

    2006-03-01

    Plants have the ability to develop large mechanical force from chemical energy available with bio-fuels. The energy released by the cleavage of a terminal phosphate ion during the hydrolysis of a bio- fuel assists the transport of ions and fluids in cellular homeostasis. Materials that develop pressure and hence strain similar to the response of plants to an external stimuli are classified as nastic materials. Calculations for controlled actuation of an active material inspired by biological transport mechanism demonstrated the feasibility of developing such a material with actuation energy densities on the order of 100 kJ/m 3. The mathematical model for a simplified proof of concept actuator referred to as micro hydraulic actuator uses ion transporters extracted from plants reconstituted on a synthetic bilayer lipid membrane (BLM). Thermodynamic model of the concept actuator predicted the ability to develop 5 percent normalized deformation in thickness of the micro- hydraulic actuator. Controlled fluid transport through AtSUT4 (Proton-sucrose co-transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana) reconstituted on a 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-[Phospho-L- Serine] (Sodium Salt) (POPS), 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3- Phosphoethanolamine (POPE) BLM on a porous lead silicate glass plate (50μm with 61μm pitch) was driven by proton gradient. Bulk fluid flux of 1.2 μl/min was observed for each microliter of AtSUT4 transporter suspension (16.6 mg/ml in pH7.0 medium) reconstituted on the BLM. The flux rate is observed to be dependent on the concentration of sucrose present in pH4 buffer. Flux rate of 10 μl/min is observed for 5 mM sucrose in the first 10 minutes. The observed flux scales linearly with BLM area and the amount of proteins reconstituted on the lipid membrane. This article details the next step in the development of the micro hydraulic actuator - fluid transport driven by exergonic Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis reaction in the presence of ATP

  12. Urea transporter proteins as targets for small-molecule diuretics

    PubMed Central

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Anderson, Marc O.; Verkman, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional diuretics such as furosemide and thiazides target salt transporters in kidney tubules, but urea transporters (UTs) have emerged as alternative targets. UTs are a family of transmembrane channels expressed in a variety of mammalian tissues, in particular the kidney. UT knockout mice and humans with UT mutations exhibit reduced maximal urinary osmolality, demonstrating that UTs are necessary for the concentration of urine. Small-molecule screening has identified potent and selective inhibitors of UT-A, the UT protein expressed in renal tubule epithelial cells, and UT-B, the UT protein expressed in vasa recta endothelial cells. Data from UT knockout mice and from rodents administered UT inhibitors support the diuretic action of UT inhibition. The kidney-specific expression of UT-A1, together with high selectivity of the small-molecule inhibitors, means that off-target effects of such small-molecule drugs should be minimal. This Review summarizes the structure, expression and function of UTs, and looks at the evidence supporting the validity of UTs as targets for the development of salt-sparing diuretics with a unique mechanism of action. UT-targeted inhibitors may be useful alone or in combination with conventional diuretics for therapy of various oedemas and hyponatraemias, potentially including those refractory to treatment with current diuretics. PMID:25488859

  13. The D-amino acid transport by the invertebrate SLC6 transporters KAAT1 and CAATCH1 from Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Vollero, Alessandra; Imperiali, Francesca G; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Margheritis, Eleonora; Peres, Antonio; Bossi, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The ability of the SLC6 family members, the insect neutral amino acid cotransporter KAAT1(K(+)-coupled amino acid transporter 1) and its homologous CAATCH1(cation anion activated amino acid transporter/channel), to transport D-amino acids has been investigated through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiological techniques. In the presence of D-isomers of leucine, serine, and proline, the msKAAT1 generates inward, transport-associated, currents with variable relative potencies, depending on the driving ion Na(+) or K(+). Higher concentrations of D-leucine (≥1 mmol/L) give rise to an anomalous response that suggests the existence of a second binding site with inhibitory action on the transport process. msCAATCH1 is also able to transport the D-amino acids tested, including D-leucine, whereas L-leucine acts as a blocker. A similar behavior is exhibited by the KAAT1 mutant S308T, confirming the relevance of the residue in this position in L-leucine binding and the different interaction of D-leucine with residues involved in transport mechanism. D-leucine and D-serine on various vertebrate orthologs B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) elicited only a very small current and singular behavior was not observed, indicating that it is specific of the insect neutral amino acid transporters. These findings highlight the relevance of D-amino acid absorption in the insect nutrition and metabolism and may provide new evidences in the molecular transport mechanism of SLC6 family. PMID:26884475

  14. A l-Lysine Transporter of High Stereoselectivity of the Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation (APC) Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Olkhova, Elena; Malviya, Viveka Nand; Grell, Ernst; Michel, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins of the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily transport amino acids and amines across membranes and play an important role in the regulation of cellular processes. We report the heterologous production of the LysP-related transporter STM2200 from Salmonella typhimurium in Escherichia coli, its purification, and functional characterization. STM2200 is assumed to be a proton-dependent APC transporter of l-lysine. The functional interaction between basic amino acids and STM2200 was investigated by thermoanalytical methods, i.e. differential scanning and isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of l-lysine to STM2200 in its solubilized monomer form is entropy-driven. It is characterized by a dissociation constant of 40 μm at pH 5.9 and is highly selective; no evidence was found for the binding of l-arginine, l-ornithine, l-2,4-diaminobutyric acid, and l-alanine. d-Lysine is bound 45 times more weakly than its l-chiral form. We thus postulate that STM2200 functions as a specific transport protein. Based on the crystal structure of ApcT (Shaffer, P. L., Goehring, A., Shankaranarayanan, A., and Gouaux, E. (2009) Science 325, 1010–1014), a proton-dependent amino acid transporter of the APC superfamily, a homology model of STM2200 was created. Docking studies allowed identification of possible ligand binding sites. The resulting predictions indicated that Glu-222 and Arg-395 of STM2200 are markedly involved in ligand binding, whereas Lys-163 is suggested to be of structural and functional relevance. Selected variants of STM2200 where these three amino acid residues were substituted using single site-directed mutagenesis showed no evidence for l-lysine binding by isothermal titration calorimetry, which confirmed the predictions. Molecular aspects of the observed ligand specificity are discussed. PMID:24257746

  15. Mutations in exocyst complex subunit SEC6 gene impaired polar auxin transport and PIN protein recycling in Arabidopsis primary root.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoyun; Feng, Yihong; Liu, Yulong; Bao, Yiqun

    2016-09-01

    Polar auxin transport, which is critical for land plant pattern formation and directional growth, is largely depended on asymmetric distribution of PIN proteins at the plasma membrane (PM). Endocytosis and recycling processes play important roles in regulating PIN protein distribution and abundance at the PM. Two subunits (SEC8, EXO70A1) of exocyst, an octameric vesicle-tethering complex, have been reported to be involved in PIN protein recycling in Arabidopsis. However, the function of exocyst complex in PIN protein recycling and polar auxin transport remains incompletely understood. In this study, we utilized two SEC6 down-regulation mutants (PRsec6-1 and PRsec6-2) to investigate the role of exocyst subunit SEC6 in the primary root development, polar auxin transport and PIN proteins recycling. We found that in PRsec6 mutants: 1. Primary root growth was retarded, and lateral root initiation were compromised. 2. Primary roots were sensitive to exogenous auxin 1-napthalene acetic acid (NAA) but not 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2.4-D). 3. Recycling of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins from the Brefeldin A (BFA) compartment to the PM was delayed. 4. Vesicles accumulated in the primary root tip cells, especially accumulated in the cytosol closed to the PM. These results further demonstrated that the exocyst complex plays an important role in PIN protein recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis primary root.

  16. Mutations in exocyst complex subunit SEC6 gene impaired polar auxin transport and PIN protein recycling in Arabidopsis primary root.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoyun; Feng, Yihong; Liu, Yulong; Bao, Yiqun

    2016-09-01

    Polar auxin transport, which is critical for land plant pattern formation and directional growth, is largely depended on asymmetric distribution of PIN proteins at the plasma membrane (PM). Endocytosis and recycling processes play important roles in regulating PIN protein distribution and abundance at the PM. Two subunits (SEC8, EXO70A1) of exocyst, an octameric vesicle-tethering complex, have been reported to be involved in PIN protein recycling in Arabidopsis. However, the function of exocyst complex in PIN protein recycling and polar auxin transport remains incompletely understood. In this study, we utilized two SEC6 down-regulation mutants (PRsec6-1 and PRsec6-2) to investigate the role of exocyst subunit SEC6 in the primary root development, polar auxin transport and PIN proteins recycling. We found that in PRsec6 mutants: 1. Primary root growth was retarded, and lateral root initiation were compromised. 2. Primary roots were sensitive to exogenous auxin 1-napthalene acetic acid (NAA) but not 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2.4-D). 3. Recycling of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins from the Brefeldin A (BFA) compartment to the PM was delayed. 4. Vesicles accumulated in the primary root tip cells, especially accumulated in the cytosol closed to the PM. These results further demonstrated that the exocyst complex plays an important role in PIN protein recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis primary root. PMID:27457987

  17. Acidic Shell Proteins of the Mediterranean Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis.

    PubMed

    Marin, Frédéric; Narayanappa, Prabakaran; Motreuil, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    In molluscs, the shell secretion process is controlled by a set of extracellular macromolecules collectively called the shell matrix. The shell matrix, which is produced by the mantle epithelial cells during mineralization, is predominantly composed of proteins, glycoproteins, acidic polysaccharides, and chitin that precisely regulate the deposition of calcium carbonate outside the mantle cells. In the present paper, we focus on the shell of Pinna nobilis, the giant Mediterranean fan mussel, usually considered as a model for studying molluscan biomineralization processes. P. nobilis exhibits indeed a nacro-prismatic shell, the outer layer of which is constituted of the so-called "regular simple calcitic prisms," according to Carter and Clark (1985). We review here the microstructural characteristics of the prisms and nacre and the biochemical properties of their associated matrices. In particular, the calcitic prisms of P. nobilis are characterized by a cortege of unusually acidic intraprismatic proteins, while the ones of the nacreous layer seem less acidic. A brief description of the molecular characterization of three acidic proteins, caspartin, calprismin and mucoperlin, is given. In particular, we show that extremely acidic intracrystalline proteins such as caspartin interact with calcium carbonate at different scales, from micrometric to crystal lattice levels.

  18. Analysis of single nucleic acid molecules with protein nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Maglia, Giovanni; Heron, Andrew J.; Stoddart, David; Japrung, Deanpen; Bayley, Hagan

    2011-01-01

    We describe the methods used in our laboratory for the analysis of single nucleic acid molecules with protein nanopores. The technical section is preceded by a review of the variety of experiments that can be done with protein nanopores. The end goal of much of this work is single-molecule DNA sequencing, although sequencing is not discussed explicitly here. The technical section covers the equipment required for nucleic acid analysis, the preparation and storage of the necessary materials, and aspects of signal processing and data analysis. PMID:20627172

  19. Transport of the Pathogenic Prion Protein through Landfill Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Lee, Seunghak; McKenzie, Debbie; Benson, Craig H.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPTSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Recent TSE outbreaks in domesticated and wild animal populations has created the need for safe and effective disposal of large quantities of potentially infected materials. Here, we report the results of a study to evaluate the potential for transport of PrPTSE derived from carcasses and associated wastes in a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. Column experiments were conducted to evaluate PrPTSE transport in quartz sand, two fine-textured burial soils currently used in landfill practice, a green waste residual material (a potential burial material), and fresh and aged MSW. PrPTSE was retained by quartz sand and the fine-textured burial soils, with no detectable PrPTSE eluted over more than 40 pore volumes. In contrast, PrPTSE was more mobile in MSW and green waste residual. Transport parameters were estimated from the experimental data and used to model PrPTSE migration in a MSW landfill. To the extent that the PrPTSE used mimics that released from decomposing carcasses, burial of CWD-infected materials at MSW landfills could provide secure containment of PrPTSE provided reasonable burial strategies (e.g., encasement in soil) are used. PMID:19368208

  20. Linking Phospholipid flippases to vesicle-mediated protein transport

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Baby-Periyanayaki; Natarajan, Paramasivam; Zhou, Xiaoming; Graham, Todd R.

    2013-01-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) are a large family of putative phospholipid translocases (flippases) implicated in the generation of phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes. P4-ATPases are typically the largest P-type ATPase subgroup found in eukaryotic cells, with five members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, six members in Caenorhabditis elegans, 12 members in Arabidopsis thaliani and 14 members in humans. In addition, many of the P4-ATPases require interaction with a noncatalytic subunit from the CDC50 gene family for their transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deficiency of a P4-ATPase (Atp8b1) causes liver disease in humans, and studies in a variety of model systems indicate that P4-ATPases play diverse and essential roles in membrane biogenesis. In addition to their proposed role in establishing and maintaining plasma membrane asymmetry, P4-ATPases are linked to vesicle-mediated protein transport in the exocytic and endocytic pathways. Recent studies have also suggested a role for P4-ATPases in the nonvesicular intracellular trafficking of sterols. Here, we discuss the physiological requirements for yeast P4-ATPases in phospholipid translocase activity, transport vesicle budding and ergosterol metabolism, with an emphasis on Drs2p and its noncatalytic subunit, Cdc50p. PMID:19286470

  1. Coupled ER to Golgi Transport Reconstituted with Purified Cytosolic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barlowe, Charles

    1997-01-01

    A cell-free vesicle fusion assay that reproduces a subreaction in transport of pro-α-factor from the ER to the Golgi complex has been used to fractionate yeast cytosol. Purified Sec18p, Uso1p, and LMA1 in the presence of ATP and GTP satisfies the requirement for cytosol in fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes. Although these purified factors are sufficient for vesicle docking and fusion, overall ER to Golgi transport in yeast semi-intact cells depends on COPII proteins (components of a membrane coat that drive vesicle budding from the ER). Thus, membrane fusion is coupled to vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport even in the presence of saturating levels of purified fusion factors. Manipulation of the semi-intact cell assay is used to distinguish freely diffusible ER- derived vesicles containing pro-α-factor from docked vesicles and from fused vesicles. Uso1p mediates vesicle docking and produces a dilution resistant intermediate. Sec18p and LMA1 are not required for the docking phase, but are required for efficient fusion of ER- derived vesicles with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, elevated levels of Sec23p complex (a subunit of the COPII coat) prevent vesicle fusion in a reversible manner, but do not interfere with vesicle docking. Ordering experiments using the dilution resistant intermediate and reversible Sec23p complex inhibition indicate Sec18p action is required before LMA1 function. PMID:9382859

  2. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, substrate transporter translocation, and metabolism in the contracting hyperthyroid rat heart.

    PubMed

    Heather, Lisa C; Cole, Mark A; Atherton, Helen J; Coumans, Will A; Evans, Rhys D; Tyler, Damian J; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Clarke, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones can modify cardiac metabolism via multiple molecular mechanisms, yet their integrated effect on overall substrate metabolism is poorly understood. Here we determined the effect of hyperthyroidism on substrate metabolism in the isolated, perfused, contracting rat heart. Male Wistar rats were injected for 7 d with T(3) (0.2 mg/kg x d ip). Plasma free fatty acids increased by 97%, heart weights increased by 33%, and cardiac rate pressure product, an indicator of contractile function, increased by 33% in hyperthyroid rats. Insulin-stimulated glycolytic rates and lactate efflux rates were increased by 33% in hyperthyroid rat hearts, mediated by an increased insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the sarcolemma. This was accompanied by a 70% increase in phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and a 100% increase in phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase, confirming downstream signaling from AMPK. Fatty acid oxidation rates increased in direct proportion to the increased heart weight and rate pressure product in the hyperthyroid heart, mediated by synchronized changes in mitochondrial enzymes and respiration. Protein levels of the fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), were reduced by 24% but were accompanied by a 19% increase in the sarcolemmal content of fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Thus, the relationship between fatty acid metabolism, cardiac mass, and contractile function was maintained in the hyperthyroid heart, associated with a sarcolemmal reorganization of fatty acid transporters. The combined effects of T(3)-induced AMPK activation and insulin stimulation were associated with increased sarcolemmal GLUT4 localization and glycolytic flux in the hyperthyroid heart. PMID:19940039

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in β-aminobutyric acid enhanced Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingwu; Jiang, Xinwu; Shi, Wuliang; Chen, Juan; Pei, Zhenming; Zheng, Hailei

    2011-05-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental issue that has seriously destroyed forest ecosystems. As a highly effective and broad-spectrum plant resistance-inducing agent, β-aminobutyric acid could elevate the tolerance of Arabidopsis when subjected to simulated acid rain. Using comparative proteomic strategies, we analyzed 203 significantly varied proteins of which 175 proteins were identified responding to β-aminobutyric acid in the absence and presence of simulated acid rain. They could be divided into ten groups according to their biological functions. Among them, the majority was cell rescue, development and defense-related proteins, followed by transcription, protein synthesis, folding, modification and destination-associated proteins. Our conclusion is β-aminobutyric acid can lead to a large-scale primary metabolism change and simultaneously activate antioxidant system and salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid signaling pathways. In addition, β-aminobutyric acid can reinforce physical barriers to defend simulated acid rain stress.

  4. Human skeletal muscle and erythrocyte proteins involved in acid-base homeostasis: adaptations to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Juel, C; Lundby, C; Sander, M; Calbet, J A L; Hall, G van

    2003-04-15

    Chronic hypoxia is accompanied by changes in blood and skeletal muscle acid-base control. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms include altered protein expression of transport systems and the enzymes involved in lactate, HCO3- and H+ fluxes in skeletal muscle and erythrocytes. Immunoblotting was used to quantify densities of the transport systems and enzymes. Muscle and erythrocyte samples were obtained from eight Danish lowlanders at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks at 4100 m (Bolivia). For comparison, samples were obtained from eight Bolivian natives. In muscle membranes there were no changes in fibre-type distribution, lactate dehydrogenase isoforms, Na+,K+-pump subunits or in the lactate-H+ co-transporters MCT1 and MCT4. The Na+-H+ exchanger protein NHE1 was elevated by 39 % in natives compared to lowlanders. The Na+-HCO3- co-transporter density in muscle was elevated by 47-69 % after 2 and 8 weeks at altitude. The membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase (CA) IV in muscle increased in the lowlanders by 39 %, whereas CA XIV decreased by 23-47 %. Levels of cytosolic CA II and III in muscle and CA I and II in erythrocytes were unchanged. The erythrocyte lactate-H+ co-transporter MCT1 increased by 230-405 % in lowlanders and was 324 % higher in natives. The erythrocyte inorganic anion exchanger (Cl--HCO3- exchanger AE1) was increased by 149-228 %. In conclusion, chronic hypoxia induces dramatic changes in erythrocyte proteins, but only moderate changes in muscle proteins involved in acid-base control. Together, these changes suggest a hypoxia-induced increase in the capacity for lactate, HCO3- and H+ fluxes from muscle to blood and from blood to erythrocytes. PMID:12611920

  5. The nitric oxide-donating derivative of acetylsalicylic acid, NCX 4016, stimulates glucose transport and glucose transporters translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kaddai, V; Gonzalez, T; Bolla, M; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y; Cormont, M

    2008-07-01

    NCX 4016 is a nitric oxide (NO)-donating derivative of acetylsalicylic acid. NO and salicylate, in vivo metabolites of NCX 4016, were shown to be potential actors in controlling glucose homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated the action of NCX 4016 on the capacity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to transport glucose in basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. NCX 4016 induced a twofold increase in glucose uptake in parallel with the translocation of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, leaving unaffected their total expression levels. Importantly, NCX 4016 further increased glucose transport induced by a physiological concentration of insulin. The stimulatory effect of NCX 4016 on glucose uptake appears to be mediated by its NO moiety. Indeed, it is inhibited by a NO scavenger and treatment with acetylsalicylic or salicylic acid had no effect. Although NO is involved in the action of NCX 4016, it did not mainly depend on the soluble cGMP cyclase/protein kinase G pathway. Furthermore, NCX 4016-stimulated glucose transport did not involve the insulin-signaling cascade required to stimulate glucose transport. NCX 4016 induces a small activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and no activation of other stress-activated signaling molecules, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, inhibitory factor kappaB, or AMP-activated kinases. Interestingly, NCX 4016 modified the content of S-nitrosylated proteins in adipocytes. Taken together, our results indicate that NCX 4016 induced glucose transport in adipocytes through a novel mechanism possibly involving S-nitrosylation. NCX 4016 thus possesses interesting characteristics to be considered as a candidate molecule for the treatment of patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:18492771

  6. Intestinal transport of zinc and folic acid: a mutual inhibitory effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ghishan, F.K.; Said, H.M.; Wilson, P.C.; Murrell, J.E.; Greene, H.L.

    1986-02-01

    Recent observations suggest an inverse relationship between folic acid intake and zinc nutriture and indicate an interaction between folic acid and zinc at the intestinal level. To define that interaction, we designed in vivo and in vitro transport studies in which folic acid transport in the presence of zinc, as well as zinc transport in the presence of folic acid was examined. These studies show that zinc transport is significantly decreased when folate is present in the intestinal lumen. Similarly folic acid transport is significantly decreased with the presence of zinc. To determine whether this intestinal inhibition is secondary to zinc and folate-forming complexes, charcoal-binding studies were performed. These studies indicate that zinc and folate from complexes at pH 2.0, but that at pH 6.0, these complexes dissolve. Therefore, our studies suggest that under normal physiological conditions a mutual inhibition between folate and zinc exists at the site of intestinal transport.

  7. mRNA expression of amino acid transporters, aminopeptidase, and the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 in the intestine and liver of posthatch broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Miska, Katarzyna B; Fetterer, Raymond H; Wong, Eric A

    2015-06-01

    Amino acid (AA) transporter proteins are responsible for the movement of amino acids in and out of cells. Aminopeptidase cleaves AAs from the N-terminus of polypeptides making them available for transport, while PepT1 is a di- and tripeptide transporter. In the intestine, these proteins are present on the brush border and basolateral membranes of enterocytes, and are essential for the uptake of AAs into enterocytes and their release into circulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of transcription of these genes after hatch in 3 regions of the small intestine, the ceca, and liver. Heritage broiler chicks (n=5) were sampled at day after hatch and days 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21 posthatch, and mRNA expression level was measured using absolute quantitation. The small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) expressed the largest quantities of each gene tested. The expression in the ceca and liver was 1 to 3 orders of magnitude less than that of the small intestine. The expression of basolateral transporters in the small intestine was more constant over days posthatch than the expression of brush border transporters. In the ceca the expression of the brush border transporters decreased over the sampling period, while expression of basolateral genes was relatively constant. In the liver the expression of Na+ independent cationic and zwitterionic amino acid transporter (bo,+AT), Na+ independent cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2), excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), and the heavy chain corresponding to the bo,+) system (rBAT) significantly decreased at 12 days posthatch; however, the expression of Na+ independent cationic and Na+ dependent neutral amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), Na+ coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1; (SNAT1), and Na+ coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) significantly increased at day 5 posthatch compared to day 1 and these levels remained throughout the rest of the sampling period. The

  8. Estimation of the binding ability of main transport proteins of blood plasma with liver cirrhosis by the fluorescent probe method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolenko, E. A.; Korolik, E. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskii, V. V.

    2007-07-01

    We present results from an investigation of the binding ability of the main transport proteins (albumin, lipoproteins, and α-1-acid glycoprotein) of blood plasma from patients at different stages of liver cirrhosis by the fluorescent probe method. We used the hydrophobic fluorescent probes anionic 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate, which interacts in blood plasma mainly with albumin; cationic Quinaldine red, which interacts with α-1-acid glycoprotein; and neutral Nile red, which redistributes between lipoproteins and albumin in whole blood plasma. We show that the binding ability of albumin and α-1-acid glycoprotein to negatively charged and positively charged hydrophobic metabolites, respectively, increases in the compensation stage of liver cirrhosis. As the pathology process deepens and transitions into the decompensation stage, the transport abilities of albumin and α-1-acid glycoprotein decrease whereas the binding ability of lipoproteins remains high.

  9. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  10. Long-Range Superexchange in Electron Transport Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruschus, James Michael

    cytochrome c, as well as plastocyanin, cytochrome b _5, and cytochrome c peroxidase. The surfaces reveal important clues as to which conformations of the electron transport protein complexes actually give rise to electron transfer, a subject of broad biological interest.

  11. Inducible expression and pharmacology of the human excitatory amino acid transporter 2 subtype of L-glutamate transporter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J; Lou, Z; Zhang, Y; McIlvain, H B

    1999-12-01

    1. In this study we have examined the use of the ecdysone-inducible mammalian expression system (Invitrogen) for the regulation of expression of the predominant L-glutamate transporter EAAT2 (Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter) in HEK 293 cells. 2. HEK 293 cells which were stably transformed with the regulatory vector pVgRXR (EcR 293 cells) were used for transfection of the human EAAT2 cDNA using the inducible vector pIND and a clone designated HEK/EAAT2 was selected for further characterization. 3. Na+-dependent L-glutamate uptake activity (3.2 pmol min-1 mg-1) was observed in EcR 293 cells and this was increased approximately 2 fold in the uninduced HEK/EAAT2 cells, indicating a low level of basal EAAT2 activity in the absence of exogenous inducing agent. Exposure of HEK/EAAT2 cells to the ecdysone analogue Ponasterone A (10 microM for 24 h) resulted in a > or = 10 fold increase in the Na+-dependent activity. 4. L-glutamate uptake into induced HEK/EAAT2 cells followed first-order Michaelis-Menten kinetics and Eadie-Hofstee transformation of the saturable uptake data produced estimates of kinetic parameters as follows; Km 52.7+/-7.5 microM, Vmax 3.8+/-0.9 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein. 5. The pharmacological profile of the EAAT2 subtype was characterized using a series of L-glutamate transport inhibitors and the rank order of inhibitory potency was similar to that described previously for the rat homologue GLT-1 and in synaptosomal preparations from rat cortex. 6. Addition of the EAAT2 modulator arachidonic acid resulted in an enhancement (155+/-5% control in the presence of 30 microM) of the L-glutamate transport capacity in the induced HEK/EAAT2 cells. 7. This study demonstrates that the expression of EAAT2 can be regulated in a mammalian cell line using the ecdysone-inducible mammalian expression system.

  12. Detection and characterization of a sialoglycosylated bacterial ABC-type phosphate transporter protein from patients with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Angana; Mukhopadhyay, Sumi; Demine, Rodion; Forgber, Michael; Jarmalavicius, Saulius; Saha, Bibhuti; Sundar, Shyam; Walden, Peter; Mandal, Chhabinath; Mandal, Chitra

    2009-08-01

    We report the discovery and characterization of a glycosylated bacterial ABC-type phosphate transporter isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) fraction of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Three disease-associated 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins (9-O-AcSGPs) of 19, 56 and 65 kDa, respectively, had been identified and their purity, apparent mass and pI established by SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing. Western blot analyses showed that the 9-O-acetylated sialic acid is linked via alpha2-->6 linkage to a subterminal N-acetylgalactosamine. For the 56 kDa protein, N- as well as O-glycosylations were demonstrated by specific glycosidase treatment and found to account for more than 9 kDa of the protein mass. The presence of sialic acids was further confirmed through thin layer chromatography, fluorimetric HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The protein was identified by mass spectrometry and de novo sequencing of five tryptic fragments as a periplasmic ABC-type phosphate transporter of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The amino acid sequences of the assigned peptides had 83-100% identity with the NCBI entry for a Pseudomonas transporter protein. Based on the recently reported X-ray structure of a human phosphate-binding protein, we predicted a 3D structural model for the 56 kDa protein using homology and threading methods. The most probable N- and O-glycosylation sites were identified by combinations of sequence motif-searching bioinformatics tools, solvent accessibility calculations, structural environment analyses and mass spectrometric data. This is the first reported glycosylation as well as sialylation of the periplasmic component of an ABC-type phosphate transporter protein and of one of few identified bacterial glycoproteins.

  13. The interaction of amino acids, peptides, and proteins with DNA.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Andrey Y; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana I; Chernova, Irina A; Shataeva, Larisa K; Skorik, Yury A

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids that carry charges on their side groups can bind to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and change the strength of the double helix. Measurement of the DNA melting temperature (Tm) confirmed that acidic amino acids (Glu, Asp) weaken the H-bonds between DNA strands, whereas basic amino acids (Arg, Lys) strengthen the interaction between the strands. A rank correlation exists between the amino acid isoelectric points and the observed changes in Tm. A similar dependence of the hyperchromic effect on the isoelectric point of a protein (pepsin, insulin, cortexin, and protamine) was observed for DNA-protein complexes at room temperature. Short peptides (KE, AEDG, and KEDP) containing a mixture of acidic and basic amino acid residues also affect Tm and the stability of the double helix. A model for binding Glu and Lys to dsDNA was explored by a docking simulation. The model shows that Glu, in an untwisted shape, binds to dsDNA in its major groove and disrupts three H-bonds between the strands, thereby destabilizing the double helix. Lys, in an untwisted shape, binds to the external side of the dsDNA and forms two bonds with O atoms of neighboring phosphodiester groups, thereby strengthening the DNA helix.

  14. The fusogenic lipid phosphatidic acid promotes the biogenesis of mitochondrial outer membrane protein Ugo1

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Michael; Taskin, Asli A.; Horvath, Susanne E.; Guan, Xue Li; Prinz, Claudia; Opalińska, Magdalena; Zorzin, Carina; van der Laan, Martin; Wenk, Markus R.; Schubert, Rolf; Wiedemann, Nils; Holzer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Import and assembly of mitochondrial proteins depend on a complex interplay of proteinaceous translocation machineries. The role of lipids in this process has been studied only marginally and so far no direct role for a specific lipid in mitochondrial protein biogenesis has been shown. Here we analyzed a potential role of phosphatidic acid (PA) in biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vivo remodeling of the mitochondrial lipid composition by lithocholic acid treatment or by ablation of the lipid transport protein Ups1, both leading to an increase of mitochondrial PA levels, specifically stimulated the biogenesis of the outer membrane protein Ugo1, a component of the mitochondrial fusion machinery. We reconstituted the import and assembly pathway of Ugo1 in protein-free liposomes, mimicking the outer membrane phospholipid composition, and found a direct dependency of Ugo1 biogenesis on PA. Thus, PA represents the first lipid that is directly involved in the biogenesis pathway of a mitochondrial membrane protein. PMID:26347140

  15. (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid Nourishes Protein Synthesis via Altering Metabolic Directions of Amino Acids in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Ningning; Li, Longlong; Peng, Mengling; Ma, Haitian

    2016-08-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress body weight gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the underlying mechanism of (-)-HCA has not fully understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of long-term supplement with (-)-HCA on body weight gain and variances of amino acid content in rats. Results showed that (-)-HCA treatment reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in rats. The content of hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen, and serum T4 , T3 , insulin, and Leptin were increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Protein content in liver and muscle were significantly increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Amino acid profile analysis indicated that most of amino acid contents in serum and liver, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were higher in (-)-HCA treatment groups. However, most of the amino acid contents in muscle, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were reduced in (-)-HCA treatment groups. These results indicated that (-)-HCA treatment could reduce body weight gain through promoting energy expenditure via regulation of thyroid hormone levels. In addition, (-)-HCA treatment could promote protein synthesis by altering the metabolic directions of amino acids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145492

  16. Optical recording of signal-mediated protein transport through single nuclear pore complexes.

    PubMed

    Keminer, O; Siebrasse, J P; Zerf, K; Peters, R

    1999-10-12

    Optical single-transporter recording, a recently established fluorescence microscopic method, was used to study the selective transport of proteins through single nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of Xenopus oocytes. Recombinant proteins containing either a nuclear localization signal (import protein) or a nuclear export signal (export protein) were generated as transport substrates. To approximate in vivo conditions as closely as possible, a Xenopus egg extract was applied to the cytosolic side and a Xenopus oocyte nuclear extract to the nuclear side of the NPCs. It was found that protein transport through functionally isolated, "patched" NPCs depended on signal sequences, extracts, and metabolic energy, as in vivo. All NPCs were competent for both import and export. The transport direction was strictly determined by the transport signal, and at none of the conditions explored was the import protein exported or the export protein imported, even when the application sides of the extracts were reversed. The mean transport rates of the single NPC were approximately 2 dimers/s for the import protein and approximately 4 dimers/s for the export protein ( approximately 15 microM substrate concentration, 22-24 degrees C), in good agreement with in vivo rates estimated for mammalian cells by microinjection experiments. The study shows that optical single-transporter recording permits the analysis of membrane transport processes not previously accessible to single-transporter recording and thus provides additional possibilities for the elucidation of nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanisms. PMID:10518538

  17. Optical recording of signal-mediated protein transport through single nuclear pore complexes

    PubMed Central

    Keminer, Oliver; Siebrasse, Jan-Peter; Zerf, Katja; Peters, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    Optical single-transporter recording, a recently established fluorescence microscopic method, was used to study the selective transport of proteins through single nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of Xenopus oocytes. Recombinant proteins containing either a nuclear localization signal (import protein) or a nuclear export signal (export protein) were generated as transport substrates. To approximate in vivo conditions as closely as possible, a Xenopus egg extract was applied to the cytosolic side and a Xenopus oocyte nuclear extract to the nuclear side of the NPCs. It was found that protein transport through functionally isolated, “patched” NPCs depended on signal sequences, extracts, and metabolic energy, as in vivo. All NPCs were competent for both import and export. The transport direction was strictly determined by the transport signal, and at none of the conditions explored was the import protein exported or the export protein imported, even when the application sides of the extracts were reversed. The mean transport rates of the single NPC were ≈2 dimers/s for the import protein and ≈4 dimers/s for the export protein (≈15 μM substrate concentration, 22–24°C), in good agreement with in vivo rates estimated for mammalian cells by microinjection experiments. The study shows that optical single-transporter recording permits the analysis of membrane transport processes not previously accessible to single-transporter recording and thus provides additional possibilities for the elucidation of nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanisms. PMID:10518538

  18. Characterization and amino acid sequence of a fatty acid-binding protein from human heart.

    PubMed Central

    Offner, G D; Brecher, P; Sawlivich, W B; Costello, C E; Troxler, R F

    1988-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a fatty acid-binding protein from human heart was determined by automated Edman degradation of CNBr, BNPS-skatole [3'-bromo-3-methyl-2-(2-nitrobenzenesulphenyl)indolenine], hydroxylamine, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, tryptic and chymotryptic peptides, and by digestion of the protein with carboxypeptidase A. The sequence of the blocked N-terminal tryptic peptide from citraconylated protein was determined by collisionally induced decomposition mass spectrometry. The protein contains 132 amino acid residues, is enriched with respect to threonine and lysine, lacks cysteine, has an acetylated valine residue at the N-terminus, and has an Mr of 14768 and an isoelectric point of 5.25. This protein contains two short internal repeated sequences from residues 48-54 and from residues 114-119 located within regions of predicted beta-structure and decreasing hydrophobicity. These short repeats are contained within two longer repeated regions from residues 48-60 and residues 114-125, which display 62% sequence similarity. These regions could accommodate the charged and uncharged moieties of long-chain fatty acids and may represent fatty acid-binding domains consistent with the finding that human heart fatty acid-binding protein binds 2 mol of oleate or palmitate/mol of protein. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences of the peptides has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50143 (23 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained as indicated in Biochem. J. (1988) 249, 5. PMID:3421901

  19. Reactive Transport Modeling of Acid Gas Generation and Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    G. Zhahg; N. Spycher; E. Sonnenthal; C. Steefel

    2005-01-25

    Pulvirenti et al. (2004) recently conducted a laboratory evaporation/condensation experiment on a synthetic solution of primarily calcium chloride. This solution represents one potential type of evaporated pore water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a site proposed for geologic storage of high-level nuclear waste. These authors reported that boiling this solution to near dryness (a concentration factor >75,000 relative to actual pore waters) leads to the generation of acid condensate (pH 4.5) presumably due to volatilization of HCl (and minor HF and/or HNO{sub 3}). To investigate the various processes taking place, including boiling, gas transport, and condensation, their experiment was simulated by modifying an existing multicomponent and multiphase reactive transport code (TOUGHREACT). This code was extended with a Pitzer ion-interaction model to deal with high ionic strength. The model of the experiment was set-up to capture the observed increase in boiling temperature (143 C at {approx}1 bar) resulting from high concentrations of dissolved salts (up to 8 m CaCl{sub 2}). The computed HCI fugacity ({approx} 10{sup -4} bars) generated by boiling under these conditions is not sufficient to lower the pH of the condensate (cooled to 80 and 25 C) down to observed values unless the H{sub 2}O mass fraction in gas is reduced below {approx}10%. This is because the condensate becomes progressively diluted by H{sub 2}O gas condensation. However, when the system is modeled to remove water vapor, the computed pH of instantaneous condensates decreases to {approx}1.7, consistent with the experiment (Figure 1). The results also show that the HCl fugacity increases, and calcite, gypsum, sylvite, halite, MgCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O and CaCl{sub 2} precipitate sequentially with increasing concentration factors.

  20. L-aspartic acid transport by cat erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    Cat and dog red cells are unusual in that they have no Na/K ATPase and contain low K and high Na intracellularly. They also show significant Na dependent L-aspartate (L-asp) transport. The authors have characterized this system in cat RBCs. The influx of /sup 3/H-L-asp (typically 2..mu..M) was measured in washed RBCs incubated for 60 s at 37/sup 0/C in medium containing 140 mM NaCl, 5 mM Kcl, 2 mM CaCl/sub 2/, 15 mM MOPS pH 7.4, 5 mM glucose, and /sup 14/C-PEG as a space marker. The cells were washed 3 times in the medium immediately before incubation which was terminated by centrifuging the RBCs through a layer of dibutylphthalate. Over an L-asp concentration range of 0.5-1000..mu..M, influx obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a small added linear diffusion component. The Kt and Jmax of the saturable component were 5.40 +/- 0.34 ..mu..M and 148.8 +/- 7.2 ..mu..mol 1. cell/sup -1/h/sup -1/ respectively. Replacement of Na with Li, K, Rb, Cs or choline reduce influx to diffusion. With the addition of asp analogues (4/sup +/M L-asp, 40/sup +/M inhibitor), the following sequence of inhibition was observed (range 80% to 40% inhib.): L-glutamate > L-cysteine sulfonate > D-asp > L-cysteic acid > D-glutamate. Other amino acids such as L-alanine, L-proline, L-lysine, L-cysteine, and taurine showed no inhibition (<5%). These data suggest that cat red cells contain a high-affinity Na dependent transport system for L-asp, glutamate, and closely related analogues which resembles that found in the RBCs of other carnivores and in neural tissues.

  1. The Signature Sequence Region of the Human Drug Transporter Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1B1 Is Important for Protein Surface Expression.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Wells, Jennina; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    The organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) encompass a family of membrane transport proteins responsible for the uptake of xenobiotic compounds. Human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) mediates the uptake of clinically relevant compounds such as statins and chemotherapeutic agents into hepatocytes, playing an important role in drug delivery and detoxification. The OATPs have a putative 12-transmembrane domain topology and a highly conserved signature sequence (human OATP1B1: DSRWVGAWWLNFL), spanning the extracellular loop 3/TM6 boundary. The presence of three conserved tryptophan residues at the TM interface suggests a structural role for the sequence. This was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within the sequence D251E, W254F, W258/259F, and N261A. Transport was measured using the substrate estrone-3-sulfate and surface expression detected by luminometry and confocal microscopy, facilitated by an extracellular FLAG epitope. Uptake of estrone-3-sulfate and the surface expression of D251E, W254F, and W258/259F were both significantly reduced from the wild type OATP1B1-FLAG in transfected HEK293T cells. Confocal microscopy revealed that protein was produced but was retained intracellularly. The uptake and expression of N261A were not significantly different. The reduction in surface expression and intracellular protein retention indicates a structural and/or membrane localization role for these signature sequence residues in the human drug transporter OATP1B1.

  2. Minimum protein intake for the preterm neonate determined by protein and amino acid kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zello, Gordon A; Menendez, Cesar E; Rafii, Mahroukh; Clarke, Ruth; Wykes, Linda J; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2003-02-01

    Lower limits of protein needs in prematurely born neonates have not been adequately studied, yet providing protein in amounts maximizing accretion without excess is a goal in these infants' nutritional care. We hypothesized that with the use of amino acid oxidation methodology, it would be possible to define minimum protein requirement. Our objective was to investigate protein kinetics during short-term changes in protein intake by measurement of nitrogen balance and amino acid flux and oxidation using [(15)N]glycine, [(13)C]phenylalanine, and [(13)C]leucine tracers. Protein kinetics were examined in 21 preterm infants (gestational age: 29 +/- 3 wk; birth weight: 1091 +/- 324 g) at five protein intakes (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with 1 d of adaptation to the test intakes. From nitrogen balance data, a protein need of 0.74 g x kg(-1 x -1) was estimated to achieve zero balance. For all three amino acids, flux and oxidation estimates were not different across protein intakes. Whole-body protein synthesis and breakdown estimates from [(15)N]ammonia data were 14.6 +/- 3.4 and 14.4 +/- 4.1 g x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. Glycine flux (680 +/- 168 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was greater than leucine flux (323 +/- 115 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)), which was greater than phenylalanine flux (84.3 +/- 35.2 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). Leucine oxidation (36.7 +/- 15.6 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was also greater than phenylalanine oxidation (6.64 +/- 4.41 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). Infants in our study were able to adapt to short-term changes in protein intake with little consequence to the overall whole-body protein economy, as measured by the three test amino acids.

  3. Engineering the glutamate transporter homologue GltPh using protein semisynthesis.

    PubMed

    Focke, Paul J; Annen, Alvin W; Valiyaveetil, Francis I

    2015-03-01

    Glutamate transporters catalyze the concentrative uptake of glutamate from synapses and are essential for normal synaptic function. Despite extensive investigations of glutamate transporters, the mechanisms underlying substrate recognition, ion selectivity, and the coupling of substrate and ion transport are not well-understood. Deciphering these mechanisms requires the ability to precisely engineer the transporter. In this study, we describe the semisynthesis of GltPh, an archaeal homologue of glutamate transporters. Semisynthesis allows the precise engineering of GltPh through the incorporation of unnatural amino acids and peptide backbone modifications. In the semisynthesis, the GltPh polypeptide is initially assembled from a recombinantly expressed thioester peptide and a chemically synthesized peptide using the native chemical ligation reaction followed by in vitro folding to the native state. We have developed a robust procedure for the in vitro folding of GltPh. Biochemical characterization of the semisynthetic GltPh indicates that it is similar to the native transporter. We used semisynthesis to substitute Arg397, a highly conserved residue in the substrate binding site, with the unnatural analogue, citrulline. Our studies demonstrate that Arg397 is required for high-affinity substrate binding, and on the basis of our results, we propose that Arg397 is involved in a Na+-dependent remodeling of the substrate binding site required for high-affinity Asp binding. We anticipate that the semisynthetic approach developed in this study will be extremely useful in investigating functional mechanisms in GltPh. Further, the approach developed in this study should also be applicable to other membrane transport proteins.

  4. Stimulation of protein synthesis by phosphatidic acid in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y J; Yau, L; Yu, L P; Elimban, V; Zahradka, P; Dhalla, N S

    1996-12-13

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) was observed to stimulate protein synthesis in adult cardiomyocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The maximal stimulation in protein synthesis (142 +/- 12% vs 100% as the control) was achieved at 10 microM PA within 60 min and was inhibited by actinomycin D (107 +/- 4% of the control) or cycloheximide (105 +/- 6% of the control). The increase in protein synthesis due to PA was attenuated or abolished by preincubation of cardiomyocytes with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (94 +/- 9% of the control), phospholipase C inhibitors 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenyl carbamate or carbon-odithioic acid O-(octahydro-4,7-methanol-1H-inden-5-yl (101 +/- 6 and 95 +/- 5% of the control, respectively), protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine or polymyxin B (109 +/- 3 and 93 +/- 3% of the control), and chelators of extracellular and intracellular free Ca2+ EGTA or BAPTA/AM (103 +/- 6 and 95 +/- 6% of the control, respectively). PA at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 microM) also caused phosphorylation of a cell surface protein of approximately 24 kDa. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase was stimulated by PA in a concentration-dependent manner; maximal stimulation (217 +/- 6% of the control) was seen at 10 microM PA. These data suggest that PA increases protein synthesis in adult rat cardiomyocytes and thus may play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.

  5. [Photochemistry and UV Spectroscopy of Proteins and Nucleic Acids].

    PubMed

    Wierzchowski, Kazimierz Lech

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a short history of David Shugar studies in the field of photochemistry and UV spectroscopy of proteins and nucleic acids, carried out since the late 1940s. to the beginning of the 1970s. of the 20th century, with some references to the state of related research in those days.

  6. Transport of monocarboxylic acids at the blood-brain barrier: Studies with monolayers of primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaki, T.; Takakuwa, S.; Moritani, S.; Tsuji, A. )

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the transport of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) were studied by using primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. Concentration-dependent uptake of acetic acid was observed, and the kinetic parameters were estimated as follows: the Michaelis constant, Kt, was 3.41 {plus minus} 1.87 mM, the maximum uptake rate, Jmax, was 144.7 {plus minus} 55.7 nmol/mg of protein/min and the nonsaturable first-order rate constant, Kd, was 6.66 {plus minus} 1.98 microliters/mg of protein/min. At medium pH below 7.0, the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid increased markedly with decreasing medium pH, whereas pH-independent uptake was observed in the presence of 10 mM acetic acid. An energy requirement for (3H)acetic acid uptake was also demonstrated, because metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol and rotenone) reduced significantly the uptake rate (P less than .05). Carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a protonophore, inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid at medium pH of 5.0 and 6.0, whereas 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilben-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid did not. Several MCAs inhibited significantly the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids did not. The uptake of (3H)acetic acid was competitively inhibited by salicylic acid, with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 3.60 mM, suggesting a common transport system between acetic acid and salicylic acid. Moreover, at the medium pH of 7.4, salicylic acid and valproic acid inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid, demonstrating that the transport of MCA drugs could also be ascribed to the MCA transport system at the physiologic pH.

  7. Hypomorphic variants of cationic amino acid transporter 3 in males with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Nava, Caroline; Rupp, Johanna; Boissel, Jean-Paul; Mignot, Cyril; Rastetter, Agnès; Amiet, Claire; Jacquette, Aurélia; Dupuits, Céline; Bouteiller, Delphine; Keren, Boris; Ruberg, Merle; Faudet, Anne; Doummar, Diane; Philippe, Anne; Périsse, Didier; Laurent, Claudine; Lebrun, Nicolas; Guillemot, Vincent; Chelly, Jamel; Cohen, David; Héron, Delphine; Brice, Alexis; Closs, Ellen I; Depienne, Christel

    2015-12-01

    Cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) mediate the entry of L-type cationic amino acids (arginine, ornithine and lysine) into the cells including neurons. CAT-3, encoded by the SLC7A3 gene on chromosome X, is one of the three CATs present in the human genome, with selective expression in brain. SLC7A3 is highly intolerant to variation in humans, as attested by the low frequency of deleterious variants in available databases, but the impact on variants in this gene in humans remains undefined. In this study, we identified a missense variant in SLC7A3, encoding the CAT-3 cationic amino acid transporter, on chromosome X by exome sequencing in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We then sequenced the SLC7A3 coding sequence in 148 male patients with ASD and identified three additional rare missense variants in unrelated patients. Functional analyses of the mutant transporters showed that two of the four identified variants cause severe or moderate loss of CAT-3 function due to altered protein stability or abnormal trafficking to the plasma membrane. The patient with the most deleterious SLC7A3 variant had high-functioning autism and epilepsy, and also carries a de novo 16p11.2 duplication possibly contributing to his phenotype. This study shows that rare hypomorphic variants of SLC7A3 exist in male individuals and suggest that SLC7A3 variants possibly contribute to the etiology of ASD in male subjects in association with other genetic factors. PMID:26215737

  8. Urea may regulate urea transporter protein abundance during osmotic diuresis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongun; Klein, Janet D; Racine, Sandy; Murrell, Brian P; Sands, Jeff M

    2005-01-01

    Rats with diabetes mellitus have an increase in UT-A1 urea transporter protein abundance and absolute urea excretion, but the relative amount (percentage) of urea in total urinary solute is actually decreased due to the marked glucosuria. Urea-specific signaling pathways have been identified in mIMCD3 cells and renal medulla, suggesting the possibility that changes in the percentage or concentration of urea could be a factor that regulates UT-A1 abundance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in a urinary solute other than urea would increase UT-A1 abundance, similar to diabetes mellitus, whereas an increase in urine urea would not. In both inner medullary base and tip, UT-A1 protein abundance increased during NaCl- or glucose-induced osmotic diuresis but not during urea-induced osmotic diuresis. Next, rats undergoing NaCl or glucose diuresis were given supplemental urea to increase the percentage of urine urea to control values. UT-A1 abundance did not increase in these urea-supplemented rats compared with control rats. Additionally, both UT-A2 and UT-B protein abundances in the outer medulla increased during urea-induced osmotic diuresis but not in NaCl or glucose diuresis. We conclude that during osmotic diuresis, UT-A1 abundance increases when the percentage of urea in total urinary solute is low and UT-A2 and UT-B abundances increase when the urea concentration in the medullary interstitium is high. These findings suggest that a reduction in urine or interstitial urea results in an increase in UT-A1 protein abundance in an attempt to restore inner medullary interstitial urea and preserve urine-concentrating ability.

  9. Role of fatty acid binding protein on hepatic palmitate uptake.

    PubMed

    Burczynski, F J; Zhang, M N; Pavletic, P; Wang, G Q

    1997-12-01

    Expression of hepatic fatty acid binding protein (FABP) mRNA is regulated by growth hormone. In the absence of growth hormone, there is a 60% reduction in FABP mRNA levels (S.A. Berry, J.-B Yoon, U. List, and S. Seelig. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 12:638-642. 1995). Previous work in our laboratory focused on the role of extracellular binding proteins in the hepatic uptake of long chain fatty acids. In the present study we were interested to determine the role of FABP in the transmembrane flux of long chain fatty acids. Using hepatocyte monolayers from control (n = 9) and hypophysectomized (n = 6) rats, we investigated the uptake of [3H]palmitate in the presence and absence of albumin. In the absence of albumin, total hepatocyte [3H]palmitate clearance rates from control (17.2 +/- 1.5 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; mean +/- SEM; n = 9) and hypophysectomized (15.5 +/- 2.1 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; n = 6) animals were similar (p > 0.05). In the presence of 2 microM albumin the total [3H]palmitate clearance rate from control hepatocytes (1.63 +/- 0.11 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; n = 9) was significantly larger (40%) than from hepatocytes obtained from hypophysectomized (0.97 +/- 0.15 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; n = 6; p < 0.01) animals. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis revealed that plasma membrane FABP levels from control and hypophysectomized animals were similar. However, there was a 49% decrease in the cytosolic FABP levels of hepatocytes isolated from hypophysectomized as compared with control animals. The decreased cytosolic FABB levels paralleled the decrease in palmitate uptake. We conclude that in the absence of extracellular binding proteins the rate-limiting step in the overall uptake of long chain fatty acids is diffusion to the cell surface. However, in the presence of albumin, the rate of palmitate uptake is determined primarily by cytosolic FABP levels.

  10. Designing Novel Nanoformulations Targeting Glutamate Transporter Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: Implications in Treating Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Rao, PSS; Yallapu, Murali M.; Sari, Youssef; Fisher, Paul B.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic drug abuse is associated with elevated extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain reward regions. Deficit of glutamate clearance has been identified as a contributing factor that leads to enhanced glutamate concentration following extended drug abuse. Importantly, normalization of glutamate level through induction of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)/ excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) expression has been described in several in vivo studies. GLT1 upregulators including ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, have been effective in attenuating drug-seeking and drug-consumption behavior in rodent models. However, potential obstacles toward clinical translation of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators as treatment for drug addiction might include poor gastrointestinal absorption, serious peripheral adverse effects, and/or suboptimal CNS concentrations. Given the growing success of nanotechnology in targeting CNS ailments, nanoformulating known GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators for selective uptake across the blood brain barrier presents an ideal therapeutic approach for treating drug addiction. In this review, we summarize the results obtained with promising GLT1 (EAAT2) inducing compounds in animal models recapitulating drug addiction. Additionally, the various nanoformulations that can be employed for selectively increasing the CNS bioavailability of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators are discussed. Finally, the applicability of GLT1 (EAAT2) induction via central delivery of drug-loaded nanoformulations is described. PMID:26635971

  11. To Gate, or Not to Gate: Regulatory Mechanisms for Intercellular Protein Transport and Virus Movement in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Shoko; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2011-01-01

    Cell-to-cell signal transduction is vital for orchestrating the whole-body physiology of multi-cellular organisms, and many endogenous macromolecules, proteins, and nucleic acids function as such transported signals. In plants, many of these molecules are transported through plasmodesmata (Pd), the cell wall-spanning channel structures that interconnect plant cells. Furthermore, Pd also act as conduits for cell-to-cell movement of most plant viruses that have evolved to pirate these channels to spread the infection. Pd transport is presumed to be highly selective, and only a limited repertoire of molecules is transported through these channels. Recent studies have begun to unravel mechanisms that actively regulate the opening of the Pd channel to allow traffic. This macromolecular transport between cells comprises two consecutive steps: intracellular targeting to Pd and translocation through the channel to the adjacent cell. Here, we review the current knowledge of molecular species that are transported though Pd and the mechanisms that control this traffic. Generally, Pd traffic can occur by passive diffusion through the trans-Pd cytoplasm or through the membrane/lumen of the trans-Pd ER, or by active transport that includes protein–protein interactions. It is this latter mode of Pd transport that is involved in intercellular traffic of most signal molecules and is regulated by distinct and sometimes interdependent mechanisms, which represent the focus of this article. PMID:21746703

  12. Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marshall P; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron J; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein targets, whereas adding RNA to recombinant RNA binding protein substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Preincubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G. During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps, which bind NE and cathepsin G. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and neutrophil extracellular traps in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high-affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation.

  13. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Affect Electrolyte Transport in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: Dependence on Cyclooxygenase and Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Nüsing, Rolf M.; Schweer, Horst; Fleming, Ingrid; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wegmann, Markus

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on ion transport in the polarized renal distal tubular cell line, MDCK C7. Of the four EET regioisomers (5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET) studied, only apical, but not basolateral, application of 5,6-EET increased short circuit current (Isc) with kinetics similar to those of arachidonic acid. The ion transport was blocked by preincubation with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or with the chloride channel blocker NPPB. Further, both a Cl−-free bath solution and the Ca2+ antagonist verapamil blocked 5,6-EET-induced ion transport. Although the presence of the PGE2 receptors EP2, EP3, and EP4 was demonstrated, apically added PGE2 was ineffective and basolaterally added PGE2 caused a different kinetics in ion transport compared to 5,6-EET. Moreover, PGE2 sythesis in MDCK C7 cells was unaffected by 5,6-EET treatment. GC/MS/MS analysis of cell supernatants revealed the presence of the biologically inactive 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1 in 5,6-EET-treated cells, but not in control cells. Indomethacin suppressed the formation of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1. 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 the precursor of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1, caused a similar ion transport as 5,6-EET. Cytochrome P450 enzymes homolog to human CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2J2 protein were detected immunologically in the MDCK C7 cells. Our findings suggest that 5,6-EET affects Cl-transport in renal distal tubular cells independent of PGE2 but by a mechanism, dependent on its conversion to 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 by cyclooxygenase. We suggest a role for this P450 epoxygenase product in the regulation of electrolyte transport, especially as a saluretic compound acting from the luminal side of tubular cells in the mammalian kidney. PMID:17494091

  14. Toward understanding the mechanism of ion transport activity of neuronal uncoupling proteins UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tuan; Smith, Matthew D; Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud

    2012-05-15

    Neuronal uncoupling proteins (UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5) have crucial roles in the function and protection of the central nervous system (CNS). Extensive biochemical studies of UCP2 have provided ample evidence of its participation in proton and anion transport. To date, functional studies of UCP4 and UCP5 are scarce. In this study, we show for the first time that, despite a low level of amino acid sequence identity with the previously characterized UCPs (UCP1-UCP3), UCP4 and UCP5 share their functional properties. Recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5 were isolated and reconstituted into liposome systems, where their conformations and ion (proton and chloride) transport properties were examined. All three neuronal UCPs are able to transport protons across lipid membranes with characteristics similar to those of the archetypal protein UCP1, which is activated by fatty acids and inhibited by purine nucleotides. Neuronal UCPs also exhibit transmembrane chloride transport activity. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that these three transporters exist in different conformations. In addition, their structures and functions are differentially modulated by the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin. In total, this study supports the existence of general conformational and ion transport features in neuronal UCPs. On the other hand, it also emphasizes the subtle structural and functional differences between UCPs that could distinguish their physiological roles. Differentiation between structure-function relationships of neuronal UCPs is essential for understanding their physiological functions in the CNS. PMID:22524567

  15. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin comprises 15.25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP.binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute.binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. PMID:23606130

  16. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins.

  17. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  18. Transport effects on the kinetics of protein-surface binding.

    PubMed Central

    Balgi, G; Leckband, D E; Nitsche, J M

    1995-01-01

    A detailed model is presented for protein binding to active surfaces, with application to the binding of avidin molecules to a biotin-functionalized fiber optic sensor in experiments reported by S. Zhao and W. M. Reichert (American Chemical Society Symposium Series 493, 1992). Kinetic data for binding in solution are used to assign an intrinsic catalytic rate coefficient k to the biotin-avidin pair, deconvoluted from transport and electrostatic factors via application of coagulation theory. This intrinsic chemical constant is built into a reaction-diffusion analysis of surface binding where activity is restricted to localized sites (representing immobilized biotin molecules). The analysis leads to an effective catalytic rate coefficient keff characterizing the active surface. Thereafter, solution of the transport problem describing absorption of avidin molecules by the macroscopic sensor surface leads to predictions of the avidin flux, which are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The analysis suggests the following conclusions. 1) Translational diffusion limitations are negligible for avidin-biotin binding in solution owing to the small (kinetically limiting) value k = 0.00045 m/s. 2) The sparse distribution of biotin molecules and the presence of a repulsive hydration force produce an effective surface-average catalytic rate coefficient keff of order 10(-7) m/s, much smaller than k. 3) Avidin binding to the fiber optic sensor occurs in an intermediate regime where the rate is influenced by both kinetics and diffusion. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 PMID:7647232

  19. Transport of the Pathogenic Prion Protein through Soils

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Lee, Seunghak; Somerville, Robert A.; McKenzie, Debbie; Benson, Craig H.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are progressive neurodegenerative diseases and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk, scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. An abnormally folded form of the prion protein (designated PrPTSE) is typically associated with TSE infectivity and may constitute the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Transmission of CWD and scrapie is mediated in part by an environmental reservoir of infectivity. Soil appears to be a plausible candidate for this reservoir. TSE agent transport through soil is expected to influence the accessibility of the pathogen to animals after deposition and must be understood to assess the risks associated with burial of infected carcasses. We report results of saturated column experiments designed to evaluate PrPTSE transport through five soils with relatively high sand or silt contents. Protease-treated TSE-infected brain homogenate was used as a model for PrPTSE present in decomposing infected tissue. Synthetic rainwater was used as the eluent. PrPTSE was retained by all five soils; no detectable PrPTSE was eluted over more than 40 pore volumes of flow. Lower bound apparent attachment coefficients were estimated for each soil. Our results suggest that TSE agent released from decomposing tissues would remain near the site of initial deposition. In the case of infected carcasses deposited on the land surface, this may result in local sources of infectivity to other animals. PMID:20830901

  20. Consideration of allosterism and interacting proteins in the physiological functions of the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Huailing; Sánchez, Connie; Caron, Marc G

    2012-02-15

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) functions to transport serotonin (5-HT) from the extracellular space into neurons to maintain homeostatic control of 5-HT. It is the molecular target for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. Preclinical research has shown that some SERT inhibitors can bind to two distinct binding sites on the SERT, a primary high affinity binding site and a low affinity allosteric binding site. Mutational studies of the SERT and computational modeling methods with escitalopram resulted in the identification of key amino acid residues important for the function of the allosteric binding site. While this allosteric binding site appears to influence the clinical efficacy of escitalopram under physiological conditions, the molecular mechanism of this effect is still poorly understood and may involve a large network of protein-protein interactions with the SERT. Dynamic interfaces between the SERT and the SERT interacting proteins (SIPs) potentially influence not only the SERT on its uptake function, its regulation, and trafficking, but also on known as well as yet to be identified non-canonical signaling pathways through SIPs. In this commentary, we outline approaches in the areas of selective small-molecule allosteric compound discovery, biochemistry, in vivo genetic knock-in mouse models, as well as computational and structural biology. These studies of the intra-molecular allosteric modulation of the SERT in the context of the myriad of potential inter-molecular signaling interactions with SIPs may help uncover unknown physiological functions of the SERT.

  1. Mechanism of NH4(+) Recruitment and NH3 Transport in Rh Proteins.

    PubMed

    Baday, Sefer; Orabi, Esam A; Wang, Shihao; Lamoureux, Guillaume; Bernèche, Simon

    2015-08-01

    In human cells, membrane proteins of the rhesus (Rh) family excrete ammonium and play a role in pH regulation. Based on high-resolution structures, Rh proteins are generally understood to act as NH3 channels. Given that cell membranes are permeable to gases like NH3, the role of such proteins remains a paradox. Using molecular and quantum mechanical calculations, we show that a crystallographically identified site in the RhCG pore actually recruits NH4(+), which is found in higher concentration and binds with higher affinity than NH3, increasing the efficiency of the transport mechanism. A proton is transferred from NH4(+) to a signature histidine (the only moiety thermodynamically likely to accept a proton) followed by the diffusion of NH3 down the pore. The excess proton is circulated back to the extracellular vestibule through a hydrogen bond network, which involves a highly conserved and functionally important aspartic acid, resulting in the net transport of NH3.

  2. Characterization and Regulation of the Amino Acid Transporter SNAT2 in the Small Intestine of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangran; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Bie; Wang, Jing; Kong, Xiangfeng; Guan, Guiping; Li, Fengna; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    The sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), which has dual transport/receptor functions, is well documented in eukaryotes and some mammalian systems, but has not yet been verified in piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics and regulation of SNAT2 in the small intestine of piglets. The 1,521-bp porcine full cDNA sequence of SNAT2 (KC769999) from the small intestine of piglets was cloned. The open reading frame of cDNA encodes 506 deduced amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 56.08 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 7.16. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SNAT2 is highly evolutionarily conserved in mammals. SNAT2 mRNA can be detected in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum by real-time quantitative PCR. During the suckling period from days 1 to 21, the duodenum had the highest abundance of SNAT2 mRNA among the three segments of the small intestine. There was a significant decrease in the expression of SNAT2 mRNA in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa and in the expression of SNAT2 protein in the jejunal and ileal mucosa on day 1 after weaning (P < 0.05). Studies with enterocytes in vitro showed that amino acid starvation and supplementation with glutamate, arginine or leucine enhanced, while supplementation with glutamine reduced, SNAT2 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). These results regarding the characteristics and regulation of SNAT2 should help to provide some information to further clarify its roles in the absorption of amino acids and signal transduction in the porcine small intestine.

  3. Intracellular boron accumulation in CHO-K1 cells using amino acid transport control.

    PubMed

    Sato, Eisuke; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Shikano, Naoto; Ogura, Masato; Nakai, Kei; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Uemae, Yoji; Takada, Tomoya; Isobe, Tomonori; Matsumura, Akira

    2014-06-01

    BPA used in BNCT has a similar structure to some essential amino acids and is transported into tumor cells by amino acid transport systems. Previous study groups have tried various techniques of loading BPA to increase intracellular boron concentration. CHO-K1 cells demonstrate system L (LAT1) activity and are suitable for specifying the transport system of a neutral amino acid. In this study, we examined the intracellular accumulation of boron in CHO-K1 cells by amino acid transport control, which involves co-loading with L-type amino acid esters. Intracellular boron accumulation in CHO-K1 cells showed the greatest increased upon co-loading 1.0mM BPA, with 1.0mM l-Tyr-O-Et and incubating for 60min. This increase is caused by activation of a system L amino acid exchanger between BPA and l-Tyr. The amino acid esters are metabolized to amino acids by intracellular hydrolytic enzymes that increase the concentrations of intracellular amino acids and stimulate exchange transportation. We expect that this amino acid transport control will be useful for enhancing intracellular boron accumulation.

  4. Liver Retinol Transporter and Receptor for Serum Retinol-binding Protein (RBP4)*

    PubMed Central

    Alapatt, Philomena; Guo, Fangjian; Komanetsky, Susan M.; Wang, Shuping; Cai, Jinjin; Sargsyan, Ashot; Rodríguez Díaz, Eduardo; Bacon, Brandon T.; Aryal, Pratik; Graham, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) is absorbed in the small intestine, stored in liver, and secreted into circulation bound to serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4). Circulating retinol may be taken up by extrahepatic tissues or recycled back to liver multiple times before it is finally metabolized or degraded. Liver exhibits high affinity binding sites for RBP4, but specific receptors have not been identified. The only known high affinity receptor for RBP4, Stra6, is not expressed in the liver. Here we report discovery of RBP4 receptor-2 (RBPR2), a novel retinol transporter expressed primarily in liver and intestine and induced in adipose tissue of obese mice. RBPR2 is structurally related to Stra6 and highly conserved in vertebrates, including humans. Expression of RBPR2 in cultured cells confers high affinity RBP4 binding and retinol transport, and RBPR2 knockdown reduces RBP4 binding/retinol transport. RBPR2 expression is suppressed by retinol and retinoic acid and correlates inversely with liver retinol stores in vivo. We conclude that RBPR2 is a novel retinol transporter that potentially regulates retinol homeostasis in liver and other tissues. In addition, expression of RBPR2 in liver and fat suggests a possible role in mediating established metabolic actions of RBP4 in those tissues. PMID:23105095

  5. Structural basis for substrate specificity of an amino acid ABC transporter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Ge, Jingpeng; Heuveling, Johanna; Schneider, Erwin; Yang, Maojun

    2015-04-21

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous integral membrane proteins that translocate a variety of substrates, ranging from ions to macromolecules, either out of or into the cytosol (hence defined as importers or exporters, respectively). It has been demonstrated that ABC exporters and importers function through a common mechanism involving conformational switches between inward-facing and outward-facing states; however, the mechanism underlying their functions, particularly substrate recognition, remains elusive. Here we report the structures of an amino acid ABC importer Art(QN)2 from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis composed of homodimers each of the transmembrane domain ArtQ and the nucleotide-binding domain ArtN, either in its apo form or in complex with substrates (Arg, His) and/or ATPs. The structures reveal that the straddling of the TMDs around the twofold axis forms a substrate translocation pathway across the membrane. Interestingly, each TMD has a negatively charged pocket that together create a negatively charged internal tunnel allowing amino acids carrying positively charged groups to pass through. Our structural and functional studies provide a better understanding of how ABC transporters select and translocate their substrates.

  6. Peptide and amino acid transporters are differentially regulated during seed development and germination in faba bean.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Manoela; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Tewes, Annegret; Dietrich, Daniela; Rentsch, Doris; Weber, Hans; Wobus, Ulrich

    2003-08-01

    Two peptide transporter (PTR) homologs have been isolated from developing seeds of faba bean (Vicia faba). VfPTR1 was shown to be a functional peptide transporter through complementation of a yeast mutant. Expression patterns of VfPTR1 and VfPTR2 as well as of the amino acid permease VfAAP1 (Miranda et al., 2001) were compared throughout seed development and germination. In developing seeds, the highest levels of VfPTR1 transcripts were reached during midcotyledon development, whereas VfAAP1 transcripts were most abundant during early cotyledon development, before the appearance of storage protein gene transcripts, and were detectable until late cotyledon development. During early germination, VfPTR1 mRNA appeared first in cotyledons and later, during seedling growth, also in axes and roots. Expression of VfPTR2 and VfAAP1 was delayed compared with VfPTR1, and was restricted to the nascent organs of the seedlings. Localization of VfPTR1 transcripts showed that this PTR is temporally and spatially regulated during cotyledon development. In germinating seeds, VfPTR1 mRNA was localized in root hairs and root epidermal cells, suggesting a role in nutrient uptake from the soil. In seedling roots, VfPTR1 was repressed by a dipeptide and by an amino acid, whereas nitrate was without influence.

  7. A conserved patch of hydrophobic amino acids modulates Myb activity by mediating protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dukare, Sandeep; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb plays a key role in the control of proliferation and differentiation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and certain non-hematopoietic tumors. c-Myb activity is highly dependent on the interaction with the coactivator p300 which is mediated by the transactivation domain of c-Myb and the KIX domain of p300. We have previously observed that conservative valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions in a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acids have a profound effect on Myb activity. Here, we have explored the function of the hydrophobic region as a mediator of protein-protein interactions. We show that the hydrophobic region facilitates Myb self-interaction and binding of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60, a previously identified Myb interacting protein. We show that these interactions are affected by the valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions and suppress Myb activity by interfering with the interaction of Myb and the KIX domain of p300. Taken together, our work identifies the hydrophobic region in the Myb transactivation domain as a binding site for homo- and heteromeric protein interactions and leads to a picture of the c-Myb transactivation domain as a composite protein binding region that facilitates interdependent protein-protein interactions of Myb with regulatory proteins.

  8. Adsorption and transport of polymaleic acid on Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone: Batch and transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, Delphine; Landesman, Catherine; Grambow, Bernd; Ribet, Solange; Giffaut, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) can affect the mobility of radionuclides in pore water of clay-rich geological formations, such as those intended to be used for nuclear waste disposal. The present work studies the adsorption and transport properties of a polycarboxylic acid, polymaleic acid (PMA, Mw = 1.9 kDa), on Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples (COx). Even though this molecule is rather different from the natural organic matter found in clay rock, the study of its retention properties on both dispersed and intact samples allows assessing to which extent organic acids may undergo sorption under natural conditions (pH 7) and what could be the impact on their mobility. PMA sorption and desorption were investigated in dispersed systems. The degree of sorption was measured after 1, 8 and 21 days and for a range of PMA initial concentrations from 4.5 × 10- 7 to 1.4 × 10- 3 mol.L- 1. The reversibility of the sorption process was estimated by desorption experiments performed after the sorption experiments. At the sorption steady state, the sorption was described by a two-site Langmuir model. A total sorption capacity of COx for PMA was found to be 1.01×10- 2 mol.kg- 1 distributed on two sorption sites, one weak and one strong. The desorption of PMA was incomplete, independently of the duration of the sorption phase. The amount of desorbable PMA even appeared to decrease for sorption phases from 1 to 21 days. To describe the apparent desorption hysteresis, two conceptual models were applied. The two-box diffusion model accounted for intraparticle diffusion and more generally for nonequilibrium processes. The two-box first-order non-reversible model accounted for a first-order non-reversible sorption and more generally for kinetically-controlled irreversible sorption processes. The use of the two models revealed that desorption hysteresis was not the result of nonequilibrium processes but was due to irreversible sorption. Irreversible sorption on the strong site was

  9. Transport and catabolism of the sialic acids N-glycolylneuraminic acid and 3-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galactonononic acid by Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Adam P; Hawkhead, Judith A; Thomas, Gavin H

    2013-10-01

    Escherichia coli can transport and catabolize the common sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen, which is an important mucus-derived carbon source in the mammalian gut. Herein we demonstrate that E. coli can also grow efficiently on the related sialic acids, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and 3-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galactonononic acid (KDN), which are transported via the sialic acid transporter NanT and catabolized using the sialic acid aldolase NanA. Catabolism of Neu5Gc uses the same pathway as Neu5Ac, likely producing glycolate instead and acetate during its breakdown and catabolism of KDN requires NanA activity, while other components of the Neu5Ac catabolism pathway are non-essential. We also demonstrate that these two sialic acids can support growth of an E. coli ∆nanT strain expressing sialic acid transporters from two bacterial pathogens, namely the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter SiaPQM from Haemophilus influenzae and the sodium solute symport transporter STM1128 from Salmonella enterica ssp. Typhimurium, suggesting that the ability to use Neu5Gc and KDN in addition to Neu5Ac is present in a number of human pathogens.

  10. Structural and functional analysis of fatty acid-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Judith; McDermott, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian FA-binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain FA with high affinity. The large number of FABP types is suggestive of distinct functions in specific tissues. Multiple experimental approaches have shown that individual FABPs possess both unique and overlapping functions, some of which are based on specific elements in the protein structure. Although FA binding affinities for all FABPs tend to correlate directly with FA hydrophobicity, structure-function studies indicate that subtle three-dimensional changes that occur upon ligand binding may promote specific protein-protein or protein-membrane interactions that ultimately determine the function of each FABP. The conformational changes are focused in the FABP helical/portal domain, a region that was identified by in vitro studies to be vital for the FA transport properties of the FABPs. Thus, the FABPs modulate intracellular lipid homeostasis by regulating FA transport in the nuclear and extra-nuclear compartments of the cell; in so doing, they also impact systemic energy homeostasis. PMID:19017610

  11. In Silico Classification of Proteins from Acidic and Neutral Cytoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yaping; Middaugh, C. Russell; Fang, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Protein acidostability is a common problem in biopharmaceutical and other industries. However, it remains a great challenge to engineer proteins for enhanced acidostability because our knowledge of protein acidostabilization is still very limited. In this paper, we present a comparative study of proteins from bacteria with acidic (AP) and neutral cytoplasms (NP) using an integrated statistical and machine learning approach. We construct a set of 393 non-redundant AP-NP ortholog pairs and calculate a total of 889 sequence based features for these proteins. The pairwise alignments of these ortholog pairs are used to build a residue substitution propensity matrix between APs and NPs. We use Gini importance provided by the Random Forest algorithm to rank the relative importance of these features. A scoring function using the 10 most significant features is developed and optimized using a hill climbing algorithm. The accuracy of the score function is 86.01% in predicting AP-NP ortholog pairs and is 76.65% in predicting non-ortholog AP-NP pairs, suggesting that there are significant differences between APs and NPs which can be used to predict relative acidostability of proteins. The overall trends uncovered in the study can be used as general guidelines for designing acidostable proteins. To best of our knowledge, this work represents the first systematic comparative study of the acidostable proteins and their non-acidostable orthologs. PMID:23049817

  12. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: inhibition of placental folic acid transport as a potential mechanism for fetal growth retardation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Will, M.; Barnard, J.A.; Said, H.M.; Ghishan, F.K.

    1985-04-01

    Maternal hydantoin ingestion during pregnancy results in a well defined clinical entity termed ''fetal hydantoin syndrome''. The clinical characteristics of this syndrome includes growth retardation, and congenital anomalies. Because folic acid is essential for protein synthesis and growth, and since hydantoin interferes with intestinal transport of folic acid, the authors postulated that part of the fetal hydantoin syndrome may be due to inhibition of placental folic acid by maternal hydantoin. Therefore, they studied in vivo placental folate transport in a well-established model for fetal hydantoin syndrome in the rat. Our results indicate that maternal hydantoin ingestion, significantly decreased fetal weight and placental and fetal uptake of folate compared to controls. To determine whether maternal hydantoin ingestion has a generalized or specific effect on placental function, they examined placental and fetal zinc transport in the same model. Our results indicate that zinc transport is not altered by hydantoin ingestion. They conclude that maternal hydantoin ingestion results in fetal growth retardation which may be due in part to inhibition of placental folate transport.

  13. Functional reconstitution of the. gamma. -aminobutyric acid transporter from synaptic vesicles using artificial ion gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Hell, J.W.; Edelmann, L.; Hartinger, J.; Jahn, R. )

    1991-12-24

    The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter of rat brain synaptic vesicles was reconstituted in proteoliposomes, and its activity was studied in response to artificially created membrane potentials or proton gradients. Changes of the membrane potential were monitored using the dyes oxonol VI and 3,3{prime}-diisopropylthiodicarbocyanine iodide, and changes of the H{sup +} gradient were followed using acridine orange. An inside positive membrane potential was generated by the creation of an inwardly directed K{sup +} gradient and the subsequent addition of valinomycin. Under these conditions, valinomycin evoked uptake of ({sup 3}H)GABA which was saturable. Similarly, ({sup 3}H)glutamate uptake was stimulated by valinomycin, indicating that both transporters can be driven by the membrane potential. Proton gradients were generated by the incubation of K{sup +}-loaded proteoliposomes in a buffer free of K{sup +} or Na{sup +} ions and the subsequent addition of nigericin. Proton gradients were also generated via the endogenous H{sup +} ATPase by incubation of K{sup +}-loaded proteoliposomes in equimolar K{sup +} buffer in the presence of valinomycin. These proton gradients evoked nonspecific, nonsaturable uptake of GABA and {beta}-alanine but not of glycine in proteoliposomes as well as protein-free liposomes. Therefore, transporter activity was monitored using glycine as an alternative substrate. Proton gradients generated by both methods elicited saturable glycine uptake in proteoliposomes. Together, these data confirm that the vesicular GABA transporter can be energized by both the membrane potential and the pH gradient and show that transport can be achieved by artificial gradients independently of the endogenous proton ATPase.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of muscle fatty acid-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, J O; Neufer, P D; Farrar, R P; Veerkamp, J H; Dohm, G L

    1994-01-01

    Heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is present in a wide variety of tissues but is found in the highest concentration in cardiac and red skeletal muscle. It has been proposed that the expression of H-FABP correlates directly with the fatty acid-oxidative capacity of the tissue. In the present study, the expression of H-FABP was measured in red and white skeletal muscle under two conditions in which fatty acid utilization is known to be increased: streptozotocin-induced diabetes and fasting. Protein concentration, mRNA concentration and transcription rate were measured under both conditions. The level of both protein and mRNA increased approximately 2-fold under each condition. The transcription rate was higher in red skeletal muscle than in white muscle, was increased 2-fold during fasting, but was unchanged by streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In addition to supporting the hypothesis that H-FABP is induced during conditions of increased fatty acid utilization, these findings demonstrate that the regulation of H-FABP expression may or may not be at the level of transcription depending on the stimulus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8141774

  15. Transport of DNA into the nuclei of xenopus oocytes by a modified VirE2 protein of Agrobacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, B; Thomsen, G; Citovsky, V

    1996-01-01

    We used Agrobacterium T-DNA nuclear transport to examine the specificity of nuclear targeting between plants and animals and the nuclear import of DNA by a specialized transport protein. Two karyophilic Agrobacterium virulence (Vir) proteins, VirD2 and VirE2, which presumably associate with the transported T-DNA and function in many plant species, were microinjected into Drosophila embryos and Xenopus oocytes. In both animal systems, VirD2 localized to the cell nuclei and VirE2 remained exclusively cytoplasmic, suggesting that VirE2 nuclear localization signals may be plant specific. Repositioning one amino acid residue within VirE2 nuclear localization signals enabled them to function in animal cells. The modified VirE2 protein bound DNA and actively transported it into the nuclei of Xenopus oocytes. These observations suggest a functional difference in nuclear import between animals and plants and show that DNA can be transported into the cell nucleus via a protein-specific pathway. PMID:8721747

  16. Identification and functional characterization of silicon transporters in soybean using comparative genomics of major intrinsic proteins in Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Vivancos, Julien; Guérin, Valérie; Sonah, Humira; Labbé, Caroline; Belzile, François; Bélanger, Richard R

    2013-11-01

    Silicon (Si) confers several benefits to many plant species when absorbed as silicic acid through nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs). The NIPs belong to major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, members of which form channels with high selectivity to control transport of water and different solutes. Here, comparative genomic analysis of the MIPs was performed to investigate the presence of Si transporter MIPs in soybean. Thorough analysis of phylogeny, gene organization, transcriptome profiling and protein modeling was performed to characterize MIPs in rice, Arabidopsis and soybean. Based on several attributes, two putative Si transporter genes, GmNIP2-1 and GmNIP2-2, were identified, characterized and cloned from soybean. Expression of both genes was detected in shoot and root tissues, and decreased as Si increased. The protein encoded by GmNIP2-2 showed functionality for Si transport when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, thus confirming the genetic capability of soybean to absorb the element. Comparative analysis of MIPs in plants provides opportunities to decipher gene evolution, functionality and selectivity of nutrient uptake mechanisms. Exploitation of this strategy has helped to uncover unique features of MIPs in soybean. The identification and functional characterization of Si transporters can be exploited to optimize the benefits that plants can derive from Si absorption. PMID:23771580

  17. Pep7p provides a novel protein that functions in vesicle-mediated transport between the yeast Golgi and endosome.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, G C; Zhang, J; Garlow, S J; Wesp, A; Riezman, H; Jones, E W

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae pep7 mutants are defective in transport of soluble vacuolar hydrolases to the lysosome-like vacuole. PEP7 is a nonessential gene that encodes a hydrophilic protein of 515 amino acids. A cysteine-rich tripartite motif in the N-terminal half of the polypeptide shows striking similarity to sequences found in many other eukaryotic proteins. Several of these proteins are thought to function in the vacuolar/lysosomal pathway. Mutations that change highly conserved cysteine residues in this motif lead to a loss of Pep7p function. Kinetic studies demonstrate that Pep7p function is required for the transport of the Golgi-precursors of the soluble hydrolases carboxypeptidase Y, proteinase A, and proteinase B to the endosome. Integral membrane hydrolase alkaline phosphatase is transported to the vacuole by a parallel intracellular pathway that does not require Pep7p function. pep7 mutants accumulate a 40-60-nm vesicle population, suggesting that Pep7p functions in a vesicle consumption step in vesicle-mediated transport of soluble hydrolases to the endosome. Whereas pep7 mutants demonstrate no defects in endocytic uptake at the plasma membrane, the mutants demonstrate defects in transport of receptor-mediated macromolecules through the endocytic pathway. Localization studies indicate that Pep7p is found both as a soluble cytoplasmic protein and associated with particulate fractions. We conclude that Pep7p functions as a novel regulator of vesicle docking and/or fusion at the endosome. Images PMID:9168472

  18. Transporters in Arabidopsis roots mediating uptake of amino acids at naturally occurring concentrations.

    PubMed

    Svennerstam, Henrik; Jämtgård, Sandra; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Näsholm, Torgny; Ganeteg, Ulrika

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of Arabidopsis have identified several transporters as being important for amino acid uptake. We used Arabidopsis plants with altered expression of lysine histidine transporter 1 (LHT1), amino acid permease 1 (AAP1) and amino acid permease 5 (AAP5) with the aim of disentangling the roles of each transporter in the uptake of different amino acids at naturally occurring concentrations (2-50 μM). LHT1 mutants displayed reduced uptake rates of L-Gln, L-Ala, L-Glu and L-Asp but not of L-Arg or L-Lys, while AAP5 mutants were affected in the uptake of L-Arg and L-Lys only. Double mutants (lht1aap5) exhibited reduced uptake of all tested amino acids. In the concentration range tested, AAP1 mutants did not display altered uptake rates for any of the studied amino acids. Expression analysis of amino acid transporter genes with important root functions revealed no major differences in the individual mutants other than for genes targeted for mutation. We conclude that LHT1 and AAP5, but not AAP1, are crucial for amino acid uptake at concentrations typically found in soils. LHT1 and AAP5 displayed complementary affinity spectra, and no redundancy with respect to gene expression was found between the two transporters, suggesting these two transporters have separate roles in amino acid uptake.

  19. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes. PMID:19754879

  20. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  1. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin.

  2. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. PMID:27348124

  3. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. PMID:27348124

  4. Structural Analysis of a Periplasmic Binding Protein in the Tripartite ATP-Independent Transporter Family Reveals a Tetrameric Assembly That May Have a Role in Ligand Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, M.; Changela, A; Miklos, A; Beese, L; Krueger, J; Hellinga, H

    2008-01-01

    Several bacterial solute transport mechanisms involve members of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) superfamily that bind and deliver ligand to integral membrane transport proteins in the ATP-binding cassette, tripartite tricarboxylate transporter, or tripartite ATP-independent (TRAP) families. PBPs involved in ATP-binding cassette transport systems have been well characterized, but only a few PBPs involved in TRAP transport have been studied. We have measured the thermal stability, determined the oligomerization state by small angle x-ray scattering, and solved the x-ray crystal structure to 1.9 A resolution of a TRAP-PBP (open reading frame tm0322) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (TM0322). The overall fold of TM0322 is similar to other TRAP transport related PBPs, although the structural similarity of backbone atoms (2.5-3.1 A root mean square deviation) is unusually low for PBPs within the same group. Individual monomers within the tetrameric asymmetric unit of TM0322 exhibit high root mean square deviation (0.9 A) to each other as a consequence of conformational heterogeneity in their binding pockets. The gel filtration elution profile and the small angle x-ray scattering analysis indicate that TM0322 assembles as dimers in solution that in turn assemble into a dimer of dimers in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Tetramerization has been previously observed in another TRAP-PBP (the Rhodobacter sphaeroides ?-keto acid-binding protein) where quaternary structure formation is postulated to be an important requisite for the transmembrane transport process.

  5. Protein-protein interactions among ion channels regulate ion transport in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Boulpaep, E

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ion transport in various organs has long been known to be controlled by extracellular agonists acting via membrane receptors or by intracellular messengers. Evidence is mounting for regulation of transport by direct interaction among membrane proteins or between a membrane transport protein and membrane-attached proteins. The membrane protein CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator) is widely expressed along the length of the nephron, but its role as a chloride channel does not appear to be critical for renal handling of salt and water. It is well established that the inward rectifying K channels (ROMK = Kir 1.1) in the thick ascending limb of Henle and in principal cells of the collecting duct are inhibited by millimolar concentrations of cytosolic Mg-ATP. However, the mechanism of this inhibition has been an enigma. We propose that the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) protein CFTR is a cofactor for Kir 1.1 regulation. Indeed, Mg-ATP sensitivity of Kir 1.1 is completely absent in two different mouse models of cystic fibrosis. In addition, the open-closed state of CFTR appears to provide a molecular gating switch that prevents or facilitates the ATP sensing of Kir 1.1. Does Mg-ATP sensing by the CFTR- Kir 1.1 complex play a role in coupling metabolism to ion transport? Physiological intracellular ATP concentrations in tubule cells are in the millimolar range, a saturating concentration for the gating of Kir 1.1 by Mg-ATP. Therefore, Kir 1.1 channels would be closed and unable to contribute to regulation of potassium secretion unless some other process modulated the CFTR-dependent ATP-sensitivity of Kir 1.1. The third component of the metabolic sensor-effector complex for Kir 1.1 regulation is most likely the AMP-regulated serine-threonine kinase, AMP kinase (AMPK). Changing levels in AMP rather than in ATP constitute the metabolic signal "sensed" by tubule cells. Because AMPK inhibits CFTR by modulating CFTR channel gating, we propose that renal K

  6. Phylogenetic characterization of transport protein superfamilies: superiority of SuperfamilyTree programs over those based on multiple alignments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan S; Reddy, Vamsee; Chen, Joshua H; Shlykov, Maksim A; Zheng, Wei Hao; Cho, Jaehoon; Yen, Ming Ren; Saier, Milton H

    2011-01-01

    Transport proteins function in the translocation of ions, solutes and macromolecules across cellular and organellar membranes. These integral membrane proteins fall into >600 families as tabulated in the Transporter Classification Database (www.tcdb.org). Recent studies, some of which are reported here, define distant phylogenetic relationships between families with the creation of superfamilies. Several of these are analyzed using a novel set of programs designed to allow reliable prediction of phylogenetic trees when sequence divergence is too great to allow the use of multiple alignments. These new programs, called SuperfamilyTree1 and 2 (SFT1 and 2), allow display of protein and family relationships, respectively, based on thousands of comparative BLAST scores rather than multiple alignments. Superfamilies analyzed include: (1) Aerolysins, (2) RTX Toxins, (3) Defensins, (4) Ion Transporters, (5) Bile/Arsenite/Riboflavin Transporters, (6) Cation:Proton Antiporters, and (7) the Glucose/Fructose/Lactose superfamily within the prokaryotic phosphoenol pyruvate-dependent Phosphotransferase System. In addition to defining the phylogenetic relationships of the proteins and families within these seven superfamilies, evidence is provided showing that the SFT programs outperform programs that are based on multiple alignments whenever sequence divergence of superfamily members is extensive. The SFT programs should be applicable to virtually any superfamily of proteins or nucleic acids.

  7. Mitochondrial transporters involved in oleic acid utilization and glutamate metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Pamela J; Adamson, Amy L; Ghrist, Angela C; Rowe, Lindsay; Scott, Lori R; Sherman, Matthew P; Stites, Nicole C; Sun, Yue; Tawiah-Boateng, Mary Anne; Tibbetts, Anne S; Wadington, Megan C; West, Aaron C

    2005-10-01

    Utilization of fatty acids such as oleic acid as sole carbon source by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires coordinated function of peroxisomes, where the fatty acids are degraded, and the mitochondria, where oxidation is completed. We identified two mitochondrial oxodicarboxylate transporters, Odc1p and Odc2p, as important in efficient utilization of oleic acid in yeast [Tibbetts et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 406 (2002) 96-104]. Yet, the growth phenotype of odc1delta odc2delta strains indicated that additional transporter(s) were also involved. Here, we identify two putative transporter genes, YMC1 and YMC2, as able to suppress the odc1delta odc2delta growth phenotype. The mRNA levels for both are elevated in the presence of glycerol or oleic acid, as compared to glucose. Ymc1p and Ymc2p are localized to the mitochondria in oleic acid-grown cells. Deletion of all four transporters (quad mutant) prevents growth on oleic acid as sole carbon source, while growth on acetate is retained. It is known that the glutamate-sensitive retrograde signaling pathway is important for upregulation of peroxisomal function in response to oleic acid and the oxodicarboxylate alpha-ketoglutarate is transported out of the mitochondria for synthesis of glutamate. So, citric acid cycle function and glutamate synthesis were examined in transporter mutants. The quad mutant has significantly decreased citrate synthase activity and whole cell alpha-ketoglutarate levels, while isocitrate dehydrogenase activity is unaffected and glutamate dehydrogenase activity is increased 10-fold. Strains carrying only two or three transporter deletions exhibit intermediate affects. 13C NMR metabolic enrichment experiments confirm a defect in glutamate biosynthesis in the quad mutant and, in double and triple mutants, suggest increased cycling of the glutamate backbone in the mitochondria before export. Taken together these studies indicate that these four transporters have overlapping activity, and

  8. Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization have worked to quantify the energy and nutrient needs of populations since 1949. This is the latest in a series of reports that aim to provide: updates on protein and amino acid requirements in health and disease for all age groups and pregnant and lactating mothers; recommendations on protein requirements in health and disease, including their implications for developing countries; recommendations on protein quality and labelling for worldwide use. This report provides the tools to address practical questions on the adequacy of food supplies, targets for food and nutrition policy, and labelling of protein quality. It contains specific recommendations for infant, child and adult nutrition. This report is an essential reference for those who need to determine the adequacy of population food intakes; set national food and nutrition guidelines and regulations on the protein and amino acid content of industrially processed foods; determine nutrient needs, and evaluate and ensure the adequacy of rations for vulnerable groups. The tools in this report can also be used to map and monitor global food shortages and under-nutrition through early warning systems.

  9. Transport proteins and acute phase reactant proteins in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, R. P.; Kuvibidila, S.; Gordon, L.; Humbert, J.

    1994-01-01

    Transport proteins, acute-phase reactant proteins (APRP), hematology, and anthropometry were studied in 34 sickle cell disease (SCD) children (20 boys, 14 girls) and 27 controls without growth deficits (13 boys, 14 girls) [corrected]. The age range was 1/2 to 16 1/2 years. Weight deficits (< 80%) by Waterlow's classification were observed in 41% of SCD boys and 25% of SCD girls, and height deficits (< 90%) were observed in 25% SCD boys and 25% girls. Mean white blood cell counts were significantly higher (P < .001) and hematocrit and hemoglobin (Hb) lower (P < .005) in SCD children than in controls. Although both groups had similar mean levels of albumin, transferrin, and APRP, SCD children had significantly lower mean levels of retinol-binding protein (RBP) (P < .001) and retinol-prealbumin (P < .001). Retinol-binding protein levels were abnormal in 18 (53%) SCD children and in only 23% controls (chi 2 = 14.06; P < 0.005); transferrin levels were abnormal in 20% of SCD children and in none of the controls. Children with SC and SF Hb phenotype had normal mean levels of RBP, whereas those with S beta thal and SS phenotype had levels below normal. Growth-retarded children by weight and height had reduced mean levels of RBP and prealbumin compared with growth-normal SCD children. The implication of primary protein-energy malnutrition on growth retardation in SCD children is under study. PMID:7512147

  10. Transporter-targeted cholic acid-cytarabine conjugates for improved oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Dongpo; Shang, Lei; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2016-09-10

    Cytarabine has a poor oral absorption due to its rapid deamination and poor membrane permeability. Bile acid transporters are highly expressed both in enterocytes and hepatocytes and to increase the oral bioavailability and investigate the potential application of cytarabine for liver cancers, a transporter- recognizing prodrug strategy was applied to design and synthesize four conjugates of cytarabine with cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The anticancer activities against HepG2 cells were evaluated by MTT assay and the role of bile acid transporters during cellular transport was investigated in a competitive inhibition experiment. The in vitro and in vivo metabolic stabilities of these conjugates were studied in rat plasma and liver homogenates. Finally, an oral bioavailability study was conducted in rats. All the cholic acid-cytarabine conjugates (40μM) showed potent antiproliferative activities (up to 70%) against HepG2 cells after incubation for 48h. The addition of bile acids could markedly reduce the antitumor activities of these conjugates. The N(4)-ursodeoxycholic acid conjugate of cytarabine (compound 5) exhibited optimal stability (t1/2=90min) in vitro and a 3.9-fold prolonged half-life of cytarabine in vivo. More importantly, compound 5 increased the oral bioavailability 2-fold compared with cytarabine. The results of the present study suggest that the prodrug strategy based on the bile acid transporters is suitable for improving the oral absorption and the clinical application of cytarabine. PMID:27377011

  11. Fatty acid binding protein in the intestine of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Katongole, J B; March, B E

    1979-03-01

    The mucosa of the mesenteric intestine of the chicken has been found to contain a fatty acid binding protein (FABP) with a molecular weight of less than 12,400. The protein is present in the newly hatched chick before ingestion of feed and in the adult bird. When a low-fat diet is fed, the concentration of the FABP is highest in the proximal portion of the intestine and decreases posteriorly. When a high-fat diet is fed, an increase occurs in the amount of FABP in the lower section of the intestine.

  12. Experimental lead poisoning and intestinal transport of glucose, amino acids, and sodium.

    PubMed

    Wapnir, R A; Exeni, R A; McVicar, M; Lipshitz, F

    1977-03-01

    Juvenile rats fed a diet containing 1% lead acetate for 7 weeks, in addition to an impaired growth rate and renal function derangements, suffered malabsorption of glucose and certain amino acids, as assessed by an in vivo perfusion technique. The reduction in glucose absorption ranged between 10% and 31% when the carbohydrate was pumped in concentrations of 2-80 mM. This alteration was compatible with a noncompetitive type of transport inhibition. The intestinal absorption of glycine, lysine, and phenylalanine were, respectively, decreased 22, 18, and 15% when these amino acids were present at 1 mM levels. Sodium transport was severely reduced (57.6 +/- 17.9 (SEM) vs. 124.2 +/- 17.4 muEq/min-cm) and intestinal mucosa (Na+-K+)-ATPase was concomitantly lower in the lead-intoxicated rats (186.4 +/- 19.0 vs 268.4 +/- 29.8 nmol P/min-mg protein). However, this enzyme was not altered in liver and kidney. Furthermore, intestinal mucosa fructose-1,6-diphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and tryptophan hydroxylase were not different in experimental and control animals. These studies substantiate the presence of functional and biochemical abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa of young rats when fed substantial amounts of a soluble lead salt. It is, therefore, reasonable to accept the possibility that physiologic damage occurs in tissues directly subjected to high and persistent levels of a toxic agents, as it occurs in other organs, underscoring the parallelism between transport mechanisms at the renal and intestinal levels.

  13. Transport of the pathogenic prion protein through soils.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kurt H; Lee, Seunghak; Somerville, Robert A; McKenzie, Debbie; Benson, Craig H; Pedersen, Joel A

    2010-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are progressive neurodegenerative diseases and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk, scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. An abnormally folded form of the prion protein (designated PrP(TSE)) is typically associated with TSE infectivity and may constitute the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Transmission of CWD and scrapie is mediated in part by an environmental reservoir of infectivity. Soil appears to be a plausible candidate for this reservoir. The transport of TSE agent through soil is expected to influence the accessibility of the pathogen to animals after deposition and must be understood to assess the risks associated with burial of infected carcasses. We report the results of saturated column experiments designed to evaluate PrP(TSE) transport through five soils with relatively high sand or silt contents and low organic carbon content. Protease-treated TSE-infected brain homogenate was used as a model for PrP(TSE) present in decomposing infected tissue. Synthetic rainwater was used as the eluent. All five soils retained PrP(TSE); no detectable PrP(TSE) was eluted over more than 40 pore volumes of flow. Lower bound apparent attachment coefficients were estimated for each soil. Our results suggest that TSE agent released from decomposing tissues to soils with low organic carbon content would remain near the site of initial deposition. In the case of infected carcasses deposited on the land surface, this may result in local sources of infectivity to other animals.

  14. Auxin Transport in Zea mays Coleoptiles II. Influence of Light on the Transport of Indoleacetic Acid-2-14C

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, S. M.; Gordon, S. A.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of bilateral irradiation with white light (1000 Meter Candle Sec) on the basipetal transport of auxin has been investigated. Illumination of either the intact shoot or the excised coleoptile tip of the Zea seedling, decreased the amount of diffusible auxin obtained from the tip, and decreased Avena curvature response to unilaterally applied indoleacetic acid. Irradiation of the intact Zea seedling did not affect the absorption of 14C-labeled indoleacetic acid from an agar block subsequently placed on the decapitated coleoptile. However, light caused a significant decrease in the amount of labeled auxin basipetally transported, without affecting materially the velocity of that transport. These and other observations are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that the primary hormonal phenomenon in first-positive phototropism is a light-induced impairment in the basipetal transport of auxin. PMID:16656477

  15. CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by biocomputation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Juxiang; Jiang, Minghu; Chen, Qingchun; Jiang, Zhenfu; Feng, Haitao

    2014-11-01

    directed against tumor cell target, protein ubiquitination, sodium ion transport, survival gene product activity, T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription via serum response element binding, exit from mitosis, ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle, regulation of angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth, cell proliferation, cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity, gene expression, insulin secretion, steroid biosynthesis, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter, cell cycle, cell migration, DNA recombination, and protein metabolism; also by CAMK1 negative functional regulation subnetwork including negative regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, centriole replication, fatty acid biosynthesis, lipoprotein lipase activity, MAPK activity, progression through cell cycle, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, cell growth, phosphorylation, and ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle in HCC.

  16. ETMB-RBF: Discrimination of Metal-Binding Sites in Electron Transporters Based on RBF Networks with PSSM Profiles and Significant Amino Acid Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yu-Yen; Chen, Shu-An; Wu, Sheng-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Cellular respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose and is a very important biological process in living cell. As cells do cellular respiration, they need a pathway to store and transport electrons, the electron transport chain. The function of the electron transport chain is to produce a trans-membrane proton electrochemical gradient as a result of oxidation–reduction reactions. In these oxidation–reduction reactions in electron transport chains, metal ions play very important role as electron donor and acceptor. For example, Fe ions are in complex I and complex II, and Cu ions are in complex IV. Therefore, to identify metal-binding sites in electron transporters is an important issue in helping biologists better understand the workings of the electron transport chain. Methods We propose a method based on Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) profiles and significant amino acid pairs to identify metal-binding residues in electron transport proteins. Results We have selected a non-redundant set of 55 metal-binding electron transport proteins as our dataset. The proposed method can predict metal-binding sites in electron transport proteins with an average 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 93.2% and 93.1% for metal-binding cysteine and histidine, respectively. Compared with the general metal-binding predictor from A. Passerini et al., the proposed method can improve over 9% of sensitivity, and 14% specificity on the independent dataset in identifying metal-binding cysteines. The proposed method can also improve almost 76% sensitivity with same specificity in metal-binding histidine, and MCC is also improved from 0.28 to 0.88. Conclusions We have developed a novel approach based on PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs for identifying metal-binding sites from electron transport proteins. The proposed approach achieved a significant improvement with independent test set of metal-binding electron transport proteins

  17. An amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acid analogs into proteins.

    PubMed

    Singh-Blom, Amrita; Hughes, Randall A; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-05-20

    Residue-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins is usually performed in vivo using amino acid auxotrophic strains and replacing the natural amino acid with an unnatural amino acid analog. Herein, we present an efficient amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system that can be used to study residue-specific replacement of a natural amino acid by an unnatural amino acid analog. This system combines a simple methodology and high protein expression titers with a high-efficiency analog substitution into a target protein. To demonstrate the productivity and efficacy of a cell-free synthesis system for residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids in vitro, we use this system to show that 5-fluorotryptophan and 6-fluorotryptophan substituted streptavidin retain the ability to bind biotin despite protein-wide replacement of a natural amino acid for the amino acid analog. We envisage this amino acid depleted cell-free synthesis system being an economical and convenient format for the high-throughput screening of a myriad of amino acid analogs with a variety of protein targets for the study and functional characterization of proteins substituted with unnatural amino acids when compared to the currently employed in vivo methodologies.

  18. Relevance of Aromatic Amino Acids for Electron Conduction along Geobacter Pili Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ramesh; Malvankar, Nikhil; Tuominen, Mark; Lovley, Derek

    It has been proposed that the charge transport though Geobacter sulfurreducens pili protein occurs through the aromatic amino acids forming helical conducting chain within pili. X-ray studies of pili show that the aromatic amino acids are packed close enough (3-4 Å) for pi-stacking to occur. Conductivity of the pili network increases with lowering temperature indicating metallic-like transport mechanism. However due to the complexity of charge percolation path in 3D network, the intrinsic conductivity of an individual pili was not known. Here, we report transport measurements of individual pili of G. sulfurreducens. The conductivity, similar to that of organic polymers, shows that the pili may have implications in materials research. In addition, the conductivity value is sufficient to explain the respiration rate of the G. sulfurreducens. Further studies of pili from different natural and genetically modified species with varying amount of aromatic amino acid density demonstrate that it can play a decisive role on the magnitude of the conductivity. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing (CHM). Nikhil S. Malvankar holds a Career Award from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  19. Sialic acid catabolism and transport gene clusters are lineage specific in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jean-Bernard; Kingston, Joseph J; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2012-05-01

    Sialic or nonulosonic acids are nine-carbon alpha ketosugars that are present in all vertebrate mucous membranes. Among bacteria, the ability to catabolize sialic acid as a carbon source is present mainly in pathogenic and commensal species of animals. Previously, it was shown that several Vibrio species carry homologues of the genes required for sialic acid transport and catabolism, which are genetically linked. In Vibrio cholerae on chromosome I, these genes are carried on the Vibrio pathogenicity island-2 region, which is confined to pathogenic isolates. We found that among the three sequenced Vibrio vulnificus clinical strains, these genes are present on chromosome II and are not associated with a pathogenicity island. To determine whether the sialic acid transport (SAT) and catabolism (SAC) region is universally present within V. vulnificus, we examined 67 natural isolates whose phylogenetic relationships are known. We found that the region was present predominantly among lineage I of V. vulnificus, which is comprised mainly of clinical isolates. We demonstrate that the isolates that contain this region can catabolize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. Two putative transporters are genetically linked to the region in V. vulnificus, the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter SiaPQM and a component of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. We constructed an in-frame deletion mu