Science.gov

Sample records for acid treatment increased

  1. Increase of α1-acid glycoprotein after treatment with amitriptyline

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, P.; Tinguely, D.; Schöpf, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen primary depressive patients were treated for 3 weeks with amitriptyline 150 mg daily. In thirteen patients the plasma level of α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) significantly increased after the treatment but the albumin levels did not change. PMID:7104160

  2. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it. PMID:26634573

  3. Minodronic acid ameliorates vertebral bone strength by increasing bone mineral density in 9-month treatment of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-07-01

    The effect of treatment for 9months with minodronic acid, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on vertebral mechanical strength was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Forty skeletally mature female monkeys were randomized into four OVX groups and one sham group (n=8) based on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD). OVX animals were treated orally with 15 and 150μg/kg QD of minodronic acid or 500μg/kg QD alendronate as a reference drug. Measurements of bone turnover markers and lumbar BMD were conducted at 0, 4 and 8months. Measurements of bone mechanical strength and minodronic acid concentration in vertebral bodies were also performed. OVX resulted in a decrease in lumbar BMD and an increase in bone turnover markers at 4 and 8months, compared to the sham group, and the ultimate load on the lumbar vertebra was decreased in OVX animals. Minodronic acid and alendronate prevented the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover markers and decrease in lumbar BMD. Minodronic acid at 150μg/kg increased the ultimate load on lumbar vertebra compared to untreated OVX animals. Regression analysis revealed that the ultimate load was correlated with lumbar BMD and bone mineral content (BMC), and most strongly with the increase in lumbar BMD and BMC over 8months. In a separate analysis within the sham-OVX controls and minodronic acid and alendronate treatment groups, the ultimate loads were also correlated with BMD and BMC. The load-BMD (BMC) correlation in the minodronic acid group showed a trend for a shift to a higher load from the basal relationship in the sham-OVX controls. These results indicate that treatment with minodronic acid for 9months increases vertebral mechanical strength in OVX monkeys, mainly by increasing BMD and BMC. PMID:27155564

  4. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  5. Increasing bioavailability of (R)-alpha-lipoic acid to boost antioxidant activity in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Emilia; Marrese, Cinzia; Migliaro, Elisa; Marcuccio, Fortuna; Panico, Claudia; Salvati, Carmine; Citro, Giuseppe; Quercio, Marco; Roncagliolo, Federico; Torello, Carlo; Brufani, Mario

    2015-01-01

    a-lipoic acid (a-LA) is a potent natural antioxidant because it has a broad spectrum of action towards a great many free radical species and boosts the endogenous antioxidant systems.Although it is a multi-functional molecule, its pharmacokinetic characteristics pose restrictions to its use in the treatment of oxidative stress-dependent illnesses. Formulations that increase the bioavailability of a-LA have a better potential efficacy as adjuvants for the treatment of these conditions.This objective was achieved with a liquid formulation for oral use containing only R-aLA, the natural enantiomeric and most active form of a-lipoic acid.For the first time, the effects of this formulation were evaluated on neuropathic pain, a symptom caused by an increase in oxidative stress, regardless of the underlying cause. Neuropathic patients who have used this dietary supplement noticed an improvement in their quality of life and a significant reduction was observed in a number of certain descriptive pain parameters (intensity, burning, unpleasantness, superficial pain).Undoubtedly further, more in-depth, studies need to be conducted; however, this first investigation confirms the role of R-aLA as an anti-oxidant for the aetiological treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Increasing its plasma bioavailability even after a non-invasive administration through the oral route is a good starting point for proposing a valid adjuvant for the treatment of pain symptoms. PMID:26694149

  6. Increased plasma levels of competing amino acids, rather than lowered plasma tryptophan levels, are associated with a non-response to treatment in major depression.

    PubMed

    Ormstad, Heidi; Dahl, Johan; Verkerk, Robert; Andreassen, Ole A; Maes, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Lowered plasma tryptophan (TRP) and TRP/competing amino acid (CAA) ratio may be involved in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Increased cortisol and immune-inflammatory mediators in MDD may affect the availability of TRP to the brain. We investigated whether baseline or post-treatment TRP, CAAs and TRP/CAA ratio are associated with a treatment response in MDD and whether these effects may be mediated by cortisol or immune biomarkers. We included 50 medication-free MDD patients with a depressive episode (DSM diagnosis) and assessed symptom severity with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) before and after treatment as usual for 12 weeks (endpoint). Plasma levels of TRP, CAAs, the ratio, cortisol, CRP and 6 selected cytokines were assayed. The primary outcome was a 50% reduction in the IDS, while the secondary was a remission of the depressive episode. In IDS non-responders, CAAs increased and the TRP/CAA ratio decreased, while in IDS responders CAAs decreased and the TRP/CAA ratio increased from baseline to endpoint. In patients who were still depressed at endpoint TRP and CAAs levels had increased from baseline, while in remitted patients no such effects were found. Increases in CAAs were inversely correlated with changes in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist levels. The results show that increased CAA levels from baseline to endpoint are associated with a non-response to treatment in MDD patients. This suggests that the mechanism underpinning the CAA-related treatment resistance may be related to changes in immune pathways. CAA levels and amino acid metabolism may be new drug targets in depression. PMID:27237997

  7. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  8. Increased formation of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Salen, G; Tint, G S; Eliav, B; Deering, N; Mosbach, E H

    1974-01-01

    The formation of ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7 beta-hydroxy epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, was investigated in three subjects with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and in four subjects with gallstones. Total biliary bile acid composition was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography before and after 4 months of treatment with 0.75 g/day of chenodeoxycholic acid. Individual bile acids were identified by mass spectrometry. Before treatment, bile from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) subjects contained cholic acid, 85%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 7%; deoxycholic acid, 3%; allocholic acid, 3%; and unidentified steroids, 2%; while bile from gallstone subjects contained cholic acid, 45%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 43%; deoxycholic acid, 11%, and lithocholic acid, 1%. In all subjects, 4 months of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy increased the proportion of this bile acid to approximately 80% and decreased cholic acid to 3% of the total biliary bile acids, the remaining 17% of bile acids were identified as ursodeoxycholic acid. After the intravenous injection of [3H]chenodeoxycholic acid, the specific activity of biliary ursodeoxycholic acid exceeded the specific activity of chenodeoxycholic acid, and the resulting specific activity decay curves suggested precursor-product relationships. When [3H]7-ketolithocholic acid was administrated to another patient treated with chenodeoxycholic acid, radioactivity was detected in both the ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid fractions. These results indicate that substantial amounts of ursodeoxycholic acid are formed in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid. The ursodeoxycholic acid was synthesized from chenodeoxycholic acid presumably via 7-ketolithocholic acid. Images PMID:11344576

  9. LC-MS metabolomics of psoriasis patients reveals disease severity-dependent increases in circulating amino acids that are ameliorated by anti-TNFα treatment.

    PubMed

    Kamleh, Muhammad Anas; Snowden, Stuart G; Grapov, Dmitry; Blackburn, Gavin J; Watson, David G; Xu, Ning; Ståhle, Mona; Wheelock, Craig E

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated highly heterogeneous skin disease in which genetic as well as environmental factors play important roles. In spite of the local manifestations of the disease, psoriasis may progress to affect organs deeper than the skin. These effects are documented by epidemiological studies, but they are not yet mechanistically understood. In order to provide insight into the systemic effects of psoriasis, we performed a nontargeted high-resolution LC-MS metabolomics analysis to measure plasma metabolites from individuals with mild or severe psoriasis as well as healthy controls. Additionally, the effects of the anti-TNFα drug Etanercept on metabolic profiles were investigated in patients with severe psoriasis. Our analyses identified significant psoriasis-associated perturbations in three metabolic pathways: (1) arginine and proline, (2) glycine, serine and threonine, and (3) alanine, aspartate, and glutamate. Etanercept treatment reversed the majority of psoriasis-associated trends in circulating metabolites, shifting the metabolic phenotypes of severe psoriasis toward that of healthy controls. Circulating metabolite levels pre- and post-Etanercept treatment correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) clinical scoring (R(2) = 0.80; p < 0.0001). Although the responsible mechanism(s) are unclear, these results suggest that psoriasis severity-associated metabolic perturbations may stem from increased demand for collagen synthesis and keratinocyte hyperproliferation or potentially the incidence of cachexia. Data suggest that levels of circulating amino acids are useful for monitoring both the severity of disease as well as therapeutic response to anti-TNFα treatment. PMID:25361234

  10. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Amino acid metabolism disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  11. The Bile Acid Chenodeoxycholic Acid Increases Human Brown Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Evie P M; Nascimento, Emmani B M; Havekes, Bas; Brans, Boudewijn; Roumans, Kay H M; Tailleux, Anne; Schaart, Gert; Kouach, Mostafa; Charton, Julie; Deprez, Benoit; Bouvy, Nicole D; Mottaghy, Felix; Staels, Bart; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a target to combat metabolic disease has recently been renewed with the discovery of functional BAT in humans. In rodents, BAT can be activated by bile acids, which activate type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) in BAT via the G-coupled protein receptor TGR5, resulting in increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure. Here we examined the effects of oral supplementation of the bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on human BAT activity. Treatment of 12 healthy female subjects with CDCA for 2 days resulted in increased BAT activity. Whole-body energy expenditure was also increased upon CDCA treatment. In vitro treatment of primary human brown adipocytes derived with CDCA or specific TGR5 agonists increased mitochondrial uncoupling and D2 expression, an effect that was absent in human primary white adipocytes. These findings identify bile acids as a target to activate BAT in humans. PMID:26235421

  12. Cinnamic acid increases lignin production and inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth. PMID:23922685

  13. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  14. Increasing nursing treatment for pediatric procedural pain.

    PubMed

    Bice, April A; Gunther, Mary; Wyatt, Tami

    2014-03-01

    Procedural pain management is an underused practice in children. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, many nurses do not provide adequate analgesia for painful interventions. Complementary therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions are additionally essential to managing pain. Owing to the increasing awareness of inadequate nursing utilization of pharmacologic measures for procedural pain, this paper focuses only on analgesic treatments. The aim of this review was to examine how varying degrees of quality improvement affect nursing utilization of treatments for routine pediatric procedural pain. A comprehensive search of databases including Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Psycinfo, and Cochrane Library was performed. Sixty-two peer-reviewed research articles were examined. Ten articles focusing on quality improvement in pediatric pain management published in English from 2001 to 2011 were included. Three themes emerged: 1) increasing nursing knowledge; 2) nursing empowerment; and 3) protocol implementation. Research critique was completed with the use of guidelines and recommendations from Creswell (2009) and Garrard (2011). The literature reveals that nurses still think that pediatric pain management is essential. Quality improvement increases nursing utilization of procedural pain treatments. Although increasing nursing knowledge improves pediatric pain management, it appears that nursing empowerment and protocol implementation increase nursing compliance more than just education alone. Nurses providing pain management can enhance their individual practice with quality improvement measures that may increase nursing adherence to institutional and nationally recommended pediatric procedural pain management guidelines. PMID:24602440

  15. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  16. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  17. Acid peptic diseases: pharmacological approach to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Alex; Kraft, Walter K

    2011-01-01

    Acid peptic disorders are the result of distinctive, but overlapping pathogenic mechanisms leading to either excessive acid secretion or diminished mucosal defense. They are common entities present in daily clinical practice that, owing to their chronicity, represent a significant cost to healthcare. Key elements in the success of controlling these entities have been the development of potent and safe drugs based on physiological targets. The histamine-2 receptor antagonists revolutionized the treatment of acid peptic disorders owing to their safety and efficacy profile. The proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent a further therapeutic advance due to more potent inhibition of acid secretion. Ample data from clinical trials and observational experience have confirmed the utility of these agents in the treatment of acid peptic diseases, with differential efficacy and safety characteristics between and within drug classes. Paradigms in their speed and duration of action have underscored the need for new chemical entities that, from a single dose, would provide reliable duration of acid control, particularly at night. Moreover, PPIs reduce, but do not eliminate, the risk of ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs, reflecting untargeted physiopathologic pathways and a breach in the ability to sustain an intragastric pH of more than 4. This review provides an assessment of the current understanding of the physiology of acid production, a discussion of medications targeting gastric acid production and a review of efficacy in specific acid peptic diseases, as well as current challenges and future directions in the treatment of acid-mediated diseases. PMID:21822447

  18. Method of increasing conversion of a fatty acid to its corresponding dicarboxylic acid

    DOEpatents

    Craft, David L.; Wilson, C. Ron; Eirich, Dudley; Zhang, Yeyan

    2004-09-14

    A nucleic acid sequence including a CYP promoter operably linked to nucleic acid encoding a heterologous protein is provided to increase transcription of the nucleic acid. Expression vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acid sequence are also provided. The methods and compositions described herein are especially useful in the production of polycarboxylic acids by yeast cells.

  19. Treatment of mice with 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin markedly increases the levels of a number of cytochrome P450 metabolites of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver and lung

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.; Solaimani, P.; Dong, H; Hammock, B.D.; Hankinson, O.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increased the levels of several cytochrome P450 metabolites of the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA) and linoleic acid in the serum, liver, lung and spleen of C57BL/6 mice in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent fashion. These increases correlated with increased levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and/or CYP1B1. In the current study, we measured 77 oxylipins, including 59 that we had not measured previously, and demonstrate that TCDD also markedly increases the levels of many epoxide and diol metabolites of the omega-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahexaenoic acid (DHA) in these mice. Since these epoxide metabolites have been reported to have opposite effects on angiogenesis, tumor growth and tumor metastasis compared with the equivalent metabolites of omega-6 PUFA, these observations have important implications with regard to the potential involvement of the cytochrome P450 metabolites of PUFAs in mediating the biological effects of TCDD and other agonists of AHR. PMID:24213002

  20. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Andújar, Isabel; Vilanova, Santiago; Plazas, Mariola; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Brar, Navjot Singh; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids. PMID:26473812

  1. Dietary arachidonic acid dose-dependently increases the arachidonic acid concentration in human milk.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Dirix, Chantal E H; Bruins, Maaike J; Hornstra, Gerard

    2008-11-01

    Lactation hampers normalization of the maternal arachidonic acid (AA) status, which is reduced after pregnancy and can further decline by the presently recommended increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA]. This may be unfavorable for breast-fed infants, because they also require an optimum supply of (n-6) LCPUFA. We therefore investigated the LCPUFA responses in nursing mothers upon increased consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA. In a parallel, double-blind, controlled trial, lactating women received for 8 wk no extra LCPUFA (control group, n = 8), 200 (low AA group, n = 9), or 400 (high AA group, n = 8) mg/d AA in combination with (n-3) LCPUFA [320 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 80 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid, and 80 mg/d other (n-3) fatty acids], or this dose of (n-3) LCPUFA alone [DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid group, n = 8]. Relative concentrations of AA, DHA, and sums of (n-6) and (n-3) LCPUFA were measured in milk total lipids (TL) and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) after 2 and 8 wk and changes were compared by ANCOVA. The combined consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA caused dose-dependent elevations of AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations in milk TL and did not significantly affect the DHA and total (n-3) LCPUFA increases caused by (n-3) LCPUFA supplementation only. This latter treatment did not significantly affect breast milk AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations. AA and DHA concentrations in milk TL and their changes were strongly and positively correlated with their corresponding values in erythrocyte PL (r(2) = 0.27-0.50; P increased the AA concentration of their milk TL. PMID:18936218

  2. Treatment of broiler litter with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I E

    2001-04-01

    Experiments for treatment of contaminated broiler litter with citric, tartaric and salicylic acids were performed. At days 2 and 6 after the treatment, pH values (using a pH-meter), the ammonia concentrations (titration with 0.1 N HCl) and the microbial cells counts were determined in both experimental and control specimens of litter. The cost of acidification of litter was also determined. Our studies showed that the treatment of the contaminated litter with 5 per cent citric acid, 4 per cent tartaric acid and 1.5 per cent salicylic acid created an acid medium with pH under 5.0 and thus reduced the microbial counts to 2.2 x 10(3)colony forming units per gram manure litter. The treatment reduced the content of ammonia in the litter and in the air under the hygienic limits, i.e. 25-50 ppm. The cost of acidification of litter with these organic acids amounted to 0.1 $ per bird and 1.5 $ per 15 birds on one square metre in a growth period of 50 days. PMID:11356097

  3. Increasing the Oleic Acid in Soybean Oil with Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the oleic acid content along with decrease in linolenic acid can improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Genetic changes in soybean using standard plant breeding practices has resulted in a publicly released a mid-oleic breeding line, N98-4445A, with oil that averages 57% oleic ac...

  4. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  5. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  6. Can treatment increase the epidemic size?

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanyu; Brauer, Fred; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2016-01-01

    Antiviral treatment is one of the key pharmacological interventions against many infectious diseases. This is particularly important in the absence of preventive measures such as vaccination. However, the evolution of drug-resistance in treated patients and its subsequent spread to the population pose significant impediments to the containment of disease epidemics using treatment. Previous models of population dynamics of influenza infection have shown that in the presence of drug-resistance, the epidemic final size (i.e., the total number of infections throughout the epidemic) is affected by the treatment rate. These models, through simulation experiments, illustrate the existence of an optimal treatment rate, not necessarily the highest possible rate, for minimizing the epidemic final size. However, the conditions for the existence of such an optimal treatment rate have never been found. Here, we provide these conditions for a class of models covered in the literature previously, and investigate the combination effect of treatment and transmissibility of the drug-resistant pathogen strain on the epidemic final size. For the first time, we obtain the final size relations for an epidemic model with two strains of a pathogen (i.e., drug-sensitive and drug-resistant). We also discuss this model with specific functional forms of de novo resistance emergence, and illustrate the theoretical findings with numerical simulations. PMID:25925242

  7. Acid mine drainage and subsidence: effects of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R D; Bates, E R

    1979-01-01

    The increases above 1975 levels for acid mine drainage and subsidence for the years 1985 and 2000 based on projections of current mining trends and the National Energy Plan are presented. No increases are projected for acid mine drainage from surface mines or waste since enforcement under present laws should control this problem. The increase in acid mine drainage from underground mines is projected to be 16 percent by 1985 and 10 percent by 2000. The smaller increase in 2000 over 1985 reflects the impact of the PL 95-87 abandoned mine program. Mine subsidence is projected to increase by 34 and 115 percent respectively for 1985 and 2000. This estimate assumes that subsidence will parallel the rate of underground coal production and that no new subsidence control measures are adopted to mitigate subsidence occurrence. PMID:540617

  8. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  9. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  10. Betulinic Acid for Cancer Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a natural product with a range of biological effects, for example potent antitumor activity. This anticancer property is linked to its ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In contrast to the cytotoxicity of betulinic acid against a variety of cancer types, normal cells and tissue are relatively resistant to betulinic acid, pointing to a therapeutic window. Compounds that exert a direct action on mitochondria present promising experimental cancer therapeutics, since they may trigger cell death under circumstances in which standard chemotherapeutics fail. Thus, mitochondrion-targeted agents such as betulinic acid hold great promise as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of human cancers. PMID:19325847

  11. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) reduces the concentrations and/or leachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. he objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and commercial viabili...

  12. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Koichi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Rikimaru; Obata, Toru

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  13. Carcinogen treatment increases glutathione hydrolysis by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    PubMed

    Conway, J G; Neptun, D A; Garvey, L K; Popp, J A

    1987-07-01

    The effect of carcinogen treatment on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-mediated hydrolysis of GSH to glutamate and cysteinylglycine in the blood and bile compartments was investigated in livers perfused in situ. Treatment of rats with 40 p.p.m. diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in the drinking water or 0.02% 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) in the diet for 50-60 days increased GGT activity in liver homogenates by 100 and 800% respectively. Bile flow and the sum of glutamate and glutathione (GSH) efflux into the bile of perfused livers was not affected by carcinogen treatment. However, the ratio of GSH to glutamate in bile was 2.1, 1.1 and 0.2 in livers from control, DEN- and AAF-treated rats respectively. Pretreatment with L-(alpha S,5S)-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid (AT125) decreased GGT activity in liver homogenates by about 85% and elevated the ratio of GSH to glutamate in the bile to 3.2 in all groups. Thus, the hydrolysis of GSH to glutamate in the bile of perfused livers correlated with the degree of induction of GGT by DEN and AAF treatments. Exogenous GSH (10 microM) infused into the portal vein of perfused livers from control, DEN- and AAF-treated rats was recovered completely in the effluent perfusate. Pretreatment with AT125 had no effect on the recovery of exogenous GSH in the effluent perfusate. Thus, metabolism of GSH in the blood space was not detected after short-term carcinogen treatment. To increase the possible hydrolysis of GSH in the perfusate, rats were treated for 130-180 days with DEN and GSH (60 microM) was infused into the hepatic artery of livers perfused simultaneously via the hepatic artery and portal vein. Only 50% of the infused GSH was recovered in the effluent perfusate of perfused livers from DEN-treated rats. In contrast, significantly more GSH (80-90%) was recovered from livers from control rats or DEN-treated rats that had received AT125 pretreatment. In addition AT125 pretreatment increased the basal rates of GSH

  14. Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting and treatment. PMID:24494617

  15. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%. PMID:25976916

  16. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25616451

  17. Acetic acid suppresses the increase in disaccharidase activity that occurs during culture of caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, N; Satsu, H; Watanabe, H; Fukaya, M; Tsukamoto, Y; Miyamoto, Y; Shimizu, M

    2000-03-01

    To understand how blood glucose level is lowered by oral administration of vinegar, we examined effects of acetic acid on glucose transport and disaccharidase activity in Caco-2 cells. Cells were cultured for 15 d in a medium containing 5 mmol/L of acetic acid. This chronic treatment did not affect cell growth or viability, and furthermore, apoptotic cell death was not observed. Glucose transport, evaluated with a nonmetabolizable substrate, 3-O-methyl glucose, also was not affected. However, the increase of sucrase activity observed in control cells (no acetic acid) was significantly suppressed by acetic acid (P < 0.01). Acetic acid suppressed sucrase activity in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Similar treatments (5 mmol/L and 15 d) with other organic acids such as citric, succinic, L-maric, L-lactic, L-tartaric and itaconic acids, did not suppress the increase in sucrase activity. Acetic acid treatment (5 mmol/L and 15 d) significantly decreased the activities of disaccharidases (sucrase, maltase, trehalase and lactase) and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, whereas the activities of other hydrolases (alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase-N, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase) were not affected. To understand mechanisms underlying the suppression of disaccharidase activity by acetic acid, Northern and Western analyses of the sucrase-isomaltase complex were performed. Acetic acid did not affect the de novo synthesis of this complex at either the transcriptional or translational levels. The antihyperglycemic effect of acetic acid may be partially due to the suppression of disaccharidase activity. This suppression seems to occur during the post-translational processing. PMID:10702577

  18. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2002-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  19. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1998-06-23

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

  20. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  1. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  2. Increased acyclovir oral bioavailability via a bile acid conjugate.

    PubMed

    Tolle-Sander, Sanna; Lentz, Kimberley A; Maeda, Dean Y; Coop, Andrew; Polli, James E

    2004-01-12

    The objective of this work was to design an acyclovir prodrug that would utilize the human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) and enhance acyclovir oral bioavailability. Using each chenodeoxycholate, deoxycholate, cholate, and ursodeoxycholate, four bile acid prodrugs of acyclovir were synthesized, where acyclovir was conjugated to a bile acid via a valine linker. The affinity of the prodrug for hASBT was determined through inhibition of taurocholate uptake by COS-7 cells transfected with hASBT (hASBT-COS). The prodrug with the highest inhibitory affinity was further evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The prodrug acyclovir valylchenodeoxycholate yielded the highest affinity for hASBT (Ki = 35 microM), showing that chenodeoxycholate is the free bile acid with the greatest affinity for hASBT. Acyclovir valylchenodeoxycholate's affinity was similar to that of cholic acid (Ki = 25 microM). Further characterization showed that acyclovir was catalytically liberated from acyclovir valylchenode-oxycholate by esterase. Relative to cellular uptake studies of acyclovir alone, the cellular uptake from the prodrug resulted in a 16-fold greater acyclovir accumulation within hASBT-COS cells, indicating enhanced permeation properties of the prodrug. Enhanced permeability was due to hASBT-mediated uptake and increased passive permeability. The extent of acyclovir uptake in the presence of sodium was 1.4-fold greater than the extent of passive prodrug uptake in the absence of sodium (p = 0.02), indicating translocation of the prodrug by hASBT. The prodrug also exhibited an almost 12-fold enhanced passive permeability, relative to acyclovir's passive permeability. Oral administration of acyclovir valylchenodeoxycholate to rats resulted in a 2-fold increase in the bioavailability of acyclovir, compared to the bioavailability after administration of acyclovir alone. Results indicate that a bile acid prodrug strategy may be useful in improving the oral bioavailability of

  3. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  4. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox) phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox) mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  5. Acid mine treatment with open limestone channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Brant, D.L.; Skousen, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is often associated with mining of pyritic coal and metal deposits. Typical AMD associated with coal mines in the eastern US can have acidity and iron concentrations ranging from the teens to the thousands of mg/l. Aluminum and manganese can be present in concentrations ranging from zero to the low hundreds of mg/l. Much attention has been devoted to developing inexpensive, limestone (LS)-based systems for treating AMID with little or no maintenance. However, LS tends to coat with metal hydroxides when exposed to AMID in an oxidized state, a process known as {open_quotes}armoring{close_quotes}. It is generally assumed that once armored, LS ceases to neutralize acid. Another problem is that the hydroxides tend to settle into plug the pore spaces in LS beds forcing water to move around rather than through the LS. While both are caused by the precipitation of metal hydroxides, armoring and plugging are two different problems. Plugging of LS pores can be avoided by maintaining a high flushing rate through the LS bed. Armoring, however, occurs regardless of water velocity. This study investigated the influence of armoring on LS solubility and the implications of armoring and plugging on the construction of open (oxidizing) LS channels for treating AMD. We evaluated the AMID treatment performance of armored and unarmored LS in oxidizing environments both in laboratory and field studies.

  6. Fatty acids and glucose increase neutral endopeptidase activity in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muangman, Pornprom; Spenny, Michelle L; Tamura, Richard N; Gibran, Nicole S

    2003-06-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a membrane-bound metallopeptidase enzyme that degrades neuropeptides, bradykinin, atrial natriuretic factor, enkephalins, and endothelin may regulate response to injury. We have previously demonstrated increased NEP localization and enzyme activity in diabetic wounds and skin compared with normal controls. We hypothesized that hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus may induce excessive NEP activity and thereby diminish normal response to injury. Human microvascular endothelial cells were treated with five different fatty acids (40 microM) with varying degrees of saturation, including oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and linolenic acid and/or glucose (40 mM) for 48 h. The effect of the antioxidative agents vitamin E and C on NEP enzyme activation was determined by treating the cultured cells with alpha-tocopherol succinate and/or L-ascorbic acid. Cell membrane preparations were assayed for NEP activity by incubation with glutaryl-Ala-Ala-Phe-4-methoxy-beta naphthylamide to generate a fluorescent degradation product methoxy 2 naphthylamine. High glucose or fatty acid concentration upregulated NEP activity. The highest NEP activity was observed with combined elevated glucose, linoleic acid, and oleic acid (P < 0.05). Antioxidant vitamin E and C treatment significantly reduced NEP enzyme activity after fatty acid exposure (P < 0.05). Thus, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus may increase endothelial cell NEP activity and thereby decrease early pro-inflammatory responses. The modulator effect of vitamin E and C on NEP membrane enzyme activity after exposure to fatty acid stimulation suggests that lipid oxidation may activate NEP. PMID:12785004

  7. Lactic acid fermentation within a cascading approach for biowaste treatment.

    PubMed

    Probst, Maraike; Walde, Janette; Pümpel, Thomas; Wagner, Andreas Otto; Schneider, Irene; Insam, Heribert

    2015-04-01

    Limited availability of resources and increased amounts of waste coupled with an ever-increasing demand for raw materials are typical characteristics of our times. As such, there is an urgent need to accordingly update waste treatment technology. The aim of this study was to determine whether a separate treatment of the liquid and the solid fraction of biowaste could enhance overall efficiency. Liquid fractions obtained from two different separation procedures were fermented at a pH of 5 and uncontrolled pH conditions for 72 h. The fermentation conditions leading to highest lactic acid productivity and yield were evaluated. The substrates gained by both separation procedures showed efficient lactic acid production up to <25 g L(-1). The pH control increased lactic acid concentration by about 27 %. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed stronger Lactobacilli growth in these fermentations. As identified via Illumina sequencing Lactobacillus delbrueckii and its closest relatives seemed to drive the fermentation independent of the substrate. These results could help to improve today's resourcing concept by providing a separate treatment of the liquid and solid biowaste fraction. PMID:25652656

  8. Plasmidic Expression of nemA and yafC* Increased Resistance of Ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180 to Nonvolatile Side Products from Dilute Acid Treatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Artificial Hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Aiqin; Zheng, Huabao; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli SL100 was previously isolated from ethanologenic LY180 after sequential transfers in AM1 medium containing a dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse and was used as a source of resistance genes. Many genes that affect tolerance to furfural, the most abundant inhibitor, have been described previously. To identify genes associated with inhibitors other than furfural, plasmid clones were selected in an artificial hydrolysate that had been treated with a vacuum to remove furfural. Two new resistance genes were discovered from Sau3A1 libraries of SL100 genomic DNA: nemA (N-ethylmaleimide reductase) and a putative regulatory gene containing a mutation in the coding region, yafC*. The presence of these mutations in SL100 was confirmed by sequencing. A single mutation was found in the upstream regulatory region of nemR (nemRA operon) in SL100. This mutation increased nemA activity 20-fold over that of the parent organism (LY180) in AM1 medium without hydrolysate and increased nemA mRNA levels >200-fold. Addition of hydrolysates induced nemA expression (mRNA and activity), in agreement with transcriptional control. NemA activity was stable in cell extracts (9 h, 37°C), eliminating a role for proteinase in regulation. LY180 with a plasmid expressing nemA or yafC* was more resistant to a vacuum-treated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate and to a vacuum-treated artificial hydrolysate than LY180 with an empty-vector control. Neither gene affected furfural tolerance. The vacuum-treated hydrolysates inhibited the reduction of N-ethylmaleimide by NemA while also serving as substrates. Expression of the nemA or yafC* plasmid in LY180 doubled the rate of ethanol production from the vacuum-treated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. PMID:26826228

  9. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

    2012-01-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

  10. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

  11. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. PMID:26854723

  12. Atypical femoral fracture following zoledronic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Ataoğlu, Baybars; Kaptan, Ahmet Yiğit; Eren, Toygun Kağan; Yapar, Ali Ekber; Berkay, Ahmet Fırat

    2016-04-01

    A 68-year-old female patient admitted to our clinic with right anterior thigh pain ongoing for six months and which increased in last two months. The patient had no trauma history. The patient had been followed-up for 15 years because of osteoporosis and administrated alendronate and ibandronate treatment for 10 years. Patient had three shots of zoledronate once a year during the last three years. Her pain was increasing when she was walking. Physical examination revealed pain in her right thigh. Radiogram showed thickened lateral cortex of the subtrochanteric area. Magnetic resonance imaging also showed thickening and edema of the same area. These images were correlated with atypical fracture in right femoral subthrochanteric zone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed that T score was -3.3 in lumbar region and -2.5 in femoral neck. Zoledronate treatment was ended. Prophylactic surgical fixation was performed with titanium elastic nails. PMID:26874637

  13. An intervention to increase alcohol treatment engagement: a pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, Tracy; McGovern, Mark P.; Herr, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Previous research has documented the difficulty individuals with alcohol use disorders have initiating alcohol treatment. This study assessed the feasibility of a brief, cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase treatment initiation among individuals with alcohol use disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial included one hundred and ninety six participants who screened positive for a possible alcohol use disorder on the AUDIT. Randomly assigned intervention participants were administered a brief cognitive-behaviorally-based intervention by phone designed to modify beliefs that may interfere with treatment-seeking behavior. Beliefs about treatment and treatment-seeking behavior were assessed post-intervention. Results Participants receiving the intervention had significantly improved their attitudes toward addiction treatment (p < 0.002) and increased their reported intention to seek treatment (p < 0.000) post-intervention. Further, intervention participants were almost three times more likely to attend treatment within a three-month period (OR = 2.60, p < 0.025) than participants in the control group. Conclusions A brief, cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered by phone and focused on modifying treatment interfering beliefs holds promise for increasing alcohol treatment-seeking among individuals in need. PMID:22138200

  14. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Chapotot, Florian; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Delebecque, Fanny; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sleep loss is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, yet underlying mechanisms are not understood. Elevation of circulating non-esterified (i.e. free) fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations can lead to insulin resistance and plays a central role in the development of metabolic diseases. Circulating NEFA in healthy individuals shows a marked diurnal variation with maximum levels occurring at night, yet the impact of sleep loss on NEFA levels across the 24 h cycle remains unknown. We hypothesised that sleep restriction would alter hormones that are known to stimulate lipolysis and lead to an increase in NEFA levels. Methods We studied 19 healthy young men under controlled laboratory conditions with four consecutive nights of 8.5 h in bed (normal sleep) and 4.5 h in bed (sleep restriction) in randomised order. The 24 h blood profiles of NEFA, growth hormone (GH), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucose and insulin were simultaneously assessed. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Sleep restriction relative to normal sleep resulted in increased NEFA levels during the nocturnal and early-morning hours. The elevation in NEFA was related to prolonged nocturnal GH secretion and higher early-morning noradrenaline levels. Insulin sensitivity was decreased after sleep restriction and the reduction in insulin sensitivity was correlated with the increase in nocturnal NEFA levels. Conclusions/interpretation Sleep restriction in healthy men results in increased nocturnal and early-morning NEFA levels, which may partly contribute to insulin resistance and the elevated diabetes risk associated with sleep loss. PMID:25702040

  15. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    PubMed

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  16. Increased mutagenicity of chromium compounds by nitrilotriacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Loprieno, N.; Boncristiani, G.; Venier, P.; Montaldi, A.; Majone, F.; Bianchi, V.; Paglialunga, S.; Levis, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt (NTA), which is a substitute for polyphosphates in household laundry detergents, and N-nitrosoiminodiacetic acid (NIDA), a derivative of NTA produced by metabolism of soil microorganisms, were tested for in vitro mutagenicity in bacteria and yeasts. No gene reversions in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, and TA100), no forward gene mutations in Schizosaccharomyces pombe P1, and no mitotic gene conversions at two loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4 were induced by NTA and NIDA independently of the presence of rat liver metabolic activation. The influence of NTA on the mutagenic and clastogenic activity of several chromium compounds was examined in the Salmonella/microsome assay and in the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in mammalian cell cultures (Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) line). NTA does not affect the genetic inactivity of water-soluble Cr(III) (Cr/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/) and the direct mutagenicity of soluble Cr(VI) (Na/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/) compounds. The very insoluble Cr(VI) compounds PbCrO/sub 4/ and PbCrO/sub 4/ x PbO are instead clearly mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay (TA100 strain) only in the presence of NTA or NaOH. The chromosome-damaging activity of PbCrO/sub 4/ is significantly increased by NTA but not by NaOH.

  17. Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Zhang, Ming; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-02-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils. PMID:25172460

  18. Increased hepatic Fatty Acid uptake and esterification contribute to tetracycline-induced steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Chae-Hyeon; Lee, Kang-Yo; Jung, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Tetracycline induces microvesicular steatosis, which has a poor long-term prognosis and a higher risk of steatohepatitis development compared with macrovesicular steatosis. Recent gene expression studies indicated that tetracycline treatment affects the expression of many genes associated with fatty acid transport and esterification. In this study, we investigated the role of fatty acid transport and esterification in tetracycline-induced steatosis. Intracellular lipid accumulation and the protein expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT or CD36) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2 were increased in both mouse liver and HepG2 cells treated with tetracycline at 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) and 100 μM, respectively. Tetracycline increased the cellular uptake of boron-dipyrromethene-labeled C16 fatty acid, which was abolished by CD36 RNA interference. Oleate-induced cellular lipid accumulation was further enhanced by co-incubation with tetracycline. Tetracycline downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which negatively regulated DGAT2 expression. U0126, a specific ERK inhibitor, also increased DGAT2 expression and cellular lipid accumulation. DGAT1 and 2 knock-down with specific small interfering (si)-RNA completely abrogated the steatogenic effect of tetracycline in HepG2 cells. Taken together, our data showed that tetracycline induces lipid accumulation by facilitating fatty acid transport and triglyceride esterification by upregulating CD36 and DGAT2, respectively. PMID:25745068

  19. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. PMID:27180134

  20. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  1. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  2. Delta 4-3-oxosteroid 5 beta-reductase deficiency: failure of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment and response to chenodeoxycholic acid plus cholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, P T; Mills, K A; Johnson, A W; Barabino, A; Marazzi, M G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In some infants with liver disease, 3-oxo-delta 4 bile acids are the major bile acids in urine, a phenomenon attributed to reduced activity of the delta 4-3-oxosteroid 5 beta-reductase required for synthesis of chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. These patients form a heterogeneous group. Many have a known cause of hepatic dysfunction and plasma concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid that are actually greater than those of the 3-oxo-delta 4 bile acids. It is unlikely that these patients have a primary genetic deficiency of the 5 beta-reductase enzyme. AIMS--To document the bile acid profile, clinical phenotype, and response to treatment of an infant with cholestasis, increased plasma concentrations of 3-oxo-delta 4 bile acids, low plasma concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid, and no other identifiable cause of liver disease. PATIENTS--This infant was compared with normal infants and infants with cholestasis of known cause. METHODS--Analysis of bile acids by liquid secondary ionisation mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS--The plasma bile acid profile of the patient was unique. She had chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with malabsorption of vitamins D and E and a normal gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase when the transaminases were increased. The liver disease failed to improve with ursodeoxycholic acid but responded to a combination of chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. CONCLUSION--Treatment of primary 5 beta-reductase deficiency requires the use of bile acids that inhibit cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. PMID:8707100

  3. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  4. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  5. Proteins implicated in the increase of adhesivity induced by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Grebeňová, D; Röselová, P; Pluskalová, M; Halada, P; Rösel, D; Suttnar, J; Brodská, B; Otevřelová, P; Kuželová, K

    2012-12-21

    We have previously shown that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) treatment increases the adhesivity of leukemic cells to fibronectin at clinically relevant concentrations. Now, we present the results of the proteomic analysis of SAHA effects on leukemic cell lines using 2-DE and ProteomLab PF2D system. Histone acetylation at all studied acetylation sites reached the maximal level after 5 to 10 h of SAHA treatment. No difference in histone acetylation between subtoxic and toxic SAHA doses was observed. SAHA treatment induced cofilin phosphorylation at Ser3, an increase in vimentin and paxillin expression and a decrease in stathmin expression as confirmed by western-blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The interaction of cofilin with 14-3-3 epsilon was documented using both Duolink system and coimmunoprecipitation. However, this interaction was independent of cofilin Ser3 phosphorylation and the amount of 14-3-3-ε-bound cofilin did not rise following SAHA treatment. SAHA-induced increase in the cell adhesivity was associated with an increase in PAK phosphorylation in CML-T1 cells and was abrogated by simultaneous treatment with IPA-3, a PAK inhibitor. The effects of SAHA on JURL-MK1 cells were similar to those of other histone deacetylase inhibitors, tubastatin A and sodium butyrate. The proteome analysis also revealed several potential non-histone targets of histone deacetylases. PMID:23022583

  6. An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Mittal, Pawan; Kumar, Rajender; Goel, Richa; Bansal, Piyush; Kumar, Himanshu Devender; Bhutani, Jaikrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease affecting all age groups globally. As the causative factors for nephrolithiasis rises significantly, its incidence, prevalence and recurrence continues to baffle clinicians and patients. Aim To study the prevalence of different types of renal stones extracted by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgical procedures. Materials and Methods Renal stones from 50 patients were retrieved by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), Ureterorenoscopy (URS) and open surgical techniques for qualitative tests for detection of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, ammonium ion, carbonate, cystine and xanthine. Results Three patients had stone removed by open surgery and rest had undergone PCNL. Nine of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, 9 were of pure uric acid and 32 were mixed stones. Forty one stones had calcium. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 25 samples (39 of total), uric acid was seen in 17 (25 of total stones), phosphate was present in 23 (23 of total) and carbonate was present in 4 stones (4 of total). Only 1 patient had triple phosphate stone. 12 were of staghorn appearance of which 6 were of struvite type, 6 were pure uric acid and remaining were mixed oxalate-phosphate stones. Conclusion Our study, though in a small number of hospital based patients, found much higher prevalence of uric acid stones and mixed stones than reported by previous hospital based studies in north India (oxalate stones~90%, uric acid~1% and mixed stones~3%). Biochemical analysis of renal stones is warranted in all cases.

  7. Heat treatment procedure to increase ductility of degraded nickel alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1968-01-01

    Tests demonstrate the room temperature ductility of degraded Rene 41 can be increased to acceptable values by solution heat treatment at a temperature of 2050 degrees to 2150 degrees F /1 to 2 hours/ and cooling through a controlled temperature range followed by normal aging in air /16 hours at 1400 degrees F/.

  8. Humic substances increase survival of freshwater shrimp Caridina sp. D to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2013-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are known to decrease the toxicity of heavy metals to aquatic organisms, and it has been suggested that they can provide buffering protection in low pH conditions. Despite this, little is known about the ability for HS to increase survival to acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, the ability of HS to increase survival of the freshwater shrimp (Caridina sp. D sensu Page et al. in Biol Lett 1:139-142, 2005) to acid mine drainage was investigated using test waters collected from the Mount Morgan open pit in Central Queensland with the addition of Aldrich humic acid (AHA). The AMD water from the Mount Morgan open pit is highly acidic (pH 2.67) as well as contaminated with heavy metals (1780 mg/L aluminum, 101 mg/L copper [Cu], 173 mg/L manganese, 51.8 mg/L zinc [Zn], and 51.8 mg/L iron). Freshwater shrimp were exposed to dilutions in the range of 0.5 % to 5 % AMD water with and without the addition of 10 or 20 mg/L AHA. In the absence of HS, all shrimp died in the 2.5 % AMD treatment. In contrast, addition of HS increased survival in the 2.5 % AMD treatment by ≤66 % as well as significantly decreased the concentration of dissolved Cu, cobalt, cadmium, and Zn. The decreased toxicity of AMD in the presence of HS is likely to be due to complexation and precipitation of heavy metals with the HS; it is also possible that HS caused changes to the physiological condition of the shrimp, thus increasing their survival. These results are valuable in contributing to an improved understanding of potential role of HS in ameliorating the toxicity of AMD environments. PMID:23135152

  9. Fed levels of amino acids are required for the somatotropin-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic somatotropin (pST) treatment in pigs increases muscle protein synthesis and circulating insulin, a known promoter of protein synthesis. Previously, we showed that the pST-mediated rise in insulin could not account for the pST-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis when amino acids were...

  10. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  11. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355

  12. Dealumination of zeolite {beta} via dicarboxylic acid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian, M.R.; Fung, A.S.; Kennedy, G.J.; Degnan, T.F.

    1996-10-10

    It is demonstrated that zeolite {beta} and zeolite {beta} containing catalysts can be dealuminated to very low acidity levels using a novel oxalic acid treatment without reducing zeolite integrity. The effect of the oxalic acid treatment has been studied over a wide range of treatment conditions for both silica-bound and unbound zeolite {beta} catalysts. Greater than 90% dealumination is observed with a concomitant reduction in n-hexane-cracking activity as measured by the alpha ({alpha}) test. Removal of framework aluminum occurs via a two-step hyrolysis/chelation mechanism, with the oxalic acid acting both as an acid and as a chelating agent. Framework aluminum removal is accompanied by the formation of internal silanol groups. Water soluble aluminum oxalates are present in the extracted solutions. Silanol groups are annealed with extended oxalic acid treatment. Oxalic acid treatment results in a unique contraction of the zeolite {beta} lattice structure not observed for mineral acid treated or steamed zeolite {beta} catalysts. 15 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Increased fracture penetration and productivity using xanthan gelled acid in massive carbonate formations

    SciTech Connect

    Molon, J.P.; Fox, K.B.

    1983-03-01

    A measurable improvement in productivity can be achieved using xanthan gelled acid to stimulate carbonate formations. Well productivity results were compared to conventional acid fracture treatments. The significant improvements over classical acid fracturing techniques are due to the improved control of acid leakoff rates, retarded reaction rate and improved fracture width maintenance. The difficulties involved in acid fracturing massive Middle East carbonate formations are discussed and solutions are proposed using gelled acid technology. Some limitations in computer predictions of acid fracturing results are also discussed.

  14. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation. PMID:25216642

  15. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  16. Zoledronic acid in vivo increases in vitro proliferation of rat mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Heino, Terhi J; Alm, Jessica J; Halkosaari, Heikki J; Välimäki, Ville-Valtteri

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of bone loss, but they might also have positive effects on osteoblastic cells and bone formation. We evaluated the effect of in vivo zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment and possible concomitant effects of ZA and fracture on the ex vivo osteogenic capacity of rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Methods - A closed femoral fracture model was used in adult female rats and ZA was administered as a single bolus or as weekly doses up to 8 weeks. Bone marrow MSCs were isolated and cultured for in vitro analyses. Fracture healing was evaluated by radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology. Results - Both bolus and weekly ZA increased fracture-site bone mineral content and volume. MSCs from weekly ZA-treated animals showed increased ex vivo proliferative capacity, while no substantial effect on osteoblastic differentiation was observed. Fracture itself did not have any substantial effect on cell proliferation or differentiation at 8 weeks. Serum biochemical markers showed higher levels of bone formation in animals with fracture than in intact animals, while no difference in bone resorption was observed. Interestingly, ex vivo osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs was found to correlate with in vivo serum bone markers. Interpretation - Our data show that in vivo zoledronic acid treatment can influence ex vivo proliferation of MSCs, indicating that bisphosphonates can have sustainable effects on cells of the osteoblastic lineage. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms. PMID:27196705

  17. Effects of increasing docosahexaenoic acid intake in human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte activation and monocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mebarek, Saïda; Ermak, Natalia; Benzaria, Amal; Vicca, Stéphanie; Dubois, Madeleine; Némoz, Georges; Laville, Martine; Lacour, Bernard; Véricel, Evelyne; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been reported to decrease several markers of lymphocyte activation and modulate monocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. However most human studies examined the combined effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using relatively high daily amounts of n-3 PUFA. The present study investigated the effects of increasing doses of DHA added to the regular diet of human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte response to tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) plus ionomycin activation, and on monocyte apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Eight subjects were supplemented with increasing daily doses of DHA (200, 400, 800 and 1600mg) in a triacylglycerol form containing DHA as the only PUFA, for two weeks each dose. DHA intake dose-dependently increased the proportion of DHA in mononuclear cell phospholipids, the augmentation being significant after 400mg DHA/day. The TPA plus ionomycin-stimulated IL-2 mRNA level started to increase after ingestion of 400mg DHA/day, with a maximum after 800mg intake, and was positively correlated (P<0.003) with DHA enrichment in cell phospholipids. The treatment of monocytes by oxLDL before DHA supplementation drastically reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with native LDL treatment. OxLDL apoptotic effect was significantly attenuated after 400mg DHA/day and the protective effect was maintained throughout the experiment, although to a lesser extent at higher doses. The present results show that supplementation of the human diet with low DHA dosages improves lymphocyte activability. It also increases monocyte resistance to oxLDL-induced apoptosis, which may be beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:18710607

  18. Endurance exercise increases skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferases and plasma kynurenic acid in humans.

    PubMed

    Schlittler, Maja; Goiny, Michel; Agudelo, Leandro Z; Venckunas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Ruas, Jorge L; Erhardt, Sophie; Westerblad, Håkan; Andersson, Daniel C

    2016-05-15

    Physical exercise has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients with depressive disorder. Recent animal studies show that exercise protects from depression by increased skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) expression which shifts the kynurenine metabolism away from the neurotoxic kynurenine (KYN) to the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA). In the present study, we investigated the effect of exercise on kynurenine metabolism in humans. KAT gene and protein expression was increased in the muscles of endurance-trained subjects compared with untrained subjects. Endurance exercise caused an increase in plasma KYNA within the first hour after exercise. In contrast, a bout of high-intensity eccentric exercise did not lead to increased plasma KYNA concentration. Our results show that regular endurance exercise causes adaptations in kynurenine metabolism which can have implications for exercise recommendations for patients with depressive disorder. PMID:27030575

  19. Engineering Porous Organic Cage Crystals with Increased Acid Gas Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Hoffman, Christopher D; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Tumuluri, Uma; Jue, Melinda L; Wu, Zili; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-07-25

    Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers. PMID:27253350

  20. 15. INTERIOR MIDDLE BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING WEST. ACID TREATMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR MIDDLE BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING WEST. ACID TREATMENT, CUTTING EQUIPMENT, LOCKERS ABANDONED ON SITE. TRACKS FOR MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS VISIBLE HANGING FROM CEILING. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  2. Hydrothermal-acid treatment for effectual extraction of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-abundant lipids from Nannochloropsis salina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal acid treatment, was adopted to extract eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis salina. It was found that sulfuric acid-based treatment increased EPA yield from 11.8 to 58.1 mg/g cell in a way that was nearly proportional to its concentration. Nitric acid exhibited the same pattern at low concentrations, but unlike sulfuric acid its effectiveness unexpectedly dropped from 0.5% to 2.0%. The optimal and minimal conditions for hydrothermal acid pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach; its maximum EPA yield (predicted: 43.69 mg/g cell; experimental: 43.93 mg/g cell) was established at a condition of 1.27% of sulfuric acid, 113.34 °C of temperature, and 36.71 min of reaction time. Our work demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed cell disruption, accompanied by heat, can be one potentially promising option for ω-3 fatty acids extraction. PMID:25966023

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages. PMID:18565937

  4. Bile acid conjugation in early stage cholestatic liver disease before and during treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Fracchia, M; Setchell, K D; Crosignani, A; Podda, M; O'Connell, N; Ferraris, R; Hofmann, A F; Galatola, G

    1996-04-30

    The efficiency of bile acid conjugation before and during therapy with 600 mg/day of ursodeoxycholic acid was measured in seven adult patients with early chronic cholestatic liver disease (6 with primary biliary cirrhosis; 1 with primary sclerosing cholangitis). Duodenal bile samples were obtained by aspiration and the proportion of unconjugated bile acids was determined using lipophilic anion exchange chromatography to separate bile acid classes, followed by analysis of individual bile acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proportion of conjugated bile acids was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Use of a (99m)Tc-HIDA recovery marker permitted the absolute mass of unconjugated bile acids in the gallbladder to be calculated. Unconjugated bile acids comprised 0.4% of total biliary bile acids before and 0.2% during ursodeoxycholic acid therapy, indicating highly efficient conjugation of bile acids. During therapy, percentage unconjugated ursodeoxycholic acid significantly increased from (mean +/- S.D.) 13 +/- 13% to 54 +/- 12%; P < 0.002. When the unconjugated and conjugated fractions of bile acids were compared, there was an enrichment in unconjugated fraction for cholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid and a depletion for chenodeoxycholic acid both in basal condition and during ursodeoxycholic acid therapy, suggesting that hydrophilic bile acids were conjugated less efficiently. During therapy, the conjugation efficiency significantly increased for cholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid. The pretreatment mass of total unconjugated bile acids in the gallbladder was (mean +/- S.D.) 4.4 +/- 3.2 mumol, and was not significantly changed by ursodeoxycholic acid therapy (6.2 +/- 3.5 mumol). However, ursodeoxycholic acid therapy caused a significant increase in the mass of unconjugated ursodeoxycholic acid. It is concluded that endogenous bile acids and exogenous ursodeoxycholic acid when given at the usual dose are efficiently conjugated in

  5. Tolerability and Efficacy of Retinoic Acid Given after Full-face Peel Treatment of Photodamaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Judy Y.; Biron, Julie A.; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Oresajo, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: All-trans retinoic acid is a well-established topical treatment of photodamaged skin. This study assessed the tolerance and efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid after full-face treatment with a chemical peel. Design: This was a split-face, randomized study. One side of each face was treated with peel and the other side with peel and all-trans retinoic acid (3%). Four treatments were given during the 10-week study period. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Fifteen female subjects 39 to 55 years of age. Measurements: Results were evaluated at Baseline; Weeks 4, 7, and 10; and at a 13-week follow-up visit by dermal grading of visual symptoms of irritation, subjective experiences of irritation, clinical grading of skin condition, and self-assessment questionnaires. Results: Both peel and peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatments achieved significant improvement in fine lines, radiance, roughness, skin tone clarity, skin tone evenness, and hyperpigmentation appearance. Improvement in wrinkles and firmness was not observed in the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid arm, while pore appearance failed to improve in either treatment arm. Improvement in overall facial appearance was greater in the peel alone arm. Peel alone and the addition of all-trans retinoic acid did not cause dryness, edema, or peeling, and the frequency of peel-induced erythema did not increase with the addition of all-trans retinoic acid. Subject-perceived improvements with the peel treatment did not differ significantly from subject-perceived improvements of the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatment. Adverse events requiring intervention or discontinuing treatment were not observed in either treatment arm. Conclusion: The addition of all-trans retinoic acid after peel treatment does not significantly enhance peel-induced improvement in photoaging parameters, peel-induced adverse effects, and subject-perceived improvements. PMID:22010055

  6. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  7. [Increase in surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury].

    PubMed

    Meuffels, D E

    2009-01-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a very common musculoskeletal injury. The number of ACL reconstructions is increasing, both in the Netherlands and worldwide. Substantial progress has been made in surgical technique: from open to arthroscopic procedures. An ACL reconstruction will not diminish the chance of osteoarthritis, and the biomechanical properties of the knee will never be the same as before the trauma. An ACL reconstruction does, however, reduce the chance of instability, or 'giving way', which is the most important indication for surgical intervention. There are insufficient long-term results described in the literature to indicate either surgery or conservative measures as the treatment of choice. Treatment should be individually determined, taking into consideration factors such as: pattern of symptoms, degree of instability, desire to practise sport, age and willingness to commit to a 9-month rehabilitation programme. PMID:21401972

  8. Current issues regarding treatment of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    PubMed

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Bastin, Jean; Gillingham, Melanie; Morris, Andrew; Wijburg, Frits; Wilcken, Bridget

    2010-10-01

    Treatment recommendations in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects are diverse. With implementation of newborn screening and identification of asymptomatic patients, it is necessary to define whom to treat and how strictly. We here discuss critical questions that are currently under debate. For some asymptomatic long-chain defects, long-chain fat restriction plays a minor role, and a normal diet may be introduced. For patients presenting only with myopathic symptoms, e.g., during exercise, treatment may be adapted to energy demand. As a consequence, patients with exercise-induced myopathy may be able to return to normal activity when provided with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) prior to exercise. There is no need to limit participation in sports. Progression of retinopathy in disorders of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein complex is closely associated with hydroxyacylcarnitine accumulation. A strict low-fat diet with MCT supplementation is recommended to slow or prevent progression of chorioretinopathy. Additional docosahexanoic acid does not prevent the decline in retinal function but does promote nonspecific improvement in visual acuity and is recommended. There is no evidence that L-carnitine supplementation is beneficial. Thus, supplementation with L-carnitine in a newborn identified by screening with either a medium-chain or long-chain defect is not supported. With respect to the use of the odd-chain medium-chain triglyceride triheptanoin in myopathic phenotypes, randomized trials are needed to establish whether triheptanoin is more effective than even-chain MCT. With increasing pathophysiological knowledge, new treatment options have been identified and are being clinically evaluated. These include the use of bezafibrates in myopathic long-chain defects. PMID:20830526

  9. Effects of Acid Treatment on Dental Zirconia: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Haifeng; Shen, Shuping; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Feimin; Chen, Chen; Tay, Franklin R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric (HF) acid, acetic acid, and citric acid treatments on the physical properties and structure of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) at ambient temperature. In total, 110 bar-shaped zirconia specimens were randomly assigned to 11 groups. The specimens in the control group (C) received no surface treatment, while those in the Cage group were hydrothermally aged at 134°C and 0.2 MPa for 20 h. Ten specimens each were immersed at ambient temperature in 5% and 40% HF acid for 2 h (40HF0), 1 day (5HF1, 40HF1), and 5 days (5HF5, 40HF5), while 10 each were immersed at ambient temperature in 10% acetic acid and 20% citric acid for 7 (AC7, CI7) and 14 days (AC14, CI14). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to quantitatively estimate the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, flexural strength, surface roughness, and surface Vickers hardness were measured after treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology. The Cage group specimens exhibited an increased monoclinic phase and flexural strength. Furthermore, 40% HF acid immersion decreased the flexural strength and surface hardness and deteriorated the surface finish, while 5% HF acid immersion only decreased the surface hardness. All the HF acid-immersed specimens showed an etched surface texture on SEM observations, while the other groups did not. These findings suggest that the treatment of Y-TZP with 40% HF acid at ambient temperature causes potential damage, while treatment with 5% HF acid, acetic acid, and citric acid is safe. PMID:26301413

  10. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  11. Elaidate, an 18-Carbon Trans-monoenoic Fatty Acid, but not Physiological Fatty Acids Increases Intracellular Zn2+ in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zacherl, Janelle R.; Tourkova, Irina; St Croix, Claudette M.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Peck Palmer, Octavia M.; Mihalik, Stephanie J.; Blair, Harry C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial trans fatty acids promote atherosclerosis by blocking macrophage clearance of cell debris. Classical fatty-acid response mechanisms include TLR4-NF-κB activation, and Erk1/2 phosphorylation, but these may not indicate long-term mechanisms. Indeed, nuclear NF-κB was increased by 60 minute treatment by 30 μM of the 18 carbon trans unsaturated fatty acid elaidic acid (elaidate), the physiological cis-unsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (oleate), and the 18 or 16 carbon saturated fatty acids stearic and palmitic acid (stearate or palmitate). However, except for stearate, effects on related pathways were minimal at 44 hours. To determine longer term effects of trans fatty acids, we compared whole exome mRNA expression of (trans) elaidate to (cis) oleate, 30 μM, at 44 hours in human macrophages. We found that elaidate changed Zn2+-homeostasis gene mRNAs markedly. This might be important because Zn2+ is a major regulator of macrophage activity. Messenger RNAs of seven Zn2+-binding metallothioneins decreased 2–4 fold; the zinc importer SLC39A10 increased 2-fold, in elaidate relative to oleate-treated cells. Results were followed by quantitative PCR comparing cis, trans, and saturated fatty acid effects on Zn2+-homeostasis gene mRNAs. This confirmed that elaidate uniquely decreased metallothionein expression and increased SLC39A10 at 44 hours. Further, intracellular Zn2+ was measured using N-(carboxymethyl)-N-[2-[2-[2(carboxymethyl)amino]-5-(2,7,-difluoro-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)-phenoxy]-ethoxy]-4-methoxyphenyl]glycine, acetoxymethyl ester (FluoZin-3-AM). This showed that, at 44 hours, only cells treated with elaidate had increased Zn2+. The durable effect of elaidate on Zn2+ activation is a novel and specific effect of trans fatty acids on peripheral macrophage metabolism. PMID:25358453

  12. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  13. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Deconjugation After Biliopancreatic Diversion.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Camastra, Stefania; Astiarraga, Brenno; Nannipieri, Monica; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Haeusler, Rebecca A

    2015-10-01

    Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) improves insulin sensitivity and decreases serum cholesterol out of proportion with weight loss. Mechanisms of these effects are unknown. One set of proposed contributors to metabolic improvements after bariatric surgeries is bile acids (BAs). We investigated the early and late effects of BPD on plasma BA levels, composition, and markers of BA synthesis in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We compared these to the early and late effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in 22 patients with T2D and 16 with normal glucose tolerance. Seven weeks after BPD, insulin sensitivity had doubled and serum cholesterol had halved. At this time, BA synthesis markers and total plasma BAs, particularly unconjugated BAs, had markedly risen; this effect could not be entirely explained by low FGF19. In contrast, after RYGB, insulin sensitivity improved gradually with weight loss and cholesterol levels declined marginally; BA synthesis markers were decreased at an early time point (2 weeks) after surgery and returned to the normal range 1 year later. These findings indicate that BA synthesis contributes to the decreased serum cholesterol after BPD. Moreover, they suggest a potential role for altered enterohepatic circulation of BAs in improving insulin sensitivity and cholesterol metabolism after BPD. PMID:26015549

  14. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. PMID:26179801

  15. Increased Breastfeeding Rates in Black Women After a Treatment Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Endicott, Jean; Goetz, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There has been a considerable increase in rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Despite these trends, black women continue to fall below medical recommendations. Impoverished and poorly educated women also have a comparatively lower rate of breastfeeding. Provider encouragement and supportive interventions increase breastfeeding initiation among women of all backgrounds. The data presented come from a three-site randomized controlled bilingual depression treatment trial from 2005 to 2011 that examined the comparative effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy and a parenting education program. Breastfeeding education and support were provided for the majority of participants in each intervention. Breastfeeding status was queried at postpartum week 4. We found higher rates of breastfeeding in black women compared with those reported in national surveys. The black breastfeeding rate did not significantly differ from that of white or Hispanic women. American-born black women were just as likely to breastfeed as American-born white women, both at significantly greater rates than American-born Hispanic women. We also found no differences in breastfeeding rate in poorly educated and impoverished women. These data must be seen against the backdrop of a significant intervention to treat depression. Because breastfeeding interventions have been shown to increase breastfeeding rates, the support provided in our study likely increased rates in groups that lag behind. PMID:23971683

  16. Increased breastfeeding rates in black women after a treatment intervention.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Margaret G; Endicott, Jean; Goetz, Raymond R

    2013-12-01

    There has been a considerable increase in rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Despite these trends, black women continue to fall below medical recommendations. Impoverished and poorly educated women also have a comparatively lower rate of breastfeeding. Provider encouragement and supportive interventions increase breastfeeding initiation among women of all backgrounds. The data presented come from a three-site randomized controlled bilingual depression treatment trial from 2005 to 2011 that examined the comparative effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy and a parenting education program. Breastfeeding education and support were provided for the majority of participants in each intervention. Breastfeeding status was queried at postpartum week 4. We found higher rates of breastfeeding in black women compared with those reported in national surveys. The black breastfeeding rate did not significantly differ from that of white or Hispanic women. American-born black women were just as likely to breastfeed as American-born white women, both at significantly greater rates than American-born Hispanic women. We also found no differences in breastfeeding rate in poorly educated and impoverished women. These data must be seen against the backdrop of a significant intervention to treat depression. Because breastfeeding interventions have been shown to increase breastfeeding rates, the support provided in our study likely increased rates in groups that lag behind. PMID:23971683

  17. Phosphatidic acid osmotically destabilizes lysosomes through increased permeability to K+ and H+.

    PubMed

    Yi, Y-P; Wang, X; Zhang, G; Fu, T-S; Zhang, G-J

    2006-06-01

    Lysosomal destabilization is a critical event not only for the organelle but also for living cells. However, what factors can affect lysosomal stability is not fully studied. In this work, the effects of phosphatidic acid (PA) on the lysosomal integrity were investigated. Through the measurements of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase free activity, intralysosomal pH, leakage of lysosomal protons and lysosomal latency loss in hypotonic sucrose medium, we established that PA could increase the lysosomal permeability to K+ and H+, and enhance the lysosomal osmotic sensitivity. Treatment of lysosomes with PA promoted entry of K+ into the organelle via K+/H+ exchange, which could produce osmotic stresses and osmotically destabilize the lysosomes. In addition, PA-induced increase in the lysosomal osmotic sensitivity caused the lysosomes to become more liable to destabilization in osmotic shocks. The results suggest that PA may play a role in the lysosomal destabilization. PMID:16917129

  18. Increased serum bile acid concentration following low-dose chronic administration of thioacetamide in rats, as evidenced by metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Gabin; Shin, Ho Jung; Park, Se-Myo; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Yong-Bum; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Jeong, Jayoung; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2015-10-15

    A liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to identify endogenous metabolites as potential biomarkers for thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury. TAA (10 and 30mg/kg), a well-known hepatotoxic agent, was administered daily to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 28days. We then conducted untargeted analyses of endogenous serum and liver metabolites. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on serum and liver samples to evaluate metabolites associated with TAA-induced perturbation. TAA administration resulted in altered levels of bile acids, acyl carnitines, and phospholipids in serum and in the liver. We subsequently demonstrated and confirmed the occurrence of compromised bile acid homeostasis. TAA treatment significantly increased serum levels of conjugated bile acids in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated well with toxicity. However, hepatic levels of these metabolites were not substantially changed. Gene expression profiling showed that the hepatic mRNA levels of Ntcp, Bsep, and Oatp1b2 were significantly suppressed, whereas those of basolateral Mrp3 and Mrp4 were increased. Decreased levels of Ntcp, Oatp1b2, and Ostα proteins in the liver were confirmed by western blot analysis. These results suggest that serum bile acids might be increased due to the inhibition of bile acid enterohepatic circulation rather than increased endogenous bile acid synthesis. Moreover, serum bile acids are a good indicator of TAA-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26222700

  19. Increased universality of Lepidopteran elicitor compounds across insects: Identification of fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) are known elicitors of induced release of volatile compounds in plants that, in turn, attract foraging parasitoids. Since the discovery of volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] in the regurgitant of larval Spodoptera exigua1, a series of related FAC...

  20. Oxidative acid treatment and characterization of new biocarbon from sustainable Miscanthus biomass.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Andrew; Vivekanandhan, Singaravelu; Rodriguez-Uribe, Arturo; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar Kumar

    2016-04-15

    Oxidative acid treatments of biochar produced from Miscanthus were performed in this study using nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and a mixture of both. The structural and morphological changes of the acid-treated biochar were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, organic elemental analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Improved surface functionality of the treated biochars was observed in their respective FT-IR spectra through the presence of nitro and carboxylic acid functional groups. SEM-EDS and elemental analysis revealed a large increase in the oxygen to carbon ratio in the biochar, which was evidence of chemical oxidation from the acid treatment. Further, TGA study showed the reduced thermal stability of acid-treated biochar over 200°C due to the increased oxygen content. Acid treatments also influenced the graphitic structure of the biochar, as observed in the Raman spectra. The results suggest that biochar can be successfully functionalized for composite applications and provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based carbon additives. PMID:26820927

  1. Azithromycin (AZM) treatment increases survival of high risk corneal allotransplants

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Carlos A.; Rowe, Alexander M.; Yun, Hongmin; Knickelbein, Jared E.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Hendricks, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To test the therapeutic efficacy of AZM, a macrolide antibiotic for prolonging murine “high risk” corneal allograft survival. Methods Fully MHC mismatched corneas were transplanted from C57BL/6 donors to BALB/c recipients with suture-induced vascularized “high risk” corneal beds. Recipient mice were either not treated or treated with topical AZM, oral AZM, or both. Evaluation of graft vascularization and clarity was performed in masked fashion. Lymph nodes were excised and analyzed for CD4, FoxP3, and CD44 by flow cytometry; and for T cell priming by proliferation and cytokine production in mixed lymphocyte cultures. Corneal whole mounts were evaluated by confocal microscopy. Results The incidence of graft rejection in the control group (81.8%) was significantly reduced by AZM treatment (18.2% topical, 21.7% oral, 33.3% topical + oral), although corneal vascularization was not affected by treatment. The frequency of corneas that retained complete clarity following transplantation was higher in the AZM treated groups. Reduced graft rejection in the AZM treated groups was not associated with a reduced allospecific T cell response or increased frequency of T regulatory cells. Conclusions AZM is effective in prolonging survival of “high risk” corneal allografts by an as yet undefined mechanism that does not appear to involve modulation of corneal neovascularization or allo-specific T cell priming. PMID:23407315

  2. Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grünblatt, E

    2014-01-24

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen™ [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect. PMID:24269370

  3. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  4. Increase of betulinic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by balancing fatty acids and betulinic acid forming pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Betulinic acid is a plant-based triterpenoid that has been recognized for its antitumor and anti-HIV activities. The level of betulinic acid in its natural hosts is extremely low. In the present study, we constructed betulinic acid biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering. Given the betulinic acid forming pathways sharing the common substrate acetyl-CoA with fatty acid synthesis, the metabolic fluxes between the two pathways were varied by changing gene expressions, and their effects on betulinic acid production were investigated. We constructed nine S. cerevisiae strains representing nine combinations of the flux distributions between betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways. Our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve the betulinic acid production in S. cerevisiae while keeping a desirable growth phenotype by optimally balancing the carbon fluxes of the two pathways. Through modulating the expressions of the key genes on betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways, the difference in betulinic acid yield varied largely in the range of 0.01-1.92 mg L(-1) OD(-1). The metabolic engineering approach used in this study could be extended for synthesizing other triterpenoids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24389702

  5. Intravenous lipid and amino acids briskly increase plasma glucose concentrations in small premature infants.

    PubMed

    Savich, R D; Finley, S L; Ogata, E S

    1988-07-01

    We determined the glycemic response to intravenous lipid infusion alone, lipid with amino acids, or amino acids alone in 15 very small premature infants receiving constant glucose infusion during early life. Infants who received lipid or lipid and amino acids demonstrated significant increases in glucose compared with infants who received amino acids. The combination of lipid and amino acids resulted in an earlier increase than lipid alone. Although plasma insulin did not change in all three groups, infants who received amino acids alone demonstrated an appropriate increase in glucagon. These data suggest that lipid infusion, a commonly used means of providing nutrition to premature infants, may cause significant disturbances in glucoregulation, particularly when administered with amino acids. PMID:3132930

  6. Directed evolution increases desaturation of a cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase in eukaryotic expression systems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shuangyi; Wallis, James G; Denolf, Peter; Browse, John

    2016-07-01

    Directed evolution of a cyanobacterial Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (DSG) from Synechococcus elongatus, PCC6301 created new, more productive desaturases and revealed the importance of certain amino acid residues to increased desaturation. A codon-optimized DSG open reading frame with an endoplasmic-reticulum retention/retrieval signal appended was used as template for random mutagenesis. Increased desaturation was detected using a novel screen based on complementation of the unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant ole1Δ. Amino acid residues whose importance was discovered by the random processes were further examined by saturation mutation to determine the best amino acid at each identified location in the peptide chain and by combinatorial analysis. One frequently-detected single amino acid change, Q240R, yielded a nearly 25-fold increase in total desaturation in S. cerevisiae. Several other variants of the protein sequence with multiple amino acid changes increased total desaturation more than 60-fold. Many changes leading to increased desaturation were in the vicinity of the canonical histidine-rich regions known to be critical for electron transfer mediated by these di-iron proteins. Expression of these evolved proteins in the seed of Arabidopsis thaliana altered the fatty acid composition, increasing monounsaturated fatty acids and decreasing the level of saturated fatty acid, suggesting a potential application of these desaturases in oilseed crops. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1522-1530. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26724425

  7. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. Results The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Conclusions Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25333633

  8. Influence of nitric acid treatment in different media on X-ray structural parameters of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sudip Maity; Ashim Choudhury

    2008-11-15

    The treatment of coal with nitric acid in aqueous and non-aqueous media introduces changes in the chemical and spatial structure of the organic mass. Four coals of different rank have been treated with nitric acid in aqueous and glacial acetic acid media for assessing the changes in the structural parameters by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Slow-scan XRD has been performed for the raw and treated coals, and X-ray structural parameters (d002, Lc, and Nc) and aromaticity (fa) have been determined by profile-fitting software. Considerable variation of the structural parameters has been observed with respect to the raw coals. The d002 values have decreased in aqueous medium but increased in acetic acid medium; however, Lc, Nc, and fa values have increased in aqueous medium but decreased in acetic acid medium. It is also observed that considerable oxidation takes place during nitric acid treatment in aqueous medium, but nitration is the predominant phenomenon in acetic acid medium. Disordering of the coal structure increases in acetic acid medium, but a reverse trend is observed in the aqueous medium. As a result, structurally modified coals (SMCs) are derived as new coal-derived substances. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Chlorogenic acid increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation when heating fructose alone or with aspartic acid at two pH levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zou, Yueyu; Wu, Taigang; Huang, Caihuan; Pei, Kehan; Zhang, Guangwen; Lin, Xiaohua; Bai, Weibin; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic acid that ubiquitously exists in fruits. This work aims to investigate whether and how CGA influences HMF formation during heating fructose alone, or with an amino acid. The results showed that that CGA increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. At pH 5.5 and 7.0, the addition of 5.0 μmol/ml CGA increased HMF formation by 49.4% and 25.2%, respectively when heating fructose alone, and by 9.0% and 16.7%, respectively when heating fructose with aspartic acid. CGA significantly increased HMF formation by promoting 3-deoxosone formation, and its conversion to HMF by inhibiting HMF elimination, especially in the Maillard reaction system. A comparison of the catalytic capacity of CGA with its six analogous compounds showed that both its di-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups function in increasing HMF formation. PMID:26213045

  10. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application. PMID:26258703

  11. Phosphorus limitation strategy to increase propionic acid flux towards 3-hydroxyvaleric acid monomers in Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Grousseau, Estelle; Blanchet, Elise; Déléris, Stéphane; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Paul, Etienne; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis

    2014-02-01

    Properties of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (P(3HB-co-3HV)) depend on their 3HV content. 3HV can be produced by Cupriavidus necator from propionic acid. Few studies explored carbon distribution and dynamics of 3HV and 3HB monomers production, and none of them have been done with phosphorus as limiting nutrient. In this study, fed-batch cultures of C. necator with propionic acid, as sole carbon source or mixed with butyric acid, were performed. Phosphorus deficiency allowed sustaining 3HV production rate and decreasing 3HB production rate, leading to an instant production of up to 100% of 3HV. When a residual growth is sustained by a phosphorus feeding, the maximum 3HV percentage produced from propionic acid is limited to 33% (Mole.Mole(-1)). The association of a second carbon source like butyric acid lead to higher conversion of propionic acid into 3HV. This study showed the importance of the limiting nutrient and of the culture strategy to get the appropriate product. PMID:24365742

  12. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22302480

  13. Effect of Putrescine Treatment on Chilling Injury, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant System in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingzhen; Wang, Feng; Rao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mM) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hongyang'). We achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mM putrescine. Furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increases in superoxide anion production rate and H2O2 concentration, while maintaining higher membrane lipid unsaturation as well as increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, putrescine treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle while causing higher levels of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Our results suggest that induced tolerance against chilling injury via putrescine treatment in cold-stored kiwifruit may be due to enhanced antioxidant activity, increased unsaturation of membrane lipids, and inhibited ethylene production. PMID:27607076

  14. Pre-harvest application of oxalic acid increases quality and resistance to Penicillium expansum in kiwifruit during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuyan; Yu, Jie; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Jiang, Tianjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Bruno) fruits were sprayed with 5mM oxalic acid (OA) at 130, 137, and 144 days after full blossom, and then harvested at commercial maturity [soluble solid content (SSC) around 10.0%] and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C). Pre-harvest application of OA led to fruit with higher ascorbic acid content at harvest, slowed the decreases in fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content and increase in SSC during storage, and also decreased the natural disease incidence, lesion diameter, and patulin accumulation in fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum, indicating that the OA treatment increased quality and induced disease resistance in kiwifruit. It was suggested that the increase in activities of defense-related enzymes and in levels of substances related to disease resistance might collectively contribute to resistance in kiwifruit against fungi such as P. expansum in storage. PMID:26213007

  15. Inhibiting the platelet derived growth factor receptor increases signs of retinoic acid syndrome in myeloid differentiated HL- 60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Reiterer, Gudrun; Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Smith, James L.; Yen, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    PDGFR inhibitors are successfully used in a number of cancer treatments. The standard treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) involves differentiation therapy with retinoic acid (RA). However, the relapse rates are significant. In the present work we evaluated the effects of RA therapy in the presence of PDGFR inhibitor, AG1296. Adding AG1296 with RA increased secretion of TNF-α, IL-8, and MMP-9 expression. This treatment induced higher levels of ICAM-1 endothelial cell expression, and increased cellular mobility. Inhibiting PDGFR enhanced RA-induced expression of integrin. Integrin ligand increased differentiation markers CD11b, inducible oxidative metabolism and PDGFR-â phosphorylation. While the neutrophil- endothelial cell interactions are strengthened by the combined treatment, the endotheliumsubstratum interactions are weakened, a situation common in RAS. PMID:18571505

  16. LIME TREATMENT LAGOONS TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Active and inactive mines can produce runoff and drainage that are among the most environmentally damaging processes affecting land in the United States. Acid mine drainage (AMD) from mining sites across the country requires treatment because of high metal concentrations that exc...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF SRB TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB) technology to treat acid mine drainage (AMD), Bench-scale testing, field demonstrations, and engineered applications of SRBs for the treatment of AMD will be presented...

  18. Increased Biomass Yield of Lactococcus lactis by Reduced Overconsumption of Amino Acids and Increased Catalytic Activities of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Seiman, Andrus; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-01-01

    Steady state cultivation and multidimensional data analysis (metabolic fluxes, absolute proteome, and transcriptome) are used to identify parameters that control the increase in biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis from 0.10 to 0.12 C-mol C-mol−1 with an increase in specific growth rate by 5 times from 0.1 to 0.5 h−1. Reorganization of amino acid consumption was expressed by the inactivation of the arginine deiminase pathway at a specific growth rate of 0.35 h−1 followed by reduced over-consumption of pyruvate directed amino acids (asparagine, serine, threonine, alanine and cysteine) until almost all consumed amino acids were used only for protein synthesis at maximal specific growth rate. This balanced growth was characterized by a high glycolytic flux carrying up to 87% of the carbon flow and only amino acids that relate to nucleotide synthesis (glutamine, serine and asparagine) were consumed in higher amounts than required for cellular protein synthesis. Changes in the proteome were minor (mainly increase in the translation apparatus). Instead, the apparent catalytic activities of enzymes and ribosomes increased by 3.5 times (0.1 vs 0.5 h−1). The apparent catalytic activities of glycolytic enzymes and ribosomal proteins were seen to follow this regulation pattern while those of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism increased more than the specific growth rate (over 5.5 times). Nucleotide synthesis formed the most abundant biomonomer synthetic pathway in the cells with an expenditure of 6% from the total ATP required for biosynthesis. Due to the increase in apparent catalytic activity, ribosome translation was more efficient at higher growth rates as evidenced by a decrease of protein to mRNA ratios. All these effects resulted in a 30% decrease of calculated ATP spilling (0.1 vs 0.5 h−1). Our results show that bioprocesses can be made more efficient (using a balanced metabolism) by varying the growth conditions. PMID:23133574

  19. Evolving paradigms in the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: increased options and increased complexity.

    PubMed

    Cornell, R F; Kassim, A A

    2016-04-01

    The use of modern therapies such as thalidomide, bortezomib and lenalidomide coupled with upfront high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has resulted in improved survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). However, patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) often have poorer clinical outcomes and might benefit from novel therapeutic strategies. Emerging therapies, such as deacetylase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and new proteasome inhibitors, appear promising and may change the therapeutic landscape in RRMM. A limited number of studies has shown a benefit with salvage ASCT in patients with RRMM, although there remains ongoing debate about its timing and effectiveness. Improvement in transplant outcomes has re-ignited a debate on the timing and possible role for salvage ASCT and allogeneic stem cell transplant in RRMM. As the treatment options for management of patients with RRMM become increasingly complex, physicians must consider both disease- and patient-related factors in choosing the appropriate therapeutic approach, with the goal of improving efficacy while minimizing toxicity. PMID:26726946

  20. Evolving paradigms in the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: increased options and increased complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, R F; Kassim, A A

    2016-01-01

    The use of modern therapies such as thalidomide, bortezomib and lenalidomide coupled with upfront high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has resulted in improved survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). However, patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) often have poorer clinical outcomes and might benefit from novel therapeutic strategies. Emerging therapies, such as deacetylase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and new proteasome inhibitors, appear promising and may change the therapeutic landscape in RRMM. A limited number of studies has shown a benefit with salvage ASCT in patients with RRMM, although there remains ongoing debate about its timing and effectiveness. Improvement in transplant outcomes has re-ignited a debate on the timing and possible role for salvage ASCT and allogeneic stem cell transplant in RRMM. As the treatment options for management of patients with RRMM become increasingly complex, physicians must consider both disease- and patient-related factors in choosing the appropriate therapeutic approach, with the goal of improving efficacy while minimizing toxicity. PMID:26726946

  1. Increased expression of sialic acid in cervical biopsies with squamous intraepithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Altered sialylation has been observed during oncogenic transformation. Sialylated oligosaccharides of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been implicated in tumor progression and metastases. In the cervical cancer high levels of sialic acid have been reported in the patients serum, and an increased of total sialic acid concentration has been reported for the cervical neoplasia and cervical cancer. This study investigates the changes in expression and distribution of α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid in low and high squamous intraepithelial lesions and in normal tissue. Methods Lectin histochemistry was used to examine the expression and distribution of sialic acid in different grades of cervical neoplasia. We applied Maackia amurensis lectin, which interacts with α2,3-linked sialic acid and Sambucus nigra lectin specific for α2,6-linked sialic acid. Results The histochemical analysis showed that α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid increased in intensity and distribution in concordance with the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). These results are in concordance with a previous study that reports increased RNAm levels of three sialyltransferases. Conclusions These results show that the change in sialylation occurs before cancer development and may play an important role in cellular transformation. These findings provide the basis for more detailed studies of the possible role of cell surface glycoconjugates bearing sialic acid in the cellular cervix transformation. PMID:21092209

  2. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A.; Ng, Cheng E. . E-mail: cng@ohri.ca

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

  3. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  4. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes. PMID:26280739

  5. Placement in an acidic environment increase the solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Hamid Reza; Borna, Zahra; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Valizadeh, Hadi; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) in an acidic environment. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four metal rings were prepared, filled with WMTA and randomly divided into two groups. The samples in groups 1 and 2 were set in synthetic tissue fluid with pH values of 7.4 and 4.4, respectively and then were transferred to beakers containing synthetic tissue fluid with pH values of 7.7 and 4.4. Solubility of WMTA samples were calculated at the 9 experimental intervals. Data was analyzed with two-factor ANOVA and Bonferroni test (P < 0.03). Results: The total solubility of WMTA in groups 1 and 2 were −9.1796 ± 1.9158% and −1.1192 ± 2.6236%, (P = 0.028) with weight changes of 9.1574 ± 2.1432% and 7.3276 ± 1.5823%, respectively (P = 0.002). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions: It was concluded that solubility of WMTA increases in acidic environments and additional therapeutic precautions should be taken to decrease inflammation in endodontic treatment. PMID:23833462

  6. Exogenous fatty acids affect CDP-choline pathway to increase phosphatidylcholine synthesis in granular pneumocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, A.; Gullo, J.; Reicherter, J.; Fisher, A.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis in rat granular pneumocytes isolated by tryptic digestion of lungs and maintained in primary culture for 24 h was investigated by following effects of exogenous fatty acids on (/sup 3/H-methyl)choline incorporation into PC and disaturated PC (DSPC). At 0.1 mM choline, the rate of choline incorporation into PC and DSPC was 440 +/- and 380 +/- 50 pmol/h/ug Pi (mean +/- SE, n=3-5), respectively, and was linear for up to 3 h. PC synthesis was significantly increased by 0.1 mM each of palmitic, oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acid. However, synthesis of DSPC was increased only by palmitic acid and this increase was prevented by addition of oleic acid suggesting lack of effect on the remodeling pathway. Pulse-chase experiments with choline in absence or presence of palmitic or oleic acid showed that the label declined in choline phosphate and increased in PC more rapidly in presence of either of the fatty acids, suggesting rapid conversion of choline phosphate to PC. Microsomal choline phosphate cytidyltransferase activity in cells preincubated without or with palmitic acid for 3 h was 0.81 +/- 0.07 and 1.81 +/- 0.09 nmol choline phosphate converted/min/mg protein (n=4). These results suggest that in granular pneumocytes, exogenous fatty acids modulate PC synthesis by increasing choline phosphate cytidyltransferase activity.

  7. Potassium increases the antitumor effects of ascorbic acid in breast cancer cell lines in vitro

    PubMed Central

    FRAJESE, GIOVANNI VANNI; BENVENUTO, MONICA; FANTINI, MASSIMO; AMBROSIN, ELENA; SACCHETTI, PAMELA; MASUELLI, LAURA; GIGANTI, MARIA GABRIELLA; MODESTI, ANDREA; BEI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (A) has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-cancer activity in association with chemotherapeutic agents. Potassium (K) is a regulator of cellular proliferation. In the present study, the biological effects of A and K bicarbonate, alone or in combination (A+K), on breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. The survival of cancer cells was determined by sulforhodamine B cell proliferation assay, while analysis of the cell cycle distribution was conducted via fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In addition, the expression of signaling proteins was analyzed upon treatment. The results indicated that there was a heterogeneous response of the different cell lines to A and K, and the best effects were achieved by A+K and A treatment. The interaction between A+K indicated an additive or synergistic effect. In addition, A+K increased the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, and was the most effective treatment in activating the degradation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1. In the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, A+K induced the appearance of the 18 kDa isoform of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (Bax), which is a more potent inducer of apoptosis than the full-length Bax-p21. The effects of A and K on the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1 and ERK2 were heterogeneous. In addition, treatment with K, A and A+K inhibited the expression of nuclear factor-κB. Overall, the results of the present study indicated that K potentiated the anti-tumoral effects of A in breast cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27313770

  8. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage performance of postharvest citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xiaohua; Wang, Jinqiu; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-02-01

    The loss of organic acids during postharvest storage is one of the major factors that reduces the fruit quality and economic value of citrus. Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruits. Molecular evidence has proved that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt plays a key role in citrate metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous GABA treatment on citrate metabolism and storage quality of postharvest citrus fruit. The content of citrate was significantly increased, which was primarily attributed to the inhibition of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Amino acids, including glutamate, alanine, serine, aspartate and proline, were also increased. Moreover, GABA treatment decreased the fruit rot rate. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of energy source ATP were affected by the treatment. Our results indicate that GABA treatment is a very effective approach for postharvest quality maintenance and improvement of storage performance in citrus production. PMID:27596402

  9. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) at subtoxic concentrations increases the adhesivity of human leukemic cells to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Kuzelová, Katerina; Pluskalová, Michaela; Brodská, Barbora; Otevrelová, Petra; Elknerová, Klára; Grebenová, Dana; Hrkal, Zbynek

    2010-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) which is being introduced into clinic for the treatment of hematological diseases. We studied the effect of this compound on six human hematopoietic cell lines (JURL-MK1, K562, CML-T1, Karpas-299, HL-60, and ML-2) as well as on normal human lymphocytes and on leukemic primary cells. SAHA induced dose-dependent and cell type-dependent cell death which displayed apoptotic features (caspase-3 activation and apoptotic DNA fragmentation) in most cell types including the normal lymphocytes. At subtoxic concentrations (0.5-1 microM), SAHA increased the cell adhesivity to fibronectin (FN) in all leukemia/lymphoma-derived cell lines but not in normal lymphocytes. This increase was accompanied by an enhanced expression of integrin beta1 and paxillin, an essential constituent of focal adhesion complexes, both at the protein and mRNA level. On the other hand, the inhibition of ROCK protein, an important regulator of cytoskeleton structure, had no consistent effect on SAHA-induced increase in the cell adhesivity. The promotion of cell adhesivity to FN seems to be specific for SAHA as we observed no such effects with other HDAC inhibitors (trichostatin A and sodium butyrate). PMID:19911379

  10. Alleviation of postharvest chilling injury of tomato fruit by salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Asghari, Mohammadreza; Khorsandi, Orojali; Mohayeji, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    Tomato fruit at the mature green stage were treated with salicylic acid at different concentration (0, 1 and 2 mM) and analyzed for chilling injury (CI), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents and phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities during cold storage. PLD and LOX activities were significantly reduced by salicylic acid treatment. Compared with the control fruit, salicylic acid treatment alleviated chilling injury, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content and increased proline content. Our result suggest that the reduce activity of PLD and LOX, by salicylic acid may be a chilling tolerance strategy in tomato fruit. Inhibition of PLD and LOX activity during low temperature storage could ameliorate chilling injury and oxidation damage and enhance membrane integrity in tomato fruit. PMID:25328231

  11. Induction heat treatment as a means of increasing production

    SciTech Connect

    Golovin, G.F.; Shamov, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The economic effectiveness of induction heat treatment was determined by a number of factors, including: saving energy and resources by substituting surface hardening for bulk or casehardening, improving labor productivity by process automation and including induction heat treatment equipment in the production line. Induction heating was found to be quick, does not require protection from oxidation, makes it possible to mechanize and automate the production process, and improves stabilization properties after annealing.

  12. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a "dose-response" model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR "dose-dependently" increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. PMID:24183703

  13. Uric acid secretion from adipose tissue and its increase in obesity.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yu; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Nagao, Hirofumi; Shirakura, Takashi; Kato, Kenta; Imaizumi, Keiichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Mizuho; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-09-20

    Obesity is often accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, purine metabolism in various tissues, especially regarding uric acid production, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report, using mouse models, that adipose tissue could produce and secrete uric acid through xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and that the production was enhanced in obesity. Plasma uric acid was elevated in obese mice and attenuated by administration of the XOR inhibitor febuxostat. Adipose tissue was one of major organs that had abundant expression and activities of XOR, and adipose tissues in obese mice had higher XOR activities than those in control mice. 3T3-L1 and mouse primary mature adipocytes produced and secreted uric acid into culture medium. The secretion was inhibited by febuxostat in a dose-dependent manner or by gene knockdown of XOR. Surgical ischemia in adipose tissue increased local uric acid production and secretion via XOR, with a subsequent increase in circulating uric acid levels. Uric acid secretion from whole adipose tissue was increased in obese mice, and uric acid secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased under hypoxia. Our results suggest that purine catabolism in adipose tissue could be enhanced in obesity. PMID:23913681

  14. Dietary oleic acid increases M2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding in...

  15. Biomimetic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite by Mixed Acid Treatment of Titanium Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J M; Park, W U; Hwang, K H; Lee, J K; Yoon, S Y

    2015-03-01

    A simple chemical method was established for inducing bioactivity of Ti metal. In the present study, two kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coatings successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in the simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid etching was used to increase the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surfaces allow better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrate. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Some specimens were treated with a 5 M NaOH aqueous solution, and then heat treated at 600 °C in order to form an amorphous sodium titanate layer on their surface. This treated titanium metal is believed to form a dense and uniform bone-like apatite layer on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF). This study proved that mixed acid treatment is not only important for surface passivation but is also another bioactive treatment for titanium surfaces, an alternative to alkali treatment. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than alkali treatment. PMID:26413704

  16. Palladium nanoparticles synthesized by reducing species generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amornkitbamrung, Lunjakorn; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-03-01

    Uniform spherical palladium nanoparticles with an average particle size of 4.3 ± 0.5 nm were successfully synthesized by reducing H2PdCl4 with intermediates in situ generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose. A successive acidic/alkaline treatment plays an important role on converting the non-reducing sucrose into efficient reducing species containing aldehyde functionality. The Benedict's test corroborates the development and vanishing of the in situ generated reducing species upon prolonged degradation. An increase in alkalinity drastically improves the reduction efficiency. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy indicated spontaneous development of carboxylate after the alkaline treatment. Under the employed condition, small organic species with carbonyl groups (aldehyde, acid, and acid salt) were generated through the sucrose degradation before being oxidized to carbonate after an hour of the treatment. Sucrose was completely decomposed into carbonate after a 24-h successive acidic/alkaline treatment. The synthesized palladium nanoparticles express a good catalytic activity in the decolorization process of Congo red by sodium borohydride.

  17. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Dharuri, Harish K; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment. PMID:25320342

  18. Endogenous flow of amino acids in the avian ileum as influenced by increasing dietary peptide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Velmurugu; Morel, Patrick C H; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Thomas, Donald V

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether feeding broiler chickens with diets containing increasing dietary peptide concentrations would cause increases in ileal endogenous amino acid flow. The flow of N and most amino acids increased quadratically (P < 0.05 to 0.001) with increasing dietary concentrations of peptides. The exceptions were the flow of threonine, serine, glycine, tyrosine and cystine, which increased linearly (P < 0.001) with dietary peptide levels. Another notable exception to the general trend was the flow of proline, which was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in birds fed the protein-free diet. The amino acid profile of endogenous protein, expressed as proportion of crude protein, indicated that the ratios of threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, leucine, histidine, arginine and cystine were influenced (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. In general, compared with the protein-free diet, the ratios of threonine and arginine in endogenous protein were lower (P < 0.05) and those of glutamic acid, glycine and histidine were greater (P < 0.05) in diets with high concentrations of peptides. The ratio of proline was found to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. These changes in the amino acid profile of endogenous protein are probably reflective of changes in the output of one or more of the components of endogenous protein. Overall, the present results demonstrated that increasing dietary peptide concentrations increased the flow of endogenous amino acid flow at the terminal ileum of broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner and also caused changes in the composition of endogenous protein. The observed changes in endogenous amino flow will influence the maintenance requirements for amino acids and also have implications for the calculation of true digestibility coefficient of feedstuffs. PMID:18662428

  19. Glycyrrhizic Acid in the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-yuan; Cao, Hong-yan; Cheng, Gen-hong; Sun, Ming-yu

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions. PMID:24963489

  20. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid exposure to the eye

    PubMed Central

    Atley, Katherine; Ridyard, Edward

    2015-01-01

    AIM To review the current evidence of the treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) exposure to the human cornea. METHODS A comprehensive manual search of the literature was conducted through the Ovid interface to assess the mechanism and efficacy of each irrigator through a variety of clinical cases and experimental studies. RESULTS Ocular exposure to HF is extremely damaging to the eye and swift recognition and decontamination with an appropriate agent forms the basis of treatment. Although there are various decontamination solutions that have efficacy against the corrosive action of HF, irrigation with Hexafluorine proved to be the most safe and effective treatment for the eye. CONCLUSION In conclusion emergency departments could benefit from the availability of Hexafluorine for the treatment of HF ocular burns in patients. PMID:25709926

  1. Acetylsalicylic acid treatment improves differentiation and immunomodulation of SHED.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Chen, C; Liu, S; Liu, D; Xu, X; Chen, X; Shi, S

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) possess multipotent differentiation and immunomodulatory properties. They have been used for orofacial bone regeneration and autoimmune disease treatment. In this study, we show that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment is able to significantly improve SHED-mediated osteogenic differentiation and immunomodulation. Mechanistically, ASA treatment upregulates the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)/Wnt/β-catenin cascade, leading to improvement of SHED-mediated bone regeneration, and also upregulates TERT/FASL signaling, leading to improvement of SHED-mediated T-cell apoptosis and ameliorating disease phenotypes in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis mice. These data indicate that ASA treatment is a practical approach to improving SHED-based cell therapy. PMID:25394850

  2. Increasing or stabilizing renal epoxyeicosatrienoic acid production attenuates abnormal renal function and hypertension in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Morisseau, Christophe; Wang, JingFeng; Yang, Tianxin; Falck, John R; Hammock, Bruce D; Wang, Mong-Heng

    2007-07-01

    Since epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) affect sodium reabsorption in renal tubules and dilate the renal vasculature, we have examined their effects on renal hemodynamics and sodium balance in male rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet by fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) agonist and an inducer of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenases; by N-methanesulfonyl-6-(2-proparyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MSPPOH), a selective EET biosynthesis inhibitor; and by 12-(3-adamantane-1-yl-ureido)dodecanoic acid (AUDA), a selective inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase. In rats treated with fenofibrate (30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) ig) or AUDA (50 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 wk, mean arterial pressure, renal vascular resistance, and glomerular filtration rate were lower but renal blood flow was higher than in vehicle-treated control rats. In addition, fenofibrate and AUDA decreased cumulative sodium balance in the HF rats. Treatment with MSPPOH (20 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) iv) + fenofibrate for 2 wk reversed renal hemodynamics and sodium balance to the levels in control HF rats. Moreover, fenofibrate caused a threefold increase in renal cortical CYP epoxygenase activity, whereas the fenofibrate-induced elevation of this activity was attenuated by MSPPOH. Western blot analysis showed that fenofibrate induced the expression of CYP epoxygenases in renal cortex and microvessels and that the induction effect of fenofibrate was blocked by MSPPOH. These results demonstrate that the fenofibrate-induced increase of CYP epoxygenase expression and the AUDA-induced stabilization of EET production in the kidneys cause renal vascular dilation and reduce sodium retention, contributing to the improvement of abnormal renal hemodynamics and hypertension in HF rats. PMID:17442729

  3. Increase in adipose tissue linoleic acid of US adults in the last half century.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-11-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is a bioactive fatty acid with diverse effects on human physiology and pathophysiology. LA is a major dietary fatty acid, and also one of the most abundant fatty acids in adipose tissue, where its concentration reflects dietary intake. Over the last half century in the United States, dietary LA intake has greatly increased as dietary fat sources have shifted toward polyunsaturated seed oils such as soybean oil. We have conducted a systematic literature review of studies reporting the concentration of LA in subcutaneous adipose tissue of US cohorts. Our results indicate that adipose tissue LA has increased by 136% over the last half century and that this increase is highly correlated with an increase in dietary LA intake over the same period of time. PMID:26567191

  4. Chemical fixation increases options for hazardous waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, G.J.; Tipton, G.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) govern the manner in which hazardous materials are managed. Disposing RCRA hazardous wastes on or in the land is no longer an accepted remedial option. This land disposal restriction requires that all listed and characteristic hazardous wastes must be treated according to specified standards before they are disposed. These treatment standards define technologies and concentration limits. Hazardous wastes that do not meet the standards are prohibited from being disposed on land, such as in landfills, surface impoundments, land treatment units, injection wells, and mines or caves.

  5. Dihydrolipoic acid activates oligomycin-sensitive thiol groups and increases ATP synthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, G; Mainka, L; Krüger, E

    1991-08-01

    Investigations with dihydrolipoic acid in rat heart mitochondria and mitoplasts reveal an activation of ATP-synthase up to 45%, whereas ATPase activities decrease by 36%. In parallel with an increase in ATP synthesis oligomycin-sensitive mitochondrial -SH groups are activated at 2-4 nmol dihydrolipoic acid/mg protein. ATPase activation by the uncouplers carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and oleate is diminished by dihydrolipoic acid, and ATP synthesis depressed by oleate is partially restored. No such efficiency of dihydrolipoic acid is seen with palmitate-induced ATPase activation or decrease of ATP synthesis. This indicates different interference of oleate and palmitate with mitochondria. In addition to its known coenzymatic properties dihydrolipoic acid may act as a substitute for coenzyme A, thereby diminishing the uncoupling efficiency of oleate. Furthermore, dihydrolipoic acid is a very potent antioxidant, shifting the -SH-S-S- equilibrium in mitochondria to the reduced state and improving the energetic state of cells. PMID:1832845

  6. Plasma Circulating Nucleic Acids Levels Increase According to the Morbidity of Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Bernardo S.; Vitorino, Barbara L. F.; Coelho, Helena C.; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Santos, Marina L. S.; Campos, Fernanda M. F.; Brito, Cristiana F.; Fontes, Cor J.; Lacerda, Marcus V.; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the increasing evidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with severe and fatal disease, the identification of sensitive and reliable markers for vivax severity is crucial to improve patient care. Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been increasingly recognized as powerful diagnostic and prognostic tools for various inflammatory diseases and tumors as their plasma concentrations increase according to malignancy. Given the marked inflammatory status of P. vivax infection, we investigated here the usefulness of CNAs as biomarkers for malaria morbidity. Methods and Findings CNAs levels in plasma from twenty-one acute P. vivax malaria patients from the Brazilian Amazon and 14 malaria non-exposed healthy donors were quantified by two different methodologies: amplification of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genomic sequence by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR), and the fluorometric dsDNA quantification by Pico Green. CNAs levels were significantly increased in plasma from P. vivax patients as compared to healthy donors (p<0.0001). Importantly, plasma CNAs levels were strongly associated with vivax morbidity (p<0.0001), including a drop in platelet counts (p = 0.0021). These findings were further sustained when we assessed CNAS levels in plasma samples from 14 additional P. vivax patients of a different endemic area in Brazil, in which CNAS levels strongly correlated with thrombocytopenia (p = 0.0072). We further show that plasma CNAs levels decrease and reach physiological levels after antimalarial treatment. Although we found both host and parasite specific genomic sequences circulating in plasma, only host CNAs clearly reflected the clinical spectrum of P. vivax malaria. Conclusions Here, we provide the first evidence of increased plasma CNAs levels in malaria patients and reveal their potential as sensitive biomarkers for vivax malaria morbidity. PMID:21611202

  7. Retinoic Acid-Treated Pluripotent Stem Cells Undergoing Neurogenesis Present Increased Aneuploidy and Micronuclei Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sartore, Rafaela C.; Campos, Priscila B.; Trujillo, Cleber A.; Ramalho, Bia L.; Negraes, Priscilla D.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Meletti, Tamara; Costa, Elaine S.; Chicaybam, Leonardo; Bonamino, Martin H.; Ulrich, Henning; Rehen, Stevens K.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of loss and gain of chromosomes, known as aneuploidy, has been previously described within the central nervous system. During development, at least one-third of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are aneuploid. Notably, aneuploid NPCs may survive and functionally integrate into the mature neural circuitry. Given the unanswered significance of this phenomenon, we tested the hypothesis that neural differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in pluripotent stem cells is accompanied by increased levels of aneuploidy, as previously described for cortical NPCs in vivo. In this work we used embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells undergoing differentiation into NPCs. Ploidy analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in the rate of aneuploidy, with the prevalence of chromosome loss in RA primed stem cells when compared to naïve cells. In an attempt to understand the basis of neurogenic aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin expression was assessed in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA. RA increased micronuclei occurrence by almost 2-fold while decreased survivin expression by 50%, indicating possible mechanisms by which stem cells lose their chromosomes during neural differentiation. DNA fragmentation analysis demonstrated no increase in apoptosis on embryoid bodies treated with RA, indicating that cell death is not the mandatory fate of aneuploid NPCs derived from pluripotent cells. In order to exclude that the increase in aneuploidy was a spurious consequence of RA treatment, not related to neurogenesis, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with RA under the same conditions and no alterations in chromosome gain or loss were observed. These findings indicate a correlation amongst neural differentiation, aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin downregulation in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA, providing evidence that somatically generated chromosomal variation accompanies

  8. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.-J.; Padgett, William T.; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D.; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-15

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  9. Increased brain uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid in a rabbit model of hepatic encephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, M.L.; Mullen, K.D.; Scholz, B.; Fenstermacher, J.D.; Jones, E.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Transfer of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid across the normal blood-brain barrier is minimal. One prerequisite for gamma-aminobutyric acid in plasma contributing to the neural inhibition of hepatic encephalopathy would be that increased transfer of gamma-aminobutyric acid across the blood-brain barrier occurs in liver failure. The aim of the present study was to determine if brain gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake is increased in rabbits with stage II-III (precoma) hepatic encephalopathy due to galactosamine-induced fulminant hepatic failure. A modification of the Oldendorf intracarotid artery-injection technique was applied. (3H) gamma-aminobutyric acid, (14C) butanol, and 113mIn-labeled serum protein (transferrin) were injected simultaneously 4 s before decapitation. The ipsilateral brain uptake index of gamma-aminobutyric acid was determined from measurements of the 3 isotopes in 5 brain regions. Uncorrected or simple brain uptake indices of (3H) gamma-aminobutyric acid and (113mIn) transferrin were calculated using (14C) butanol as the highly extracted reference compound. The (113mIn) transferrin data were also used to correct the brain uptake index of (3H) gamma-aminobutyric acid for intravascular retention of (3H) gamma-aminobutyric acid. The methodology adopted minimized problems attributable to rapid (3H) gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism, and slow brain washout and recirculation of the radiolabeled tracers. Both the uncorrected and corrected brain uptake indices of gamma-aminobutyric acid as well as the simple brain uptake index of transferrin were significantly increased in both stage II and III hepatic encephalopathy in all brain regions studied. Moreover, these brain uptake indices were significantly greater in stage III hepatic encephalopathy than in stage II hepatic encephalopathy.

  10. Does salicylic acid increase the percutaneous absorption of diflucortolone-21-valerate?

    PubMed

    Täuber, U; Weiss, C; Matthes, H

    1993-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of diflucortolone-21-valerate (DFV) and its effect on the pituitary adrenal system were investigated during large skin area treatment (20 g ointment twice a day for 8 days) of two groups of healthy volunteers with Nerisona and Nerisalic ointment, respectively. Plasma levels of diflucortolone, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured in both groups whereas plasma levels of salicylic acid were measured additionally in volunteers treated with Nerisalic. No differences, neither in percutaneous absorption of DFV nor in effects on cortisol and DHEA were found between the two treatment groups. There was a slight reduction in cortisol levels under both treatments, but the circadian rhythm was not disturbed. Mean salicylic acid plasma levels under high-dose topical Nerisalic treatment were about 50-fold below levels where toxicity may be expected. PMID:8198813

  11. Skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression is increased in young and older adults following resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Christopher S.; Glynn, Erin L.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Walker, Dillon K.; Gundermann, David M.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2011-01-01

    Amino acid transporters and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling are important contributors to muscle protein anabolism. Aging is associated with reduced mTORC1 signaling following resistance exercise, but the role of amino acid transporters is unknown. Young (n = 13; 28 ± 2 yr) and older (n = 13; 68 ± 2 yr) subjects performed a bout of resistance exercise. Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at basal and 3, 6, and 24 h postexercise and were analyzed for amino acid transporter mRNA and protein expression and regulators of amino acid transporter transcription utilizing real-time PCR and Western blotting. We found that basal amino acid transporter expression was similar in young and older adults (P > 0.05). Exercise increased L-type amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, and cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1 mRNA expression in both young and older adults (P < 0.05). L-type amino acid transporter 1 and CD98 protein increased only in younger adults (P < 0.05). eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α-subunit (S52) increased similarly in young and older adults postexercise (P < 0.05). Ribosomal protein S6 (S240/244) and activating transcription factor 4 nuclear protein expression tended to be higher in the young, while nuclear signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (Y705) was higher in the older subjects postexercise (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the rapid upregulation of amino acid transporter expression following resistance exercise may be regulated differently between the age groups, but involves a combination of mTORC1, activating transcription factor 4, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α-subunit, and STAT3. We propose an increase in amino acid transporter expression may contribute to enhanced amino acid sensitivity following exercise in young and older

  12. Prednisone lowers serum uric acid levels in patients with decompensated heart failure by increasing renal uric acid clearance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhen, Yuzhi; Zhao, Qingzhen; Zhai, Jian-Long; Liu, Kunshen; Zhang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that large doses of prednisone could lower serum uric acid (SUA) in patients with decompensated heart failure (HF); however, the optimal dose of prednisone and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Thirty-eight patients with decompensated HF were randomized to receive standard HF care alone (n = 10) or with low-dose (15 mg/day, n = 8), medium-dose (30 mg/day, n = 10), or high-dose prednisone (60 mg/day, n = 10), for 10 days. At the end of the study, only high-dose prednisone significantly reduced SUA, whereas low- and medium-dose prednisone and standard HF care had no effect on SUA. The reduction in SUA in high-dose prednisone groups was associated with a significant increase in renal uric acid clearance. In conclusion, prednisone can reduce SUA levels by increasing renal uric acid clearance in patients with decompensated HF. PMID:27144905

  13. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy. PMID:24075771

  14. Expression of dehydratase domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase increases the production of fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Oyola-Robles, Delise; Rullán-Lind, Carlos; Carballeira, Néstor M; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2014-02-01

    Increasing the production of fatty acids by microbial fermentation remains an important step toward the generation of biodiesel and other portable liquid fuels. In this work, we report an Escherichia coli strain engineered to overexpress a fragment consisting of four dehydratase domains from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase enzyme complex from the deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. The DH1-DH2-UMA enzyme fragment was excised from its natural context within a multi-enzyme PKS and expressed as a stand-alone protein. Fatty acids were extracted from the cell pellet, esterified with methanol and quantified by GC-MS analysis. Results show that the E. coli strain expressing the DH tetradomain fragment was capable of producing up to a 5-fold increase (80.31 mg total FA/L culture) in total fatty acids over the negative control strain lacking the recombinant enzyme. The enhancement in production was observed across the board for all the fatty acids that are typically made by E. coli. The overexpression of the DH tetradomain did not affect E. coli cell growth, thus showing that the observed enhancement in fatty acid production was not a result of effects associated with cell density. The observed enhancement was more pronounced at lower temperatures (3.8-fold at 16 °C, 3.5-fold at 22 °C and 1.5-fold at 30 °C) and supplementation of the media with 0.4% glycerol did not result in an increase in fatty acid production. All these results taken together suggest that either the dehydration of fatty acid intermediates are a limiting step in the E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis machinery, or that the recombinant dehydratase domains used in this study are also capable of catalyzing thioester hydrolysis of the final products. The enzyme in this report is a new tool which could be incorporated into other existing strategies aimed at improving fatty acid production in bacterial fermentations toward accessible biodiesel precursors. PMID:24411456

  15. Expression of dehydratase domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase increases the production of fatty acids in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Oyola-Robles, Delise; Rullán-Lind, Carlos; Carballeira, Néstor M.; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the production of fatty acids by microbial fermentation remains an important step towards the generation of biodiesel and other portable liquid fuels. In this work, we report an Escherichia coli strain engineered to overexpress a fragment consisting of four dehydratase domains from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase enzyme complex from the deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. The DH1-DH2-UMA enzyme fragment was excised from its natural context within a multi-enzyme PKS and expressed as a stand-alone protein. Fatty acids were extracted from the cell pellet, esterified with methanol and quantified by GC-MS analysis. Results show that the E. coli strain expressing the DH tetradomain fragment was capable of producing up to a 5-fold increase (80.31 mg total FA/L culture) in total fatty acids over the negative control strain lacking the recombinant enzyme. The enhancement in production was observed across the board for all the fatty acids that are typically made by E. coli. The overexpression of the DH tetradomain did not affect E. coli cell growth, thus showing that the observed enhancement in fatty acid production was not a result of effects associated with cell density. The observed enhancement was more pronounced at lower temperatures (3.8-fold at 16 °C, 3.5-fold at 22 °C and 1.5-fold at 30 °C) and supplementation of the media with 0.4% glycerol did not result in an increase in fatty acid production. All these results taken together suggest that either the dehydration of fatty acid intermediates are a limiting step in the E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis machinery, or that the recombinant dehydratase domains used in this study are also capable of catalyzing thioester hydrolysis of the final products. The enzyme in this report is a new tool which could be incorporated into other existing strategies aimed at improving fatty acid production in bacterial fermentations towards accessible biodiesel precursors. PMID:24411456

  16. Tracking and Increasing Viability of Topically Injected Fibroblasts Suspended in Hyaluronic Acid Filler.

    PubMed

    You, Hi-Jin; Namgoong, Sik; Rhee, Sung-Mi; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    A new injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue consisting of a mixture of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler and cultured human fibroblasts have been developed by the authors. To establish this method as a standard treatment, a further study was required to determine whether the injected fibroblasts could stay at the injected place or move to other sites. In addition, effective strategies were needed to increase viability of the injected fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to track the injected fibroblasts and to determine the effect of adding prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) or vitamin C on the viability of fibroblasts.Human fibroblasts labeled with fluorescence dye were suspended in HA filler and injected into 4 sites on the back of nude mice. The injected bioimplants consisted of one of the 4 followings: HA filler without cells (HA group), fibroblasts suspended in HA filler (HA + FB group), PGE1-supplemented fibroblasts in HA filler (HA + FB + PGE1 group), and vitamin C-supplemented fibroblasts in HA filler (HA + FB + VC group). At 4 weeks after injection, locations and intensities of the fluorescence signals were evaluated using a live imaging system.The fluorescence signals of the fibroblast-containing groups were visible only at the injected sites without dispersing to other sites. The HA +FB + PGE1 group showed a significantly higher fluorescence signal than the HA + FB and the HA + FB +VC groups (P < 0.05, each). There was no statistical difference between the HA + FB and HA + FB +VC groups (P = 0.69).The results of the current study collectively suggest that injected fibroblasts suspended in HA filler stay at the injected place without moving to other sites. In addition, PGE1 treatment may increase the remaining rhodamine B isothiocynanate dye at the injected site of the human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:26854786

  17. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a study of the association with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Bellino, Silvio; Bozzatello, Paola; Rocca, Giuseppe; Bogetto, Filippo

    2014-02-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have received increasing interest due to their effects in stabilizing plasmatic membranes and regulating cell signaling. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatric disorders, in particular mood disorders, has been studied. There have been two trials on eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present 12-week controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy of the association of EPA and DHA with valproic acid, compared to single valproic acid, in 43 consecutive BPD outpatients. Participants were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks with: Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S), Hamilton Scales for depression and anxiety (HAM-D, HAM-A), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), borderline personality disorder severity index (BPDSI), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - version 11 (BIS-11), Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), Self-Harm Inventory (SHI) and Dosage Record Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (DOTES). PMID:24196948

  18. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid increases brain but not heart and liver docosahexaenoic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Collison, Lauren W; Jolly, Christopher A; Murphy, Eric J

    2005-08-01

    Fish oil-enriched diets increase n-3 FA in tissue phospholipids; however, a similar effect by plant-derived n-3 FA is poorly defined. To address this question, we determined mass changes in phospholipid FA, individual phospholipid classes, and cholesterol in the liver, heart, and brain of rats fed diets enriched in flax oil (rich in 18:3n-3), fish oil (rich in 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3), or safflower oil (rich in 18:2n-6) for 8 wk. In the heart and liver phospholipids, 22:6n-3 levels increased only in the fish oil group, although rats fed flax oil accumulated 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3. However, in the brain, the flax and fish oil diets increased the phospholipid 22:6n-3 mass. In all tissues, these diets decreased the 20:4n-6 mass, although the effect was more marked in the fish oil than in the flax oil group. Although these data do not provide direct evidence for 18:3n-3 elongation and desaturation by the brain, they demonstrate that 18:3n-3-enriched diets reduced tissue 20:4n-6 levels and increased cellular n-3 levels in a tissue-dependent manner. We hypothesize, based on the lack of increased 22:6n-3 but increased 18:3n-3 in the liver and heart, that the flax oil diet increased circulating 18:3n-3, thereby presenting tissue with this EFA for further elongation and desaturation. PMID:16296397

  19. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term. PMID:17449580

  1. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  2. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Olea-Mejía, Oscar Fernando; García-Fabila, María Magdalena; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Sánchez-Flores, Ignacio; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Group I (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2), 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2), and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2), respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine) and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution. PMID:24600327

  3. Organic Acid Excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron Increases with Ambient pH

    PubMed Central

    Vrabl, Pamela; Fuchs, Viktoria; Pichler, Barbara; Schinagl, Christoph W.; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH. We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions, or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi. In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium-limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2–7), and ammonium or phosphate-limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7). Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids. Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation, and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e., overflow metabolism, charge balance, and aggressive acidification hypothesis. PMID:22493592

  4. Obesity-induced lysine acetylation increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation and impairs insulin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Alrob, Osama Abo; Sankaralingam, Sowndramalingam; Ma, Cary; Wagg, Cory S.; Fillmore, Natasha; Jaswal, Jagdip S.; Sack, Michael N.; Lehner, Richard; Gupta, Mahesh P.; Michelakis, Evangelos D.; Padwal, Raj S.; Johnstone, David E.; Sharma, Arya M.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Lysine acetylation is a novel post-translational pathway that regulates the activities of enzymes involved in both fatty acid and glucose metabolism. We examined whether lysine acetylation controls heart glucose and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet (HFD) obese and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice. Methods and results C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a HFD (60% fat) or a low-fat diet (LFD; 4% fat) for 16 or 18 weeks. Cardiac fatty acid oxidation rates were significantly increased in HFD vs. LFD mice (845 ± 76 vs. 551 ± 87 nmol/g dry wt min, P < 0.05). Activities of the fatty acid oxidation enzymes, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) were increased in hearts from HFD vs. LFD mice, and were associated with LCAD and β-HAD hyperacetylation. Cardiac protein hyperacetylation in HFD-fed mice was associated with a decrease in SIRT3 expression, while expression of the mitochondrial acetylase, general control of amino acid synthesis 5 (GCN5)-like 1 (GCN5L1), did not change. Interestingly, SIRT3 deletion in mice also led to an increase in cardiac fatty acid oxidation compared with wild-type (WT) mice (422 ± 29 vs. 291 ± 17 nmol/g dry wt min, P < 0.05). Cardiac lysine acetylation was increased in SIRT3 KO mice compared with WT mice, including increased acetylation and activity of LCAD and β-HAD. Although the HFD and SIRT3 deletion decreased glucose oxidation, pyruvate dehydrogenase acetylation was unaltered. However, the HFD did increase Akt acetylation, while decreasing its phosphorylation and activity. Conclusion We conclude that increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation in response to high-fat feeding is controlled, in part, via the down-regulation of SIRT3 and concomitant increased acetylation of mitochondrial β-oxidation enzymes. PMID:24966184

  5. High hydrostatic pressure increases amino acid requirements in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    PubMed

    Cario, Anaïs; Lormières, Florence; Xiang, Xiao; Oger, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We have established a defined growth medium for the piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus, which allows growth yields of ca. 10(8) cells/ml under both atmospheric and high hydrostatic pressure. Our results demonstrate a major impact of hydrostatic pressure on amino acid metabolism, with increases from 3 amino acids required at atmospheric pressure to 17 at 40 MPa. We observe in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales a similar discrepancy between the presence/absence of amino acid synthesis pathways and amino acid requirements, which supports the existence of alternate, but yet unknown, amino acid synthesis pathways, and may explain the low number of essential amino acids observed in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales. T. barophilus displays a strong metabolic preference for organic polymers such as polypeptides and chitin, which may constitute a more readily available resource of carbon and energy in situ in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We hypothesize that the low energy yields of fermentation of organic polymers, together with energetic constraints imposed by high hydrostatic pressure, may render de novo synthesis of amino acids ecologically unfavorable. Induction of this metabolic switch to amino acid recycling can explain the requirement for non-essential amino acids by Thermococcales for efficient growth in defined medium. PMID:26226334

  6. Electric field increases the phase transition temperature in the bilayer membrane of phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Antonov, V F; Smirnova EYu; Shevchenko, E V

    1990-02-01

    The effect of the electric field on the phase transition temperature (Tc) of acidic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DPPA) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-thionphosphate (thion-DPPA) and zwitterion, i.e. 1,2-dipalmitoyl-rac-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-distearoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC and DSPC), lipids has been investigated. The phase transition was detected using the jump-like increase effect in the conductance of the planar bilayer membrane. A voltage increase to 150 mV has been shown to increase the phase transition temperature in a bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) of phosphatidic acids (DPPA and thion-DPPA) by 8-12 degrees C while the transition temperature in the bilayer of zwitterion lipids (DPPC and DSPC) increases insignificantly. The increasing of Tt in BLM of acidic lipids is attributed to the voltage-induced changes in the molecule packing density. PMID:2340602

  7. Cathepsin K in treatment monitoring following intravenous zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    JAHN, OLIVER; WEX, THOMAS; KLOSE, SILKE; KROPF, SIEGFRIED; ADOLF, DANIELA; PIATEK, STEFAN

    2014-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is mainly expressed by osteoclasts and plays an important role in bone resorption. As CatK is expressed and secreted by osteoclasts during active bone resorption, it may be a useful and specific biochemical marker of osteoclastic activity. Therefore, CatK serum levels were studied for monitoring the treatment of females with postmenopausal osteoporosis by zoledronic acid. The serum CatK levels were determined in nine postmenopausal females before and after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. The levels were significantly reduced after 3 and 6 months (P<0.05), whereas they returned to baseline after 1 year. Taken together, the serum level of CatK may be suitable for monitoring anti-osteoporotic therapy in association with treatment response. PMID:25279169

  8. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated. PMID:26303611

  9. Ligand-directed stearic acid grafted chitosan micelles to increase therapeutic efficacy in hepatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Yuan, Sheng-Xian; Zhao, Ling-Hao; Wang, Chao; Ni, Jun-Sheng; Wang, Zhen-Guang; Lin, Chuan; Wu, Meng-Chao; Zhou, Wei-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Targeted delivery system would be an interesting platform to enhance the therapeutic effect and to reduce the side effects of anticancer drugs. In this study, we have developed lactobionic acid (LA)-modified chitosan-stearic acid (CS-SA) (CSS-LA) to deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to hepatic cancer cells. The average particle size of CSS-LA/DOX was ∼100 nm with a high entrapment efficiency of >95%. Drug release studies showed that DOX release from pH-sensitive micelles is significantly faster at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4. The LA conjugated micelles showed enhanced cellular uptake in HepG2 and BEL-7402 liver cancer cells than free drug and unconjugated micelles. Consistently, CSS-LA/DOX showed enhanced cell cytotoxicity in these two cell lines. Annexin-V/FITC and PI based apoptosis assay showed that the number of living cells greatly reduced in this group with marked presence of necrotic and apoptotic cells. LA-conjugated carrier induced typical chromatic condensation of cells; membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies began to appear. In vivo, CSS-LA/DOX showed an excellent tumor regression profile with no toxic side effects. The active targeting moiety, long circulation profile, and EPR effect contributed to its superior anticancer effect in HepG2 based tumor. Our results showed that polymeric micelles conjugated with LA increased the therapeutic availability of DOX in the liver cancer cell based solid tumor without any toxic side effects. The active targeting ligand conjugated nanoparticulate system could be a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of hepatic cancers. PMID:25495890

  10. Genistein treatment increases bone mass in obese, hyperglycemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, Richard M; Al-Nakkash, Layla; Broderick, Tom L; Plochocki, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with elevated risk of limb bone fracture. Incidences of these conditions are on the rise worldwide. Genistein, a phytoestrogen, has been shown by several studies to demonstrate bone-protective properties and may improve bone health in obese type 2 diabetics. Methods In this study, we test the effects of genistein treatment on limb bone and growth plate cartilage histomorphometry in obese, hyperglycemic ob/ob mice. Six-week-old ob/ob mice were divided into control and genistein-treated groups. Genistein-treated mice were fed a diet containing 600 mg genistein/kg for a period of 4 weeks. Cross-sectional geometric and histomorphometric analyses were conducted on tibias. Results Genistein-treated mice remained obese and hyperglycemic. However, histomorphometric comparisons show that genistein-treated mice have greater tibial midshaft diameters and ratios of cortical bone to total tissue area than the controls. Genistein-treated mice also exhibit decreased growth plate thickness of the proximal tibia. Conclusion Our results indicate that genistein treatment affects bone of the tibial midshaft in the ob/ob mouse, independent of improvements in the hyperglycemic state and body weight. PMID:27042131

  11. Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids. PMID:26742620

  12. Providing Performance Feedback for Teachers to Increase Treatment Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviewed a method for increasing teachers' use of behavior-specific praise, which is especially important for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. The use of performance feedback has been researched fairly extensively and has yielded positive outcomes when compared with other forms of consultation. This article…

  13. Effect of formic acid or formaldehyde treatment of alfalfa silage on nutrient utilization by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nagel, S A; Broderick, G A

    1992-01-01

    Third-cutting alfalfa with 37% DM was ensiled untreated or treated with either 2.8 g of formic acid/100 g of DM or .31 g of formaldehyde/100 g of DM and fed to lactating dairy cows in two experiments. Silage treated with formic acid had the lowest pH and concentrations of NPN, NH3, and total free AA. Both treatments decreased rumen in vitro protein degradability but did not affect in vitro rumen plus pepsin digestibility. In trial 1, part 1, 22 Holstein cows received a standard diet for 18 d postpartum and then were fed for 6 wk one of three diets containing 98% alfalfa silage DM. Although DMI was comparable, yields of milk, SCM, fat, protein, lactose, and SNF were higher when treated silages were fed. Plasma concentrations of branched-chain, essential, and total AA increased when formic acid-treated silage was fed. Rumen pH and concentrations of NH3 and VFA were similar for all diets. Rumen escape protein, estimated using 15N as a microbial protein marker, was increased more by formic acid than by formaldehyde treatment. In trial 1, part 2, supplementation with 4.8% fish meal increased concentration of milk protein and yields of milk, protein, lactose, and SNF. Milk urea concentration was higher on the untreated silage diet. Total tract apparent DM and N digestibilities were not affected by silage treatment, although fish meal decreased apparent DM digestibility. In trial 2, 80:20 alfalfa silage:ground corn diets were fed to 12 midlactation cows in a 3 x 3 Latin square study. Milk production was unaffected, but milk protein concentration and DMI were higher when treated silages were fed. Feeding treated silages increased plasma concentrations of branched-chain AA, essential AA, and total AA. Formaldehyde and especially formic acid treatment effectively improved utilization of nutrients in alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows. PMID:1541728

  14. CONCENTRATION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN INCREASES WITH AGE IN THE MOUSE AND RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of aging in the expression of the astrocyte protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), was examined. n both mice and rats the concentration of GFAP increased throughout the brain as a function of aging. he largest increase (2-fold) was observed in striatum for both...

  15. Modification of polylactic acid surface using RF plasma discharge with sputter deposition of a hydroxyapatite target for increased biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverdokhlebov, S. I.; Bolbasov, E. N.; Shesterikov, E. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Golovkin, A. S.; Matveeva, V. G.; Petlin, D. G.; Anissimov, Y. G.

    2015-02-01

    Surface modification of polylactic acid (PLLA) by plasma of radio-frequency magnetron discharge with hydroxyapatite target sputtering was investigated. Increased biocompatibility was demonstrated using studies with bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Atomic force microscopy demonstrates that the plasma treatment modifies the surface morphology of PLLA to produce rougher surface. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that changes in the surface morphology are caused by the processes of PLLA crystallization. Fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy showed that the plasma treatment also changes the chemical composition of PLLA, enriching it with ions of the sputtered target: calcium, phosphorus and oxygen. It is hypothesized that these surface modifications increase biocompatibility of PLLA without increasing toxicity.

  16. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  17. Ascorbic Acid may Exacerbate Aspirin-Induced Increase in Intestinal Permeability.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ivana R; Kruger, Marlena C; Hurst, Roger D; Lentle, Roger G

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid in combination with aspirin has been used to prevent aspirin-induced oxidative GI damage. We aimed to determine whether ascorbic acid reduces or prevents aspirin-induced changes in intestinal permeability over a 6-hr period using saccharidic probes mannitol and lactulose. The effects of administration of 600 mg aspirin alone, 500 mg ascorbic acid alone and simultaneous dosage of both agents were compared in a cross-over study in 28 healthy female volunteers. These effects were also compared with that of a placebo. The ability of ascorbic acid to mitigate the effects of aspirin when administered either half an hour before or after dosage with aspirin was also assessed in 19 healthy female volunteers. The excretion of lactulose over the 6-hr period was augmented after consumption of either aspirin or ascorbic acid compared with that after consumption of placebo. Dosage with ascorbic acid alone augmented the excretion of lactulose more than did aspirin alone. Simultaneous dosage with both agents augmented the excretion of lactulose in an additive manner. The timing of dosage with ascorbic acid in relation to that with aspirin had no significant effect on the excretion of the two sugars. These findings indicate that ascorbic acid does not prevent aspirin-induced increase in gut permeability rather that both agents augment it to a similar extent. The additive effect on simultaneous dosage with both agents in augmenting the absorption of lactulose suggests that each influences paracellular permeability by different pathways. PMID:25641731

  18. Increased betulinic acid induced cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity in glioma cells under hypoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Betulinic acid (BA) is a novel antineoplastic agent under evaluation for tumor therapy. Because of the selective cytotoxic effects of BA in tumor cells (including gliomas), the combination of this agent with conservative therapies (such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy) may be useful. Previously, the combination of BA with irradiation under hypoxic conditions had never been studied. Methods In this study, the effects of 3 to 30 μM BA on cytotoxicity, migration, the protein expression of PARP, survivin and HIF-1α, as well as radiosensitivity under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were analyzed in the human malignant glioma cell lines U251MG and U343MG. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity were analyzed with clonogenic survival assays, migration was analyzed with Boyden chamber assays (or scratch assays) and protein expression was examined with Western blot analyses. Results Under normoxic conditions, a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23 μM was observed in U251MG cells and 24 μM was observed in U343MG cells. Under hypoxic conditions, 10 μM or 15 μM of BA showed a significantly increased cytotoxicity in U251MG cells (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01, respectively) and U343MG cells (p < 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively). The combination of BA with radiotherapy resulted in an additive effect in the U343MG cell line under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Weak radiation enhancement was observed in U251MG cell line after treatment with BA under normoxic conditions. Furthermore, under hypoxic conditions, the incubation with BA resulted in increased radiation enhancement. The enhancement factor, at an irradiation dose of 15 Gy after treatment with 10 or 15 μM BA, was 2.20 (p = 0.02) and 4.50 (p = 0.03), respectively. Incubation with BA led to decreased cell migration, cleavage of PARP and decreased expression levels of survivin in both cell lines. Additionally, BA treatment resulted in a reduction of HIF-1α protein under hypoxic conditions. Conclusion Our

  19. Structural stability and prebiotic properties of resistant starch type 3 increase bile acid turnover and lower secondary bile acid formation.

    PubMed

    Dongowski, Gerhard; Jacobasch, Gisela; Schmiedl, Detlef

    2005-11-16

    Microbial metabolism is essential in maintaining a healthy mucosa in the large bowel, preferentially through butyrate specific mechanisms. This system depends on starch supply. Two structurally different resistant starches type 3 (RS3) have been investigated with respect to their resistance to digestion, fermentability, and their effects on the composition and turnover of bile acids in rats. RSA (a mixture of retrograded maltodextrins and branched high molecular weight polymers), which is more resistant than RSB (a retrograded potato starch), increased the rate of fermentation accompanied by a decrease of pH in cecum, colon, and feces. Because they were bound to RS3, less bile acids were reabsorbed, resulting in a higher turnover through the large bowel. Because of the rise of volume, the bile acid level was unchanged and the formation of secondary bile acids was partly suppressed. The results proved a strong relation between RS3, short chain fatty acid production, and microflora. However, butyrate specific benefits are only achieved by an intake of RS3 that result in good fermentation properties, which depend on the kind of the resistant starch structures. PMID:16277431

  20. The effects of essential fatty acids preparation in the treatment of intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L

    1997-10-01

    A treatment of intravenous infusion of glucose, amino acids, and emulsion enriched in essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic, and linolenic acids were given to 30 pregnant women with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and 28 non-EFAs treated cases as controls. There was a marked gain in fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) and in the estimated weight of the treated group over the control group. The mean birth weight was significantly different in the two groups. Fetal BPD increased much more in patients treated with EFAs at 28-34 gestational weeks than those at 34 1/7-37 weeks, which indicates that early initiate complement of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids to IUGR mothers may correct pregnancy-induced EFAs deficiency and maternal-fetal malnutrition, which demonstrates a fetal catch-up of growth in the brain and the whole body. PMID:9394162

  1. The sonodegradation of caffeic acid under ultrasound treatment: relation to stability.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Qiao, Liping; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong; Zhang, Xianzhong; Huang, Haizhi

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of caffeic acid under ultrasound treatment in a model system was investigated. The type of solvent and temperature were important factors in determining the outcome of the degradation reactions. Liquid height, ultrasonic intensity and duty cycle only affected degradation rate, but did not change the nature of the degradation. The degradation rate of caffeic acid decreased with increasing temperature. Degradation kinetics of caffeic acid under ultrasound fitted a zero-order reaction from -5 to 25 °C. Caffeic acid underwent decomposition and oligomerization reactions under ultrasound. The degradation products were tentatively identified by FT-IR and HPLC-UV-ESIMS to include the corresponding decarboxylation products and their dimers. PMID:23292325

  2. Influence of Fenofibrate Treatment on Triacylglycerides, Diacylglycerides and Fatty Acids in Fructose Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation. PMID:25198467

  3. [PREPARATIONS OF PAMIDRONOVIC ACID IN COMPLEX TREATMENT ON OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA].

    PubMed

    Zyma, A M; Guk, Yu M; Magomedov, O M; Gayko, O G; Kincha-Polishchuk, T A

    2015-07-01

    Modern view of drug therapy in the complex treatment of orthopedic manifestations of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was submitted. Developed and tested system of drug correction of structural and functional state of bone tissue (BT) using drugs pamidronovic acid, depending on osteoporosis severity and type of disease. Such therapy is appropriate to apply both independently and in conjunction with surgery to correct deformations of long bones of the lower extremities. Effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods of drug therapy was proved, most patients resume features walking and support. PMID:26591224

  4. The effects of acid treatment on the thermoelectric power of multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Corey A.; Carroll, David L.

    2013-08-01

    Acid treatment of carbon nanotubes is a post synthesis processing step used to clean carbon nanotubes. We show that exposure of the nanotubes to oxygen rich reagents including nitric and sulfuric acid results in an increase of the thermoelectric power. Improving dispersion through the use of the surfactant triton-x results in a further increase in TEP of up to 21%. Additionally, refluxing in an oxygen rich acidic solution results in improved dispersion and an increased TEP. These results indicate that improved dispersion of the nanotubes by either sonication or reflux leads to increased oxygenation and thermopower.

  5. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

  6. Mechanism of chlorogenic acid treatment on femoral head necrosis and its protection of osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MINGJUAN; HU, XIANDA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of chlorogenic acid on hormonal femoral head necrosis and its protection of osteoblasts. The study established a femoral head necrosis model in Wistar rats using Escherichia coli endotoxin and prednisolone acetate. The rats were divided into five groups and were treated with different concentrations of chlorogenic acid (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). The main detected indicators were the blood rheology, bone mineral density, and the hydroxyproline and hexosamine (HOM) contents. At a cellular level, osteoblasts were cultured and treated by drug-containing serum. Subsequently, cell proliferation and the osteoblast cycle were measured using flow cytometry, and the protein expression levels of Bax and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were detected using western blotting. Chlorogenic acid at a concentration of 20 mg/kg (high-dose) enhanced the bone mineral density of the femoral head and femoral neck following ischemia. Simultaneously, blood flow following the injection of prednisolone acetate was significantly improved, and the HOM contents of the high-dose chlorogenic acid group were significantly different. The results from the flow cytometry analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid can efficiently ameliorate hormone-induced necrosis. The osteoblasts were isolated and cultured. The MTT colorimetric assay showed that chlorogenic acid at different densities can increase the proliferation capabilities of osteoblasts and accelerate the transition process of G0/G1 phase to S phase, as well as enhance mitosis and the regeneration of osteoblasts. Western blotting detection indicated that chlorogenic acid may prohibit the decrease of Bcl-2 and the increase of Bax during apoptosis, thereby inhibiting osteoblast apoptosis and preventing the deterioration of femoral head necrosis. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid at the density of 20 mg/kg is effective in the treatment of hormonal femoral head necrosis, which may be

  7. Effects of Fatty Acid Treatments on the Dexamethasone-Induced Intramuscular Lipid Accumulation in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao juan; Wei, Dai lin; Song, Zhi gang; Jiao, Hong chao; Lin, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoid has an important effect on lipid metabolism in muscles, and the type of fatty acid likely affects mitochondrial utilization. Therefore, we hypothesize that the different fatty acid types treatment may affect the glucocorticoid induction of intramuscular lipid accumulation. Methodology/Principal Findings The effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on fatty acid metabolism and storage in skeletal muscle of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated with and without fatty acid treatments. Male Arbor Acres chickens (31 d old) were treated with either palmitic acid (PA) or oleic acid (OA) for 7 days, followed by DEX administration for 3 days (35–37 d old). The DEX-induced lipid uptake and oxidation imbalance, which was estimated by increased fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) expression and decreased carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 activity, contributed to skeletal muscle lipid accumulation. More sensitive than glycolytic muscle, the oxidative muscle in DEX-treated chickens showed a decrease in the AMP to ATP ratio, a decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alpha phosphorylation and its activity, as well as an increase in the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal p70S6 kinase, without Akt activation. DEX-stimulated lipid deposition was augmented by PA, but alleviated by OA, in response to pathways that were regulated differently, including AMPK, mTOR and FATP1. Conclusions DEX-induced intramuscular lipid accumulation was aggravated by SFA but alleviated by unsaturated fatty acid. The suppressed AMPK and augmented mTOR signaling pathways were involved in glucocortcoid-mediated enhanced intramuscular fat accumulation. PMID:22623960

  8. CO₂ enrichment can produce high red leaf lettuce yield while increasing most flavonoid glycoside and some caffeic acid derivative concentrations.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment is a common practice in greenhouses to increase crop yields up to 30%. Yet, reports on the effect on foliar phenolic compounds vary. We studied the effect on two red leaf lettuce cultivars, grown for 25 days in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 200 or 1,000 ppm, with some plants exchanged between treatments after 11 days. As expected, head mass increased with higher CO2 concentration. Regression analysis, corrected for head mass, showed increased concentrations of most flavonoid glycosides at high CO2 concentrations while only some caffeic acid derivatives were increased, and not uniformly in both cultivars. Sugar concentrations increased with CO2 concentration. Generally, conditions in the 10 days before harvest determined concentrations. We suspect that phenolic compounds were mainly accumulated because plenty of precursors were available. The results indicate that CO2 enrichment can result in high yields of red leaf lettuce rich in phenolic compounds. PMID:26776031

  9. Analysis of free amino acids in green coffee beans. II. Changes of the amino acid content in arabica coffees in connection with post-harvest model treatment.

    PubMed

    Arnold, U; Ludwig, E

    1996-10-01

    To investigate amino acid changes in green coffee beans in the post-harvest period, amino acid concentrations were determined in green beans and after modelled drying, fermentation and storage. After the drying at alternating temperatures up to maximally 40 degrees C, considerable changes in the concentrations of individual amino acids were identified. At the beginning of the storage period, significant changes in concentration were found to a minor extent. Under the condition of drying, it was mainly the concentration of glutamic acid that changed considerably. There was an increase in all the samples by 500 mg/kg dry matter on average, which corresponds to an increase of about 50% of the original value. In contrast, the concentration of aspartic acid in most of the samples decreased clearly due to drying. For the predominant part of the coffee samples, there was a significant increase in the hydrophobic amino acids Val, Phe, Ile and Leu. Changes of the quantities of other amino acids were non-uniform and only insignificant. Constant drying at 80 degrees C for most of the amino acids brought about only minor concentration changes compared to those values obtained at 40 degrees C. Modelled fermentation had no significant effect on the concentrations of the individual amino acids. After a 4-week storage of dried beans, amino acid concentrations did not change further. It is very possible that different post-harvest treatment parameters may influence the amount of aroma precursor compounds in the coffee beans. PMID:9123976

  10. Treatment with estrogen protects against ovariectomy-induced hepatic steatosis by increasing AQP7 expression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaohua; Xing, Lili; Xu, Weihai; Shu, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the marked decrease in ovarian secretion of estrogens in postmenopausal women may be associated with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which low levels of estrogen induce fatty liver disease using an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model and an in vitro cell model. A total of 24 female C57/BL6 mice were divided into four groups: Sham operation, sham operation plus subcutaneous implantation of tamoxifen (TAM), bilateral OVX, and OVX plus subcutaneous implantation of 17β-estradiol (E2). Marked hepatic steatosis and increased expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl‑CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) was observed in the estrogen‑depleted mice (TAM and OVX groups), as compared with in the sham operation group. Treatment with E2 significantly improved hepatic steatosis by decreasing the expression of the aforementioned lipogenic genes. Furthermore, hepatic aquaporin 7 (AQP7) expression was decreased in the estrogen‑depleted mice, but was increased in the OVX + E2 treatment group, as compared with in the sham operation group. These results suggested an association between AQP7 and low estrogen‑induced hepatic steatosis. Subsequently, the functions of AQP7 in hepatic steatosis were investigated using an oleic acid‑induced HepG2 cell model of steatosis. Treatment with E2 alleviated lipid accumulation and decreased the expression of lipogenic genes in vitro; however, such effects were attenuated following transfection with AQP7 small interfering RNA. The present study suggested a mechanism by which low levels of estrogen induce fatty liver disease, and may provide useful information regarding the prevention and treatment of fatty liver disease in postmenopausal women. PMID:27176782

  11. Treatment of vinasse from tequila production using polyglutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Bujang, Kopli

    2012-03-01

    Vinasse, the wastewater from ethanol distillation, is characterised by high levels of organic and inorganic matter, high exit process temperature (ca. 90°C) and low pH (3.0-4.5). In this study, the treatment of tequila vinasse was achieved by a flocculation-coagulation process using poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA). Results showed that the use of PGA (250-300 ppm) combined with sodium hypochlorite and sand filtration managed to remove about 70% of the turbidity and reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 79.5% with the extra benefit of colour removal. PGA showed its best flocculating activity at pH 2.5-3.5 and a temperature of 30-55°C. Such a treatment may be a solution for small tequila companies for which other solutions to deal with their vinasse may not be economically affordable. PMID:21600690

  12. Increased acid responsiveness in vagal sensory neurons in a guinea pig model of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Youtian; Liu, Zhenyu; Yu, Xiaoyun; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Undem, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized with eosinophils and mast cells predominated allergic inflammation in the esophagus and present with esophageal dysfunctions such as dysphagia, food impaction, and heartburn. However, the underlying mechanism of esophageal dysfunctions is unclear. This study aims to determine whether neurons in the vagal sensory ganglia are modulated in a guinea pig model of EoE. Animals were actively sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosol OVA inhalation for 2 wk. This results in a mild esophagitis with increases in mast cells and eosinophils in the esophageal wall. Vagal nodose and jugular neurons were disassociated, and their responses to acid, capsaicin, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist AMG-9810 were studied by calcium imaging and whole cell patch-clamp recording. Compared with naïve animals, antigen challenge significantly increased acid responsiveness in both nodose and jugular neurons. Their responses to capsaicin were also increased after antigen challenge. AMG-9810, at a concentration that blocked capsaicin-evoked calcium influx, abolished the increase in acid-induced activation in both nodose and jugular neurons. Vagotomy strongly attenuated those increased responses of nodose and jugular neurons to both acid and capsaicin induced by antigen challenge. These data for the first time demonstrated that prolonged antigen challenge significantly increases acid responsiveness in vagal nodose and jugular ganglia neurons. This sensitization effect is mediated largely through TRPV1 and initiated at sensory nerve endings in the peripheral tissues. Allergen-induced enhancement of responsiveness to noxious stimulation by acid in sensory nerve may contribute to the development of esophageal dysfunctions such as heartburn in EoE. PMID:24875100

  13. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  14. Production of siderophores increases resistance to fusaric acid in Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jimena A; Bernar, Evangelina M; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Fusaric acid is produced by pathogenic fungi of the genus Fusarium, and is toxic to plants and rhizobacteria. Many fluorescent pseudomonads can prevent wilt diseases caused by these fungi. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fusaric acid on P. protegens Pf-5 and elucidate the mechanisms that enable the bacterium to survive in the presence of the mycotoxin. The results confirm that fusaric acid negatively affects growth and motility of P. protegens. Moreover, a notable increase in secretion of the siderophore pyoverdine was observed when P. protegens was grown in the presence of fusaric acid. Concomitantly, levels of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin, the second siderophore encoded by P. protegens, increased markedly. Moreover, while similar levels of resistance to fusaric acid were observed for P. protegens mutants unable to synthesize either pyoverdine or enanto-pyochelin and the wild type strain, a double mutant unable to synthesize both kinds of siderophores showed a dramatically reduced resistance to this compound. This reduced resistance was not observed when this mutant was grown under conditions of iron excess. Spectrophotometric titrations revealed that fusaric acid binds not only Fe2+ and Fe3+, but also Zn2+, Mn2+ and Cu2+, with high affinity. Our results demonstrate that iron sequestration accounts at least in part for the deleterious effect of the mycotoxin on P. protegens. PMID:25569682

  15. Production of Siderophores Increases Resistance to Fusaric Acid in Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jimena A.; Bernar, Evangelina M.; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Fusaric acid is produced by pathogenic fungi of the genus Fusarium, and is toxic to plants and rhizobacteria. Many fluorescent pseudomonads can prevent wilt diseases caused by these fungi. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fusaric acid on P. protegens Pf-5 and elucidate the mechanisms that enable the bacterium to survive in the presence of the mycotoxin. The results confirm that fusaric acid negatively affects growth and motility of P. protegens. Moreover, a notable increase in secretion of the siderophore pyoverdine was observed when P. protegens was grown in the presence of fusaric acid. Concomitantly, levels of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin, the second siderophore encoded by P. protegens, increased markedly. Moreover, while similar levels of resistance to fusaric acid were observed for P. protegens mutants unable to synthesize either pyoverdine or enanto-pyochelin and the wild type strain, a double mutant unable to synthesize both kinds of siderophores showed a dramatically reduced resistance to this compound. This reduced resistance was not observed when this mutant was grown under conditions of iron excess. Spectrophotometric titrations revealed that fusaric acid binds not only Fe2+ and Fe3+, but also Zn2+, Mn2+ and Cu2+, with high affinity. Our results demonstrate that iron sequestration accounts at least in part for the deleterious effect of the mycotoxin on P. protegens. PMID:25569682

  16. Recovery of Acid Production in Streptococcus mutans Biofilms after Short-Term Fluoride Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dang, Minh-Huy; Jung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Dae-Woo; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is commonly used as an ingredient of topical oral hygiene measures. Despite the anti-acidogenic activities of fluoride against cariogenic biofilms, the recovery of the biofilms from fluoride damage is unclear. Herein, we investigated the recovery of acid production in Streptococcus mutans biofilms after short-term or during periodic 1-min fluoride treatments. For this study, 46-hour-old S. mutans biofilms were treated with fluoride (0-2,000 ppm F-) for 1-8 min and then incubated in saliva for 0-100 min. The 74-hour-old biofilms were also periodically treated with the fluoride concentration during biofilm formation (1 min/treatment). Changes in acidogenicity and viability were determined via pH drop and colony-forming unit assays, respectively. In this study, acid production after a 1-min fluoride treatment was recovered as saliva incubation time increased, which followed a linear pattern of concentration dependence (R = 0.99, R2 = 0.98). The recovery pattern was in a biphasic pattern, with an initial rapid rate followed by a second slow recovery. Furthermore, recovery from fluoride damage was retarded in a concentration-dependent manner as treatment time increased. In periodic 1-min fluoride treatments, acid production in the biofilms was not diminished during the non-fluoride treatment period; however, it was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner during the fluoride treatment period. The viability of the biofilm cells did not change, even at high fluoride concentrations. Collectively, our results suggest that brief fluoride treatment does not sustain anti-acidogenic activity against S. mutans in biofilms since the damage is recoverable with time. PMID:27355469

  17. Linoleic acid supplementation results in increased arachidonic acid and eicosanoid production in CF airway cells and in cftr−/− transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Munir M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Andersson, Charlotte; Bhutta, Abdul Q.; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Laposata, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF leads to increased levels of arachidonate-derived proinflammatory metabolites and that this process is exacerbated by increasing linoleic acid levels in the diet. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of linoleic acid supplementation on downstream proinflammatory biomarkers in two CF models: 1) in vitro cell culture model using 16HBE14o− sense [wild-type (WT)] and antisense (CF) human airway epithelial cells; and 2) in an in vivo model using cftr−/− transgenic mice. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and IL-8 and eicosanoids were measured by ELISA. Neutrophils were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from knockout mice following linoleic acid supplementation and exposure to aerosolized Pseudomonas LPS. Linoleic acid supplementation increased arachidonic acid levels in CF but not WT cells. IL-8, PGE2, and PGF2α secretion were increased in CF compared with WT cells, with a further increase following linoleic acid supplementation. cftr−/− Mice supplemented with 100 mg of linoleic acid had increased arachidonic acid levels in lung tissue associated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the airway compared with control mice. These findings support the hypothesis that increasing linoleic acid levels in the setting of loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function leads to increased arachidonic acid levels and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:20656894

  18. Exogenous IAA treatment enhances phytoremediation of soil contaminated with phenanthrene by promoting soil enzyme activity and increasing microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiming; Wang, Dongsheng; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Ma, Lili; Xu, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to confirm that indole-3-acetic acid promotes plant uptake of phenanthrene (PHE), stimulates the activity of soil enzymes or microflora, and thereby accelerates the dissipation of PHE in soil. Four treatments were evaluated: PHE-contaminated soil planted with (1) ryegrass (T0), (2) ryegrass and supplemented with 1 mg kg(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (T1), (3) ryegrass and supplemented with 5 mg kg(-1) IAA (T5), and (4) ryegrass and supplemented with 10 mg kg(-1) IAA (T10). After 30 days, PHE concentrations were lower for all treatments and the removal rate was 70.19, 89.17, 91.26, and 97.07 % for T0, T1, T5, and T10, respectively. PHE was only detected in the roots and not in the shoots. IAA facilitated the accumulation of PHE in the roots, and plants subjected to the T10 treatment had the highest levels. Exogenous IAA stimulated soil peroxidase activity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas soil polyphenoloxidase activity was not significantly increased, except in T10. Soil microbial biomass also increased in response to IAA treatment, particularly in T10. Furthermore, phospholipid fatty acid analysis showed that IAA treatment increased microbial biomass and alleviated environmental stress. Gram-positive bacteria are largely responsible for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, and we found that the ratio of gram-positive to gram-negative bacteria in the soil significantly increased as the IAA concentrations increased (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that the increase in soil microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and plant uptake of PHE promotes removal of PHE from the soil. PMID:26884240

  19. Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Thiblin, Ingemar; Finn, Anja; Ross, Svante B; Stenfors, Carina

    1999-01-01

    The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. The DOPAC+HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems. PMID:10217522

  20. Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Thiblin, I; Finn, A; Ross, S B; Stenfors, C

    1999-03-01

    1. The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. 2. The DOPAC + HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. 3. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. 4. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. 5. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems. PMID:10217522

  1. L-DOPA Reverses the Increased Free Amino Acids Tissue Levels Induced by Dopamine Depletion and Rises GABA and Tyrosine in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Solís, Oscar; García-Sanz, Patricia; Herranz, Antonio S; Asensio, María-José; Moratalla, Rosario

    2016-07-01

    Perturbations in the cerebral levels of various amino acids are associated with neurological disorders, and previous studies have suggested that such alterations have a role in the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the direct effects of chronic L-DOPA treatment, that produces dyskinesia, on neural tissue amino acid concentrations have not been explored in detail. To evaluate whether striatal amino acid concentrations are altered in peak dose dyskinesia, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian mice were treated chronically with L-DOPA and tissue amino acid concentrations were assessed by HPLC analysis. These experiments revealed that neither 6-OHDA nor L-DOPA treatment are able to alter glutamate in the striatum. However, glutamine increases after 6-OHDA and returns back to normal levels with L-DOPA treatment, suggesting increased striatal glutamatergic transmission with lack of dopamine. In addition, glycine and taurine levels are increased following dopamine denervation and restored to normal levels by L-DOPA. Interestingly, dyskinetic animals showed increased levels of GABA and tyrosine, while aspartate striatal tissue levels are not altered. Overall, our results indicate that chronic L-DOPA treatment, besides normalizing the altered levels of some amino acids after 6-OHDA, robustly increases striatal GABA and tyrosine levels which may in turn contribute to the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. PMID:26966009

  2. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yi Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  3. Valproic Acid Increases CD133 Positive Cells that Show Low Sensitivity to Cytostatics in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed Ashraf; Hraběta, Jan; Groh, Tomáš; Procházka, Pavel; Doktorová, Helena; Eckschlager, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133- populations were examined by flow cytometry. We performed bisulfite conversion followed by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis to assess the methylation status of CD133 promoters P1 and P3. Our results revealed that VPA induced CD133 expression that was associated with increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4. On treatment with VPA and cytostatics, CD133+ cells were mainly detected in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and they showed less activated caspase-3 compared to CD133- cells. UKF-NB-3 neuroblastoma cells which express CD133 displayed higher colony and neurosphere formation capacities when treated with VPA, unlike IMR-32 which lacks for CD133 protein. Induction of CD133 in UKF-NB-3 was associated with increased expression of phosphorylated Akt and pluripotency transcription factors Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox2. VPA did not induce CD133 expression in cell lines with methylated P1 and P3 promoters, where the CD133 protein was not detected. Applying the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to the cell lines with methylated promoters resulted in CD133 re-expression that was associated with a drop in P1 and P3 methylation level. In conclusion, CD133 expression in neuroblastoma can be regulated by histone acetylation and/or methylation of its CpG promoters. VPA can induce CD133+ cells which display high proliferation potential and low sensitivity to cytostatics in neuroblastoma. These results give new insight into the possible

  4. C-Myc Induced Compensated Cardiac Hypertrophy Increases Free Fatty Acid Utilization for the Citric Acid Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Aaron; Ledee, Dolena; Iwamoto, Kate; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc-induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4-6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam). Isolated working hearts and 13Carbon (13C )-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was confirmed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contribution in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc vs cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the mechanisms whereby this change maintained

  5. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by chemical processes: effect of acid cracking pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Hande Gursoy-Haksevenler, B; Arslan-Alaton, Idil

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acid cracking (pH 2.0; T 70 °C) and filtration as a pretreatment step on the chemical treatability of olive mill wastewater (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 150,000 m/L; total organic carbon (TOC) 36,000 mg/L; oil-grease 8,200 mg/L; total phenols 3,800 mg/L) was investigated. FeCl3 coagulation, Ca(OH)2 precipitation, electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes and the Fenton's reagent were applied as chemical treatment methods. Removal performances were examined in terms of COD, TOC, oil-grease, total phenols, colour, suspended solids and acute toxicity with the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri. Significant oil-grease (95%) and suspended solids (96%) accompanied with 58% COD, 43% TOC, 39% total phenols and 80% colour removals were obtained by acid cracking-filtration pretreatment. Among the investigated chemical treatment processes, electrocoagulation and the Fenton's reagent were found more effective after pretreatment, especially in terms of total phenols removal. Total phenols removal increased from 39 to 72% when pretreatment was applied, while no significant additional (≈10-15%) COD and TOC removals were obtained when acid cracking was coupled with chemical treatment. The acute toxicity of the original olive mill wastewater sample increased considerably after pretreatment from 75 to 89% (measured for the 10-fold diluted wastewater sample). An operating cost analysis was also performed for the selected chemical treatment processes. PMID:24718336

  6. Bi-functional prodrugs of 5-aminolevulinic acid and butyric acid increase erythropoiesis in anemic mice in an erythropoietin-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Rephaeli, Ada; Tarasenko, Nataly; Fibach, Eitan; Rozic, Gabriela; Lubin, Ido; Lipovetsky, Julia; Furman, Svetlana; Malik, Zvi; Nudelman, Abraham

    2016-08-25

    Anemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide resulting from a wide variety of pathological conditions. In severe cases it is treated by blood transfusions or injection of erythroid stimulating agents, e.g., erythropoietin (Epo), which can be associated with serious adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop new treatment modalities. We recently reported that treatment of erythroleukemic cells with the novel the bi-functional prodrugs of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and butyric acid (BA), AN233 and AN908, enhanced hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis to a substantially higher level than did ALA and BA individually or their mixture. Herein, we describe that these prodrugs when given orally to mice induced histone deacetylase inhibition in the kidneys, bone marrow and spleen, thus, indicating good penetrability to the tissues. In mice where anemia was chemically induced, treatment with the prodrugs increased the Hb, the number of red blood cells (RBCs) and the percentage of reticulocytes to normal levels. The prodrugs had no adverse effects even after repeated treatment at 100-200mg/kg for 50days. The lack of increased levels of Epo in the blood of mice that were treated with the prodrugs suggests that AN233 and AN908 affected the Hb and RBC levels in an Epo-independent manner. Taken together with our previous studies, we propose that the prodrugs increase globin expression by BA inhibition of histone deacetylase and elevation heme synthesis by ALA. These results support an Epo-independent approach for treating anemia with these prodrugs. PMID:27283485

  7. Increased Serum Uric Acid Levels Blunt the Antihypertensive Efficacy of Lifestyle Modifications in Children at Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Rebora, Paola; Giussani, Marco; Orlando, Antonina; Stella, Andrea; Antolini, Laura; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Pontremoli, Roberto; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-05-01

    Primary hypertension is a growing concern in children because of the obesity epidemic largely attributable to western lifestyles. Serum uric acid is known to be influenced by dietary habits, correlates with obesity, and could represent a risk factor for hypertension. Preliminary studies in children highlighted uric acid as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The effect of lifestyle changes (increase of physical activity and dietary modifications) on blood pressure values, weight status, and serum uric acid levels in a cohort of 248 children referred for cardiovascular risk assessment were evaluated over a mean 1.5-year follow-up. At baseline, 48% of children were obese and 50% showed blood pressure values >90th percentile. At follow-up, a significant improvement in weight class (24% obese;P<0.0001) and blood pressure category (22% >90th percentile;P<0.0001) was found. Systolic blood pressure z-score (P<0.0001), uric acid value (P=0.0056), and puberty at baseline (P=0.0048) were independently associated with higher systolic blood pressure z-score at follow-up, whereas a negative association was observed with body mass index z-score decrease during follow-up (P=0.0033). The risk of hypertension at follow-up was associated with body mass index (P=0.0025) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001) z-score at baseline and inversely related to delta body mass index (P=0.0002), whereas the risk of showing hypertension ≥99th percentile was more than doubled for each baseline 1 mg/dL increase of serum uric acid (P=0.0130). Uric acid is a powerful determinant of blood pressure over time, independent of lifestyle modifications. PMID:27021006

  8. Responses of soil buffering capacity to acid treatment in three typical subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Ying-Ping; Yu, Mengxiao; Li, Kun; Shao, Yijing; Yan, Junhua

    2016-09-01

    Elevated anthropogenic acid deposition can significantly affect forest ecosystem functioning by changing soil pH, nutrient balance, and chemical leaching and so on. These effects generally differ among different forests, and the dominant mechanisms for those observed responses often vary, depending on climate, soil conditions and vegetation types. Using soil monoliths (0-40cm) from pine forest (pioneer), coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) and broadleaved forest (mature) in southern China, we conducted a leaching experiment with acid treatments at different pH levels (control: pH≈4.5; pH=3.5; pH=2.5). We found that pH3.5 treatment significantly reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in leachate from the pioneer forest soil. pH2.5 treatment significantly increased concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the pioneer forest soil, and also concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the transitional forest soil. All acid treatments had no significant effects on concentrations of these chemicals in leachate from the mature forest soil. The responses can be explained by the changes in soil pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and concentrations of Al and Fe. Our results showed that acid buffering capacity of the pioneer or transitional forest soil was lower than that of the mature forest soil. Therefore preserving mature forests in southern China is important for reducing the adverse impacts of high acid deposition on stream water quality at present and into the future. PMID:27185346

  9. Ascorbic acid recycling by cultured beta cells: effects of increased glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Steffner, Robert J; Wu, Lan; Powers, Alvin C; May, James M

    2004-11-15

    Ascorbic acid is necessary for optimal insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. We evaluated ascorbate recycling and whether it is impaired by increased glucose metabolism in the rat beta-cell line INS-1. INS-1 cells, engineered with the potential for overexpression of glucokinase under the control of a tetracycline-inducible gene expression system, took up and reduced dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbate in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal in the presence of physiologic D-glucose concentrations. Ascorbate uptake did not affect intracellular GSH concentrations. Whereas depletion of GSH in culture to levels about 25% of normal also did not affect the ability of the cells to reduce dehydroascorbic acid, more severe acute GSH depletion to less than 10% of normal levels did impair dehydroascorbic acid reduction. Culture of inducible cells in 11.8 mM D-glucose and doxycycline for 48 h enhanced glucokinase activity, increased glucose utilization, abolished D-glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species. The latter may have contributed to subsequent decreases in the ability of the cells both to maintain intracellular ascorbate and to recycle it from dehydroascorbic acid. Cultured beta cells have a high capacity to recycle ascorbate, but this is sensitive to oxidant stress generated by increased glucose metabolism due to culture in high glucose concentrations and increased glucokinase expression. Impaired ascorbate recycling as a result of increased glucose metabolism may have implications for the role of ascorbate in insulin secretion in diabetes mellitus and may partially explain glucose toxicity in beta cells. PMID:15477012

  10. Betulinic Acid Selectively Increases Protein Degradation and Enhances Prostate Cancer-Specific Apoptosis: Possible Role for Inhibition of Deubiquitinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Teresita; Parrondo, Ricardo; de las Pozas, Alicia; Palenzuela, Deanna; Perez-Stable, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation is a valid anti-cancer strategy and has led to the approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, the alternative approach of enhancing the degradation of oncoproteins that are frequently overexpressed in cancers is less developed. Betulinic acid (BA) is a plant-derived small molecule that can increase apoptosis specifically in cancer but not in normal cells, making it an attractive anti-cancer agent. Our results in prostate cancer suggested that BA inhibited multiple deubiquitinases (DUBs), which resulted in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, decreased levels of oncoproteins, and increased apoptotic cell death. In normal fibroblasts, however, BA did not inhibit DUB activity nor increased total poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which was associated with a lack of effect on cell death. In the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer, treatment with BA (10 mg/kg) inhibited primary tumors, increased apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and proliferation, and lowered androgen receptor and cyclin D1 protein. BA treatment also inhibited DUB activity and increased ubiquitinated proteins in TRAMP prostate cancer but had no effect on apoptosis or ubiquitination in normal mouse tissues. Overall, our data suggests that BA-mediated inhibition of DUBs and induction of apoptotic cell death specifically in prostate cancer but not in normal cells and tissues may provide an effective non-toxic and clinically selective agent for chemotherapy. PMID:23424652

  11. INCREASE IN GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN FOLLOWS BRAIN HYPERTHERMIA IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, the authors have demonstrated that an increase in the astrocyte-associated protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), accompanies brain injury induced by a variety of chemical insults. In the present study the authors examined the effects of microwave-induced hy...

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content is increased in the milk of women with pregnancy associated breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is aggressive and difficult to diagnose. High intake of most types of dietary fat is thought to increase breast cancer risk, however results in humans supporting this premise remain equivocal. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in the body comprise b...

  13. Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver disease by increasing renal excretion of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lirui; Hartmann, Phillipp; Haimerl, Michael; Bathena, Sai P.; Sjöwall, Christopher; Almer, Sven; Alnouti, Yazen; Hofmann, Alan F.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Chronic liver disease is characterized by fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of intracellular immune receptors, plays an important role in the defense against bacterial infection through binding to the ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here, we investigated the role of Nod2 in the development of liver fibrosis. Methods We studied experimental cholestatic liver disease induced by bile duct ligation or toxic liver disease induced by carbon tetrachloride in wild type and Nod2−/− mice. Results Nod2 deficiency protected mice from cholestatic but not toxin-induced liver injury and fibrosis. Most notably, the hepatic bile acid concentration was lower in Nod2−/− mice than wild type mice following bile duct ligation for 3 weeks. In contrast to wild type mice, Nod2−/− mice had increased urinary excretion of bile acids, including sulfated bile acids, and an upregulation of the bile acid efflux transporters MRP2 and MRP4 in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. MRP2 and MRP4 were downregulated by IL-1β in a Nod2 dependent fashion. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis through enhancing renal excretion of bile acids that in turn contributes to decreased concentration of bile acids in the hepatocyte. PMID:24560660

  14. Does Integrated Trauma-Informed Substance Abuse Treatment Increase Treatment Retention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Chernoff, Miriam; Brown, Vivian; Arevalo, Sandra; Gatz, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized group design study that explored whether trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment results in longer residential treatment stays and improved outcomes compared with treatment-as-usual. We used a subsample (N = 461) of participants in the Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and…

  15. Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1992-07-06

    In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

  16. Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1992-07-06

    In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

  17. Increased muscle fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows with intensive body fat mobilization during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C; Börner, S; Hacke, S; Kautzsch, U; Sauerwein, H; Spachmann, S K; Schweigel-Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Kuhla, B

    2013-10-01

    The beginning of lactation requires huge metabolic adaptations to meet increased energy demands for milk production of dairy cows. One of the adaptations is the mobilization of body reserves mainly from adipose tissue as reflected by increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete oxidation of NEFA is limited, leading to an increased formation of ketone bodies, reesterification, and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. As the skeletal muscle also may oxidize fatty acids, it may help to decrease the fatty acid load on the liver. To test this hypothesis, 19 German Holstein cows were weekly blood sampled from 7 wk before until 5 wk after parturition to analyze plasma NEFA concentrations. Liver biopsies were obtained at d 3, 18, and 30 after parturition and, based on the mean liver fat content, cows were grouped to the 10 highest (HI) and 9 lowest (LO). In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained at d -17, 3, and 30 relative to parturition and used to quantify mRNA abundance of genes involved in fatty acid degradation. Plasma NEFA concentrations peaked after parturition and were 1.5-fold higher in HI than LO cows. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α and β mRNA was upregulated in early lactation. The mRNA abundance of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) increased in early lactation and was higher in HI than in LO cows, whereas the abundance of PPARA continuously decreased after parturition. The mRNA abundance of muscle PPARD, uncoupling protein 3, and the β-oxidative enzymes 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA was greatest at d 3 after parturition, whereas the abundance of PPARγ coactivator 1α decreased after parturition. Our results indicate that around parturition, oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle is highly activated, which may contribute to diminish the fatty acid load on the liver. The

  18. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W. )

    1991-05-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication.

  19. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Bahareh; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in patients’ and investigator's satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05). However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01). Conclusion: This study's results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma. PMID:25422661

  20. The Fatty Acid Signaling Molecule cis-2-Decenoic Acid Increases Metabolic Activity and Reverts Persister Cells to an Antimicrobial-Susceptible State

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Aleksey; Planzos, Penny; Zelaya, Hector M.

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells, which are tolerant to antimicrobials, contribute to biofilm recalcitrance to therapeutic agents. In turn, the ability to kill persister cells is believed to significantly improve efforts in eradicating biofilm-related, chronic infections. While much research has focused on elucidating the mechanism(s) by which persister cells form, little is known about the mechanism or factors that enable persister cells to revert to an active and susceptible state. Here, we demonstrate that cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-DA), a fatty acid signaling molecule, is able to change the status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli persister cells from a dormant to a metabolically active state without an increase in cell number. This cell awakening is supported by an increase of the persister cells' respiratory activity together with changes in protein abundance and increases of the transcript expression levels of several metabolic markers, including acpP, 16S rRNA, atpH, and ppx. Given that most antimicrobials target actively growing cells, we also explored the effect of cis-DA on enhancing antibiotic efficacy in killing persister cells due to their inability to keep a persister cell state. Compared to antimicrobial treatment alone, combinational treatments of persister cell subpopulations with antimicrobials and cis-DA resulted in a significantly greater decrease in cell viability. In addition, the presence of cis-DA led to a decrease in the number of persister cells isolated. We thus demonstrate the ability of a fatty acid signaling molecule to revert bacterial cells from a tolerant phenotype to a metabolically active, antimicrobial-sensitive state. PMID:25192989

  1. Altered myocardial metabolic adaptation to increased fatty acid availability in cardiomyocyte-specific CLOCK mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A; Goel, Mehak; Aristorenas, Jonathan A; Shah, Krishna; He, Lan; Yang, Qinglin; Shalev, Anath; Bailey, Shannon M; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Chatham, John C; Gamble, Karen L; Young, Martin E

    2016-10-01

    A mismatch between fatty acid availability and utilization leads to cellular/organ dysfunction during cardiometabolic disease states (e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus). This can precipitate cardiac dysfunction. The heart adapts to increased fatty acid availability at transcriptional, translational, post-translational and metabolic levels, thereby attenuating cardiomyopathy development. We have previously reported that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock regulates transcriptional responsiveness of the heart to acute increases in fatty acid availability (e.g., short-term fasting). The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the cardiomyocyte circadian clock plays a role in adaptation of the heart to chronic elevations in fatty acid availability. Fatty acid availability was increased in cardiomyocyte-specific CLOCK mutant (CCM) and wild-type (WT) littermate mice for 9weeks in time-of-day-independent (streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes) and dependent (high fat diet meal feeding) manners. Indices of myocardial metabolic adaptation (e.g., substrate reliance perturbations) to STZ-induced diabetes and high fat meal feeding were found to be dependent on genotype. Various transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms were investigated, revealing that Cte1 mRNA induction in the heart during STZ-induced diabetes is attenuated in CCM hearts. At the functional level, time-of-day-dependent high fat meal feeding tended to influence cardiac function to a greater extent in WT versus CCM mice. Collectively, these data suggest that CLOCK (a circadian clock component) is important for metabolic adaption of the heart to prolonged elevations in fatty acid availability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:26721420

  2. Homologous electron transport components fail to increase fatty acid hydroxylation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Laura L.; Browse, John

    2013-01-01

    Ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid (HFA) present in castor ( Ricinus communis) seeds, is an important industrial commodity used in products ranging from inks and paints to polymers and fuels. However, due to the deadly toxin ricin and allergens also present in castor, it would be advantageous to produce ricinoleic acid in a different agricultural crop. Unfortunately, repeated efforts at heterologous expression of the castor fatty acid hydroxylase (RcFAH12) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have produced only 17-19% HFA in the seed triacylglycerols (TAG), whereas castor seeds accumulate up to 90% ricinoleic acid in the endosperm TAG. RcFAH12 requires an electron supply from NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR1) and cytochrome b5 (Cb5) to synthesize ricinoleic acid. Previously, our laboratory found a mutation in the Arabidopsis CBR1 gene, cbr1-1, that caused an 85% decrease in HFA levels in the RcFAH12 Arabidopsis line. These results raise the possibility that electron supply to the heterologous RcFAH12 may limit the production of HFA. Therefore, we hypothesized that by heterologously expressing RcCb5, the reductant supply to RcFAH12 would be improved and lead to increased HFA accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds. Contrary to this proposal, heterologous expression of the top three RcCb5 candidates did not increase HFA accumulation. Furthermore, coexpression of RcCBR1 and RcCb5 in RcFAH12 Arabidopsis also did not increase in HFA levels compared to the parental lines. These results demonstrate that the Arabidopsis electron transfer system is supplying sufficient reductant to RcFAH12 and that there must be other bottlenecks limiting the accumulation of HFA. PMID:24555099

  3. Caffeic acid-coated multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for the treatment and bimodal imaging of tumours.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Kyoung Sub; Na, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Accurate theragnosis of tumour is essential for improving the life rate of tumour patients. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been used as both diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, their application is often limited because of a lack of water solubility, lack of cancer treatment efficacy, and ineffective targeting of tumour cells. In this report, a double ligand (caffeic acid-polyethylene glycol-folic acid; FA-PEG-CA, caffeic acid-polyethylene glycol-pheophorbide-a; PheoA-PEG-CA) coated iron oxide nanoparticle has been fabricated that overcomes the limitations of conventional SPION. Photosensitizer and tumour targeting ligands were coated on SPION using a ligand-substitution method. We confirmed the successful substitution of oleic acid ligands with FA-PEG-CA and PheoA-PEG-CA ligands by FT-IR spectroscopy. The caffeic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CAMNPs) also demonstrated high water solubility in an aqueous environment and folate-mediated active tumour targeting. The water solubility of CAMNPs was evaluated by DLS measurement and TEM images. The cytotoxicity of CAMNPs increased two-fold in MDA-MB-231 cells at a laser irradiation condition. The fabricated CAMNPs retained their ability to function as both MRI diagnostic and tumour-selective therapeutic agents. These results suggest that these efficient characteristics of CAMNPs can be incorporated into applications, thus enhancing the efficacy of clinical cancer treatment. PMID:27107705

  4. Impact of treatment processes on the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from the drinking water production chain.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Beerendonk, Erwin; Scholte-Veenendaal, Petra; De Voogt, Pim

    2012-02-01

    The behavior of polyfluoralkyl acids (PFAAs) from intake (raw source water) to finished drinking water was assessed by taking samples from influent and effluent of the several treatment steps used in a drinking water production chain. These consisted of intake, coagulation, rapid sand filtration, dune passage, aeration, rapid sand filtration, ozonation, pellet softening, granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration, slow sand filtration, and finished drinking water. In the intake water taken from the Lek canal (a tributary of the river Rhine), the most abundant PFAA were PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), PFBS (perfluorobutane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid). During treatment, longer chain PFAA such as PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFOS were readily removed by the GAC treatment step and their GAC effluent concentrations were reduced to levels below the limits of quantitation (LOQ) (0.23 and 0.24 ng/L for PFOS and PFNA, respectively). However, more hydrophilic shorter chain PFAA (especially PFBA and PFBS) were not removed by GAC and their concentrations remained constant through treatment. A decreasing removal capacity of the GAC was observed with increasing carbon loading and with decreasing carbon chain length of the PFAAs. This study shows that none of the treatment steps, including softening processes, are effective for PFAA removal, except for GAC filtration. GAC can effectively remove certain PFAA from the drinking water cycle.The enrichment of branched PFOS and PFOA isomers relative to non branched isomers during GAC filtration was observed during treatment. The finished water contained 26 and 19 ng/L of PFBA and PFBS. Other PFAAs were present in concentrations below 4.2 ng/L The concentrations of PFAA observed in finished waters are no reason for concern for human health as margins to existing guidelines are sufficiently large. PMID:22201258

  5. Elimination of African Onchocerciasis: Modeling the Impact of Increasing the Frequency of Ivermectin Mass Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Hoerauf, Achim; Habbema, Dik; Bakker, Roel; Hopkins, Adrian D.; de Vlas, Sake J.

    2014-01-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is currently shifting its focus from morbidity control to elimination of infection. To enhance the likelihood of elimination and speed up its achievement, programs may consider to increase the frequency of ivermectin mass treatment from annual to 6-monthly or even higher. In a computer simulation study, we examined the potential impact of increasing the mass treatment frequency for different settings. With the ONCHOSIM model, we simulated 92,610 scenarios pertaining to different assumptions about transmission conditions, history of mass treatment, the future mass treatment strategy, and ivermectin efficacy. Simulation results were used to determine the minimum remaining program duration and number of treatment rounds required to achieve 99% probability of elimination. Doubling the frequency of treatment from yearly to 6-monthly or 3-monthly was predicted to reduce remaining program duration by about 40% or 60%, respectively. These reductions come at a cost of additional treatment rounds, especially in case of 3-monthly mass treatment. Also, aforementioned reductions are highly dependent on maintained coverage, and could be completely nullified if coverage of mass treatment were to fall in the future. In low coverage settings, increasing treatment coverage is almost just as effective as increasing treatment frequency. We conclude that 6-monthly mass treatment may only be worth the effort in situations where annual treatment is expected to take a long time to achieve elimination in spite of good treatment coverage, e.g. because of unfavorable transmission conditions or because mass treatment started recently. PMID:25545677

  6. Elimination of African onchocerciasis: modeling the impact of increasing the frequency of ivermectin mass treatment.

    PubMed

    Coffeng, Luc E; Stolk, Wilma A; Hoerauf, Achim; Habbema, Dik; Bakker, Roel; Hopkins, Adrian D; de Vlas, Sake J

    2014-01-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is currently shifting its focus from morbidity control to elimination of infection. To enhance the likelihood of elimination and speed up its achievement, programs may consider to increase the frequency of ivermectin mass treatment from annual to 6-monthly or even higher. In a computer simulation study, we examined the potential impact of increasing the mass treatment frequency for different settings. With the ONCHOSIM model, we simulated 92,610 scenarios pertaining to different assumptions about transmission conditions, history of mass treatment, the future mass treatment strategy, and ivermectin efficacy. Simulation results were used to determine the minimum remaining program duration and number of treatment rounds required to achieve 99% probability of elimination. Doubling the frequency of treatment from yearly to 6-monthly or 3-monthly was predicted to reduce remaining program duration by about 40% or 60%, respectively. These reductions come at a cost of additional treatment rounds, especially in case of 3-monthly mass treatment. Also, aforementioned reductions are highly dependent on maintained coverage, and could be completely nullified if coverage of mass treatment were to fall in the future. In low coverage settings, increasing treatment coverage is almost just as effective as increasing treatment frequency. We conclude that 6-monthly mass treatment may only be worth the effort in situations where annual treatment is expected to take a long time to achieve elimination in spite of good treatment coverage, e.g. because of unfavorable transmission conditions or because mass treatment started recently. PMID:25545677

  7. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3). PMID:22643421

  8. Chlorogenic Acid Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Increases Expression of Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins in Weaned Rats Challenged with LPS

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zheng; Liu, Shiqiang; Zhou, Yan; Mi, Shumei; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Yao, Kang; Assaad, Houssein; Deng, Zeyuan; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a natural phenolic acid present in fruits and plants, provides beneficial effects for human health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether chlorogenic acid (CHA) could improve the intestinal barrier integrity for weaned rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two weaned male Sprague Dawley rats (21±1 d of age; 62.26±2.73 g) were selected and randomly allotted to four treatments, including weaned rat control, LPS-challenged and chlorogenic acid (CHA) supplemented group (orally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body). Dietary supplementation with CHA decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of urea and albumin in the serum, compared to the LPS-challenged group. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were lower (P<0.05) in the jejunal and colon of weaned rats receiving CHA supplementation, in comparison with the control group. CHA supplementation increased (P<0.05) villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosae under condictions of LPS challenge. CHA supplementation decreased (P<0.05) intestinal permeability, which was indicated by the ratio of lactulose to mannitol and serum DAO activity, when compared to weaned rats with LPS challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis of tight junction proteins revealed that ZO-1 and occludin protein abundances in the jejunum and colon were increased (P<0.05) by CHA supplementation. Additionally, results of immunoblot analysis revealed that the amount of occludin in the colon was also increased (P<0.05) in CHA-supplemented rats. In conclusion, CHA decreases intestinal permeability and increases intestinal expression of tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS. PMID:24887396

  9. Organic reactions increasing the absorption index of atmospheric sulfuric acid aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozière, B.; Esteve, W.

    2005-02-01

    Unlike most environments present at Earth's surface atmospheric aerosols can be favorable to organic reactions. Among them, the acid-catalyzed aldol condensation of aldehydes and ketones produces light-absorbing compounds. In this work the increase of the absorption index of sulfuric acid solutions 50-96 wt. % resulting from the uptake of gas-phase acetaldehyde, acetone, and 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone), has been measured in the near UV and visible range. Our results indicate that the absorption index between 200 and 500 nm for stratospheric sulfuric aerosols exposed to 100 pptV of acetaldehyde (1 pptV = 10-12 v/v) would increase by four orders of magnitude over a two-year lifetime. Rough estimates based on previous radiative calculations suggest that this reaction could result in an increase of the radiative forcing of sulfate aerosols of the order of 0.01 W m-2, and that these processes are worth further investigation.

  10. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on the altered progesterone and bile acid homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio during cholestasis of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Estiú, Maria C; Monte, Maria J; Rivas, Laura; Moirón, Maria; Gomez-Rodriguez, Laura; Rodriguez-Bravo, Tomas; Marin, Jose JG; Macias, Rocio IR

    2015-01-01

    Aim Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by pruritus and elevated bile acid concentrations in maternal serum. This is accompanied by an enhanced risk of intra-uterine and perinatal complications. High concentrations of sulphated progesterone metabolites (PMS) have been suggested to be involved in the multifactorial aetiopathogenesis of ICP. The aim of this study was to investigate further the mechanism accounting for the beneficial effect of oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which is the standard treatment, regarding bile acid and PMS homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio. Method Using HPLC-MS/MS bile acids and PMS were determined in maternal and foetal serum and placenta. The expression of ABC proteins in placenta was determined by real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) and immunofluorescence. Results In ICP, markedly increased concentrations of bile acids (tauroconjugates > glycoconjugates >> unconjugated), progesterone and PMS in placenta and maternal serum were accompanied by enhanced concentrations in foetal serum of bile acids, but not of PMS. UDCA treatment reduced bile acid accumulation in the mother-placenta-foetus trio, but had no significant effect on progesterone and PMS concentrations. ABCG2 mRNA abundance was increased in placentas from ICP patients vs. controls and remained stable following UDCA treatment, despite an apparent further increase in ABCG2. Conclusion UDCA administration partially reduces ICP-induced bile acid accumulation in mothers and foetuses despite the lack of effect on concentrations of progesterone and PMS in maternal serum. Up-regulation of placental ABCG2 may play an important role in protecting the foetus from high concentrations of bile acids and PMS during ICP. PMID:25099365

  11. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  12. Aristolochic acid nephropathy: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Randy L; Perazella, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a compound extracted from the Aristolochia species of herbs. It has been used for centuries as a remedy for various illnesses and diseases. However, in the early 1990s in the setting of a weight loss herbal remedy, AA exposure was associated with a syndrome of kidney injury, termed aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). This entity is marked by elevated serum creatinine, significant anemia, and histopathologic changes demonstrating a hypocellular interstitial infiltrate with severe fibrosis. Progression towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is rapid, with most patients having chronic kidney disease for less than 2 years. In addition, AAN is associated with a 40-45 % prevalence of urothelial carcinomas. Treatment of AAN is limited to glucocorticoids that have been shown to delay progression in non-randomized trials. As most patients progress to ESRD, need for renal replacement therapy, as either dialysis or kidney transplant, usually ensues. However, given the high malignant potential, care must be taken to minimize future development of upper urinary tract cancers by performing prophylactic bilateral nephroureterectomies and aggressive cancer surveillance. PMID:25446374

  13. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. PMID:27262718

  14. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with alpha-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Di Geronimo, G; Caccese, A Fonzone; Caruso, L; Soldati, A; Passaretti, U

    2009-01-01

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral mononeuropathy; its symptoms and functional limitations significantly penalize the daily activities and quality of life of many people. While surgery is reserved to most severe cases, the earlier stages of disease may be controlled by a pharmacological treatment aimed to "neuroprotection", i.e. to limiting and correcting the nerve damage. Our study was aimed to compare the efficacy of a fixed association of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) 600 mg/die and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) 360 mg/die, and a multivitamin B preparation (Vit B6 150 mg, Vit B1 100 mg, Vit B12 500 microg daily) for 90 days in 112 subjects with moderately severe CTS. Demographic, case-history and treatment efficacy data were collected; the Boston questionnaire was administered and the patients were evaluated by Hi-Ob scale and electro-myography. A significant reduction in both symptoms scores and functional impairment (Boston questionnaire) was observed in ALA/GLA group, while the multivitamin group experienced a slight improvement of symptoms and a deterioration of functional scores. Electromyography showed a statistically significant improvement with ALA/GLA, but not with the multivitamin product. The Hi-Ob scale showed significant efficacy of ALA/GLA in improving symptoms and functional impairment, while in the multivitamin group the improvement was significant, but less marked than in the ALA/GLA group. In conclusion, the fixed association of ALA and GLA proved to be a useful tool and may be proposed for controlling symptoms and improving the evolution of CTS, especially in the earlier stages of disease. PMID:19499849

  15. 17β-estradiol increases liver and serum docosahexaenoic acid in mice fed varying levels of α-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Mason, Julie K; Kharotia, Shikhil; Wiggins, Ashleigh K A; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Jianmin; Bazinet, Richard P; Thompson, Lilian U

    2014-08-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is considered to be important for cardiac and brain function, and 17β-estradiol (E2) appears to increase the conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into DHA. However, the effect of varying ALA intake on the positive effect of E2 on DHA synthesis is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E2 supplementation on tissue and serum fatty acids in mice fed a low-ALA corn oil-based diet (CO, providing 0.6 % fatty acids as ALA) or a high ALA flaxseed meal-based diet (FS, providing 11.2 % ALA). Ovariectomized mice were implanted with a slow-release E2 pellet at 3 weeks of age and half the mice had the pellet removed at 7 weeks of age. Mice were then randomized onto either the CO or FS diet. After 4 weeks, the DHA concentration was measured in serum, liver and brain. A significant main effect of E2 was found for liver and serum DHA, corresponding to 25 and 15 % higher DHA in livers of CO and FS rats, respectively, and 19 and 13 % in serum of CO and FS rats, respectively, compared to unsupplemented mice. There was no effect of E2 on brain DHA. E2 results in higher DHA in serum and liver, at both levels of dietary ALA investigated presently, suggesting that higher ALA intake may result in higher DHA in individuals with higher E2 status. PMID:24913495

  16. Improvement in electrochemical capacitance of activated carbon from scrap tires by nitric acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Dong, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char is treated by concentrated nitric acid (AC-HNO3) and then used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Surface properties and electrochemical capacitances of AC and ACHNO3 are studied. It is found that the morphology and the porous texture for AC and AC-HNO3 have little difference, while the oxygen content increases and functional groups change after the acid treatment. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the AC-HNO3 electrode displays higher specific capacitance, better stability and cycling performance, and lower equivalent series resistance, indicating that AC obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char treated by concentrated nitric acid is applicable for supercapacitors.

  17. Depletion of retinoic acid receptors initiates a novel positive feedback mechanism that promotes teratogenic increases in retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Enrico; Rydeen, Ariel B; Anderson, Jane L; Mandal, Amrita; Waxman, Joshua S

    2013-01-01

    Normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis require precise levels of retinoic acid (RA) signaling. Despite the importance of appropriate embryonic RA signaling levels, the mechanisms underlying congenital defects due to perturbations of RA signaling are not completely understood. Here, we report that zebrafish embryos deficient for RA receptor αb1 (RARαb1), a conserved RAR splice variant, have enlarged hearts with increased cardiomyocyte (CM) specification, which are surprisingly the consequence of increased RA signaling. Importantly, depletion of RARαb2 or concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and RARαb2 also results in increased RA signaling, suggesting this effect is a broader consequence of RAR depletion. Concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and Cyp26a1, an enzyme that facilitates degradation of RA, and employment of a novel transgenic RA sensor line support the hypothesis that the increases in RA signaling in RAR deficient embryos are the result of increased embryonic RA coupled with compensatory RAR expression. Our results support an intriguing novel mechanism by which depletion of RARs elicits a previously unrecognized positive feedback loop that can result in developmental defects due to teratogenic increases in embryonic RA. PMID:23990796

  18. Heparin, free fatty acids and an increased metabolic demand for oxygen.

    PubMed

    Jung, R T; Shetty, P S; James, W P

    1980-05-01

    Obese and lean subjects were given heparin with or without Intralipid in order to assess the effect of heparin on plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) and oxidative metabolism. The FFA response depended on the triglyceride concentration and was associated with a prompt rise in oxygen consumption. Plasma catecholamines did not alter after heparin and the increase in oxygen uptake was proportional to the rise in FFA. The use of heparin, therefore, has metabolic disadvantages which may outweigh the potential benefits, for example in the management of myocardial infarction where heparin may increase the metabolic demand on the heart by increasing FFA levels. PMID:7443592

  19. Heparin, free fatty acids and an increased metabolic demand for oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Jung, R. T.; Shetty, P. S.; James, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Obese and lean subjects were given heparin with or without Intralipid in order to assess the effect of heparin on plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) and oxidative metabolism. The FFA response depended on the triglyceride concentration and was associated with a prompt rise in oxygen consumption. Plasma catecholamines did not alter after heparin and the increase in oxygen uptake was proportional to the rise in FFA. The use of heparin, therefore, has metabolic disadvantages which may outweigh the potential benefits, for example in the management of myocardial infarction where heparin may increase the metabolic demand on the heart by increasing FFA levels. PMID:7443592

  20. Effects of heat treatment on chitosan nanocomposite film reinforced with nanocrystalline cellulose and tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Rubentheren, V; Ward, Thomas A; Chee, Ching Yern; Nair, Praveena; Salami, Erfan; Fearday, Christopher

    2016-04-20

    This article presents an analysis of the influence of heat treatment on chitosan nanocomposite film. A series of samples comprising: pure chitosan film, chitosan film embedded with nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), chitosan film crosslinked with tannic acid and chitosan film with a blend of NCC and tannic acid were heat treated using a convection oven. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction test (XRD) shows the changes in chemical interaction of the heat treated films. The heat treated films show significant improvements in moisture absorption. Tensile strength and Young's Modulus were increased up to 7MPa and 259MPa, respectively when the samples were subjected to heat treatment. For the NCC particles, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to inspect the structural properties of cellulose particle in suspension form. PMID:26876845

  1. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING FISHBONE APATITE IITM

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT. In 2000, a reactive barrier was installed on the East Fork of Ninemile Creek near Wallace, Idaho to treat acid mine discharge. The barrier was filled with fishbone derived Apatite IITM to remove the contaminants of concern (Zn, Pb, and Cd) and raise the pH of the acidic mine discharge. Metal removal has been achieved by a combination of chemical, biological, and physical precipitation. Flow for the water ranges from 5 to 35 gallons per minute. The water is successfully being treated, but the system experienced varying degrees of plugging. In 2002, gravel was mixed with the Apatite IITM to help control plugging. In 2003 the Idaho National Laboratory was ask to provide technical support to the Coeur d’Alene Basin Commission to help identify a remedy to the plugging issue. Air sparging was employed to treat the plugging issues. Plastic packing rings were added in the fall of 2005, which have increased the void space in the media and increased flows during the 10 months of operation since the improvements were made.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3488 for increased production of L-malic acid.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen H; Bashkirova, Lena; Berka, Randy; Chandler, Tyler; Doty, Tammy; McCall, Keith; McCulloch, Michael; McFarland, Sarah; Thompson, Sheryl; Yaver, Debbie; Berry, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Malic acid, a petroleum-derived C4-dicarboxylic acid that is used in the food and beverage industries, is also produced by a number of microorganisms that follow a variety of metabolic routes. Several members of the genus Aspergillus utilize a two-step cytosolic pathway from pyruvate to malate known as the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway. This simple and efficient pathway has a maximum theoretical yield of 2 mol malate/mol glucose when the starting pyruvate originates from glycolysis. Production of malic acid by Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3488 was first improved by overexpression of a native C4-dicarboxylate transporter, leading to a greater than twofold increase in the rate of malate production. Overexpression of the native cytosolic alleles of pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase, comprising the rTCA pathway, in conjunction with the transporter resulted in an additional 27 % increase in malate production rate. A strain overexpressing all three genes achieved a malate titer of 154 g/L in 164 h, corresponding to a production rate of 0.94 g/L/h, with an associated yield on glucose of 1.38 mol/mol (69 % of the theoretical maximum). This rate of malate production is the highest reported for any microbial system. PMID:23925533

  3. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates intestinal mitochondrial injury by increasing antioxidant effects and activity of respiratory complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Ruan, Zheng; Mi, Shumei; Jiang, Min; Li, Xiaolan; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyphenols are thought to be beneficial for human health by acting as antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is abundant in plant-based foods as an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of CGA on mitochondrial protection. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with CGA ameliorated the intestinal mitochondrial injury induced by H2O2; membrane potential was increased, mitochondrial swelling, levels of reactive oxygen species, contents of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and cytochrome c released were decreased. The beneficial effects of CGA were accompanied by an increase in antioxidant and respiratory-chain complex I, IV, and V activities. In trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid-induced colitic rats indicated that CGA supplementation improved mitochondria ultrastructure and decreased mitochondrial injury. Our results suggest a promising role for CGA as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant in combating intestinal oxidative injury. Daily intake of diets containing CGA, such as coffee and honeysuckle, may be useful for prevention of intestinal diseases. PMID:26824685

  4. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris. PMID:26328443

  5. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao Xiao; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Hoegger, Mark J; Moninger, Thomas O; Karp, Philip H; McMenimen, James D; Choudhury, Biswa; Varki, Ajit; Stoltz, David A; Welsh, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3- concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF. PMID:26808501

  6. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao Xiao; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Karp, Philip H.; McMenimen, James D.; Choudhury, Biswa; Varki, Ajit; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3– concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator–dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF. PMID:26808501

  7. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bocco, B.M.; Fernandes, G.W.; Lorena, F.B.; Cysneiros, R.M.; Christoffolete, M.A.; Grecco, S.S.; Lancellotti, C.L.; Romoff, P.; Lago, J.H.G.; Bianco, A.C.; Ribeiro, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  8. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  9. Modification and improvement of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells via treatment using peracetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Qi, Zhigang; Kaufman, Arthur

    Electrodes and catalyst-coated membranes (CCMs) were treated using peracetic acid. After such a treatment, the properties and performance of these electrodes and CCMs were changed in several aspects. First, their catalytic activity was increased compared to the untreated counterparts. Second, their ability to hold water within the catalyst layers was increased so that the cathode did not need to be humidified. Third, if the cathode was humidified together with the anode, some of the electrodes were more readily to be flooded than the untreated counterparts.

  10. Permeability Enhancers Dramatically Increase Zanamivir Absolute Bioavailability in Rats: Implications for an Orally Bioavailable Influenza Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Eric H.; Devalapally, Harikrishna; Li, Libin; Perdue, Michael L.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol) was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (tmax of 5 min) and a Cmax of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted Cmax for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results are being utilized

  11. Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Chiara; Piazzi, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Prossomariti, Anna; Milazzo, Maddalena; D’Angelo, Leonarda; Napolitano, Manuela; Chieco, Pasquale; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA. PMID:26864323

  12. Increase in fatty acid oxidation in calvaria cells cultured with diphosphonates.

    PubMed Central

    Felix, R; Fleisch, H

    1981-01-01

    1. Cultured calvaria cells oxidized palmitate and octanoate to CO2 and water-soluble products. 2. When these cells were treated for 6 days with 0.025 and 0.25 mM-dichloromethanediphosphonate, oxidation of palmitate was increased, whereas that of octanoate was influenced less. 3. When the rate of oxidation was raised by increasing the palmitate concentration in the medium, the effect of the diphosphonate was decreased and finally disappeared. 4. 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate had only minor effects. 5. The increase in palmitate oxidation appeared 2 days after the addition of dichloromethanediphosphonate, simultaneously with a fall in lactate production. (Inhibition of glycolysis by diphosphonates has already been shown.) 6. Cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, did not influence the effect of dichloromethanediphosphonate on the oxidation of palmitate and the production of lactate. 7. Cells cultured with dichloromethanediphosphonate showed a faster uptake of palmitic acid than did control cells. However, this observation did not explain the increased palmitate oxidation, since uptake was much faster than oxidation, and was therefore not the rate-limiting step. 8. 2-Bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation, did not influence the inhibition of glycolysis by the diphosphonates. This inhibition, therefore, did not result from the increased oxidation of palmitate. It is also unlikely that the increased oxidation of palmitate is connected with the inhibition of glycolysis. PMID:6458286

  13. Parallel activation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism with increased cardiac energy expenditure is not dependent on fatty acid oxidation in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lufang; Cabrera, Marco E; Huang, Hazel; Yuan, Celvie L; Monika, Duda K; Sharma, Naveen; Bian, Fang; Stanley, William C

    2007-01-01

    Steady state concentrations of ATP and ADP in vivo are similar at low and high cardiac workloads; however, the mechanisms that regulate the activation of substrate metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation that supports this stability are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that (1) there is parallel activation of mitochondrial and cytosolic dehydrogenases in the transition from low to high workload, which increases NADH/NAD+ ratio in both compartments, and (2) this response does not require an increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Anaesthetized pigs were subjected to either sham treatment, or an abrupt increase in cardiac workload for 5 min with dobutamine infusion and aortic constriction. Myocardial oxygen consumption and FAO were increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively, but ATP and ADP concentrations did not change. NADH-generating pathways were rapidly activated in both the cytosol and mitochondria, as seen in a 40% depletion in glycogen stores, a 3.6-fold activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, and a 50% increase in tissue NADH/NAD+. Simulations from a multicompartmental computational model of cardiac energy metabolism predicted that parallel activation of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism results in an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio in both cytosol and mitochondria. FAO was blocked by 75% in a third group of pigs, and a similar increase in and the NAHD/NAD+ ratio was observed. In conclusion, in the transition to a high cardiac workload there is rapid parallel activation of substrate oxidation that results in an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio. PMID:17185335

  14. The effect of limestone treatments on the rate of acid generation from pyritic mine gangue.

    PubMed

    Burt, R A; Caruccio, F T

    1986-09-01

    Surface water enters the Haile Gold Mine, Lancaster County, South Carolina by means of a small stream and is ponded behind a dam and in an abandoned pit. This water is affected by acidic drainage. In spite of the large exposures of potentially acid producing pyritic rock, the flux of acid to the water is relatively low. Nevertheless, the resulting pH values of the mine water are low (around 3.5) due to negligible buffering capacity. In view of the observed low release of acidity, the potential for acid drainage abatement by limestone ameliorants appears feasible.This study investigated the effects of limestone treatment on acid generation rates of the Haile mine pyritic rocks through a series of leaching experiments. Below a critical alkalinity threshold value, solutions of dissolved limestone were found consistently to accelerate the rate of pyrite oxidation by varying degrees. The oxidation rates were further accelerated by admixing solid limestone with the pyritic rock. However, after a period of about a month, the pyrite oxidation rate of the admixed samples declined to a level lower than that of untreated pyrite. Leachates produced by the pyrite and limestone mixtures contained little if any iron. Further, in the mixtures, an alteration of the pyrite surface was apparent.The observed behaviour of the treated pyrite appears to be related to the immersion of the pyrite grains within a high alkalinity/high pH environment. The high pH increases the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron which results in a higher concentration of ferric iron at the pyrite surface. This, in turn, increases the rate of pyrite oxidation. Above a threshold alkalinity value, the precipitation of hydrous iron oxides at the pyrite surface eventually outpaces acid generation and coats the pyrite surface, retarding the rate of pyrite oxidation. PMID:24214013

  15. Increasing Fatty Acid Oxidation Remodels the Hypothalamic Neurometabolome to Mitigate Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Joseph W.; Aja, Susan; Li, Qun; Bandaru, Veera V. R.; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Haughey, Norman J.; Kuhajda, Francis P.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2014-01-01

    Modification of hypothalamic fatty acid (FA) metabolism can improve energy homeostasis and prevent hyperphagia and excessive weight gain in diet-induced obesity (DIO) from a diet high in saturated fatty acids. We have shown previously that C75, a stimulator of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and fatty acid oxidation (FAOx), exerts at least some of its hypophagic effects via neuronal mechanisms in the hypothalamus. In the present work, we characterized the effects of C75 and another anorexigenic compound, the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) inhibitor FSG67, on FA metabolism, metabolomics profiles, and metabolic stress responses in cultured hypothalamic neurons and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines during lipid excess with palmitate. Both compounds enhanced palmitate oxidation, increased ATP, and inactivated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in hypothalamic neurons in vitro. Lipidomics and untargeted metabolomics revealed that enhanced catabolism of FA decreased palmitate availability and prevented the production of fatty acylglycerols, ceramides, and cholesterol esters, lipids that are associated with lipotoxicity-provoked metabolic stress. This improved metabolic signature was accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and yet favorable changes in oxidative stress, overt ER stress, and inflammation. We propose that enhancing FAOx in hypothalamic neurons exposed to excess lipids promotes metabolic remodeling that reduces local inflammatory and cell stress responses. This shift would restore mitochondrial function such that increased FAOx can produce hypothalamic neuronal ATP and lead to decreased food intake and body weight to improve systemic metabolism. PMID:25541737

  16. Decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialic acid content is associated with increased erythrocyte aggregation in human diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M E; Williams, D T; Niththyananthan, R; Rampling, M W; Heslop, K E; Johnston, D G

    1992-03-01

    1. Sialic acid moieties of erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins are the principal determinants of the negative charge on the cell surface. The resultant electrostatic repulsion between the cells reduces erythrocyte aggregation and hence the low shear rate viscosity and yield stress of blood. 2. Using g.c.-m.s., a decrease in sialic acid content has been observed in the major erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein, glycophorin A, obtained from nine diabetic patients compared with that from seven normal control subjects [median (range): 3.30 (0.01-11.90) versus 18.60 (3.20-32.60) micrograms/100 micrograms of protein, P less than 0.02]. 3. Erythrocyte aggregation, measured by viscometry as the ratio of suspension viscosity to supernatant viscosity (LS/S) in fibrinogen solution, was increased in ten diabetic patients compared with ten normal control subjects (mean +/- SEM, 37.6 +/- 1.3 versus 33.8 +/- 0.6, P less than 0.02). 4. In the patients in whom both viscometry and carbohydrate analysis were performed, the decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialylation and the increase in erythrocyte aggregation in fibrinogen solution were related statistically (LS/S correlated negatively with glycophorin sialic acid content, r = 0.73, P less than 0.05). 5. Decreased glycophorin sialylation provides an explanation at the molecular level for increased erythrocyte aggregation and it may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:1312416

  17. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  18. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  19. Synergism of α-linolenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and calcium in decreasing adipocyte and increasing osteoblast cell growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youjin; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2013-08-01

    Whole fat milk and dairy products (although providing more energy compared to low- or non-fat products), are good sources of α-linolenic acid (ALA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and calcium, which may be favorable in modulating bone and adipose tissue metabolism. We examined individual and/or synergistic effects of ALA, CLA and calcium (at levels similar to those in whole milk/dairy products) in regulating bone and adipose cell growth. ST2 stromal, MC3T3-L1 adipocyte-like and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were treated with: (a) linoleic acid (LNA):ALA ratios = 1-5:1; (b) individual/combined 80-90 % c9, t11 (9,11) and 5-10 % t10, c12 (10,12) CLA isomers; (c) 0.5-3.0 mM calcium; (d) combinations of (a), (b), (c); and (e) control. Local mediators, including eicosanoids and growth factors, were measured. (a) The optimal effect was found at the 4:1 LNA:ALA ratio where insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) production was the lowest in MC3T3-L1 cells. (b) All CLA isomer blends decreased MC3T3-L1 and increased MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. (c) 1.5-2.5 mM calcium increased ST2 and MC3T3-E1, and decreased MC3T3-L1 cell proliferation. (d) Combination of 4:1 LNA:ALA + 90:10 % CLA + 2.0 mM calcium lowered MC3T3-L1 and increased MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. Overall, the optimal LNA:ALA ratio to enhance osteoblastogenesis and inhibit adipogenesis was 4:1. This effect was enhanced by 90:10 % CLA + 2.0 mM calcium, indicating possible synergism of these dietary factors in promoting osteoblast and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation in cell cultures. PMID:23757205

  20. Anthranilic Acid: A Potential Biomarker and Treatment Target for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory; van der Hart, Marieke; Roeser, Julien; Summergrad, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of Trp-Kyn pathway is the most recent hypothesis of mechanisms of schizophrenia. In particular, over-production of kynurenic acid (KYNA), one of the three immediate downstream metabolites of kynurenine (Kyn) along tryptophan (Trp): Kyn pathway, has been considered as a new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia. Up-regulation of KYNA formation was suggested to occur at the expense of down-regulated production of 3-hydroxyKyn (3-HK), the second immediate downstream metabolite of Kyn. We were interested to assess the third immediate downstream Kyn metabolite, anthranilic acid (AA). Serum AA concentrations were evaluated in schizophrenia patients and control subjects by HPLC-mass spectrometry method. We found 2-fold increase of AA and 3-fold decrease of 3-HK concentrations in serum of schizophrenia patients. Up regulated formation of AA might contribute to mechanisms of schizophrenia considering experimental evidences of AA augmentation of autoimmune processes in rat and mice; clinical findings of AA elevation in rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases diametrical to schizophrenia; and involvement of autoimmunity in development of schizophrenia. Present data warrant further studies of AA as biological marker in, at least, a subgroup (associated with autoimmune mechanisms) of schizophrenia patients and as a new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27042691

  1. Root Growth Maintenance at Low Water Potentials (Increased Activity of Xyloglucan Endotransglycosylase and Its Possible Regulation by Abscisic Acid).

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y.; Spollen, W. G.; Sharp, R. E.; Hetherington, P. R.; Fry, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work suggested that an increase in cell wall-loosening contributes to the maintenance of maize (Zea mays L.) primary root elongation at low water potentials ([psi]w). It was also shown that root elongation at low [psi]w requires increased levels of abscisic acid (ABA). In this study we investigated the effects of low [psi]w and ABA status on xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) activity in the root elongation zone. XET is believed to contribute to wall-loosening by reversibly cleaving xyloglucan molecules that tether cellulose microfibrils. The activity of XET per unit fresh weight in the apical 10 mm (encompassing the elongation zone) was constant at high [psi]w but increased by more than 2-fold at a [psi]w of -1.6 MPa. Treatment with fluridone to decrease ABA accumulation greatly delayed the increase in activity at low [psi]w. This effect was largely overcome when internal ABA levels were restored by exogenous application. Spatial distribution studies showed that XET activity was increased in the apical 6 mm at low [psi]w whether expressed per unit fresh weight, total soluble protein, or cell wall dry weight, corresponding to the region of continued elongation. Treatment with fluridone progressively inhibited the increase in activity with distance from the apex, correlating with the pattern of inhibition of elongation. Added ABA partly restored activity at all positions. The increase in XET activity at low [psi]w was due to maintenance of the rate of deposition of activity despite decreased deposition of wall material. The loss of activity associated with decreased ABA was due to inhibition of the deposition of activity. The results demonstrate that increased XET activity is associated with maintenance of root elongation at low [psi]w and that this response requires increased ABA. PMID:12232354

  2. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology. PMID:26539712

  3. Effects of ultrasonic treatment during acid hydrolysis on the yield, particle size and structure of cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan; Guo, Xuxia; Wang, Siqun; Yin, Yafang

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is useful for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). However, the effects of ultrasonic treatment on the structure and properties of CNCs have not been fully understood. We statistically analyzed the variations in yields and dimensions of CNCs prepared using acid hydrolysis, with or without ultrasonic treatment, and illustrated these variations by investigating the CNC structures. The results demonstrated that ultrasonic treatment promoted an increase in yields only for short hydrolysis times, while resulting in CNCs with shorter lengths and narrower dimension distributions. Furthermore, a prolonged acid attack under ultrasonic treatment caused a partial dissociation of cellulose hydrogen bond networks in the CNCs, ultimately resulting in the delamination and disorder of the cellulose crystalline structure, thus leading to a decrease in the width and thickness of the CNCs. This work provides more insights into the mechanisms of ultrasonic treatment on the structure and properties of CNCs. PMID:26453875

  4. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated

  5. Regulating acidity, porosity, and morphology of hierarchical SAPO-11 zeolite by aging treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxiang; Xu, Lu; Lv, Yuchao; Liu, Xinmei

    2016-10-01

    A facile method to modify pore structure, acidic character, and morphology of SAPO-11 molecular sieve was proposed. Aging treatment (e.g., microwave irradiation or lyophilization) is introduced in the preparation of dry gel. It regulates the kinetics of zeolitic nucleation and growth. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N2-adsorption, temperature programmed desorption, laser particle analyzer, and (29)Si MAS NMR were employed to investigate the effects of aging treatments on SAPO-11 products. The experimental results indicate that depolymerization reaction of silicon species is enhanced aged by microwave irradiation with a higher temperature (90°C). Ratio of SM 3 to SM 2 substituting mode increases producing more strong Brønsted acid sites. Lyophilization technology, as another aging method, was employed to control the morphology of SAPO-11. Nano-sized hierarchical SAPO-11 molecular sieve (200nm in length) is obtained with an oriented growth. Activity of hydroisomerization catalysts is regulated by aging treatment. Cracking reaction attributes to a high conversion nearly 87wt% for M90. The hydroisomerization reaction is enhanced for M40 due to a large proportion of moderate acid sites. PMID:27362909

  6. Retinoic acid induces caspase-8 transcription via phospho-CREB and increases apoptotic responses to death stimuli in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Manrong; Zhu, Kejin; Grenet, Jose; Lahti, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    Caspase-8 is frequently deleted or silenced in neuroblastoma and other solid tumor such as medulloblastoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Caspase-8 expression can be re-established in neuroblastoma cell lines by treatment with demethylating agents or with IFN-γ Here we show that four different retinoic acid (RA) derivatives also increase caspase-8 protein expression in neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma and small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. This increase in protein expression is mirrored by an increase in RNA expression in NB cells. However, the promoter region of the caspase-8 gene was not responsible for the induction of caspase-8 expression. Rather, we identified another intronic region containing a CREB binding site that was required for maximal induction of caspase-8 via RA. DNA-protein interaction assays revealed increased phospho-CREB binding to this response element in RA-treated NB cells. Furthermore, both mutation of the CREB binding site completely blocked caspase-8 induction in the luciferase reporter system assay and transfection of dominant-negative form of CREB repressed the up-regulation of caspase-8 by RA. Importantly, RA-released cells maintained caspase-8 expression for at least 2–5 days and were more sensitive to doxorubicin and TNFα. Thus, RA treatment in conjunction with TNFα and/or subsets of cytotoxic agents may have therapeutic benefits. PMID:18342014

  7. Salicylic acid biosynthesis is enhanced and contributes to increased biotrophic pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Li, Bosheng; Zheng, Xiao-yu; Li, Jigang; Yang, Mei; Dong, Xinnian; He, Guangming; An, Chengcai; Deng, Xing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, the phenotypic superiority of a hybrid over its parents, has been demonstrated for many traits in Arabidopsis thaliana, but its effect on defence remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that hybrids between some A. thaliana accessions show increased resistance to the biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Comparisons of transcriptomes between these hybrids and their parents after inoculation reveal that several key salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis genes are significantly upregulated in hybrids. Moreover, SA levels are higher in hybrids than in either parent. Increased resistance to Pst DC3000 is significantly compromised in hybrids of pad4 mutants in which the SA biosynthesis pathway is blocked. Finally, increased histone H3 acetylation of key SA biosynthesis genes correlates with their upregulation in infected hybrids. Our data demonstrate that enhanced activation of SA biosynthesis in A. thaliana hybrids may contribute to their increased resistance to a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. PMID:26065719

  8. Salicylic acid biosynthesis is enhanced and contributes to increased biotrophic pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Li, Bosheng; Zheng, Xiao-yu; Li, Jigang; Yang, Mei; Dong, Xinnian; He, Guangming; An, Chengcai; Deng, Xing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, the phenotypic superiority of a hybrid over its parents, has been demonstrated for many traits in Arabidopsis thaliana, but its effect on defence remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that hybrids between some A. thaliana accessions show increased resistance to the biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Comparisons of transcriptomes between these hybrids and their parents after inoculation reveal that several key salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis genes are significantly upregulated in hybrids. Moreover, SA levels are higher in hybrids than in either parent. Increased resistance to Pst DC3000 is significantly compromised in hybrids of pad4 mutants in which the SA biosynthesis pathway is blocked. Finally, increased histone H3 acetylation of key SA biosynthesis genes correlates with their upregulation in infected hybrids. Our data demonstrate that enhanced activation of SA biosynthesis in A. thaliana hybrids may contribute to their increased resistance to a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. PMID:26065719

  9. Adipose tissue fatty acid chain length and mono-unsaturation increases with obesity and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yew Tan, Chong; Virtue, Samuel; Murfitt, Steven; Robert, Lee D.; Phua, Yi Hui; Dale, Martin; Griffin, Julian L.; Tinahones, Francisco; Scherer, Philipp E.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The non-essential fatty acids, C18:1n9, C16:0, C16:1n7, C18:0 and C18:1n7 account for over 75% of fatty acids in white adipose (WAT) triacylglycerol (TAG). The relative composition of these fatty acids (FA) is influenced by the desaturases, SCD1-4 and the elongase, ELOVL6. In knock-out models, loss of SCD1 or ELOVL6 results in reduced Δ9 desaturated and reduced 18-carbon non-essential FA respectively. Both Elovl6 KO and SCD1 KO mice exhibit improved insulin sensitivity. Here we describe the relationship between WAT TAG composition in obese mouse models and obese humans stratified for insulin resistance. In mouse models with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, there was an increase in scWAT Δ9 desaturated FAs (SCD ratio) and FAs with 18-carbons (Elovl6 ratio) in mice. Data from mouse models discordant for obesity and insulin resistance (AKT2 KO, Adiponectin aP2-transgenic), suggested that scWAT TAG Elovl6 ratio was associated with insulin sensitivity, whereas SCD1 ratio was associated with fat mass. In humans, a greater SCD1 and Elovl6 ratio was found in metabolically more harmful visceral adipose tissue when compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:26679101

  10. Human Insulin Resistance Is Associated With Increased Plasma Levels of 12α-Hydroxylated Bile Acids

    PubMed Central

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Astiarraga, Brenno; Camastra, Stefania; Accili, Domenico; Ferrannini, Ele

    2013-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) exert pleiotropic metabolic effects, and physicochemical properties of different BAs affect their function. In rodents, insulin regulates BA composition, in part by regulating the BA 12α-hydroxylase CYP8B1. However, it is unclear whether a similar effect occurs in humans. To address this question, we examined the relationship between clamp-measured insulin sensitivity and plasma BA composition in a cohort of 200 healthy subjects and 35 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. In healthy subjects, insulin resistance (IR) was associated with increased 12α-hydroxylated BAs (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and their conjugated forms). Furthermore, ratios of 12α-hydroxylated/non–12α-hydroxylated BAs were associated with key features of IR, including higher insulin, proinsulin, glucose, glucagon, and triglyceride (TG) levels and lower HDL cholesterol. In T2D patients, BAs were nearly twofold elevated, and more hydrophobic, compared with healthy subjects, although we did not observe disproportionate increases in 12α-hydroxylated BAs. In multivariate analysis of the whole dataset, controlling for sex, age, BMI, and glucose tolerance status, higher 12α-hydroxy/non–12α-hydroxy BA ratios were associated with lower insulin sensitivity and higher plasma TGs. These findings suggest a role for 12α-hydroxylated BAs in metabolic abnormalities in the natural history of T2D and raise the possibility of developing insulin-sensitizing therapeutics based on manipulations of BA composition. PMID:23884887

  11. Increased glutamate and homocysteine and decreased glutamine levels in autism: a review and strategies for future studies of amino acids in autism.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. PMID:24167375

  12. Ozonolysis mechanism of lignin model compounds and microbial treatment of organic acids produced.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Daidai, M; Kobayashi, F

    2004-01-01

    Treatment methods comprising ozonolysis and microbial treatment of lignin discharged from the pulp manufacture industries were investigated by using a sulfite pulp wastewater and a lignin model compound, i.e. sodium lignosulfonate. Dynamic behaviors for the formations of intermediate derivatives such as muconic acid, maleic acid, and oxalic acid produced from the ozonolysis of sulfite pulp wastewater were observed from data of UV absorption at 280 nm by a spectrophotometer and at 210 nm by high performance liquid chromatography. The microorganisms that were isolated by the enrichment culture method were used to degrade the organic acids such as oxalic acid and acetic acid. Time courses of biological degradation of these organic acids indicated diauxic growth, which was found in a culture with mixed substrates. In the treatment of sodium lignosulfonate, the ozonolysis and microbial treatment using activated sludge converted sodium lignosulfonate into carbon dioxide and water almost completely. PMID:15461411

  13. Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

  14. Protracted treatment with diazepam increases the turnover of putative endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine/. beta. -carboline recognition site

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, M.; Mocchetti, I.; Ferrarese, C.; Guidotti, A.; Costa, E.

    1987-03-01

    DBI (diazepam-binding inhibitor) is a putative neuromodulatory peptide isolated from rat brain that acts on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine-Cl/sup -/ ionosphore receptor complex inducing ..beta..-carboline-like effects. The authors used a cDNA probe complementary to DBI mRNA and a specific antibody for rat DBI to study in rat brain how the dynamic state of DBI can be affected after protected (three times a day for 10 days) treatment with diazepam and chlordiazepoxide by oral gavage. Both the content of DBI and DBI mRNA increased in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex but failed to change in the hippocampus and striatum of rats receiving this protracted benzodiazepine treatment. Acute treatment with diazepam did not affect the dynamic state of brain DBI. An antibody was raised against a biologically active octadecaneuropeptide derived from the tryptic digestion of DBI. The combined HPLC/RIA analysis of rat cerebellar extracts carried out with this antibody showed that multiple molecular forms of the octadecaneuropeptide-like reactivity are present and all of them are increased in rats receiving repeated daily injections of diazepam. It is inferred that tolerance to benzodiazepines in associated with an increase in the turnover rate of DBI, which may be responsible for the ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid receptor desensitization that occurs after protracted benzodiazepine administration.

  15. Elevated dietary linoleic acid increases gastric carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, T; Adair, J E; Lih, F B; Hsi, L C; Rubino, M; Eling, T E; Tomer, K B; Yashiro, M; Hirakawa, K; Olden, K; Roberts, J D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dietary (n-6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids influence cancer development, but the mechanisms have not been well characterised in gastric carcinoma. Methods: We used two in vivo models to investigate the effects of these common dietary components on tumour metastasis. In a model of experimental metastasis, immunocompromised mice were fed diets containing linoleic acid (LA) at 2% (LLA), 8% (HLA) or 12% (VHLA) by weight and inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with human gastric carcinoma cells (OCUM-2MD3). To model spontaneous metastasis, OCUM-2MD3 tumours were grafted onto the stomach walls of mice fed with the different diets. In in vitro assays, we investigated invasion and ERK phosphorylation of OCUM-2MD3 cells in the presence or absence of LA. Finally, we tested whether a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin, could block peritoneal metastasis in vivo. Results: Both the HLA and VHLA groups showed increased incidence of tumour nodules (LA: 53% HLA: 89% VHLA: 100% P<0.03); the VHLA group also displayed increased numbers of tumour nodules and higher total volume relative to LLA group in experimental metastasis model. Both liver invasion (78%) and metastasis to the peritoneal cavity (67%) were more frequent in VHLA group compared with the LLA group (22% and 11%, respectively; P<0.03) in spontaneous metastasis model. We also found that the invasive ability of these cells is greatly enhanced when exposed to LA in vitro. Linoleic acid also increased invasion of other scirrhous gastric carcinoma cells, OCUM-12, NUGC3 and MKN-45. Linoleic acid effect on OCUM-2MD3 cells seems to be dependent on phosphorylation of ERK. The data suggest that invasion and phosphorylation of ERK were dependent on COX. Indomethacin decreased the number of tumours and total tumour volume in both LLA and VHLA groups. Finally, COX-1, which is known to be an important enzyme in the generation of bioactive metabolites from dietary fatty acids, appears to be responsible for the

  16. Twice-weekly consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon increases plasma content of phospholipid n-3 fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated intake of the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is related to risk reduction of cardiovascular and other diseases. Increased consumption of seafood such as farmed Atlantic salmon is an effective way to consume n-3 but there is a paucity of data as ...

  17. Vitamin A increases nerve growth factor and retinoic acid receptor beta and improves diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Ordoñez, Graciela; Pineda, Benjamin; Rangel-López, Edgar; Salazar-Ramiro, Aleli; Arrieta, Oscar; Sotelo, Julio

    2014-09-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) promotes the endogenous expression of both nerve growth factor (NGF) and retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-β). We have previously shown that the administration of ATRA partly reverts the damage induced by diabetic neuropathy (DN). In this investigation, we evaluated the effects of vitamin A, a commercial, inexpensive compound of retinoic acid, on the therapy of DN. A total of 70 rats were randomized into 4 groups. Group A was the control, and groups B, C, and D received a total dose of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin intraperitoneally. When signs of DN developed, groups C and D were treated either with vitamin A (20,000 IU) or with ATRA 25 mg/kg for 60 days. Plasma glucose, contents of NGF, thermal and nociceptive tests, and RAR-β expression were evaluated. All diabetic rats developed neuropathy. The treatment with vitamin A and ATRA reverted similarly the sensorial disturbances, which was associated with increased contents of NGF and RAR-β expression. Our results indicate that the administration of vitamin A has the same therapeutic effect as ATRA on peripheral neuropathy and suggest its potential therapeutic use in patients with diabetes. PMID:24768685

  18. Optical spectroscopy by 5-aminolevulinic acid hexylester induced photodynamic treatment in rat bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Gederaas, Odrun A.; Arum, Carl-Jørgen; Krokan, Hans E.; Hjelme, Dag R.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality which has been shown to be effective for both malignant and non-malignant diseases. New photosensitizers such as 5-aminolevulinic acid hexylester (hALA) may increase the efficiency of PDT. Monitoring of the tissue response provides important information for optimizing factors such as drug and light dose for this treatment modality. Optical spectroscopy may be suited for this task. To test the efficacy of hALA induced PDT, a study on rats with a superficial bladder cancer model, in which a bladder cancer cell line (AY-27) is instilled, will be performed. Preliminary studies have included a PDT feasibility study on rats, fluorescence spectroscopy on AY-27 cell suspensions, and optical reflection and fluorescence spectroscopy in rat bladders in vivo. The results from the preliminary studies are promising, and the study on hALA induced PDT treatment of bladder cancer will be continued.

  19. Febuxostat and Increased Dialysis as a Treatment for Severe Tophaceous Gout in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Frassetto, Lynda Ann; Gibson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid accumulates in renal failure and is thought to be a uremic toxin—that is, higher levels of uric acid are more damaging to the kidneys. Urate crystals can precipitate in the kidney tubules, cause urate stones, and promote inflammatory changes in the renal interstitium and vascular endothelium. Uric acid is also a small non-protein-bound molecule and therefore easily dialyzable. Here, we present the case of an anuric hemodialysis patient with severe tophaceous gout who regained some renal function and whose gout burden significantly decreased resulting in marked improvement in functional status using a new gout medication, febuxostat, and increased frequency of dialysis. PMID:27200198

  20. Febuxostat and Increased Dialysis as a Treatment for Severe Tophaceous Gout in a Hemodialysis Patient.

    PubMed

    Frassetto, Lynda Ann; Gibson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid accumulates in renal failure and is thought to be a uremic toxin-that is, higher levels of uric acid are more damaging to the kidneys. Urate crystals can precipitate in the kidney tubules, cause urate stones, and promote inflammatory changes in the renal interstitium and vascular endothelium. Uric acid is also a small non-protein-bound molecule and therefore easily dialyzable. Here, we present the case of an anuric hemodialysis patient with severe tophaceous gout who regained some renal function and whose gout burden significantly decreased resulting in marked improvement in functional status using a new gout medication, febuxostat, and increased frequency of dialysis. PMID:27200198

  1. Metabolic Effects of Increasing Doses of Nitisinone in the Treatment of Alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Gertsman, Ilya; Barshop, Bruce A; Panyard-Davis, Jan; Gangoiti, Jon A; Nyhan, William L

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is an autosomal recessive disease involving a deficiency of the enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase, which is involved in the tyrosine degradation pathway. The enzymatic deficiency results in high concentrations of homogentisic acid (HGA), which results in orthopedic and cardiac complications, among other symptoms. Nitisinone (NTBC) has been shown to effectively treat alkaptonuria by blocking the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to HGA, but there have been concerns that using doses higher than about 2 mg/day could cause excessively high levels of tyrosine, resulting in crystal deposition and corneal pathology. We have enrolled seven patients in a study to determine whether higher doses of NTBC were effective at further reducing HGA levels while maintaining tyrosine at acceptable levels. Patients were given varying doses of NTBC (ranging from 2 to 8 mg/day) over the course of between 0.5 and 3.5 years. Urine HGA, plasma tyrosine levels, and plasma NTBC were then measured longitudinally at various doses. We found that tyrosine concentrations plateaued and did not reach significantly higher levels as NTBC doses were increased above 2 mg/day, while a significant drop in HGA continued from 2 to 4 mg/day, with no significant changes at higher doses. We also demonstrated using untargeted metabolomics that elevations in tyrosine from treatment resulted in proportional elevations in alternative tyrosine metabolic products, that of N-acetyltyrosine and γ-glutamyltyrosine. PMID:25665838

  2. Reducing Isozyme Competition Increases Target Fatty Acid Accumulation in Seed Triacylglycerols of Transgenic Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Shockey, Jay; Zhang, Meng; Adhikari, Neil D.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) and conjugated polyenoic FAs (α-eleostearic acids [ESAs]) using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model. These FAs are found naturally in seed oils of castor (Ricinus communis) and tung tree (Vernicia fordii), respectively, and used for the production of lubricants, nylon, and paints. Transgenic oils typically contain less target FA than that produced in the source species. We hypothesized that competition between endogenous and transgenic isozymes for substrates limits accumulation of unique FAs in Arabidopsis seeds. This hypothesis was tested by introducing a mutation in Arabidopsis diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (AtDGAT1) in a line expressing castor FA hydroxylase and acyl-Coenzyme A:RcDGAT2 in its seeds. This led to a 17% increase in the proportion of HFA in seed oil. Expression of castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1A in this line increased the proportion of HFA by an additional 12%. To determine if our observations are more widely applicable, we investigated if isozyme competition influenced production of ESA. Expression of tung tree FA conjugase/desaturase in Arabidopsis produced approximately 7.5% ESA in seed lipids. Coexpression of VfDGAT2 increased ESA levels to approximately 11%. Overexpression of VfDGAT2 combined with suppression of AtDGAT1 increased ESA accumulation to 14% to 15%. Our results indicate that isozyme competition is a limiting factor in the engineering of unusual FAs in heterologous plant systems and that reduction of competition through mutation and RNA suppression may be a useful component of seed metabolic engineering strategies. PMID:25739701

  3. Increasing dietary palmitic acid decreases fat oxidation and daily energy expenditure123

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Janice Y; Ugrasbul, Figen

    2005-01-01

    Background Oleic acid (OA) is oxidized more rapidly than is palmitic acid (PA). Objective We hypothesized that changing the dietary intakes of PA and OA would affect fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure. Design A double-masked trial was conducted in 43 healthy young adults, who, after a 28-d, baseline, solid-food diet (41% of energy as fat, 8.4% as PA, and 13.1% as OA), were randomly assigned to one of two 28-d formula diets: high PA (40% of energy as fat, 16.8% as PA, and 16.4% as OA; n = 21) or high OA (40% of energy as fat, 1.7% as PA, and 31.4% as OA; n = 22). Differences in the change from baseline were evaluated by analysis of covariance. Results In the fed state, the respiratory quotient was lower (P = 0.01) with the high OA (0.86 ± 0.01) than with the high-PA (0.89 ± 0.01) diet, and the rate of fat oxidation was higher (P = 0.03) with the high-OA (0.0008 ± 0.0001) than with the high-PA (0.0005 ± 0.0001 mg · kg fat-free mass−1 · min−1) diet. Resting energy expenditure in the fed and fasting states was not significantly different between groups. Change in daily energy expenditure in the high-OA group (9 ± 60 kcal/d) was significantly different from that in the high-PA group (−214 ±69 kcal/d; P = 0.02 or 0.04 when expressed per fat-free mass). Conclusions Increases in dietary PA decrease fat oxidation and daily energy expenditure, whereas decreases in PA and increases in OA had the opposite effect. Increases in dietary PA may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:16087974

  4. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function. PMID:26997623

  5. Hot topic: Early postpartum treatment of commercial dairy cows with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs increases whole-lactation milk yield.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A J; Ylioja, C M; Vargas, C F; Mamedova, L K; Mendonça, L G; Coetzee, J F; Hollis, L C; Gehring, R; Bradford, B J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postpartum administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) sodium salicylate can increase 305-d milk yield in older dairy cattle (parity 3 and greater). However, in this prior work, sodium salicylate was delivered to cows via the drinking water, a method that does not align well with current grouping strategies on commercial dairy farms. The objective of the current study was to replicate these results on a commercial dairy farm with a simplified treatment protocol and to compare sodium salicylate with another NSAID, meloxicam. Dairy cattle in their second lactation and greater (n=51/treatment) were alternately assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition, with treatments lasting for 3d. Experimental treatments began 12 to 36 h after parturition and were (1) 1 placebo bolus on the first day and 3 consecutive daily drenches of sodium salicylate (125 g/cow per day; SAL); (2) 1 bolus of meloxicam (675 mg/cow) and 3 drenches of an equal volume of water (MEL); or (3) 1 placebo bolus and 3 drenches of water (CON). Blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment, immediately following the last day of treatment, and 7d after the last day of treatment; plasma was analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids, haptoglobin, and paraoxonase. Milk production, body condition score, reproductive status, and retention in the herd were monitored for 365 d posttreatment, and effects of treatment, parity, days in milk, and interactions were evaluated in mixed effects models. Significance was declared at P<0.05. Whole-lactation milk and protein yields were greater in NSAID-treated cows, although 305-d fat production was not affected. There was a significant interaction of treatment and parity for plasma glucose concentration; MEL increased plasma glucose concentrations compared with CON and SAL in older cows. Sodium salicylate decreased plasma BHB concentration compared with MEL at 7d posttreatment

  6. Uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid in the urinary bladder increases serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, T

    2003-10-01

    In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs), can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. PMID:15241498

  7. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with prostaglandin E1 precursors cis-linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T M; Lerche, A; Kassis, V; Lorenzen, I; Søndergaard, J

    1983-01-01

    20 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were treated for 12 weeks with the prostaglandin E1 precursors cis-linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid in the form of primrose evening oil (Efamol) and the co-factors zinc, ascorbic acid, niacin, and pyridoxin (Efavit). There was a slight fall in skin reactivity to UV light during the treatment, but no effect on plasma or urine concentrations of PGE1, cAMP or cGMP. There was no effect of the treatment on ESR, P-fibrinogen, number of tender joints, number of swollen joints, the duration of morning stiffness, or on the patient's estimation of pain. PMID:6304871

  8. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  9. Eosinophil viability is increased by acidic pH in a cAMP- and GPR65-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kottyan, Leah C; Collier, Ann R; Cao, Khanh H; Niese, Kathryn A; Hedgebeth, Megan; Radu, Caius G; Witte, Owen N; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Rothenberg, Marc E; Zimmermann, Nives

    2009-09-24

    The microenvironment of the lung in asthma is acidic, yet the effect of acidity on inflammatory cells has not been well established. We now demonstrate that acidity inhibits eosinophil apoptosis and increases cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner between pH 7.5 and 6.0. Notably, acidity induced eosinophil cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) production and enhanced cellular viability in an adenylate cyclase-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identify G protein-coupled receptor 65 (GPR65) as the chief acid-sensing receptor expressed by eosinophils, as GPR65-deficient eosinophils were resistant to acid-induced eosinophil cAMP production and enhanced viability. Notably, GPR65(-/-) mice had attenuated airway eosinophilia and increased apoptosis in 2 distinct models of allergic airway disease. We conclude that eosinophil viability is increased in acidic microenvironments in a cAMP- and GPR65-dependent manner. PMID:19641187

  10. Eosinophil viability is increased by acidic pH in a cAMP- and GPR65-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kottyan, Leah C.; Collier, Ann R.; Cao, Khanh H.; Niese, Kathryn A.; Hedgebeth, Megan; Radu, Caius G.; Witte, Owen N.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2009-01-01

    The microenvironment of the lung in asthma is acidic, yet the effect of acidity on inflammatory cells has not been well established. We now demonstrate that acidity inhibits eosinophil apoptosis and increases cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner between pH 7.5 and 6.0. Notably, acidity induced eosinophil cyclic adenosine 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) production and enhanced cellular viability in an adenylate cyclase–dependent manner. Furthermore, we identify G protein-coupled receptor 65 (GPR65) as the chief acid-sensing receptor expressed by eosinophils, as GPR65-deficient eosinophils were resistant to acid-induced eosinophil cAMP production and enhanced viability. Notably, GPR65−/− mice had attenuated airway eosinophilia and increased apoptosis in 2 distinct models of allergic airway disease. We conclude that eosinophil viability is increased in acidic microenvironments in a cAMP- and GPR65-dependent manner. PMID:19641187

  11. Increased tachykinin levels in induced sputum from asthmatic and cough patients with acid reflux

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Robert N; Johnston, Brian T; Ardill, Joy E S; Heaney, Liam G; McGarvey, Lorcan P A

    2007-01-01

    Background Acid reflux may aggravate airway disease including asthma and chronic cough. One postulated mechanism concerns a vagally‐mediated oesophageal‐tracheobronchial reflex with airway sensory nerve activation and tachykinin release. Aim To test the hypothesis that patients with airways disease and reflux have higher airway tachykinin levels than those without reflux. Methods Thirty‐two patients with airways disease (16 with mild asthma and 16 non‐asthmatic subjects with chronic cough) underwent 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring. Acid reflux was defined as increased total oesophageal acid exposure (% total time pH <4 of >4.9% at the distal probe). All subjects underwent sputum induction. Differential cell counts and concentrations of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), albumin and α2‐macroglobulin were determined. Results SP and NKA levels were significantly higher in patients with reflux than in those without (SP: 1434 (680) pg/ml vs 906 (593) pg/ml, p = 0.026; NKA: 81 (33) pg/ml vs 52 (36) pg/ml, p = 0.03). Significantly higher tachykinin levels were also found in asthmatic patients with reflux than in asthmatic patients without reflux (SP: 1508 (781) pg/ml vs 737 (512) pg/ml, p = 0.035; NKA: median (interquartile range 108 (85–120) pg/ml vs 75 (2–98) pg/ml, p = 0.02). In patients with asthma there was a significant positive correlation between distal oesophageal acid exposure and SP levels (r = 0.59, p = 0.01) and NKA levels (r = 0.56, p = 0.02). Non‐significant increases in SP and NKA were measured in patients with cough with reflux (SP: 1534.71 (711) pg/ml vs 1089 (606) pg/ml, p = 0.20; NKA: 56 (43) pg/ml vs 49 (17) pg/ml, p = 0.71). No significant difference in differential cell counts or any other biochemical parameter was noted between study groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates increased airway tachykinin levels in patients with asthma and cough patients with

  12. Increased fatty acid β-oxidation as a possible mechanism for fat-reducing effect of betaine in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, Zhixian; Fu, Qin; Yang, Xue; Ding, Liren; Wen, Chao; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicates of eight chickens per replicate cage for a 42-day feeding trial. Broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by betaine. Incremental levels of betaine decreased the absolute and relative weight of abdominal fat (linear P < 0.05, quadratic P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (linear P < 0.05), and increased concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) (linear P = 0.038, quadratic P = 0.003) in serum of broilers. Moreover, incremental levels of betaine increased linearly (P < 0.05) the proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, but decreased linearly (P < 0.05) the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGR) mRNA expression in liver of broilers. In conclusion, this study indicated that betaine supplementation did not affect growth performance of broilers, but was effective in reducing abdominal fat deposition in a dose-dependent manner, which was probably caused by combinations of a decrease in fatty acid synthesis and an increase in β-oxidation. PMID:27071487

  13. Effects of acid treatment duration and sulfuric acid molarity on purification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Seyedeh; Novinrooz, Abdul; Reyhani, Ali; Mirershadi, Soghra

    2010-12-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized using a Fe-Ni bimetallic catalyst supported by MgO using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Purification processes to remove unwanted carbon structures and other metallic impurities were carried out by boiling in sulfuric acid solution. Various analytical techniques such as TGA/DSC, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM and EDAX were employed to investigate the morphology, graphitization and quality of the carbon nanotubes. The obtained results reveal the molarity of sulfuric acid and immersed time of the carbon nanotubes in the acid solution is very effective at purifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was also found that 5 M concentration of boiling sulfuric acid for a 3 h treatment duration led to the highest removal of the impurities with the least destructive effect. Moreover, it was observed that acid treatment results in decreasing of CNTs' diameter.

  14. Effects of acid treatment duration and sulfuric acid molarity on purification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Seyedeh Z.; Novinrooz, Abdul J.; Reyhani, Ali; Mirershadi, Soghra

    2010-12-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized using a Fe-Ni bimetallic catalyst supported by MgO using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Purification processes to remove unwanted carbon structures and other metallic impurities were carried out by boiling in sulfuric acid solution. Various analytical techniques such as TGA/DSC, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM and EDAX were employed to investigate the morphology, graphitization and quality of the carbon nanotubes. The obtained results reveal the molarity of sulfuric acid and immersed time of the carbon nanotubes in the acid solution is very effective at purifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was also found that 5 M concentration of boiling sulfuric acid for a 3 h treatment duration led to the highest removal of the impurities with the least destructive effect. Moreover, it was observed that acid treatment results in decreasing of CNTs’ diameter.

  15. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation. PMID:26340979

  16. Acidic Residues in the Hfq Chaperone Increase the Selectivity of sRNA Binding and Annealing.

    PubMed

    Panja, Subrata; Santiago-Frangos, Andrew; Schu, Daniel J; Gottesman, Susan; Woodson, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    Hfq facilitates gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), thereby affecting bacterial attributes such as biofilm formation and virulence. Escherichia coli Hfq recognizes specific U-rich and AAN motifs in sRNAs and target mRNAs, after which an arginine patch on the rim promotes base pairing between their complementary sequences. In the cell, Hfq must discriminate between many similar RNAs. Here, we report that acidic amino acids lining the sRNA binding channel between the inner pore and rim of the Hfq hexamer contribute to the selectivity of Hfq's chaperone activity. RNase footprinting, in vitro binding and stopped-flow fluorescence annealing assays showed that alanine substitution of D9, E18 or E37 strengthened RNA interactions with the rim of Hfq and increased annealing of non-specific or U-tailed RNA oligomers. Although the mutants were less able than wild-type Hfq to anneal sRNAs with wild-type rpoS mRNA, the D9A mutation bypassed recruitment of Hfq to an (AAN)4 motif in rpoS, both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that acidic residues normally modulate access of RNAs to the arginine patch. We propose that this selectivity limits indiscriminate target selection by E. coli Hfq and enforces binding modes that favor genuine sRNA and mRNA pairs. PMID:26196441

  17. High levels of retinal membrane docosahexaenoic acid increase susceptibility to stress-induced degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tanito, Masaki; Brush, Richard S; Elliott, Michael H; Wicker, Lea D; Henry, Kimberly R; Anderson, Robert E

    2009-05-01

    The fat-1 gene cloned from C. elegans encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 PUFA. Mice carrying the fat-1 transgene and wild-type controls were fed an n-3-deficient/n-6-enriched diet [fat-1- safflower oil (SFO) and wt-SFO, respectively]. Fatty acid profiles of rod outer segments (ROS), cerebellum, plasma, and liver demonstrated significantly lower n-6/n-3 ratios and higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in fat-1-SFO compared with wt-SFO. When mice were exposed to light stress: 1) the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was reduced; 2) amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) were lower; 3) the number of apoptotic photoreceptor cells was greater; and 4) modification of retinal proteins by 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of n-3 PUFA oxidation was increased in both fat-1-SFO and wt mice fed a regular lab chow diet compared with wt-SFO. The results indicate a positive correlation between the level of DHA, the degree of n-3 PUFA lipid peroxidation, and the vulnerability of the retina to photooxidative stress. In mice not exposed to intense light, the reduction in DHA resulted in reduced efficacy in phototransduction gain steps, while no differences in the retinal morphology or retinal biochemistry. These results highlight the dual roles of DHA in cellular physiology and pathology. PMID:19023138

  18. Efficacy of 15% Trichloroacetic Acid and 50% Glycolic Acid Peel in the Treatment of Frictional Melanosis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sacchidanand, S; Shetty, Ashvith B; Leelavathy, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Frictional dermal melanosis is aesthetically displeasing. Various modalities ranging from depigmenting agents to lasers have been tried but it continues to be a difficult problem to treat. Objective: To study and compare the efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 50% glycolic acid in the treatment of frictional melanosis of the forearm. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of frictional melanosis of the forearm were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups A and B. Pre-peel priming was carried out with 12% glycolic acid and sunscreen for 2 weeks. Group A was treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA-15%) peel and Group B with glycolic acid (GA-50%) peel. Four peels were done one every 15 days. Clinical photographs were taken to assess the response. Response to therapy was evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the last peel to note any relapse. Results: Both TCA and glycolic acid peels were effective in frictional melanosis. TCA showed better response compared to glycolic acid at the end of the treatment, both by subjective and objective methods. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). No permanent side effects were seen in any of the treated patients and the improvement was sustained without any relapse at 3 months. Conclusion: Chemical peeling with both tricholoroacetic acid (15%) and glycolic acid (50%) is safe and effective for the treatment of frictional dermal melanosis. Tricholoroacetic acid was found to be marginally superior to glycolic acid. PMID:25949021

  19. Experimentally caused proliferation of lysosomes in cultured BHK cells involving an increase of biphosphatidic acids and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Brotherus, J; Niinioja, T; Sandelin, K; Renkonen, O

    1977-05-01

    When cultured hamster fibroblasts (BHK 21 cells) were incubated in a synthetic serum-free medium up to 4 days, they developed signs of a progressive proliferation of lysosomes. The cells became filled with vacuoles that contained polymorphic debris and showed acid phosphatase activity. The specific activities of acid protease and acid phosphatase in the cell cultures increased three- to fourfold. The process was accompanied by a marked decrease in the contents of protein, deoxyribonucleic acid, and total phospholipids of the cultures. The concentration of lysobisphosphatidic acid increased during the incubation from about 1.5% to 3-6% of the cellular phospholipids. The concentrations of two related lipids, bisphosphatidic acid and semilysobisphosphatidic acid also increased substantially. The triglyceride content of the cells increased several fold, whereas the concentration of phosphatidylcholine decreased markedly. Lysobisphosphatidic acid did not increase upon induction of vacuolization by exogenous sucrose, nor when there was an accumulation of triglyceride due to addition of oleic acid to the growth medium. These findings suggest that the formation of the bisphosphatidic acids may be specifically linked to the autolysis of the phospholipids of the cellular membranes and the formation of triglycerides associated with this process. PMID:864326

  20. Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…

  1. Adverse effects of free fatty acid associated with increased oxidative stress in postischemic isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Gambert, Ségolène; Vergely, Catherine; Filomenko, Rodolphe; Moreau, Daniel; Bettaieb, Ali; Opie, Lionel H; Rochette, Luc

    2006-02-01

    The mechanisms of the adverse effects of free fatty acids on the ischemic-reperfused myocardium are not fully understood. Long-chain fatty acids, including palmitate, uncouple oxidative phosphorylation and should therefore promote the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals, with consequent adverse effects. Conversely, the antianginal agent trimetazidine (TMZ), known to inhibit cardiac fatty acid oxidation, could hypothetically lessen the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus improve reperfusion mechanical function. Isolated perfused rat hearts underwent 30 min of total global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Hearts were perfused with glucose 5.5 mmol/l or palmitate 1.5 mmol/l with or without TMZ (100 micromol/l). Ascorbyl free radical (AFR) release during perfusion periods was measured by electron spin resonance as a marker of oxidative stress. Post-ischemic recovery in the palmitate group of heart was lower than in the glucose group with a marked rise in diastolic tension and reduction in left ventricular developed pressure (Glucose: 85 +/- 11 mmHg; Palmitate: 10 +/- 6 mmHg; p < 0.001). TMZ decreased diastolic tension in both glucose- and in palmitate-perfused hearts. Release of AFR within the first minute of reperfusion was greater in palmitate-perfused hearts and in hearts perfused with either substrate, this marker of oxidative stress was decreased by TMZ (expressed in arbitrary units/ml; respectively: 8.49 +/- 1.24 vs. 1.06 +/- 0.70 p < 0.05; 12.47 +/- 2.49 vs. 3.37 +/- 1.29 p < 0.05). Palmitate increased the formation of ROS and reperfusion contracture. TMZ, a potential inhibitor of palmitate-induced mitochondrial uncoupling, decreased the formation of free radicals and improved postischemic mechanical dysfunction. The novel conclusion is that adverse effects of fatty acids on ischemic-reperfusion injury may be mediated, at least in part, by oxygen-derived free radicals. PMID:16444597

  2. Abscisic acid deficiency increases defence responses against Myzus persicae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hillwig, Melissa S; Chiozza, Mariana; Casteel, Clare L; Lau, Siau Ting; Hohenstein, Jessica; Hernández, Enrique; Jander, Georg; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2016-02-01

    Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) gene expression induced by Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding, aphid saliva infiltration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a significant positive correlation. In particular, ABA-regulated genes are over-represented among genes that are induced by M. persicae saliva infiltration into Arabidopsis leaves. This suggests that the induction of ABA-related gene expression could be an important component of the Arabidopsis-aphid interaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, M. persicae populations induced ABA production in wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid populations were smaller on Arabidopsis aba1-1 mutants, which cannot synthesize ABA, and showed a significant preference for wild-type plants compared with the mutant. Total free amino acids, which play an important role in aphid nutrition, were not altered in the aba1-1 mutant line, but the levels of isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were differentially affected by aphids in wild-type and mutant plants. Recently, indole glucosinolates have been shown to promote aphid resistance in Arabidopsis. In this study, 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was more abundant in the aba1-1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the induction of ABA signals that decrease the accumulation of defence compounds may be beneficial for aphids. PMID:25943308

  3. Application of acid-activated Bauxsol for wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration: Characterization, adsorption optimization, and desorption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jie; Cong, Xiangna; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming; Hoffmann, Erhard; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Wei; Hahn, Hermann H

    2016-02-01

    Acid-activated Bauxsol was applied to treat wastewater with high phosphate concentration in a batch adsorption system in this paper. The effect of acid activation on the change of Bauxsol structure was systematically investigated. The mineralogical inhomogeneity and intensity of Bauxsol decreased after acid activation, and FeCl3·2H2O and Al(OH)3 became the dominant phases of acid-activated Bauxsol adsorption. Moreover, the BET surface area and total pore volume of Bauxsol increased after acid activation. Interaction of initial solution pH and adsorption temperature on phosphate adsorption onto acid-activated Bauxsol was investigated by using response surface methodology with central composite design. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of 192.94 mg g(-1) was achieved with an initial solution pH of 4.19 and an adsorption temperature of 52.18 °C, which increased by 7.61 times compared with that of Bauxsol (22.40 mg g(-1)), and was higher than other adsorbents. Furthermore, the desorption studies demonstrated that the acid-activated Bauxsol was successfully regenerated with 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl solution. The adsorption capacity and desorption efficiency of acid-activated Bauxsol maintained at 80.48% and 93.02% in the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle, respectively, suggesting that the acid-activated Bauxsol could be repeatedly used in wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration. PMID:26606195

  4. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul H.; Morris, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  5. Increased brain edema following 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic in normal and tumor bearing rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Angell-Petersen, Even; Spetalen, Signe; Mathews, Marlon; Madsen, Steen J.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Failure of treatment for high grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resection indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy, such as PDT, could be of benefit. PDT causes damage to both tumor cells as well as cerebral blood vessels leading to degradation of the blood brain barrier with subsequent increase of brain edema. The increase in brain edema following ALA-PDT was evaluated in terms of animal survival, histopatological changes in normal brain and tumor tissue and MRI scanning. The effect of steroid treatment, to reduce post-treatment PDT induced edema, was also examined. Methods:Tumors were established in the brains of inbred BD-IX and Fisher rats. At various times following tumor induction the animals were injected with ALA ip. and four hours later light treatment at escalating fluences and fluence rates were given. Nontumor bearing control animals were also exposed to ALA-PDT in a similar manner to evaluate damage to normal brain and degree of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Results: Despite a very low level of PpIX production in normal brain, with a 200:1 tumor to normal tissue selectivity ratio measured at a distance of 2 mm from the tumor border, many animals succumbed shortly after treatment. A total radiant energy of 54 J to non-tumor bearing animals resulted in 50% mortality within 5 days of treatment. Treatment of tumor bearing animals with moderate fluence levels produced similar brain edema compared to higher fluence levels. ALA PDT in nontumor bearing animals produced edema that was light dose dependent. PDT appeared to open the BBB for a period of 24-48 hrs after which it was restored. The addition of post operative steroid treatment reduced the incident of post treatment morbidity and mortality. Conclusions: T2 and contrast enhanced T1 MRI scanning proved to be a highly effective and non-evasive modality in following the development of the edema reaction and the degree and time

  6. Ascorbic acid: Chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Cullen, Joseph J.; Buettner, Garry R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of vitamin C, the number of its known biological functions is continually expanding. Both the names ascorbic acid and vitamin C reflect its antiscorbutic properties due to its role in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissues. Ascorbate acts as an electron-donor keeping iron in the ferrous state thereby maintaining the full activity of collagen hydroxylases; parallel reactions with a variety of dioxygenases affect the expression of a wide array of genes, for example via the HIF system, as well as via the epigenetic landscape of cells and tissues. In fact, all known physiological and biochemical functions of ascorbate are due to its action as an electron donor. The ability to donate one or two electrons makes AscH− an excellent reducing agent and antioxidant. Ascorbate readily undergoes pH-dependent autoxidation producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In the presence of catalytic metals this oxidation is accelerated. In this review, we show that the chemical and biochemical nature of ascorbate contribute to its antioxidant as well as its prooxidant properties. Recent pharmacokinetic data indicate that intravenous (i.v.) administration of ascorbate bypasses the tight control of the gut producing highly elevated plasma levels; ascorbate at very high levels can act as prodrug to deliver a significant flux of H2O2 to tumors. This new knowledge has rekindled interest and spurred new research into the clinical potential of pharmacological ascorbate. Knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of action of pharmacological ascorbate bring a rationale to its use to treat disease especially the use of i.v. delivery of pharmacological ascorbate as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PMID:22728050

  7. Plasma-chemical waste treatment of acid gases

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    The research to date has shown that a H{sub 2}S waste-treatment process based on plasma-chemical dissociation technology is compatible with refinery and high-carbon-oxide acid-gas streams. The minor amounts of impurities produced in the plasma-chemical reactor should be treatable by an internal catalytic reduction step. Furthermore, the plasma-chemical technology appears to be more efficient and more economical than the current technology. The principal key to achieving high conversions with relatively low energies of dissociation is the concept of the high-velocity, cyclonic-flow pattern in the plasma reaction zone coupled with the recycling of unconverted hydrogen sulfide. Future work will include testing the effects of components that might be carried over to the plasma reactor by ``upset`` conditions in the amine purification system of a plant and testing the plasma-chemical process on other industrial wastes streams that contain potentially valuable chemical reagents. The strategy for the commercialization of this technology is to form a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Institute of Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology of the Russian Scientific Center/Kurchatov Institute and with an American start-up company to develop an ``American`` version of the process and to build a commercial-scale demonstration unit in the United States. The timetable proposed would involve building a ``field test`` facility which would test the plasma-chemical reactor and sulfur recovery unit operations on an industrial hydrogen sulfide waste s at a scale large enough to obtain the energy and material balance data required for a final analysis of the commercial potential of this technology. The field test would then be followed by construction of a commercial demonstration unit in two to three years. The commercial demonstration unit would be a fully integrated plant consisting of one commercial-scale module.

  8. Nucleic acid labeling with ( sup 3 H)orotic acid and nucleotide profile in rats in protein deprivation, enteral and parenteral essential amino acid administration, and 5-fluorouracil treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsson, B.; el Hag, I.A.; Andersson, M.; Christensson, P.I.; Stenram, U. )

    1990-09-01

    Rats were fed a 0% casein diet for 1 week, with or without enteral or parenteral administration of essential amino acids, or a 25% casein diet, in one group supplemented with 5-fluorouracil treatment. Ninety minutes before sacrifice the rats were given a tracer of (3H)orotic acid. Incorporation into the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA was determined in liver, small intestine, bone marrow, and kidney. Nucleotide profile was examined in liver and intestine. Protein deficiency caused inter alia a decrease in body weight; a decrease in RNA/DNA ratio and an increase in the specific RNA labeling in liver and kidney; an altered nucleotide profile in the liver; an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios and a decrease in the specific labeling of the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA in the bone marrow. These changes were prevented to the same extent by giving essential amino acids, either orally or intravenously. The minor changes in intestinal nucleotide profile in protein deprivation were prevented to a slightly larger extent by amino acids orally than parenterally. 5-Fluorouracil treatment gave a decrease in the RNA/DNA ratio in the liver and kidney but an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios in the bone marrow. Nucleotide profiles were unaltered. The amount of DNA per gram of tissue decreased in bone marrow and increased in kidney. Parenteral administration per se resulted in almost no changes.

  9. Improving D-glucaric acid production from myo-inositol in E. coli by increasing MIOX stability and myo-inositol transport.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Eric; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-03-01

    D-glucaric acid has been explored for a myriad of potential uses, including biopolymer production and cancer treatment. A biosynthetic route to produce D-glucaric acid from glucose has been constructed in Escherichia coli (Moon et al., 2009b), and analysis of the pathway revealed myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) to be the least active enzyme. To increase pathway productivity, we explored protein fusion tags for increased MIOX solubility and directed evolution for increased MIOX activity. An N-terminal SUMO fusion to MIOX resulted in a 75% increase in D-glucaric acid production from myo-inositol. While our directed evolution efforts did not yield an improved MIOX variant, our screen isolated a 941 bp DNA fragment whose expression led to increased myo-inositol transport and a 65% increase in D-glucaric acid production from myo-inositol. Overall, we report the production of up to 4.85 g/L of D-glucaric acid from 10.8 g/L myo-inositol in recombinant E. coli. PMID:24333274

  10. Resistance of essential fatty acid-deficient rats to endotoxin-induced increases in vascular permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Li, E.J.; Cook, J.A.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Rokach, J.; Halushka, P.V. )

    1990-06-01

    Resistance to endotoxin in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats is associated with reduced synthesis of certain arachidonic acid metabolites. It was hypothesized that EFAD rats would manifest decreased vascular permeability changes during endotoxemia as a consequence of reduced arachidonic acid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, changes in hematocrit (HCT) and mesenteric localization rate of technetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) were assessed in EFAD and normal rats using gamma-camera imaging. Thirty minutes after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin, EFAD rats exhibited less hemoconcentration as determined by % HCT than normal rats. Endotoxin caused a less severe change in permeability index in the splanchnic region in EFAD rats than in normal rats (1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(-3)min-1 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(-3)min-1 respectively, P less than 0.05). In contrast to 99mTc-HSA, mesenteric localization of 99mTc-RBC was not changed by endotoxin in control or EFAD rats. Supplementation with ethyl-arachidonic acid did not enhance susceptibility of EFAD rats to endotoxin-induced splanchnic permeability to 99mTc-HSA. Leukotrienes have been implicated as mediators of increased vascular permeability in endotoxin shock. Since LTC3 formation has been reported to be increased in EFA deficiency, we hypothesized that LTC3 may be less potent than LTC4. Thus the effect of LTC3 on mean arterial pressure and permeability was compared to LTC4 in normal rats. LTC3-induced increases in peak mean arterial pressure were less than LTC4 at 10 micrograms/kg (39 +/- 5 mm Hg vs. 58 +/- 4 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05) and at 20 micrograms/kg (56 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 75 +/- 2 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05). LY171883 (30 mg/kg), an LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, attenuated the pressor effect of LTC4, LTD4, and LTC3.

  11. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    PubMed Central

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:24971025

  12. Increased Missense Mutation Burden of Fatty Acid Metabolism Related Genes in Nunavik Inuit Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sirui; Xiong, Lan; Xie, Pingxing; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Bourassa, Cynthia V.; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Spiegelman, Dan; Turcotte Gauthier, Maude; Henrion, Edouard; Diallo, Ousmane; Dion, Patrick A.; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nunavik Inuit (northern Quebec, Canada) reside along the arctic coastline where for generations their daily energy intake has mainly been derived from animal fat. Given this particular diet it has been hypothesized that natural selection would lead to population specific allele frequency differences and unique variants in genes related to fatty acid metabolism. A group of genes, namely CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, CRAT and CROT, encode for three carnitine acyltransferases that are important for the oxidation of fatty acids, a critical step in their metabolism. Methods Exome sequencing and SNP array genotyping were used to examine the genetic variations in the six genes encoding for the carnitine acyltransferases in 113 Nunavik Inuit individuals. Results Altogether ten missense variants were found in genes CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2 and CRAT, including three novel variants and one Inuit specific variant CPT1A p.P479L (rs80356779). The latter has the highest frequency (0.955) compared to other Inuit populations. We found that by comparison to Asians or Europeans, the Nunavik Inuit have an increased mutation burden in CPT1A, CPT2 and CRAT; there is also a high level of population differentiation based on carnitine acyltransferase gene variations between Nunavik Inuit and Asians. Conclusion The increased number and frequency of deleterious variants in these fatty acid metabolism genes in Nunavik Inuit may be the result of genetic adaptation to their diet and/or the extremely cold climate. In addition, the identification of these variants may help to understand some of the specific health risks of Nunavik Inuit. PMID:26010953

  13. Enhanced charge transport in highly conducting PEDOT-PSS films after acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, V. Akshaya; Bhatia, Ravi; Menon, Reghu

    The high electrical conductivity, good stability, high strength, flexibility and good transparency of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), make it useful for many applications including polymeric anodes for organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, flexible electrodes, supercapacitors, electrochromic devices, field-effect transistors and antistatic-coatings. However, the electrical conductivity of PEDOT-PSS has to be increased significantly for replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices. The as prepared (pristine) PEDOT-PSS film prepared from the PEDOT-PSS aqueous solution usually has conductivity below 1Scm-1, remarkably lower than ITO. Significant conductivity enhancement has been observed on transparent and conductive PEDOT-PSS films after a treatment with inorganic acids. Our study investigates the charge transport in pristine and H2SO4, HNO3, HCl treated PEDOT-PSS films. We have treated the films with various concentrations of acids to probe the effect of the acid treatment on the conduction mechanism. The study includes the measurement of dc and electric field dependent conductivity of films in the temperature range of 4.2K-300K. We have also performed magneto-resistance measurements in the range of 0-5T. An enhancement by a factor of~103 has been observed in the room temperature conductivity. The detailed magneto-transport studies explain the various mechanisms for the conductivity enhancement observed.

  14. AMPK activation promotes lipid droplet dispersion on detyrosinated microtubules to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Herms, Albert; Bosch, Marta; Reddy, Babu J.N.; Schieber, Nicole L.; Fajardo, Alba; Rupérez, Celia; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Ferguson, Charles; Rentero, Carles; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Parton, Robert G.; Gross, Steven P.; Pol, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that provide fatty acids (FAs) to cellular processes including synthesis of membranes and production of metabolic energy. While known to move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs), the role of LD motion and whether it facilitates interaction with other organelles are unclear. Here we show that during nutrient starvation, LDs and mitochondria relocate on detyrosinated MT from the cell centre to adopt a dispersed distribution. In the cell periphery, LD–mitochondria interactions increase and LDs efficiently supply FAs for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. This cellular adaptation requires the activation of the energy sensor AMPK, which in response to starvation simultaneously increases LD motion, reorganizes the network of detyrosinated MTs and activates mitochondria. In conclusion, we describe the existence of a specialized cellular network connecting the cellular energetic status and MT dynamics to coordinate the functioning of LDs and mitochondria during nutrient scarcity. PMID:26013497

  15. IDH1 Mutations Alter Citric Acid Cycle Metabolism and Increase Dependence on Oxidative Mitochondrial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Grassian, Alexandra R.; Parker, Seth J.; Davidson, Shawn M.; Divakarun, Ajit S.; Green, Courtney R.; Zhang, Xiamei; Slocum, Kelly L.; Pu, Minying; Lin, Fallon; Vickers, Chad; Joud-Caldwell, Carol; Chung, Franklin; Yin, Hong; Handly, Erika D.; Straub, Christopher; Growney, Joseph D.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Murphy, Anne N.; Pagliarini, Raymond; Metallo, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) occur in several types of cancer, but the metabolic consequences of these genetic changes are not fully understood. In this study, we performed 13C metabolic flux analysis on a panel of isogenic cell lines containing heterozygous IDH1/2 mutations. We observed that under hypoxic conditions, IDH1-mutant cells exhibited increased oxidative tricarboxylic acid metabolism along with decreased reductive glutamine metabolism, but not IDH2-mutant cells. However, selective inhibition of mutant IDH1 enzyme function could not reverse the defect in reductive carboxylation activity. Furthermore, this metabolic reprogramming increased the sensitivity of IDH1-mutant cells to hypoxia or electron transport chain inhibition in vitro. Lastly, IDH1-mutant cells also grew poorly as subcutaneous xenografts within a hypoxic in vivo microenvironment. Together, our results suggest therapeutic opportunities to exploit the metabolic vulnerabilities specific to IDH1 mutation. PMID:24755473

  16. Nicotinic acid increases the lipid content of rat brain synaptosomes. [Ethanol effects

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.; Flores, M.

    1989-02-09

    Chronic administration of nicotinic acid (NA) increase hepatic lipids and potentiates a similar effect induced by ethanol. The amethystic properties of NA promoted us to study its effects on the lipid content of brain synaptosomes of native and ethanol treated rats. Groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats received i.p. either saline, ethanol (4g/kg), NA (50mg/kg), or a mixture of both compounds once a week during 3 weeks. The sleeping time (ST) of the animals receiving ethanol was recorded, brain synaptosomes of all groups were prepared and total lipids (TL) and cholesterol (Chol) content were determined. NA, ethanol and ethanol + NA markedly increased both TL and Chol of synaptosomes. Animals treated with ethanol or ethanol + NA developed tolerance. The group treated with ethanol-NA showed the highest Chol content and slept significantly less than the one treated with ethanol alone indicating that the changes induced by NA favored the appearance of tolerance.

  17. Hyaluronic acid is increased in the skin and urine in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, S.; Imai, T.; Yamauchi, M.; Nagao, K.

    1996-01-01

    We performed morphological studies of skin and measured glycosaminoglycans in the urine from patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and control subjects. The wide spaces separating collagen bundles reacted strongly with alcian blue stain in ALS patients and stained more markedly as ALS progressed. Staining with alcian blue was virtually eliminated by Streptomyces hyaluronidase. The urinary excretion of hyaluronic acid (HA) (mg/day) was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in ALS patients compared with that of control subjects, and there was a significant positive correlation between the excreted amount of HA and the duration of illness in advanced ALS patients with a duration of more than 2 years from clinical onset (r = 0.72, P < 0.02). We suggest that sporadic ALS includes a metabolic disorder of HA in which an accumulation of HA in the skin is linked to an increased urinary excretion of HA.

  18. Effects of increasing acidity on metal(loid) bioprecipitation in groundwater: column studies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alexander C; Patterson, Bradley M; Grassi, Michelle E; Robertson, Blair S; Prommer, Henning; McKinley, Allan J

    2007-10-15

    Large-scale column experiments were carried out over a period of 545 days to assess the effect of increasing acidity on bacterial denitrification, sulfate reduction, and metal(loid) bioprecipitation in groundwater affected by acid mine drainage. At a groundwater pH of 5.5, denitrification and Cu2+ removal, probably via malachite (Cu2(OH)2CO3) precipitation, were observed in the ethanol-amended column. Sulfate reduction, sulfide production, and Zn2+ removal were also observed, with Zn2+ removal observed in the zone of sulfate reduction, indicating likely precipitation as sphalerite (ZnS). Se6+ removal was also observed in the sulfate reducing zone, probably as direct bioreduction to elemental selenium via ethanol/acetate oxidation or sulfide oxidation precipitating elemental sulfur. A step decrease in groundwater pH from 5.5 to 4.25 resulted in increased denitrification and sulfate reduction half-lives, migration of both these redox zones along the ethanol-amended column, and the formation of an elevated Cu2+ plume. Additionally, an elevated Zn2+ plume formed in the previous sulfate reducing zone of the ethanol-amended column, suggesting dissolution of precipitated sphalerite as a result of the reduction in groundwater pH. As Cu2+ passed through the zone of sphalerite dissolution, SEM imaging and EDS detection suggested that Cu2+ removal had occurred via chalcocite (Cu2S) or covellite (CuS) precipitation. PMID:17993159

  19. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on low temperature acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Robiah; Salleh, Shanti Faridah; Abdullah, Nurhafizah; Biak, Dyg Radiah Awg

    2010-12-01

    Various pre-treatment techniques change the physical and chemical structure of the lignocellulosic biomass and improve hydrolysis rates. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre prior to acid hydrolysis has been evaluated. The main objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonic pre-treatment could function as a pre-treatment method for the acid hydrolysis of OPEFB fibre at a low temperature and pressure. Hydrolysis at a low temperature was studied using 2% sulphuric acid; 1:25 solid liquid ratio and 100 degrees C operating temperature. A maximum xylose yield of 58% was achieved when the OPEFB fibre was ultrasonicated at 90% amplitude for 45min. In the absence of ultrasonic pre-treatment only 22% of xylose was obtained. However, no substantial increase of xylose formation was observed for acid hydrolysis at higher temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C on ultrasonicated OPEFB fibre. The samples were then analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to describe the morphological changes of the OPEFB fibre. The SEM observations show interesting morphological changes within the OPEFB fibre for different acid hydrolysis conditions. PMID:20719502

  20. Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

  1. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  2. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

  3. Inhibition of endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase increases atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Friedrich Felix; Khoury, Mona; Slomka, Heike; Kebschull, Moritz; Lerner, Raissa; Lutz, Beat; Schott, Hans; Lütjohann, Dieter; Wojtalla, Alexandra; Becker, Astrid; Zimmer, Andreas; Nickenig, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The role of endocannabinoids such as anandamide during atherogenesis remains largely unknown. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) represents the key enzyme in anandamide degradation, and its inhibition is associated with subsequent higher levels of anandamide. Here, we tested whether selective inhibition of FAAH influences the progression of atherosclerosis in mice. Selective inhibition of FAAH using URB597 resulted in significantly increased plasma levels of anandamide compared to control, as assessed by mass spectrometry experiments in mice. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet to induce atherosclerotic conditions. Simultaneously, mice received either the pharmacological FAAH inhibitor URB597 1mg/kg body weight (n=28) or vehicle (n=25) via intraperitoneal injection three times a week. After eight weeks, mice were sacrificed, and experiments were performed. Vascular superoxide generation did not differ between both groups, as measured by L012 assay. To determine whether selective inhibition of FAAH affects atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, immunohistochemical staining of the aortic root was performed. Atherosclerotic plaque formation, vascular macrophage accumulation, as well as vascular T cell infiltration did not differ between both groups. Interestingly, neutrophil cell accumulation was significantly increased in mice receiving URB597 compared to control. Vascular collagen structures in atherosclerotic plaques were significantly diminished in mice treated with URB597 compared to control, as assessed by picro-sirius-red staining. This was accompanied by an increased aortic expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase does not influence plaque size but increases plaque vulnerability in mice. PMID:24286707

  4. Increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acid levels in human plasma after a single dose of long-chain omega-3 PUFA

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schneider, Inga; Willenberg, Ina; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several supplementation studies with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) describe an increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in blood, while changes in levels of other LC n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins were minor. In order to investigate the kinetics of changes in oxylipin levels in response to LC n-3 PUFA ingestion, we conducted a single dose treatment study with healthy subjects. Subjects and methods In the present kinetic study, we compared patterns of hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in plasma of 6 healthy men before and after 6, 8, 24, and 48 h of fish oil (1008 mg EPA and 672 mg DHA) ingestion. Levels of EPA- as well as other LC PUFA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids were analyzed in plasma by LC–MS. Additionally, levels of these oxylipins were compared with their parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids. Results All EPA-derived oxylipin levels were significantly increased 6 h after LC n-3 PUFA ingestion and gradually drop thereafter reaching the baseline levels about 48 h after treatment. The relative increase in EPA plasma phospholipid levels highly correlated with the increase of plasma EPA-derived oxylipin levels at different time points. In contrast, plasma levels of arachidonic acid- and DHA-derived oxylipins as well as parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids were hardly changed. Discussion and conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a single dose of LC n-3 PUFAs can rapidly induce a shift in the EPA oxylipin profile of healthy subjects within a few hours. Taking the high biological activity of the EPA-derived epoxy fatty acids into account, even short-term treatment with LC n-3 PUFAs may cause systemic effects, which warrant further investigation. PMID:24667634

  5. Root-to-shoot signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: increasing the proportion of root biomass in drying soil inhibits leaf growth and increases leaf abscisic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vertedor, Ana Isabel; Dodd, Ian C

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether root-to-shoot signalling of soil moisture heterogeneity depended on root distribution, wild-type (WT) and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient (Az34) barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were grown in split pots into which different numbers of seminal roots were inserted. After establishment, all plants received the same irrigation volumes, with one pot watered (w) and the other allowed to dry the soil (d), imposing three treatments (1 d: 3 w, 2 d: 2 w, 3 d: 1 w) that differed in the number of seminal roots exposed to drying soil. Root distribution did not affect leaf water relations and had no sustained effect on plant evapotranspiration (ET). In both genotypes, leaf elongation was less and leaf ABA concentrations were higher in plants with more roots in drying soil, with leaf ABA concentrations and water potentials 30% and 0.2 MPa higher, respectively, in WT plants. Whole-pot soil drying increased xylem ABA concentrations, but maximum values obtained when leaf growth had virtually ceased (100 nm in Az34, 330 nm in WT) had minimal effects (<40% leaf growth inhibition) when xylem supplied to detached shoots. Although ABA may not regulate leaf growth in vivo, genetic variation in foliar ABA concentration in the field may indicate different root distributions between upper (drier) and lower (wetter) soil layers. PMID:21410712

  6. PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM A SUBSURFACE MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  7. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid increases progranulin production in iPSC-derived cortical neurons of frontotemporal dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sandra; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in the granulin (GRN) gene cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) due to progranulin haploinsufficiency. Compounds that can increase progranulin production and secretion may be considered as potential therapeutic drugs; however, very few of them have been directly tested on human cortical neurons. To this end, we differentiated 9 induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from a control subject, a sporadic FTD case and an FTD patient with progranulin S116X mutation. Treatment with 1 μM suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, increased the production of progranulin in cortical neurons of all subjects at both the mRNA and protein levels without affecting their viability. Microarray analysis revealed that SAHA treatment not only reversed some gene expression changes caused by progranulin haploinsufficiency but also caused massive alterations in the overall transcriptome. Thus, histone deacetylase inhibitors may be considered as therapeutic drugs for GRN mutation carriers. However, this class of drugs also causes drastic changes in overall gene expression in human cortical neurons and their side effects and potential impacts on other pathways should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27143419

  8. Laterally applied Ethrel causes local increases in radial growth and indole-3-acetic acid concentration in Abies balsamea shoots.

    PubMed

    Eklund, L; Anthony Little, C H

    1996-05-01

    The terminal (1-year-old) shoot of quiescent, two-year-old balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings was ringed with lanolin containing 0, 1 or 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel, an ethylene-generating compound, and cultured for 6 weeks under environmental conditions favorable for growth. Bud break and the elongation of the current-year terminal shoot were monitored, and the subjacent previous-year terminal shoot that had been treated with Ethrel was harvested to measure stem radial growth by microscopy, shoot ethylene evolution by gas chromatography, and cambial region indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compared with the lanolin controls, Ethrel at 1 and 10 mg g(-1) did not affect bud break or longitudinal growth, but stimulated tracheid production and bark increment up to about 2-fold at the application site, though not above or below it. In addition, the 1 and 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatments increased the cambial region IAA concentration about 3-fold and the evolution of ethylene at least 40-fold at the application site, compared with unwounded portions of both treated and control shoots. The 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatment also stimulated ethylene evolution about 10-fold, both above and below the application site. However, this stimulation was not associated with an elevation in cambial region IAA concentration. Similarly, the lanolin control treatment increased ethylene evolution at the application site about 10-fold, without affecting the cambial region IAA concentration. Our results suggest that the localized stimulation of radial growth in woody shoots ringed with Ethrel is mediated by an increase in IAA concentration, which in turn is induced by a threshold, abnormally high concentration of Ethrel-derived ethylene. PMID:14871721

  9. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum. PMID:24879694

  10. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on the engineering of industrial FAs, specifically hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) and conjugated polyenoic fatty acids (a-eleostearic acid, ESA), using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a m...

  11. High-Dose Testosterone Treatment Increases Serotonin Transporter Binding in Transgender People

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Georg S.; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Savli, Markus; Baldinger, Pia; Gryglewski, Gregor; Haeusler, Daniela; Spies, Marie; Mitterhauser, Markus; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Background Women are two times more likely to be diagnosed with depression than men. Sex hormones modulating serotonergic transmission are proposed to partly underlie these epidemiologic findings. Here, we used the cross-sex steroid hormone treatment of transsexuals seeking sex reassignment as a model to investigate acute and chronic effects of testosterone and estradiol on serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) binding in female-to-male and male-to-female transsexuals. Methods Thirty-three transsexuals underwent [11C]DASB positron emission tomography before start of treatment, a subset of which underwent a second scan 4 weeks and a third scan 4 months after treatment start. SERT nondisplaceable binding potential was quantified in 12 regions of interest. Treatment effects were analyzed using linear mixed models. Changes of hormone plasma levels were correlated with changes in regional SERT nondisplaceable binding potential. Results One and 4 months of androgen treatment in female-to-male transsexuals increased SERT binding in amygdala, caudate, putamen, and median raphe nucleus. SERT binding increases correlated with treatment-induced increases in testosterone levels, suggesting that testosterone increases SERT expression on the cell surface. Conversely, 4 months of antiandrogen and estrogen treatment in male-to-female transsexuals led to decreases in SERT binding in insula, anterior, and mid-cingulate cortex. Increases in estradiol levels correlated negatively with decreases in regional SERT binding, indicating a protective effect of estradiol against SERT loss. Conclusions Given the central role of the SERT in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders, these findings may lead to new treatment modalities and expand our understanding of the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatment properties. PMID:25497691

  12. Adhesion of human platelets to albumin is synergistically increased by lysophosphatidic acid and adrenaline in a donor-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Andreas C; Whiss, Per A; Nilsson, Ulrika K

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and adrenaline are weak platelet activators considered important for thrombus formation, and were previously shown to synergistically increase platelet aggregation. Here we investigate synergistic activation by LPA and adrenaline when measuring platelet adhesion. Platelet-rich plasma from healthy blood donors together with adrenaline and/or LPA were added to protein-coated microplates. Platelets were allowed to adhere and the amount of adhesion detected enzymatically. The LPA and adrenaline combination induced a synergistic increase of platelet adhesion to a normally non-adhesive albumin surface. The degree of synergy varied markedly between individuals; these variations could not be explained by age, gender, blood type or different amounts of platelets, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, insulin or glucose in plasma. There was a trend indicating increased synergistic effect for platelets sensitive to adrenaline stimulation. The synergistic effect was blocked by the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine and inhibited by the ADP scavenger system creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase and antibodies against alphaIIbbeta3. Furthermore, platelets adhering to albumin after adrenaline and LPA treatment expressed P-selectin. In conclusion, LPA and adrenaline act synergistically to increase alphaIIbbeta3-mediated platelet adhesion to albumin, dependent on alpha2-adrenoceptor signalling and platelet secretion. We also confirm that synergistic platelet activation achieved with LPA and adrenaline is highly donor dependent. PMID:16788312

  13. Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery. PMID:21099053

  14. Adaptation of in vivo amino acid kinetics facilitates increased amino acid availability for fetal growth in adolescent and adult pregnancies alike

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, adult women with a normal BMI synthesize extra amino acids after an overnight fast by increasing body protein breakdown and decreasing amino acid oxidation. It is not known whether adolescent girls can make these adaptations during pregnancy. The present study aimed to measure and ...

  15. Optical clearing of skin enhanced with hyaluronic acid for increased contrast of optoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Liopo, Anton; Su, Richard; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A; Oraevsky, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced delivery of optical clearing agents (OCA) through skin may improve sensitivity of optical and optoacoustic (OA) methods of imaging, sensing, and monitoring. This report describes a two-step method for enhancement of light penetration through skin. Here, we demonstrate that topical application of hyaluronic acid (HA) improves skin penetration of hydrophilic and lipophilic OCA and thus enhances their performance. We examined the OC effect of 100% polyethylene and polypropylene glycols (PPGs) and their mixture after pretreatment by HA, and demonstrated significant increase in efficiency of light penetration through skin. Increased light transmission resulted in a significant increase of OA image contrast in vitro. Topical pretreatment of skin for about 30 min with 0.5% HA in aqueous solution offers effective delivery of low molecular weight OCA such as a mixture of PPG-425 and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400. The developed approach of pretreatment by HA prior to application of clearing agents (PEG and PPG) resulted in a ∼ 47-fold increase in transmission of red and near-infrared light and significantly enhanced contrast of OA images. PMID:27232721

  16. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Lachmandas, Ekta; van den Heuvel, Corina N A M; Damen, Michelle S M A; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Netea, Mihai G; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with diabetes. We examined the influence of physiological concentrations of butyrate on cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Butyrate decreased Mtb-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses, while it increased production of IL-10. This anti-inflammatory effect was independent of butyrate's well-characterised inhibition of HDAC activity and was not accompanied by changes in Toll-like receptor signalling pathways, the eicosanoid pathway, or cellular metabolism. In contrast blocking IL-10 activity reversed the effects of butyrate on Mtb-induced inflammation. Alteration of the gut microbiota, thereby increasing butyrate concentrations, can reduce insulin resistance and obesity, but further studies are needed to determine how this affects susceptibility to tuberculosis. PMID:27057552

  17. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lachmandas, Ekta; van den Heuvel, Corina N. A. M.; Damen, Michelle S. M. A.; Cleophas, Maartje C. P.; Netea, Mihai G.; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with diabetes. We examined the influence of physiological concentrations of butyrate on cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Butyrate decreased Mtb-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses, while it increased production of IL-10. This anti-inflammatory effect was independent of butyrate's well-characterised inhibition of HDAC activity and was not accompanied by changes in Toll-like receptor signalling pathways, the eicosanoid pathway, or cellular metabolism. In contrast blocking IL-10 activity reversed the effects of butyrate on Mtb-induced inflammation. Alteration of the gut microbiota, thereby increasing butyrate concentrations, can reduce insulin resistance and obesity, but further studies are needed to determine how this affects susceptibility to tuberculosis. PMID:27057552

  18. Warming decreased and grazing increased plant uptake of amino acids in an alpine meadow.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Lirong; Che, Rongxiao; Wang, Fang; Liu, Hanke; Niu, Haishan; Wang, Shiping; Cui, Xiaoyong

    2015-09-01

    Organic nitrogen (N) uptake by plants has been recognized as a significant component of terrestrial N cycle. Several studies indicated that plants have the ability to switch their preference between inorganic and organic forms of N in diverse environments; however, research on plant community response in organic nitrogen uptake to warming and grazing is scarce. Here, we demonstrated that organic N uptake by an alpine plant community decreased under warming with (13)C-(15)N-enriched glycine addition method. After 6 years of treatment, warming decreased plant organic N uptake by 37% as compared to control treatment. Under the condition of grazing, warming reduced plant organic N uptake by 44%. Grazing alone significantly increased organic N absorption by 15%, whereas under warming condition grazing did not affect organic N uptake by the Kobresia humilis community on Tibetan Plateau. Besides, soil NO 3-N content explained more than 70% of the variability observed in glycine uptake, and C:N ratio in soil dissolved organic matter remarkably increased under warming treatment. These results suggested warming promoted soil microbial activity and dissolved organic N mineralization. Grazing stimulated organic N uptake by plants, which counteracted the effect of warming. PMID:26442646

  19. Increased saturated fatty acids in obesity alter resolution of inflammation in part by stimulating prostaglandin production.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Jason; Zhang, Michael J; Tang, Yunan; Rane, Madhavi; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Spite, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that nutrient excess associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes activates innate immune responses that lead to chronic, sterile low-grade inflammation, and obese and diabetic humans also have deficits in wound healing and increased susceptibility to infections. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that sustain unresolved inflammation during obesity remain unclear. In this study, we report that saturated free fatty acids that are elevated in obesity alter resolution of acute sterile inflammation by promoting neutrophil survival and decreasing macrophage phagocytosis. Using a targeted mass spectrometry-based lipidomics approach, we found that in db/db mice, PGE2/D2 levels were elevated in inflammatory exudates during the development of acute peritonitis. Moreover, in isolated macrophages, palmitic acid stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 induction and prostanoid production. Defects in macrophage phagocytosis induced by palmitic acid were mimicked by PGE2 and PGD2 and were reversed by cyclooxygenase inhibition or prostanoid receptor antagonism. Macrophages isolated from obese-diabetic mice expressed prostanoid receptors, EP2 and DP1, and contained significantly higher levels of downstream effector, cAMP, compared with wild-type mice. Therapeutic administration of EP2/DP1 dual receptor antagonist, AH6809, decreased neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneum of db/db mice, as well as the accumulation of apoptotic cells in the thymus. Taken together, these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying altered innate immune responses in obesity and suggest that targeting specific prostanoid receptors may represent a novel strategy for resolving inflammation and restoring phagocyte defects in obese and diabetic individuals. PMID:23785121

  20. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  1. Biochar Enhances Aspergillus niger Rock Phosphate Solubilization by Increasing Organic Acid Production and Alleviating Fluoride Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

    2014-01-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F−) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F− adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F− released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F− while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F− measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F− per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter−1 to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F− sink during RP solubilization and led to an F− concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F− and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F−, the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  2. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) treatment on insulin sensitivity in an animal model of diabetes: improvement of the inflammatory status.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Maite; Olivan, Mireia; Busquets, Sílvia; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Argilés, Josep M

    2011-02-01

    In addition to decreased insulin sensitivity, diabetes is a pathological condition associated with increased inflammation. The ω-3 fatty acids have been proposed as anti-inflammatory agents. Thus, the major goal of this study was to analyze the effects of fatty acid supplementation on both insulin sensitivity and inflammatory status in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Diabetic rats (Goto-Kakizaki model) were treated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or linoleic acid at 0.5 g/kg body weigh (bw) dose. In vivo incorporation of (14)C-triolein into adipose tissue was improved by the ω-3 administration. In vitro incubations of adipose tissue slices from EPA-treated rats showed an increase in (14)C-palmitate incorporation into the lipid fraction. These observations were linked with a decreased rate of fatty acid oxidation. EPA treatment resulted in a decreased fatty acid oxidation in incubated strips from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. The changes in lipid utilization were associated with a decrease in insulin plasma concentration, suggesting an improvement in insulin sensitivity. These changes in lipid metabolism were associated with an activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in white adipose tissue. In addition, EPA treatment resulted in a decreased content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and PPARδ and in increased GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle. Moreover, EPA increased 2-deoxy-D-[(14)C]glucose (2-DOG) uptake in C2C12 myotubes, suggesting an improvement in glucose metabolism. Concerning the inflammatory status, EPA treatment resulted in a decreased gene expression for both tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) both in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The data suggest that EPA treatment to diabetic rats clearly improves lipid metabolism although the evidences on insulin sensitization are less clear. PMID:20885391

  3. Increase of eicosapentaenoic acid in thraustochytrids through thraustochytrid ubiquitin promoter-driven expression of a fatty acid {delta}5 desaturase gene.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Matsuda, Takanori; Abe, Eriko; Hama, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    Thraustochytrids, marine protists known to accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipid droplets, are considered an alternative to fish oils as a source of PUFAs. The major fatty acids produced in thraustochytrids are palmitic acid (C(16:0)), n - 6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C(22:5)(n) (- 6)), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C(22:6)(n) (- 3)), with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C(20:5)(n) (- 3)) and arachidonic acid (AA) (C(20:4)(n) (- 6)) as minor constituents. We attempted here to alter the fatty acid composition of thraustochytrids through the expression of a fatty acid Δ5 desaturase gene driven by the thraustochytrid ubiquitin promoter. The gene was functionally expressed in Aurantiochytrium limacinum mh0186, increasing the amount of EPA converted from eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) (C(20:4)(n) (- 3)) by the Δ5 desaturase. The levels of EPA and AA were also increased by 4.6- and 13.2-fold in the transgenic thraustochytrids compared to levels in the mock transfectants when ETA and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) (C(20:3)(n) (- 6)) were added to the culture at 0.1 mM. Interestingly, the amount of EPA in the transgenic thraustochytrids increased in proportion to the amount of ETA added to the culture up to 0.4 mM. The rates of conversion and accumulation of EPA were much higher in the thraustochytrids than in baker's yeasts when the desaturase gene was expressed with the respective promoters. This report describes for the first time the finding that an increase of EPA could be accomplished by introducing the Δ5 desaturase gene into thraustochytrids and indicates that molecular breeding of thraustochytrids is a promising strategy for generating beneficial PUFAs. PMID:21478316

  4. Increase of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Thraustochytrids through Thraustochytrid Ubiquitin Promoter-Driven Expression of a Fatty Acid Δ5 Desaturase Gene▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Matsuda, Takanori; Abe, Eriko; Hama, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Thraustochytrids, marine protists known to accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipid droplets, are considered an alternative to fish oils as a source of PUFAs. The major fatty acids produced in thraustochytrids are palmitic acid (C16:0), n − 6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5n − 6), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6n − 3), with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5n − 3) and arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4n − 6) as minor constituents. We attempted here to alter the fatty acid composition of thraustochytrids through the expression of a fatty acid Δ5 desaturase gene driven by the thraustochytrid ubiquitin promoter. The gene was functionally expressed in Aurantiochytrium limacinum mh0186, increasing the amount of EPA converted from eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) (C20:4n − 3) by the Δ5 desaturase. The levels of EPA and AA were also increased by 4.6- and 13.2-fold in the transgenic thraustochytrids compared to levels in the mock transfectants when ETA and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) (C20:3n − 6) were added to the culture at 0.1 mM. Interestingly, the amount of EPA in the transgenic thraustochytrids increased in proportion to the amount of ETA added to the culture up to 0.4 mM. The rates of conversion and accumulation of EPA were much higher in the thraustochytrids than in baker's yeasts when the desaturase gene was expressed with the respective promoters. This report describes for the first time the finding that an increase of EPA could be accomplished by introducing the Δ5 desaturase gene into thraustochytrids and indicates that molecular breeding of thraustochytrids is a promising strategy for generating beneficial PUFAs. PMID:21478316

  5. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Königs, Anja; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients' blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as "ADHD" and "ω-3/6 PUFA" and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported. In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication. PMID:27555775

  6. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Königs, Anja; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients’ blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as “ADHD” and “ω-3/6 PUFA” and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported. In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication. PMID:27555775

  7. Select microtubule inhibitors increase lysosome acidity and promote lysosomal disruption in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Dannie; Gebbia, Marinella; Prabha, Swayam; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Wang, Xiaoming; Hurren, Rose; Sukhai, Mahadeo A; Cho, Eunice E; Manolson, Morris F; Datti, Alessandro; Wrana, Jeffrey; Minden, Mark D; Al-Awar, Rima; Aman, Ahmed; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Schimmer, Aaron D

    2015-07-01

    To identify new biological vulnerabilities in acute myeloid leukemia, we screened a library of natural products for compounds cytotoxic to TEX leukemia cells. This screen identified the novel small molecule Deoxysappanone B 7,4' dimethyl ether (Deox B 7,4), which possessed nanomolar anti-leukemic activity. To determine the anti-leukemic mechanism of action of Deox B 7,4, we conducted a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified enrichment of genes related to mitotic cell cycle as well as vacuolar acidification, therefore pointing to microtubules and vacuolar (V)-ATPase as potential drug targets. Further investigations into the mechanisms of action of Deox B 7,4 and a related analogue revealed that these compounds were reversible microtubule inhibitors that bound near the colchicine site. In addition, Deox B 7,4 and its analogue increased lysosomal V-ATPase activity and lysosome acidity. The effects on microtubules and lysosomes were functionally important for the anti-leukemic effects of these drugs. The lysosomal effects were characteristic of select microtubule inhibitors as only the Deox compounds and nocodazole, but not colchicine, vinca alkaloids or paclitaxel, altered lysosome acidity and induced lysosomal disruption. Thus, our data highlight a new mechanism of action of select microtubule inhibitors on lysosomal function. PMID:25832785

  8. Disseminating Contingency Management to Increase Attendance in Two Community Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robrina; Rosvall, Traci; Field, Craig A.; Allen, Sean; McDonald, Daniel; Salim, Zeba; Ridley, Natalie; Adinoff, Bryon

    2010-01-01

    Although Contingency Management has been shown to be effective in substance use treatments, community adoption has been slow. In order to increase dissemination of contingency management (CM) into community practice, two community treatment programs collaborated with university faculty investigators to design, implement, and evaluate low-cost, prize-based CM interventions delivered by treatment staff using Petry’s (2000) fishbowl technique. A pre-post study design was used to evaluate the impact of CM on outpatient group attendance. All clients attending the targeted outpatient groups at both treatment programs were eligible to participate. Group attendance was significantly positively impacted after intervention implementation. This is one of the first studies demonstrating successful implementation of CM by community treatment program counselors within their existing treatment groups. The discussion focuses on practical lessons learned during the planning and implementation of the interventions. PMID:20598838

  9. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (P<0.05). Moreover, SAEW treatment could increase the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and thus result in the GABA and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination. PMID:26868552

  10. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P < .001) in the krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P < .05) in the menhaden oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P < .006). No significant differences for other safety variables were noted, including adverse events. In conclusion, 4 weeks of krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters. PMID:19854375

  11. Mice with heterozygous deficiency of lipoic acid synthase have an increased sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide-induced tissue injury

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianwen; Kim, Kuikwon; Yuan, Weiping; Xu, Longquan; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Homeister, Jonathon W.; Key, Nigel S.; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2009-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid (1, 2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid; LA), synthesized in mitochondria by LA synthase (Lias), is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for metabolic enzyme complexes. In this study, we examined the effect of genetic reduction of LA synthesis on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties using a model of LPS-induced inflammation in Lias+/– mice. The increase of plasma proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and NF-κB at an early phase following LPS injection was greater in Lias+/– mice compared with Lias+/+ mice. The circulating blood white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts dropped continuously during the initial 4 h. The counts subsequently recovered partially in Lias+/+ mice, but the recovery was impaired totally in Lias+/– mice. Administration of exogenous LA normalized the recovery of WBC counts in Lias+/– mice but not platelets. Enhanced neutrophil sequestration in the livers of Lias+/– mice was associated with increased hepatocyte injury and increased gene expression of growth-related oncogene, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 in the liver and/or lung. Lias gene expression in tissues was 50% of normal expression in Lias+/– mice and reduced further by LPS treatment. Decreased Lias expression was associated with diminished hepatic LA and tissue oxidative stress. Finally, Lias+/– mice displayed enhanced mortality when exposed to LPS-induced sepsis. These data demonstrate the importance of endogenously produced LA for preventing leukocyte accumulation and tissue injury that result from LPS-induced inflammation. PMID:18845616

  12. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistant mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with increased salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lehle, F.R.; Murphy, M.A.; Khan, R.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Nineteen mutant Arabidopsis families resistant to the proline analog azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (ACA) were characterized in terms of NaCl tolerance and proline content. Mutants were selected from about 64,000 progeny of about 16,000 self-pollinated Columbia parents which had been mutated with ethyl methane sulfonate during seed imbibition. Selections were performed during seed germination on aseptic agar medium containing 0.2 to 0.25 mM ACA. Nineteen mutant families, 12 clearly independent, retained resistance to ACA in the M{sub 4} generation. Based on germination on 150 mM NaCl, 13 of the mutant families were more tolerant than the wild type. Two mutants of intermediate resistance to ACA were markedly more salt tolerant than the others. Four mutant families appeared to overproduce proline. Of these, only 3 showed slight increases in salt tolerance.

  13. Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Gao, R S; Popp, P J; Fahey, D W; Marcy, T P; Herman, R L; Weinstock, E M; Baumgardner, D G; Garrett, T J; Rosenlof, K H; Thompson, T L; Bui, P T; Ridley, B A; Wofsy, S C; Toon, O B; Tolbert, M A; Kärcher, B; Peter, Th; Hudson, P K; Weinheimer, A J; Heymsfield, A J

    2004-01-23

    In situ measurements of the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and of nitric acid (HNO3) were made in both natural and contrail cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere. At temperatures lower than 202 kelvin, RHi values show a sharp increase to average values of over 130% in both cloud types. These enhanced RHi values are attributed to the presence of a new class of HNO3-containing ice particles (Delta-ice). We propose that surface HNO3 molecules prevent the ice/vapor system from reaching equilibrium by a mechanism similar to that of freezing point depression by antifreeze proteins. Delta-ice represents a new link between global climate and natural and anthropogenic nitrogen oxide emissions. Including Delta-ice in climate models will alter simulated cirrus properties and the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor. PMID:14739457

  14. Evidence That Nitric Acid Increases Relative Humidity in Low-Temperature Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, R. S.; Popp, P. J.; Fahey, D. W.; Marcy, T. P.; Herman, R. L.; Weinstock, E. M.; Baumgardner, D. G.; Garrett, T. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Thompson, T. L.

    2004-01-01

    In situ measurements of the relative humidity with respect to ice (RH(sub(i)) and of nitric acid (HNO3) were made in both natural and contrail cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere. At temperatures lower than 202 kelvin, RH(sub i) values show a sharp increase to average values of over 130% in both cloud types. These enhanced RH(sub i) values are attributed to the presence of a new class of NHO3- containing ice particles (Delta-ice). We propose that surface HNO3 molecules prevent the ice/vapor system from reaching equilibrium by a mechanism similar to that of freezing point depression by antifreeze proteins. Delta-ice represents a new link between global climate and natural and anthropogenic nitrogen oxide emissions. Including Delta-ice in climate models will alter simulated cirrus properties and the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor.

  15. Serum Collagen Type II Cleavage Epitope and Serum Hyaluronic Acid as Biomarkers for Treatment Monitoring of Dogs with Hip Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, José M.; Rubio, Mónica; Spinella, Giuseppe; Cuervo, Belén; Sopena, Joaquín; Cugat, Ramón; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat; Dominguez, Juan M.; Granados, Maria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José J.; Carrillo, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum type II collagen cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring in osteoarthritic dogs. For this purpose, a treatment model based on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue combined with plasma rich in growth factors was used. This clinical study included 10 dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Both analytes were measured in serum at baseline, just before applying the treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. These results were compared with those obtained from force plate analysis using the same animals during the same study period. Levels of type II collagen cleavage epitope decreased and those of hyaluronic acid increased with clinical improvement objectively verified via force plate analysis, suggesting these two biomarkers could be effective as indicators of clinical development of joint disease in dogs. PMID:26886592

  16. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits. PMID:25306090

  17. Coffee polyphenol caffeic acid but not chlorogenic acid increases 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin-independent glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Satoshi; Egawa, Tatsuro; Ma, Xiao; Oshima, Rieko; Kurogi, Eriko; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2012-11-01

    Chlorogenic acid is an ester of caffeic and quinic acids, and is one of the most widely consumed polyphenols because it is abundant in foods, especially coffee. We explored whether chlorogenic acid and its metabolite, caffeic acid, act directly on skeletal muscle to stimulate 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Incubation of rat epitrochlearis muscles with Krebs buffer containing caffeic acid (≥0.1 mM, ≥30 min) but not chlorogenic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPKα Thr(172), an essential step for kinase activation, and acetyl CoA carboxylase Ser(79), a downstream target of AMPK, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Analysis of isoform-specific AMPK activity revealed that AMPKα2 activity increased significantly, whereas AMPKα1 activity did not change. This enzyme activation was associated with a reduction in phosphocreatine content and an increased rate of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose transport activity in the absence of insulin. These results suggest that caffeic acid but not chlorogenic acid acutely stimulates skeletal muscle AMPK activity and insulin-independent glucose transport with a reduction of the intracellular energy status. PMID:22227267

  18. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and aspirin increase lifespan of genetically heterogeneous male mice.

    PubMed

    Strong, Randy; Miller, Richard A; Astle, Clinton M; Floyd, Robert A; Flurkey, Kevin; Hensley, Kenneth L; Javors, Martin A; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Nelson, James F; Ongini, Ennio; Nadon, Nancy L; Warner, Huber R; Harrison, David E

    2008-10-01

    The National Institute on Aging's Interventions Testing Program was established to evaluate agents that are purported to increase lifespan and delay the appearance of age-related disease in genetically heterogeneous mice. Up to five compounds are added to the study each year and each compound is tested at three test sites (The Jackson Laboratory, University of Michigan, and University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio). Mice in the first cohort were exposed to one of four agents: aspirin, nitroflurbiprofen, 4-OH-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). Sample size was sufficient to detect a 10% difference in lifespan in either sex,with 80% power, using data from two of the three sites. Pooling data from all three sites, a log-rank test showed that both NDGA (p=0.0006) and aspirin (p=0.01) led to increased lifespan of male mice. Comparison of the proportion of live mice at the age of 90% mortality was used as a surrogate for measurement of maximum lifespan;neither NDGA (p=0.12) nor aspirin (p=0.16) had a significant effect in this test. Measures of blood levels of NDGA or aspirin and its salicylic acid metabolite suggest that the observed lack of effects of NDGA or aspirin on life span in females could be related to gender differences in drug disposition or metabolism. Further studies are warranted to find whether NDGA or aspirin, over a range of doses,might prove to postpone death and various age-related outcomes reproducibly in mice. PMID:18631321

  19. Effects of increasing acidity on metal(loid) bioprecipitation in groundwater: column studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander C. Davis; Bradley M. Patterson; Michelle E. Grassi; Blair S. Robertson; Henning Prommer; Allan J. McKinley

    2007-10-15

    Large-scale column experiments were carried out over a period of 545 days to assess the effect of increasing acidity on bacterial denitrification, sulfate reduction, and metal(loid) bioprecipitation in groundwater affected by acid mine drainage. At a groundwater pH of 5.5, denitrification and Cu{sup 2+} removal, probably via malachite (Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) precipitation, were observed in the ethanol-amended column. Sulfate reduction, sulfide production, and Zn{sup 2+} removal were also observed, with Zn{sup 2+} removal observed in the zone of sulfate reduction, indicating likely precipitation as sphalerite (ZnS). Se{sup 6+} removal was also observed in the sulfate reducing zone, probably as direct bioreduction to elemental selenium via ethanol/acetate oxidation or sulfide oxidation precipitating elemental sulfur. A step decrease in groundwater pH from 5.5 to 4.25 resulted in increased denitrification and sulfate reduction half-lives, migration of both these redox zones along the ethanol-amended column, and the formation of an elevated Cu{sup 2+} plume. Additionally, an elevated Zn{sup 2+} plume formed in the previous sulfate reducing zone of the ethanol-amended column, suggesting dissolution of precipitated sphalerite as a result of the reduction in groundwater pH. As Cu{sup 2+} passed through the zone of sphalerite dissolution, SEM imaging and EDS detection suggested that Cu{sup 2+} removal had occurred via chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) or covellite (CuS) precipitation. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Mice Deficient in Transmembrane Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Display Increased GABAergic Transmission and Neurological Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Myöhänen, Timo T.; Voikar, Vootele; Mijatovic, Jelena; Segerstråle, Mikael; Herrala, Annakaisa M.; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Pulkka, Anitta E.; Kivinummi, Tanja; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Taira, Tomi; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Rauvala, Heikki; Vihko, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), the first diagnostic marker and present therapeutic target for prostate cancer, modulates nociception at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), but its function in the central nervous system has remained unknown. We studied expression and function of TMPAP (the transmembrane isoform of PAP) in the brain by utilizing mice deficient in TMPAP (PAP−/− mice). Here we report that TMPAP is expressed in a subpopulation of cerebral GABAergic neurons, and mice deficient in TMPAP show multiple behavioral and neurochemical features linked to hyperdopaminergic dysregulation and altered GABAergic transmission. In addition to increased anxiety, disturbed prepulse inhibition, increased synthesis of striatal dopamine, and augmented response to amphetamine, PAP-deficient mice have enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced diazepam-induced loss of righting reflex, and increased GABAergic tone in the hippocampus. TMPAP in the mouse brain is localized presynaptically, and colocalized with SNARE-associated protein snapin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, and PAP-deficient mice display altered subcellular distribution of snapin. We have previously shown TMPAP to reside in prostatic exosomes and we propose that TMPAP is involved in the control of GABAergic tone in the brain also through exocytosis, and that PAP deficiency produces a distinct neurological phenotype. PMID:24846136

  1. Neonatal dexamethasone treatment increases susceptibility to experimental autoimmune disease in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J M; Kavelaars, A; Kamphuis, P J; Cobelens, P M; van Vugt, H H; van Bel, F; Heijnen, C J

    2000-11-15

    Major concern has emerged about the possible long term adverse effects of glucocorticoid treatment, which is frequently used for the prevention of chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Here we show that neonatal glucocorticoid treatment of rats increases the severity (p< or = 0.01) and incidence (p< or =0.01) of the inflammatory autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in adult life. In search of possible mechanisms responsible for the increased susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we investigated the reactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and of immune cells in adult rats after neonatal glucocorticoid treatment. We observed that neonatal glucocorticoid treatment reduces the corticosterone response after an LPS challenge in adult rats (p< or =0.001). Interestingly, LPS-stimulated macrophages of glucocorticoid-treated rats produce less TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in adult life than control rats (p<0.05). In addition, splenocytes obtained from adult rats express increased mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-gamma (p<0.01) and TNF-beta (p<0.05) after neonatal glucocorticoid treatment. Apparently, neonatal glucocorticoid treatment has permanent programming effects on endocrine as well as immune functioning in adult life. In view of the frequent clinical application of glucocorticoids to preterm infants, our data demonstrate that neonatal glucocorticoid treatment may be a risk factor for the development of (auto)immune disease in man. PMID:11067955

  2. Increased fatty acid unsaturation and production of arachidonic acid by homologous over-expression of the mitochondrial malic enzyme in Mortierella alpina

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guangfei; Du, Kai; Huang, Xiaoyun; Song, Yuanda; Gu, Zhennan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q.

    2015-01-01

    Malic enzyme (ME) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate to pyruvate and provides NADPH for intracellular metabolism, such as fatty acid synthesis. Here, the mitochondrial ME (mME) gene from Mortierella alpina was homologously over-expressed. Compared with controls, fungal arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4 n-6) content increased by 60 % without affecting the total fatty acid content. Our results suggest that enhancing mME activity may be an effective mean to increase industrial production of ARA in M. alpina. PMID:24863290

  3. THE USE OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey A. Canty; Jess W. Everett

    2004-09-30

    In 1994 a demonstration project was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of using CCBs for the in situ treatment of acidic mine water. Actual injection of alkaline material was performed in 1997 with initial positive results; however, the amount of alkalinity added to the system was limited and resulted in short duration treatment. In 1999, a CBRC grant was awarded to further investigate the effectiveness of alkaline injection technology (AIT). Funds were released in fall 2001. In December 2001, 2500 tons of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash were injected into the wells used in the 1997 injection project. Post injection monitoring continued for 24 months. During this period the mine chemistry had gone through a series of chemical changes that manifested as stages or ''treatment phases.'' The mine system appeared to be in the midst of reestablishing equilibrium with the partial pressure of mine headspace. Alkalinity and pH appeared to be gradually increasing during this transition. As of December 2003, the pH and alkalinity were roughly 7.3 and 65 ppm, respectively. Metal concentrations were significantly lower than pre-injection levels, but iron and manganese concentrations appeared to be gradually increasing (roughly 30 ppm and 1.25 ppm, respectively). Aluminum, nickel, and zinc were less than pre-injection concentrations and did not appear to be increasing (roughly

  4. Effect of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic (thioctic) acid on heart and kidney microvasculature in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Tomassoni, Daniele; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells represent an important vascular site of signaling and development of damage during ischemia, inflammation and other pathological conditions. Excessive reactive oxygen species production causes pathological activation of endothelium including exposure of cell to adhesion molecules. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) are members of the immunoglobulin super-family which are present on the surface of endothelial cells. These molecules represent important markers of endothelial inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate, with immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques, the effect of treatment with (+/-)-alpha lipoic (thioctic) acid and its enantiomers on heart and kidney endothelium in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Arterial hypertension is accompanied by an increased oxidative stress status in the heart characterized by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nucleic acid oxidation increase. The higher oxidative stress also modifies adhesion molecules expression. In the heart VCAM-1, which was higher than ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, was increased in SHR. ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and PECAM-1 expression was significantly greater in the renal endothelium of SHR. (+/-)-Alpha lipoic acid and (+)-alpha lipoic acid treatment significantly decreased TBARS levels, the nucleic acid oxidation and prevented adhesion molecules expression in cardiac and renal vascular endothelium. These data suggest that endothelial molecules may be used for studying the mechanisms of vascular injury on target organs of hypertension. The effects observed after treatment with (+)-alpha lipoic acid could open new perspectives for countering heart and kidney microvascular injury which represent a common feature in hypertensive end-organs damage. PMID:26207883

  5. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions. PMID:23814277

  6. Experimental fertilization increases amino acid content in floral nectar, fruit set and degree of selfing in the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, Pieter; Ceulemans, Tobias; Van den Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Floral traits have evolved to maximize reproductive success by attracting pollinators and facilitating pollination. Highly attractive floral traits may, however, also increase the degree of self-pollination, which could become detrimental for plant fitness through inbreeding depression. Floral nectar is a trait that is known to strongly mediate pollinator attraction and plant reproductive success, but the particular role of the nectar amino acid (AA) composition is poorly understood. Therefore, we experimentally manipulated the nectar AA composition and abundance of the Lepidoptera-pollinated orchid Gymnadenia conopsea through soil fertilization, and we quantified AA content and AA composition through high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Mixed models were then used to evaluate differences in pollinia removal, fruit set, seed set and degree of selfing between fertilized and control individuals. Selfing rates were estimated using microsatellite markers. We found that fertilized individuals had a significantly higher nectar AA content and an altered AA composition, whereas plant height, number of flowers, nectar volume and sugar concentration remained unchanged. Fertilized individuals also had significantly more pollinia removed and a higher fruit set, whereas control plants that did not receive the fertilization treatment had significantly fewer selfed seeds, and more viable seeds. Although we cannot exclude a role of changes in floral scent following the fertilization treatment, our results strongly suggest a relation among nectar AA composition, fruiting success and selfing rates. Our results also indicate potential consequences of nutrient pollution for plant reproductive success, through the induced changes in nectar AA composition. PMID:26149746

  7. Activation of protein phosphatase 2A is responsible for increased content and inactivation of respiratory chain complex i induced by all-trans retinoic acid in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Papa, F; Sardaro, N; Lippolis, R; Panelli, D; Scacco, S

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on cell growth and respiratory chain complex I in human keratinocyte cultures. Keratinocyte treatment results in increased level of GRIM-19 and other subunits of complex I, in particular of their carbonylated forms, associated with inhibition of its enzymatic activity. The results show that in keratinocytes ATRA-promoted phosphatase activity controls the proteostasis and activity of complex I. PMID:27358125

  8. Excitatory amino acid stimulation of the survival of rat cerebellar granule cells in culture is associated with an increase in SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene product.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, C; Patrizi, A L; Brahe, C; Eboli, M L

    2000-01-01

    Excitatory amino acids which promote the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture, also promote the expression of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. Immunolocalization studies using SMN monoclonal antibody showed that SMN is decreased in cultures grown in low K+ or chemically defined medium with respect to cultures grown in high K+ medium and that an increase of SMN can be induced by treatment of low K+ cultures with glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate. PMID:10901626

  9. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, D.T.; Briggaman, R.A. ); Zelickson, A.S. ); Hamilton, T.A.; Weiss, J.S.; Ellis, C.N.; Voorhees, J.J. )

    1990-06-13

    Topical 0.1% tretinoin or vehicle control was applied daily to the forearm skin of six caucasian adults for 4 months. Two-millimeter punch biopsy specimens were obtained from treatment sites at the beginning and end of the study period for electron microscopy. Anchoring fibrils within the epidermal-dermal junction of skin treatment sites were quantitated by blinded, standardized, computer-assisted morphometry. After 4 months of continual daily treatment, skin sites that received topical tretinoin showed double the anchoring fibril density compared with vehicle control sites. The possible mechanism by which topical tretinoin increases anchoring fibrils in skin include the drug's property of inhibiting collagenase, a dermal enzyme that degrades anchoring fibril collagen. The authors speculate that increased numbers of collagenous anchoring fibrils within the papillary dermis of human skin is one of the connective-tissue correlates of the clinical improvement observed in photoaged skin after treatment with topical tretinoin.

  10. Daily irrigation attenuates xylem abscisic acid concentration and increases leaf water potential of Pelargonium × hortorum compared with infrequent irrigation.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard K A; McAinsh, Martin; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-09-01

    The physiological response of plants to different irrigation frequencies may affect plant growth and water use efficiency (WUE; defined as shoot biomass/cumulative irrigation). Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at 100% of plant evapotranspiration (ET) (well-watered; WW), or at 50% ET applied either daily [frequent deficit irrigation (FDI)] or cumulatively every 4 days [infrequent deficit irrigation (IDI)], for 24 days. Both FDI and IDI applied the same irrigation volume. Xylem sap was collected from the leaves, and stomatal conductance (gs ) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf ) measured every 2 days. As soil moisture decreased, gs decreased similarly under both FDI and IDI throughout the experiment. Ψleaf was maintained under IDI and increased under FDI. Leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([X-ABA]leaf ) increased as soil moisture decreased under both IDI and FDI, and was strongly correlated with decreased gs , but [X-ABA]leaf was attenuated under FDI throughout the experiment (at the same level of soil moisture as IDI plants). These physiological changes corresponded with differences in plant production. Both FDI and IDI decreased growth compared with WW plants, and by the end of the experiment, FDI plants also had a greater shoot fresh weight (18%) than IDI plants. Although both IDI and FDI had higher WUE than WW plants during the first 10 days of the experiment (when biomass did not differ between treatments), the deficit irrigation treatments had lower WUE than WW plants in the latter stages when growth was limited. Thus, ABA-induced stomatal closure may not always translate to increased WUE (at the whole plant level) if vegetative growth shows a similar sensitivity to soil drying, and growers must adapt their irrigation scheduling according to crop requirements. PMID:26910008

  11. Treatment of gas streams for removal of acid gases

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, E.C.Y.

    1987-09-29

    A method is described for the purification of a stream of gas comprising a normally gaseous hydrocarbon or synthesis gas contaminated with acid gases which comprises the steps of: countercurrently contacting the gas stream in an absorption zone with a treating agent to remove a substantial portion of the acid contaminants from the hydrocarbon gas stream by absorption into the treating agent, discharging an at least partially purified hydrocarbon gas stream from the absorption zone, and discharging the treating agent enriched with absorbed acid gas components from the absorption zone. The treating agent consists essentially of an aqueous solution of from about 40 to about 60 wt. % of N-methyldiethanolamine and from about 5 to about 15 wt. % of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine.

  12. Acid pre-treatment method for in situ ore leaching

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.; Braun, R.L.

    1975-10-28

    An acid leaching method is described for the recovery of a desired element from a subterranean rubblized body of primary ore containing the element and also having associated therewith a carbonate mineral wherein the rubblized ore body is flooded with an aqueous acidic solution in order to release carbon dioxide from the associated carbonate mineral. After a substantial portion of the available carbon dioxide is released and removed from the ore body, as by venting to the atmosphere, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the flooded, rubblized ore to oxidize the ore and form an acid leach solution effective in the presence of the dissolved oxidizing gas to dissolve the ore and cause the desired element to go into solution. The leach solution is then circulated to the surface where the metal values are recovered therefrom.

  13. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Palak J; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by progressive nonsuppurative destruction of small bile ducts, resulting in intrahepatic cholestasis, fibrosis and ultimately end-stage liver disease. Timely intervention with ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with excellent survival, although approximately one-third of all patients fail to achieve biochemical response, signifying a critical need for additional therapeutic strategies. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a potent ligand of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Activation of FXR inhibits bile acid synthesis and protects against toxic accumulation in models of cholestasis and facilitates hepatic regeneration in preclinical studies. Data from recent Phase II and III controlled trials suggest a therapeutic impact of OCA in PBC biochemical nonresponders, as evidenced by change in proven laboratory surrogates of long-term outcome. Dose-dependent pruritus is a common adverse effect, but may be overcome through dose-titration. Longer term studies are needed with focus on safety and long-term clinical efficacy. PMID:26549695

  14. Use of an Amino Acid Mixture in Treatment of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Bentovim, A.; Clayton, Barbara E.; Francis, Dorothy E. M.; Shepherd, Jean; Wolff, O. H.

    1970-01-01

    Twelve children with phenylketonuria diagnosed and treated from the first few weeks of life were grouped into pairs. Before the trial all of them were receiving a commercial preparation containing a protein hydrolysate low in phenylalanine (Cymogran, Allen and Hanburys Ltd.) as a substitute for natural protein. One of each pair was given an amino acid mixture instead of Cymogran for about 6 months. Use of the mixture involved considerable modification of the diet, and in particular the inclusion of greater amounts of phenylalanine-free foods. All six accepted the new mixture without difficulty, food problems were greatly reduced, parents welcomed the new preparation, and the quality of family life improved. Normal growth was maintained and with a mixture of l amino acids the plasma and urinary amino acid levels were normal. Further studies are needed before the mixture can be recommended for children under 20 months of age. PMID:5477678

  15. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 μg/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0.48 in the first period, and 0.53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan. PMID:25999131

  16. Increased physical activity decreases hepatic free fatty acid uptake: a study in human monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Hannukainen, Jarna C; Nuutila, Pirjo; Borra, Ronald; Ronald, Borra; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Janatuinen, Tuula; Heinonen, Olli J; Kapanen, Jukka; Viljanen, Tapio; Haaparanta, Merja; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Parkkola, Riitta; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2007-01-01

    Exercise is considered to be beneficial for free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, although reports of the effects of increased physical activity on FFA uptake and oxidation in different tissues in vivo in humans have been inconsistent. To investigate the heredity-independent effects of physical activity and fitness on FFA uptake in skeletal muscle, the myocardium, and liver we used positron emission tomography (PET) in nine healthy young male monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity and fitness. The cotwins with higher physical activity constituting the more active group had a similar body mass index but less body fat and 18 +/- 10% higher (P < 0.001) compared to the less active brothers with lower physical activity. Low-intensity knee-extension exercise increased skeletal muscle FFA and oxygen uptake six to 10 times compared to resting values but no differences were observed between the groups at rest or during exercise. At rest the more active group had lower hepatic FFA uptake compared to the less active group (5.5 +/- 4.3 versus 9.0 +/- 6.1 micromol (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), P = 0.04). Hepatic FFA uptake associated significantly with body fat percentage (P = 0.05). Myocardial FFA uptake was similar between the groups. In conclusion, in the absence of the confounding effects of genetic factors, moderately increased physical activity and aerobic fitness decrease body adiposity even in normal-weighted healthy young adult men. Further, increased physical activity together with decreased intra-abdominal adiposity seems to decrease hepatic FFA uptake but has no effects on skeletal muscle or myocardial FFA uptake. PMID:17053033

  17. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun Chung, Won-Yoon

    2014-03-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  18. Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia; Chatterjee, Ranjini

    2000-01-01

    A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

  19. Combined administration of taurine and meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in the treatment of chronic lead intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, S J S; Pande, Manisha; Bhadauria, Smrati; Kannan, G M

    2004-04-01

    The present study describes the dose-dependent effect of taurine, an amino acid and a known antioxidant, either alone or in combination with meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in the treatment of subchronic lead intoxication in male rats. The effects of these treatments in influencing the lead-induced alterations in haem synthesis, hepatic, renal or brain oxidative stress and lead concentration from soft tissues were investigated. Exposure to lead produced a significant inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, reduction in glutathione (GSH) and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) suggesting an altered haem synthesis pathway. Only DMSA was able to increase the activity of ALAD, while both taurine and DMSA were able to significantly increase GSH level towards normal. Animals treated with taurine significantly reduced the alterations in some of the biochemical parameters indicative of oxidative stress. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels reduced significantly in liver, kidney and red blood cells, while GSH level increased. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) also showed an increase in blood and brain in animals treated with taurine. The data also provided a promising role of taurine during chelation of lead by potentiating the depletion of blood, liver and brain lead compared to DMSA alone. It can thus be concluded from the study that concomitant administration of an antioxidant could play a significant and important role in abating a number of toxic effects of lead when administered along with the thiol chelators. PMID:15171566

  20. Iron content and acid phosphatase activity in hepatic parenchymal lysosomes of patients with hemochromatosis before and after phlebotomy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cleton, M.I.; de Bruijn, W.C.; van Blokland, W.T.; Marx, J.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Rademakers, L.H.

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal structures in liver parenchymal cells of 3 patients with iron overload and of 3 subjects without iron-storage disorders were investigated. A combination of enzyme cytochemistry--with cerium as a captive ion to demonstrate lysosomal acid phosphatase activity--and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used. We were able (1) to define and quantify lysosomal structures as lysosomes, siderosomes, or residual bodies, (2) to quantify the amount of iron and cerium simultaneously in these structures, and (3) to evaluate a possible relation between iron storage and enzyme activity. With histopathologically increased iron storage, the number of siderosomes had increased at the cost of lysosomes, with a corresponding increase in acid phosphatase activity in both organelles. In histopahtologically severe iron overload, however, acid phosphatase activity was low or not detectable and most of the iron was stored in residual bodies. After phlebotomy treatment, the number of siderosomes had decreased in favor of the lysosomes, approaching values obtained in control subjects, and acid phosphatase activity was present in all iron-containing structures. In this way a relationship between iron storage and enzyme activity was established. The iron content of the individual lysosomal structures per unit area had increased with histopathologically increased iron storage and had decreased after phlebotomy treatment. From this observation, it is concluded that the iron status of the patient is not only reflected by the amount of iron-containing hepatocytes but, as well, by the iron content lysosomal unit area.

  1. Activation of glucosidase via stress-induced polymerization rapidly increases active pools of abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Hee; Piao, Hai Lan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Choi, Sang Mi; Jiang, Fan; Hartung, Wolfram; Hwang, Ildoo; Kwak, June M; Lee, In-Jung; Hwang, Inhwan

    2006-09-22

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant growth, development, and adaptation to various stress conditions. Plants have to adjust ABA levels constantly to respond to changing physiological and environmental conditions. To date, the mechanisms for fine-tuning ABA levels remain elusive. Here we report that AtBG1, a beta-glucosidase, hydrolyzes glucose-conjugated, biologically inactive ABA to produce active ABA. Loss of AtBG1 causes defective stomatal movement, early germination, abiotic stress-sensitive phenotypes, and lower ABA levels, whereas plants with ectopic AtBG1 accumulate higher ABA levels and display enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress. Dehydration rapidly induces polymerization of AtBG1, resulting in a 4-fold increase in enzymatic activity. Furthermore, diurnal increases in ABA levels are attributable to polymerization-mediated AtBG1 activation. We propose that the activation of inactive ABA pools by polymerized AtBG1 is a mechanism by which plants rapidly adjust ABA levels and respond to changing environmental cues. PMID:16990135

  2. Suppression of Adult Neurogenesis Increases the Acute Effects of Kainic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Sloka S.; LaFrancois, John J.; Friedman, Daniel; Drew, Liam J.; Denny, Christine A.; Burghardt, Nesha S.; Wu, Melody V.; Hsieh, Jenny; Hen, René; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult brain, occurs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the olfactory bulb (OB) of all mammals, but the functions of these new neurons are not entirely clear. Originally, adult-born neurons were considered to have excitatory effects on the DG network, but recent studies suggest a net inhibitory effect. Therefore, we hypothesized that selective removal of newborn neurons would lead to increased susceptibility to the effects of a convulsant. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the response to the chemoconvulsant kainic acid (KA) in mice with reduced adult neurogenesis, produced either by focal X-irradiation of the DG, or by pharmacogenetic deletion of dividing radial glial precursors. In the first 4 hrs after KA administration, when mice have the most robust seizures, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis had more severe convulsive seizures, exhibited either as a decreased latency to the first convulsive seizure, greater number of convulsive seizures, or longer convulsive seizures. Nonconvulsive seizures did not appear to change or they decreased. Four-21 hrs after KA injection, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis showed more interictal spikes (IIS) and delayed seizures than controls. Effects were greater when the anticonvulsant ethosuximide was injected 30 min prior to KA administration; ethosuximide allows forebrain seizure activity to be more easily examined in mice by suppressing seizures dominated by the brainstem. These data support the hypothesis that reduction of adult-born neurons increases the susceptibility of the brain to effects of KA. PMID:25476494

  3. A geographic cline in leaf salicylic acid with increasing elevation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nana; Tonsor, Stephen J; Traw, M Brian

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) occupies a key role as a hormone central to both plant resistance to bacterial pathogens and tolerance of abiotic stresses. Plants at high elevation experience colder temperatures and elevated UV levels. While it has been predicted that SA concentrations will be higher in plants from high elevation populations, few studies have addressed this question. Here, we asked how concentrations of SA vary in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana collected across an elevational gradient on the Iberian Peninsula. In a series of common garden experiments, we found that constitutive SA concentrations were highest in genotypes from the low elevation populations. This result was in the opposite direction from our prediction and is an exception to the general finding that phenolic compounds increase with increasing elevation. These data suggest that high constitutive SA is not associated with resistance to cold temperatures in these plants. Furthermore, we also found that leaf constitutive camalexin concentrations, an important defense against some bacterial and fungal enemies, were highest in the low elevation populations, suggesting that pathogen pressures may be important. Further examination of this elevational cline will likely provide additional insights into the interplay between phenolic compounds and biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25875692

  4. A geographic cline in leaf salicylic acid with increasing elevation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nana; Tonsor, Stephen J; Traw, M Brian

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) occupies a key role as a hormone central to both plant resistance to bacterial pathogens and tolerance of abiotic stresses. Plants at high elevation experience colder temperatures and elevated UV levels. While it has been predicted that SA concentrations will be higher in plants from high elevation populations, few studies have addressed this question. Here, we asked how concentrations of SA vary in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana collected across an elevational gradient on the Iberian Peninsula. In a series of common garden experiments, we found that constitutive SA concentrations were highest in genotypes from the low elevation populations. This result was in the opposite direction from our prediction and is an exception to the general finding that phenolic compounds increase with increasing elevation. These data suggest that high constitutive SA is not associated with resistance to cold temperatures in these plants. Furthermore, we also found that leaf constitutive camalexin concentrations, an important defense against some bacterial and fungal enemies, were highest in the low elevation populations, suggesting that pathogen pressures may be important. Further examination of this elevational cline will likely provide additional insights into the interplay between phenolic compounds and biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25875692

  5. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  6. Plasma amino acid and serum unesterified fatty acid deficits and the effect of nutritional support in chemotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Ching, N; Grossi, C; Jham, G; Angers, J; Zurawinsky, H; Ching, C Y; Nealon, T F

    1984-06-01

    The deficits in plasma amino acids and serum unesterified fatty acids of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy were studied to delineate the special requirements of the patients and efficacy of our nutritional therapy. Seven general surgery patients and 13 patients treated by the Head-Neck Service had baseline levels measured as part of their nutritional evaluation prior to surgical treatment of their cancers. Fifteen chemotherapy outpatients maintained on their regular diets had fasting levels analyzed. Twenty-six patients who were admitted for their therapy had their intake of the regular hospital diet supplemented with a low-residue enteral diet formula (Vivonex High Nitrogen Diet); parenteral nutrition was used only if their oral intake was totally inadequate. Baseline and sequential measurements were made of plasma amino acid and serum unesterified fatty acid levels by gas liquid chromatographic techniques. Before operation the patients had normal levels of amino acids except for a significant deficiency of threonine and glycine observed in patients with head-neck tumors. Outpatients with and without hepatic metastases had significantly depressed levels of the essential amino acids valine, leucine, threonine, and methionine and the nonessential amino acids serine, glycine, and proline. The baseline levels of the patients admitted for treatment had similar deficiencies except for more evidence of lysine deficiency. Patients supported with total parenteral nutrition had rapid elevation of the amino acid levels. The patients whose intake was supplemented with the oral diets had improvement in their amino acid levels, but the deficiency in the leucine and threonine fractions persisted up to 4 weeks of therapy. Although the lysine levels were normal when first analyzed, significant differences developed in the patients without hepatic metastases after the start of chemotherapy with return to normal only after chemotherapy was discontinued

  7. Growth In Buprenorphine Waivers For Physicians Increased Potential Access To Opioid Agonist Treatment, 2002-11.

    PubMed

    Dick, Andrew W; Pacula, Rosalie L; Gordon, Adam J; Sorbero, Mark; Burns, Rachel M; Leslie, Douglas; Stein, Bradley D

    2015-06-01

    Opioid use disorders are a significant public health problem, affecting two million people in the United States. Treatment with buprenorphine, methadone, or both is predominantly offered in methadone clinics, yet many people do not receive the treatment they need. In 2002 the Food and Drug Administration approved buprenorphine for prescription by physicians who completed a course and received a waiver from the Drug Enforcement Administration, exempting them from requirements in the Controlled Substances Act. To determine the waiver program's impact on the availability of opioid agonist treatment, we analyzed data for the period 2002-11 to identify counties with opioid treatment shortages. We found that the percentage of counties with a shortage of waivered physicians fell sharply, from 98.9 percent in 2002 to 46.8 percent in 2011. As a result, the percentage of the US population residing in what we classified as opioid treatment shortage counties declined from 48.6 percent in 2002 to 10.4 percent in 2011. These findings suggest that the increase in waivered physicians has dramatically increased potential access to opioid agonist treatment. Policy makers should focus their efforts on further increasing the number and geographical distribution of physicians, particularly in more rural counties, where prescription opioid misuse is rapidly growing. PMID:26056209

  8. Transient rapamycin treatment can increase lifespan and healthspan in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Bitto, Alessandro; Ito, Takashi K; Pineda, Victor V; LeTexier, Nicolas J; Huang, Heather Z; Sutlief, Elissa; Tung, Herman; Vizzini, Nicholas; Chen, Belle; Smith, Kaleb; Meza, Daniel; Yajima, Masanao; Beyer, Richard P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Davis, Daniel J; Gillespie, Catherine H; Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The FDA approved drug rapamycin increases lifespan in rodents and delays age-related dysfunction in rodents and humans. Nevertheless, important questions remain regarding the optimal dose, duration, and mechanisms of action in the context of healthy aging. Here we show that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy by up to 60% and improve measures of healthspan in middle-aged mice. This transient treatment is also associated with a remodeling of the microbiome, including dramatically increased prevalence of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. We also define a dose in female mice that does not extend lifespan, but is associated with a striking shift in cancer prevalence toward aggressive hematopoietic cancers and away from non-hematopoietic malignancies. These data suggest that a short-term rapamycin treatment late in life has persistent effects that can robustly delay aging, influence cancer prevalence, and modulate the microbiome. PMID:27549339

  9. Enzyme-entrapped mesoporous silica for treatment of uric acid disorders.

    PubMed

    Muthukoori, Shanthini; Narayanan, Naagarajan; Chandra, Manuguri Sesha Sarath; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2013-05-01

    Gout is an abnormality in the body resulting in the accumulation of uric acid mainly in joints. Dissolution of uric acid crystals into soluble allantoin by the enzyme uricase might provide a better alternative for the treatment of gout. This work aims to investigate the feasibility of a transdermal patch loaded with uricase for better patient compliance. Mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was chosen as the matrix for immobilisation of uricase. Highly oriented mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized, characterized and uricase was physisorbed in the mesoporous material. The percentage adsorption and release of enzyme in borate buffer was monitored. The release followed linear kinetics and greater than 80% enzyme activity was retained indicating the potential of this system as an effective enzyme immobilization matrix. The enzyme permeability was studied with Wistar rat skin and human cadaver skin. It was found that in case of untreated rat skin 10% of enzyme permeated through skin in 100 h. The permeation increased by adding permeation enhancer (combination of oleic acid in propylene glycol (OA in PG)). The permeation enhancement was studied under two concentrations of OA in PG (1%, 5%) in both rat and human cadaver skin and it was found that 1% OA in PG showed better result in rat skin and 5% OA in PG showed good results in human cadaver skin. PMID:23802423

  10. Limited Effect of Chronic Valproic Acid Treatment in a Mouse Model of Machado-Joseph Disease

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sofia; Duarte-Silva, Sara; Naia, Luana; Neves-Carvalho, Andreia; Teixeira-Castro, Andreia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Silva-Fernandes, Anabela; Maciel, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, caused by a CAG repeat expansion within the coding region of ATXN3 gene, and which currently lacks effective treatment. In this work we tested the therapeutic efficacy of chronic treatment with valproic acid (VPA) (200mg/kg), a compound with known neuroprotection activity, and previously shown to be effective in cell, fly and nematode models of MJD. We show that chronic VPA treatment in the CMVMJD135 mouse model had limited effects in the motor deficits of these mice, seen mostly at late stages in the motor swimming, beam walk, rotarod and spontaneous locomotor activity tests, and did not modify the ATXN3 inclusion load and astrogliosis in affected brain regions. However, VPA chronic treatment was able to increase GRP78 protein levels at 30 weeks of age, one of its known neuroprotective effects, confirming target engagement. In spite of limited results, the use of another dosage of VPA or of VPA in a combined therapy with molecules targeting other pathways, cannot be excluded as potential strategies for MJD therapeutics. PMID:26505994

  11. Immunomodulation with eicosapentaenoic acid supports the treatment of autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hirahashi, Junichi; Kawahata, Kimito; Arita, Makoto; Iwamoto, Ryo; Hishikawa, Keiichi; Honda, Mie; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Mototsugu; Okubo, Koshu; Kurosawa, Miho; Takase, Osamu; Nakakuki, Masanori; Saiga, Kan; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kawachi, Shoji; Tojo, Akihiro; Seki, George; Marumo, Takeshi; Hayashi, Matsuhiko; Fujita, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Small-vessel vasculitis is a life-threatening autoimmune disease that is frequently associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Conventional immunotherapy including steroids and cyclophosphamide can cause serious adverse events, limiting the efficacy and safety of treatment. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a key component of fish oil, is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid widely known to be cardioprotective and beneficial for vascular function. We report two elderly patients with systemic ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) in whom the administration of EPA in concert with steroids safely induced and maintained remission, without the use of additioal immunosuppressants. To explore the mechanisms by which EPA enhances the treatment of AAV, we employed SCG/Kj mice as a spontaneous murine model of AAV. Dietary enrichment with EPA significantly delayed the onset of crescentic glomerulonephritis and prolonged the overall survival. EPA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and their precursors were present in the kidney, plasma, spleen, and lungs in the EPA-treated mice. Furthermore, a decrease in ANCA production and CD4/CD8-double negative T cells, and an increase in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes of the kidney were observed in the EPA-treated mice. These clinical and experimental observations suggest that EPA can safely support and augment conventional therapy for treating autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis. PMID:25230773

  12. LIMESTONE-LIME TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE - FULL SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation-wide problems related to acidic discharges from coal mining operations are well documented in both popular and technical literature. Neutralization is and will continue to be a necessary short-term measure in numerous instances, while long-range programs are being deve...

  13. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elimination of microbial and/or enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot-water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases. Other so...

  14. Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

  15. Could peracetic acid be an alternative treatment in aquaculture?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing and medical facilities. It has recently been tested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Saprolegnia parasitica. Free-swimming theronts of I. multifiliis can be eliminated u...

  16. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  17. Dynamic peracetic acid (PAA) exposure, a treatment strategy against ectoparasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternative therapeutic agents is a difficult and laborious task. The use of peracetic acid (PAA) has recently been evaluated as an alternative compound for disinfection (Gustavino et al., 2005). In addition to having a broad antimicrobial spectrum, PAA does not contribute to the form...

  18. [Inhaled corticosteroid treatment increases the risk of pneumonia in patients with CPOD.

    PubMed

    Lumholdt, Mads; Steenholt, Janni Vagner; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2014-09-01

    Clinical studies have suggested that inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) increases the frequency of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article summarizes the risk of pneumonia by reviewing the largest clinical studies addressing pneumonia as an adverse effect of ICS treatment. The collected data show that treatment of COPD patients with ICS increases the rate of pneumonia compared with b2-agonists or placebo. Physicians are recommended to follow guidelines and solely treat COPD patients with ICS if the patients are at high risk of exacerbations. PMID:25293857

  19. Hepatitis C treatment failure is associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Li, Jia; Rupp, Loralee B; Holmberg, Scott D; Moorman, Anne C; Spradling, Philip R; Teshale, Eyasu H; Zhou, Yueren; Boscarino, Joseph A; Schmidt, Mark A; Lamerato, Lois E; Trinacty, Connie; Trudeau, Sheri; Gordon, Stuart C

    2016-09-01

    Sustained virological response (SVR) to antiviral therapy for hepatitis C (HCV) reduces risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but there is little information regarding how treatment failure (TF) compares to lack of treatment. We evaluated the impact of treatment status on risk of HCC using data from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study (CHeCS-an observational study based in four large US health systems, with up to 7 years of follow-up on patients). Multivariable analyses were used to adjust for bias in treatment selection, as well as other covariates, followed by sensitivity analyses. Among 10 091 HCV patients, 3681 (36%) received treatment, 2099 (57%) experienced treatment failure (TF), and 1582 (43%) of these achieved sustained virological response (SVR). TF patients demonstrated almost twice the risk of HCC than untreated patients [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-2.53]; this risk persisted across all stages of fibrosis. Several sensitivity analyses validated these results. Although African Americans were at increased risk of treatment failure, they were at lower risk for HCC and all-cause mortality compared to White patients. SVR patients had lower risk of HCC than TF patients (aHR = 0.48, CI 0.31-0.73), whereas treatment - regardless of outcome - reduced all-cause mortality (aHR = 0.45, CI 0.34-0.60 for SVR patients; aHR = 0.78, CI 0.65-0.93 for TF patients). PMID:27028626

  20. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  1. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  2. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  3. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  4. Dietary α-linolenic acid increases the platelet count in ApoE-/- mice by reducing clearance.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Simona; Reiner, Martin F; Lohmann, Christine; Lüscher, Thomas F; Matter, Christian M; Beer, Juerg H

    2013-08-01

    Previously we reported that dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduces atherogenesis and inhibits arterial thrombosis. Here, we analyze the substantial increase in platelet count induced by ALA and the mechanisms of reduced platelet clearance. Eight-week-old male apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed a 0.21g% cholesterol diet complemented by either a high- (7.3g%) or low-ALA (0.03g%) content. Platelet counts doubled after 16 weeks of ALA feeding, whereas the bleeding time remained similar. Plasma glycocalicin and glycocalicin index were reduced, while reticulated platelets, thrombopoietin, and bone marrow megakaryocyte colony-forming units remained unchanged. Platelet contents of liver and spleen were substantially reduced, without affecting macrophage function and number. Glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) shedding, exposure of P-selectin, and activated integrin αIIbβ3 upon activation with thrombin were reduced. Dietary ALA increased the platelet count by reducing platelet clearance in the reticulo-endothelial system. The latter appears to be mediated by reduced cleavage of GPIb by tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme and reduced platelet activation/expression of procoagulant signaling. Ex vivo, there was less adhesion of human platelets to von Willebrand factor under high shear conditions after ALA treatment. Thus, ALA may be a promising tool in transfusion medicine and in high turnover/high activation platelet disorders. PMID:23801636

  5. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse. PMID:25189842

  6. Life at acidic pH imposes an increased energetic cost for a eukaryotic acidophile.

    PubMed

    Messerli, Mark A; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Zettler, Erik; Jung, Sung-Kwon; Smith, Peter J S; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2005-07-01

    Organisms growing in acidic environments, pH<3, would be expected to possess fundamentally different molecular structures and physiological controls in comparison with similar species restricted to neutral pH. We begin to investigate this premise by determining the magnitude of the transmembrane electrochemical H+ gradient in an acidophilic Chlamydomonas sp. (ATCC PRA-125) isolated from the Rio Tinto, a heavy metal laden, acidic river (pH 1.7-2.5). This acidophile grows most rapidly at pH 2 but is capable of growth over a wide pH range (1.5-7.0), while Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is restricted to growth at pH>or=3 with optimal growth between pH 5.5 and 8.5. With the fluorescent H+ indicator, 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), we show that the acidophilic Chlamydomonas maintains an average cytosolic pH of 6.6 in culture medium at both pH 2 and pH 7 while Chlamydomonas reinhardtii maintains an average cytosolic pH of 7.1 in pH 7 culture medium. The transmembrane electric potential difference of Chlamydomonas sp., measured using intracellular electrodes at both pH 2 and 7, is close to 0 mV, a rare value for plants, animals and protists. The 40,000-fold difference in [H+] could be the result of either active or passive mechanisms. Evidence for active maintenance was detected by monitoring the rate of ATP consumption. At the peak, cells consume about 7% more ATP per second in medium at pH 2 than at pH 7. This increased rate of consumption is sufficient to account for removal of H+ entering the cytosol across a membrane with relatively high permeability to H+ (7x10(-8) cm s-1). Our results indicate that the small increase in the rate of ATP consumption can account for maintenance of the transmembrane H+ gradient without the imposition of cell surface H+ barriers. PMID:15961743

  7. Evaluation of enamel surface modification using PS-OCT after laser treatment to increase resistance to demineralization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Wan; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    At laser intensities below ablation, carbonated hydroxyapatite in enamel is converted into a purer phase hydroxyapatite with increased acid resistance. Previous studies suggested the possibility of achieving the conversion without surface modification. This study attempts to evaluate the thresholds for the modification without additional changes in physical and optical properties of the enamel. Bovine specimens were irradiated using an RF-excited CO2 laser operating at 9.4-µm with a pulse duration of 26-µs, pulse repetition rates of 100–1000 Hz, with a Gaussian spatial beam profile - 1.4 mm in diameter. After laser treatment, the samples were subjected to acid demineralization for 48 hours to simulate acidic intraoral conditions of a caries attack. The resulting demineralization and erosion were assessed using polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) and 3D digital microscopy. The images from digital microscopy demonstrated a clear delineation between laser protected zones without visual changes and zones with higher levels of demineralization and erosion. Distinct changes in the surface morphology were found within the laser treated area in accordance with the Gaussian spatial beam profile. There was significant protection from the laser in areas that were not visually altered. PMID:27006523

  8. Evaluation of enamel surface modification using PS-OCT after laser treatment to increase resistance to demineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Wan; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    At laser intensities below ablation, carbonated hydroxyapatite in enamel is converted into a purer phase hydroxyapatite with increased acid resistance. Previous studies suggested the possibility of achieving the conversion without surface modification. This study attempts to evaluate the thresholds for the modification without additional changes in physical and optical properties of the enamel. Bovine specimens were irradiated using an RF-excited CO2 laser operating at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26- μs, pulse repetition rates of 100-1000 Hz, with a Gaussian spatial beam profile - 1.4 mm in diameter. After laser treatment, the samples were subjected to acid demineralization for 48 hours to simulate acidic intraoral conditions of a caries attack. The resulting demineralization and erosion were assessed using polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) and 3D digital microscopy. The images from digital microscopy demonstrated a clear delineation between laser protected zones without visual changes and zones with higher levels of demineralization and erosion. Distinct changes in the surface morphology were found within the laser treated area in accordance with the Gaussian spatial beam profile. There was significant protection from the laser in areas that were not visually altered.

  9. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-01

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As. PMID:26970042

  10. Well-test analysis following a closed-fracture acidizing treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Daneshi, T. ); Soliman, M.Y.; Hunt, J.L. )

    1990-12-01

    A model representing fluid flow in a reservoir treated with closed-fracture acidizing (CFA) is presented. The model is characterized by a low-conductivity fracture (representing the closed fracture) and highly conductive wormholes (owing to acid flow). Application of the model to pressure-transient data analysis following a CFA treatment is presented through a field example.

  11. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  12. Amino acids labelled with 11C as indicator of the effect of dietary treatment of hyperammonaemia.

    PubMed

    Hardell, L I; Stålnacke, C G; Lundqvist, H; Malmborg, P; Långström, B

    1984-01-01

    Short-lived radioactive carbon, 11C, (T 1/2 = 20 min) was incorporated into an essential amino acid [11C-methyl] -L-methionine, to form a true biological amino acid tracer with external detectability. This was tested in a study of the physiological tracer dynamics in a hyperammonaemic patient before and after a change in the dietary treatment. The protein intake was unchanged between the two investigations but the energy intake was increased from 53 to 63 kcal/kg BW/day. The tracer radioactivity was given per os. In the second investigation a relative decrease of radioactivity in the low molecular weight fraction of blood plasma was seen. Also the external measurements indicated a higher hepatic retention of radioactivity in the second investigation but no increased excretion of tracer. This may reflect an increased ability of the liver to utilize the incoming methionine from the vena porta. The hyperammonaemia remained over the second investigation but seven months later the ammonia content in the blood was almost normalized and the patient had also gained 3 kg in weight. The correlation between changes in tracer dynamics and changes in therapeutical effect of the diet is not further verified in this experiment but the investigation indicates the value of further studies in this topic using 11C-labelled amino acids also including the use of the newly introduced positron tomographic technique. It may be possible to develop this type of nuclide technique further to achieve a clinically useful method of optimizing therapeutic regiments in this type of metabolic disease. PMID:6393522

  13. Increasing the sludge energy potential of wastewater treatment plants by introducing fine mesh sieves for primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Paulsrud, Bjarne; Rusten, Bjørn; Aas, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare some basic characteristics of sludge from fine mesh sieves (sieve sludge) with sludge from primary clarifiers (primary sludge) regarding their energy potential with a focus on anaerobic digestion and/or incineration. Nineteen samples of sludge from fine mesh sieve plants (most of them without fine screens and grit chambers as pre-treatment) and 10 samples of primary sludge were analysed for the content of dry solids (DS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), calorific value and methane potential. The results demonstrated that the sieve sludges have significantly higher VS content and higher methane potential than primary sludges, clearly indicating an increased sludge energy potential if fine mesh sieves are used for primary treatment instead of primary clarifiers at wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic digesters. If the sludges from primary treatment are to be incinerated or used as fuel in cement kilns, there is no significant difference in energy potential (given as calorific values) for the two types of primary treatment. PMID:24552728

  14. Increases in Serum CYFRA21-1 Concentration during Successful Treatment with Crizotinib

    PubMed Central

    Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Tadokoro, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Ishii, Tomoya; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Bandoh, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: — Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: Increases in tumor marker concentrations usually suggest disease progression. Cases Report: We here describe on 3 patients with non-small cell lung cancer whose serum concentrations of CYFRA21-1 increased in spite of successful treatment with crizotinib. Discontinuation of crizotinib resulted in a rapid decrease in serum CYFRA21-1 concentrations in all cases. In 1 patient with progressive disease, in spite of increasing the dose of crizotinib, CYFRA21-1 concentrations decreased. Conclusions: Crizotinib can induce increases in CYFRA21-1 concentration without disease progression. Pulmonologists and oncologists should be aware of this novel phenomenon, and focus on interpretation of CYFRA21-1 concentrations in monitoring tumor response to crizotinib treatment. PMID:25380070

  15. Electrochemical treatment of acidic aqueous ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate as models for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Bunce, N J; Chartrand, M; Keech, P

    2001-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem in the mining industry. The present work describes electrolytic reduction of solutions of synthetic AMD, comprising FeSO4/H2SO4 and CuSO4/H2SO4, in flow-through cells whose anode and cathode compartments were separated using ion exchange membranes. In the case of FeSO4/H2SO4 at constant flow rate, the pH of the effluent from the catholyte increased progressively with current at a variety of cathodes, due to electrolytic reduction of H+ ions to elemental hydrogen. Near-quantitative removal of iron was achieved by sparging air into the catholyte effluent, thereby precipitating iron outside the electrochemical cell, and avoiding fouling of the electrodes. The anode reaction was the oxidation of water to O2, a proton-releasing process. Using cation exchange membranes and sodium sulfate as the supporting electrolyte in the anode compartment, the efficiency of the process was compromised at high currents by transport of H+ competitively with Na+ from the anode to the cathode compartments. Higher efficiencies were obtained when anion exchange membranes were used, and in this case no additional supporting electrolyte other than dilute H2SO4 was needed, the net reaction being the electrochemically driven transfer of the elements of H2SO4 from the cathode to the anode compartments. Current efficiencies approximately 50% were achieved, the loss of efficiency being accounted for by ohmic heating of the solutions. In the case of CuSO4/H2SO4 and anion exchange membranes at high currents, reduction of Cu2+ and H+ ions and transport of SO4(2-) ions out of the catholyte caused unacceptably high potentials to be generated. PMID:11763043

  16. Massachusetts's experience suggests coverage alone is insufficient to increase addiction disorders treatment.

    PubMed

    Capoccia, Victor A; Grazier, Kyle L; Toal, Christopher; Ford, James H; Gustafson, David H

    2012-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act is aimed at extending health insurance to more than thirty million Americans, including many with untreated substance use disorders. Will those who need addiction treatment receive it once they have insurance? To answer that question, we examined the experience of Massachusetts, which implemented its own universal insurance law in 2007. As did the Affordable Care Act, the Massachusetts reform incorporated substance abuse services into the essential benefits to be provided all residents. Prior to the law's enactment, the state estimated that a half-million residents needed substance abuse treatment. Our mixed-methods exploratory study thus asked whether expanded coverage in Massachusetts led to increased addiction treatment, as indicated by admissions, services, or revenues. In fact, we observed relatively stable use of treatment services two years before and two years after the state enacted its universal health care law. Among other factors, our study noted that the percentage of uninsured patients with substance abuse issues remains relatively high--and that when patients did become insured, requirements for copayments on their care deterred treatment. Our analysis suggests that expanded coverage alone is insufficient to increase treatment use. Changes in eligibility, services, financing, system design, and policy may also be required. PMID:22566439

  17. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI. PMID:27003900

  18. Bioremediation of acid mine drainage coupled with domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Triana, David; Sanz, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) - characterized by high acidity and elevated sulfate and metal concentrations - represents a big environmental concern. Biological sulfate reduction has become an alternative to the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, domestic wastewater (DW) was tested as a cost-effective carbon-source for the remediation of AMD. Sediments from Tinto River, an extreme acidic environment with an elevated concentration of metals, were used as inoculum. Three anaerobic bioreactors with different microbial supports were fed with a 1:10 (v:v) mixture of synthetic AMD:DW. Around 50% of the organic matter present in the DW co-precipitated with the metals from the AMD previous to feeding the reactor. Therefore, the reactors had to be supplemented with an extra carbon-source (acetate) to achieve higher S elimination. Elevated removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (>88%), sulfate (>75%), Fe (>85%) and other dissolved metals (>99% except for Mn) were achieved. Bacterial communities were examined through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy. Higher biodiversity was found in the bioreactors compared with that of the inoculum. Dominant species belong to two metabolic groups: fermentative (Clostridium spp., Delftia spp., Paludibacter spp. and Pelotomaculum spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfomonile spp., Desulfovibrio spp., Desulfosporosinus spp. and Desulfotomaculum spp.). PMID:23032774

  19. Exposure to Kynurenic Acid during Adolescence Increases Sign-Tracking and Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    DeAngeli, Nicole E.; Todd, Travis P.; Chang, Stephen E.; Yeh, Hermes H.; Yeh, Pamela W.; Bucci, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in brain reward systems are thought to contribute significantly to the cognitive and behavioral impairments of schizophrenia, as well as the propensity to develop co-occurring substance abuse disorders. Presently, there are few treatments for persons with a dual diagnosis and little is known about the neural substrates that underlie co-occurring schizophrenia and substance abuse. One goal of the present study was to determine if a change in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite that is increased in the brains of people with schizophrenia, affects reward-related behavior. KYNA is an endogenous antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, both of which are critically involved in neurodevelopment, plasticity, and behavior. In Experiment 1, rats were treated throughout adolescence with L-kynurenine (L-KYN), the precursor of KYNA. As adults, the rats were tested drug-free in an autoshaping procedure in which a lever was paired with food. Rats treated with L-KYN during adolescence exhibited increased sign-tracking behavior (lever pressing) when they were tested as adults. Sign-tracking is thought to reflect the lever acquiring incentive salience (motivational value) as a result of its pairing with reward. Thus, KYNA exposure may increase the incentive salience of cues associated with reward, perhaps contributing to an increase in sensitivity to drug-related cues in persons with schizophrenia. In Experiment 2, we tested the effects of exposure to KYNA during adolescence on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Rats treated with L-KYN exhibited no LTP after a burst of high-frequency stimulation that was sufficient to produce robust LTP in vehicle-treated rats. This finding represents the first demonstrated consequence of elevated KYNA concentration during development and provides insight into the basis for cognitive and behavioral deficits that result from exposure to KYNA during adolescence

  20. Exercise and a High Fat Diet Synergistically Increase the Pantothenic Acid Requirement in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that both exercise and dietary composition increase the utilization of, and thus the requirement for, certain water-soluble vitamins. However, there have been no studies evaluating the combined impacts of exercise and dietary composition on vitamin utilization. In this experiment, rats were fed a pantothenic acid (PaA)-restricted (0.004 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet containing 5% (ordinary amount of dietary fat) or 20% fat (high fat), and were forced to swim until exhaustion every other day for 22 d. PaA status was assessed by urinary excretion, which reflects body stores of water-soluble vitamins. The urinary excretion of PaA in rats fed a 5% fat diet was not affected by swimming (5% fat + non-swimming vs. 5% fat + swim; p>0.05). Excretion of PaA was decreased by the high-fat diet (5% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + non-swim; p<0.05) and synergistically decreased by exercise (20% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + swim; p<0.05). There was a significant interaction between exercise and a high-fat diet. Plasma PaA concentrations showed changes similar to those seen for urinary excretion. The experiment was then repeated using rats fed a PaA-sufficient (0.016 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet, and PaA excretion was again synergistically decreased by the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet synergistically increases the requirement for PaA. PMID:26226957

  1. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

    PubMed

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  2. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition

    PubMed Central

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  3. Autolysis of Lactococcus lactis Is Increased upon d-Alanine Depletion of Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Anton; Palumbo, Emmanuelle; Deghorain, Marie; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Delcour, Jean; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kok, Jan; Buist, Girbe; Hols, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding enzymes responsible for the incorporation of d-Ala into the cell wall of Lactococcus lactis affect autolysis. An L. lactis alanine racemase (alr) mutant is strictly dependent on an external supply of d-Ala to be able to synthesize peptidoglycan and to incorporate d-Ala in the lipoteichoic acids (LTA). The mutant lyses rapidly when d-Ala is removed at mid-exponential growth. AcmA, the major lactococcal autolysin, is partially involved in the increased lysis since an alr acmA double mutant still lyses, albeit to a lesser extent. To investigate the role of d-Ala on LTA in the increased cell lysis, a dltD mutant of L. lactis was investigated, since this mutant is only affected in the d-alanylation of LTA and not the synthesis of peptidoglycan. Mutation of dltD results in increased lysis, showing that d-alanylation of LTA also influences autolysis. Since a dltD acmA double mutant does not lyse, the lysis of the dltD mutant is totally AcmA dependent. Zymographic analysis shows that no degradation of AcmA takes place in the dltD mutant, whereas AcmA is degraded by the extracellular protease HtrA in the wild-type strain. In L. lactis, LTA has been shown to be involved in controlled (directed) binding of AcmA. LTA lacking d-Ala has been reported in other bacterial species to have an improved capacity for autolysin binding. Mutation of dltD in L. lactis, however, does not affect peptidoglycan binding of AcmA; neither the amount of AcmA binding to the cells nor the binding to specific loci is altered. In conclusion, d-Ala depletion of the cell wall causes lysis by two distinct mechanisms. First, it results in an altered peptidoglycan that is more susceptible to lysis by AcmA and also by other factors, e.g., one or more of the other (putative) cell wall hydrolases expressed by L. lactis. Second, reduced amounts of d-Ala on LTA result in decreased degradation of AcmA by HtrA, which results in increased lytic activity. PMID:15601695

  4. Climate change and increased zinc concentrations in a Rocky Mountain acid rock drainage stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, C. M.; Todd, A. S.; McKnight, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Snake River Watershed in Colorado is impacted by acid rock drainage (ARD) originating from both natural sources and sources associated with the historic mining in the watershed. Downstream of mines, the high metal ion concentrations, low pH, and metal oxide deposition cause contamination which disrupts ecosystem functions, impairs biological diversity, and contaminates surface and groundwater drinking supplies. One obvious measure of the severity of this contamination is that the self-sustaining trout populations in the watershed are quite sparse. While elevated concentrations of numerous trace metals are present, dissolved zinc is used as an indicator of trout habitat water quality because the fish are so impacted by its presence. Water quality was monitored along the Snake River from 1980 to 1990 and since then less frequent sampling was conducted as part of research studies and efforts to designate portions of the watershed for mitigation. Metals concentrations during the seasonal low flows of September and October have been observed to increase significantly over that time. In particular, at a site in the headwaters well above the historic mining impacts, zinc concentrations, which were measured between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L through the 1980s, have now exceeded 1.2 mg/L in the past several years. This four-fold increase in zinc concentrations is associated with an increase in sulfate concentrations, which indicates that these water quality changes are driven primarily by accelerated natural weathering of pyrite in the watershed. The observed increase in natural ARD - possibly the result of climate change - may have implications for mitigation. Currently, these trends are being evaluated by reanalyzing the archived samples to delineate the spatial and temporal changes in contamination. Processes which may be driving the accelerated natural weathering include the earlier occurrence of peak snowmelt due to climate change which causes lower stream flows and drier

  5. Increased production of apolipoprotein B and its lipoproteins by oleic acid in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Dashti, N; Smith, E A; Alaupovic, P

    1990-01-01

    The production of lipids, apolipoproteins (apo), and lipoproteins induced by oleic acid has been examined in Caco-2 cells. The rates of accumulation in the control medium of 15-day-old Caco-2 cells of triglycerides, unesterified cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters were 102 +/- 8, 73 +/- 5, and 11 +/- 1 ng/mg cell protein/h, respectively; the accumulation rates for apolipoproteins A-I, B, C-III, and E were 111 +/- 9, 53 +/- 4, 13 +/- 1, and 63 +/- 4 ng/mg cell protein/h, respectively. Whereas apolipoproteins A-IV and C-II were detected by immunoblotting, apoA-II was absent in most culture media. In contrast to an early production of apolipoproteins A-I and E occurring 2 days after plating, the apoB expression appeared to be differentiation-dependent and was not measurable in the medium until the sixth day post-confluency. In the control medium, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), high density lipoproteins (HDL), and lipid-poor very high density lipoproteins (VHDL) accounted for 12%, 46%, 18%, and 24% of the total lipid and apolipoprotein contents, respectively. The triglyceride-rich VLDL contained mainly apoE (75%) and apoB (23%), while the protein moiety of LDL was composed of apoB (59%), apoE (20%), apoA-I (15%), and apoC-III (6%). The cholesterol-rich HDL contained mainly apoA-I (69%) and apoE (27%). In the control medium, major portions of apolipoproteins B and C-III (93-97%) were present in LDL, whereas the main parts of apoA-I (92%) and apoE (76%) were associated with HDL and VHDL. Oleate increased the production of triglycerides 10-fold, cholesteryl esters 7-fold, and apoB 2- to 4-fold. There was also a moderate increase (39%) in the production of apoC-III but no significant changes in those of apolipoproteins A-I and E. These increases were reflected mainly in a 55-fold elevation in the concentration of VLDL, and a 2-fold increase in the level of LDL; there were no significant changes in HDL and VHDL. VLDL contained the

  6. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The Accelerated Intake: A Method for Increasing Initial Attendance to Outpatient Cocaine Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, David S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of offering same day appointments at an outpatient cocaine treatment program to increase intake attendance was examined. Seventy-eight clients were given standard or accelerated intake appointments. Significantly more clients who were given accelerated appointments attended the program. An accelerated intake procedure appears to…

  8. Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-01-15

    The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth. PMID:25590775

  9. Ferulic acid prevents liver injury and increases the anti-tumor effect of diosbulbin B in vivo *

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-ming; Sheng, Yu-chen; Ji, Li-li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2014-01-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the protection by ferulic acid against the hepatotoxicity induced by diosbulbin B and its possible mechanism, and further observe whether ferulic acid augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. The results show that ferulic acid decreases diosbulbin B-increased serum alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST) levels. Ferulic acid also decreases lipid peroxide (LPO) levels which are elevated in diosbulbin B-treated mice. Histological evaluation of the liver demonstrates hydropic degeneration in diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses this injury. Moreover, the activities of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) are decreased in the livers of diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses these decreases. Further results demonstrate that the mRNA expressions of CuZn-SOD and CAT in diosbulbin B-treated mouse liver are significantly decreased, while ferulic acid prevents this decrease. In addition, ferulic acid also augments diosbulbin B-induced tumor growth inhibition compared with diosbulbin B alone. Taken together, the present study shows that ferulic acid prevents diosbulbin B-induced liver injury via ameliorating diosbulbin B-induced liver oxidative stress injury and augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. PMID:24903991

  10. Chronic suppurative otitis media due to nontuberculous mycobacteria: A case of successful treatment with topical boric acid.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marie-Astrid; Quach, Caroline; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-07-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasingly recognized cause of chronic suppurative otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes. Treatment of this condition is difficult and typically requires a combination of systemic antibiotics and surgical debridement. We present the first case of a 2-year-old male with chronic suppurative otitis media due to NTM who failed systemic antibiotic therapy and was successfully managed with topical boric acid powder. This report highlights the challenges involved in treating this infection, and introduces boric acid as a potentially valuable component of therapy. PMID:26026892

  11. The rolC gene increases caffeoylquinic acid production in transformed artichoke cells.

    PubMed

    Vereshchagina, Y V; Bulgakov, V P; Grigorchuk, V P; Rybin, V G; Veremeichik, G N; Tchernoded, G K; Gorpenchenko, T Y; Koren, O G; Phan, N H T; Minh, N T; Chau, L T; Zhuravlev, Y N

    2014-09-01

    Caffeoylquinic acids are found in artichokes, and they are currently considered important therapeutic or preventive agents for treating Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. We transformed artichoke [the cultivated cardoon or Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC (Asteraceae)] with the rolC gene, which is a known inducer of secondary metabolism. High-performance liquid chromatography with UV and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-HRMS) revealed that the predominant metabolites synthesized in the transgenic calli were 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid. The rolC-transformed calli contained 1.5% caffeoylquinic acids by dry weight. The overall production of these metabolites was three times higher than that of the corresponding control calli. The enhancing effect of rolC remained stable over long-term cultivation. PMID:24938208

  12. A solid acid esterification catalyst which reduces waste and increases yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, E.G.

    1993-12-31

    Recent research on polymeric catalysts has led to the development of a new solid acid esterification catalyst which is highly active for the esterification of fatty acids and maleic anhydride at elevated temperatures. The use of this catalyst eliminates the need for a final neutralization step which is required when using traditional homogenous acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HCl) catalysts. This neutralization step generates large amounts of waste salts and hurts efficiency since unconsumed organic acid reactants are also neutralized. In the high temperature esterification reactions studied here, the production of dialkyl ether by-products from the acid catalyzed self-condensation of alcohol is also greatly reduced allowing for both high activity and selectivity.

  13. Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduces the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases the Formation of Anti-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Köhnke, Thomas; Bilal, Süleyman; Zhou, Xiangzhi; Rothe, Michael; Baumgart, Daniel C.; Weylandt, Karsten H.

    2013-01-01

    The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation. PMID:24083240

  14. Acetylsalicylic Acid reduces the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and increases the formation of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    Köhnke, Thomas; Gomolka, Beate; Bilal, Süleyman; Zhou, Xiangzhi; Sun, Yanping; Rothe, Michael; Baumgart, Daniel C; Weylandt, Karsten H

    2013-01-01

    The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation. PMID:24083240

  15. A Role for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Increasing the Effectiveness of Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Marsha E.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Nguyen, Tam T.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairments are prevalent in persons seeking treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These impairments and their physical, social, psychological and occupational consequences vary in severity across persons, much like those resulting from traumatic brain injury; however, due to their slower course of onset, alcohol-related cognitive impairments are often overlooked both within and outside of the treatment setting. Evidence suggests that cognitive impairments can impede treatment goals through their effects on treatment processes. Although some recovery of alcohol-related cognitive impairments often occurs after cessation of drinking (time-dependent recovery), the rate and extent of recovery is variable across cognitive domains and individuals. Following a long hiatus in scientific interest, a new generation of research aims to facilitate treatment process and improve AUD treatment outcomes by directly promoting cognitive recovery (experience-dependent recovery). This review updates knowledge about the nature and course of cognitive and brain impairments associated with AUD, including cognitive effects of adolescent AUD. We summarize current evidence for indirect and moderating relationships of cognitive impairment to treatment outcome, and discuss how advances in conceptual frameworks of brain-behavior relationships are fueling the development of novel AUD interventions that include techniques for cognitive remediation. Emerging evidence suggests that such interventions can be effective in promoting cognitive recovery in persons with AUD and other substance use disorders, and potentially increasing the efficacy of AUD treatments. Finally, translational approaches based on cognitive science, neurophysiology, and neuroscience research are considered as promising future directions for effective treatment development that includes cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:23412885

  16. PROGESTERONE TREATMENT REDUCES DISEASE SEVERITY AND INCREASES IL-10 IN EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

    PubMed Central

    Yates, M.A; Li, Y.; Chlebeck, P.; Proctor, T.; Vandenbark, A.A.; Offner, H.

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian hormones, including progesterone, are known to have immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects which may alter the disease course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the current study, we examined the treatment potential of progesterone beginning at the onset of EAE symptoms. Progesterone treated animals showed reduced peak disease scores and cumulative disease indices, and decreased inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-2 and IL-17). In addition, increased production of IL-10 was accompanied by increased numbers of CD19+ cells and an increase in CD8+ cells. Decreased chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the spinal cord also contributed to decreased lesions in the spinal cord. PMID:20153059

  17. Increasing functional rehabilitation in acquired brain injury treatment: effective applications of behavioural principles.

    PubMed

    Guercio, John; Davis, Paula; Faw, Gerry; McMorrow, Martin; Ori, Lindsay; Berkowitz, Brooke; Nigra, Megan

    2002-10-01

    This paper investigated ways to increase the participation of direct care staff in the functional rehabilitation activities (FRAs) of adults with acquired brain injuries (ABIs). FRAs were rehabilitation agendas written by clinical staff for delivery by paraprofessionals. Increases in FRA completion were believed to be directly related to clinical success. These FRAs had been identified as key components in the rehabilitation programmes of the adults living within the residential facilities. Increases in FRAs were crucial in improving the quality of the rehabilitation programmes of the participants involved. The study observed four residential settings serving adults with ABIs using a multiple baseline design. The treatment approach consisted of public posting of weekly FRA documentation, incorporation of staff input, and reinforcement for documentation of FRAs. The results indicated a positive impact on the participation of staff in all of the residences in the study, consistent with implementation of the treatment package. PMID:12418998

  18. Increasing abused children's access to evidence-based treatment: diffusion via parents as consumers.

    PubMed

    Gully, Kevin J; Price, Brittany L; Johnson, Marilyn K

    2008-08-01

    This investigation evaluated an experimental protocol employed by nurses with parents to increase access to evidence-based mental health treatment for children who are suspected victims of abuse. The protocol was compared with typical services during forensic medical examinations, first in a quasi-experimental design, then as a randomized controlled trial. In both studies, the protocol produced a significant increase in parental reports of having discussed evidence-based treatment during a mental health appointment within 1 month after the forensic medical examination. Likewise, both studies showed that the protocol produced a significant increase in parent-reported satisfaction with the forensic medical examination. Similarly, nurses viewed the protocol favorably. These findings suggest that this approach may be sustainable as a standard component of forensic medical examinations for children who are suspected victims of abuse. PMID:18359928

  19. Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increases Omega-3 Index in Aged Male and Female Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bačová, Barbara; Seč, Peter; Čertik, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether n-3 PUFA intake affects n-3 and n-6 FA levels in plasma and red blood cells as well as omega-3 index in old male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and healthy rats. Plasma linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased due to n-3 PUFA intake in SHR and healthy rats. Comparing to healthy rats the levels of PUFA in red blood cells of SHR were lower in males and higher in females with exception of arachidonic acid, which was high in males and low in females. Feeding of rats with n-3 PUFA resulted in increase of red blood cells levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid in a sex- and strain-dependent manner. Moreover, n-3 PUFA intake decreased arachidonic acid in healthy female rats but increased it in SHR and did not affect it in males. Omega-3 index was lower in SHR comparing to healthy rats and it increased due to the consumption of n-3 PUFA. Results point out sex- and strain-related differences in red blood cells levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in basal conditions as well as in response to n-3 PUFA intake. PMID:24967252

  20. Chronic pramipexole treatment increases tolerance for sucrose in normal and ventral tegmental lesioned rats

    PubMed Central

    Dardou, David; Chassain, Carine; Durif, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The loss of dopamine neurons observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) elicits severe motor control deficits which are reduced by the use of dopamine agonists. However, recent works have indicated that D3-preferential agonists such as pramipexole can induce impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as food craving or compulsive eating. In the present study, we performed an intermittent daily feeding experiment to assess the effect of chronic treatment by pramipexole and VTA bilateral lesion on tolerance for sucrose solution. The impact of such chronic treatment on spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory was also examined. Changes in sucrose tolerance could indicate the potential development of a change in food compulsion or addiction related to the action of pramipexole. Neither the bilateral lesion of the VTA nor chronic treatment with pramipexole altered the spontaneous locomotion or spatial memory in rats. Rats without pramipexole treatment quickly developed a stable intake of sucrose solution in the 12 h access phase. On the contrary, when under daily pramipexole treatment, rats developed a stronger and ongoing escalation of their sucrose solution intakes. In addition, we noted that the change in sucrose consumption was sustained by an increase of the expression of the Dopamine D3 receptor in the core and the shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. The present results may suggest that long-term stimulation of the Dopamine D3 receptor in animals induces a strong increase in sucrose consumption, indicating an effect of this receptor on certain pathological aspects of food eating. PMID:25610366

  1. Chronic pramipexole treatment increases tolerance for sucrose in normal and ventral tegmental lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Dardou, David; Chassain, Carine; Durif, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The loss of dopamine neurons observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) elicits severe motor control deficits which are reduced by the use of dopamine agonists. However, recent works have indicated that D3-preferential agonists such as pramipexole can induce impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as food craving or compulsive eating. In the present study, we performed an intermittent daily feeding experiment to assess the effect of chronic treatment by pramipexole and VTA bilateral lesion on tolerance for sucrose solution. The impact of such chronic treatment on spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory was also examined. Changes in sucrose tolerance could indicate the potential development of a change in food compulsion or addiction related to the action of pramipexole. Neither the bilateral lesion of the VTA nor chronic treatment with pramipexole altered the spontaneous locomotion or spatial memory in rats. Rats without pramipexole treatment quickly developed a stable intake of sucrose solution in the 12 h access phase. On the contrary, when under daily pramipexole treatment, rats developed a stronger and ongoing escalation of their sucrose solution intakes. In addition, we noted that the change in sucrose consumption was sustained by an increase of the expression of the Dopamine D3 receptor in the core and the shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. The present results may suggest that long-term stimulation of the Dopamine D3 receptor in animals induces a strong increase in sucrose consumption, indicating an effect of this receptor on certain pathological aspects of food eating. PMID:25610366

  2. Recovery of reducing sugars and volatile fatty acids from cornstalk at different hydrothermal treatment severity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhangbing; Liu, Zhidan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Lu, Haifeng; Duan, Na; Si, Buchun; Shen, Ruixia; Lu, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the degradation of cornstalk and recovery of reducing sugars and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at different hydrothermal treatment severity (HTS) (4.17-8.28, 190-320°C). The highest recovery of reducing sugars and VFAs reached 92.39% of aqueous products, equal to 34.79% based on dry biomass (HTS, 6.31). GC-MS and HPLC identified that the aqueous contained furfural (0.35-2.88 g/L) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (0-0.85 g/L) besides reducing sugars and VFAs. Hemicellulose and cellulose were completely degraded at a HTS of 5.70 and 7.60, respectively. SEM analysis showed that cornstalk was gradually changed from rigid and highly ordered fibrils to molten and grainy structure as HTS increased. FT-IR and TGA revealed the significant changes of organic groups for cornstalk before and after hydrothermal treatment at different HTS. Hydrothermal treatment might be promising for providing feedstocks suitable for biohythane production. PMID:26316401

  3. Flaxseed treatments to reduce biohydrogenation of alpha-linolenic acid by rumen microbes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Murphy, E J

    2007-12-01

    Enrichment of beef muscle with n-3 fatty acids (FA) is one means to introduce these FA into the diet, but ruminal biohydrogenation limits their bioavailability. To address this problem, we evaluated the ability of condensed tannin (quebracho), in the presence or absence of casein, to protect 18:3n-3 in flaxseed from hydrogenation by ruminal microbes in cattle using an in vitro fermentation approach coupled with evaluation in cattle in vivo. Treated and untreated flaxseed was incubated with bovine rumen fluid for 0 and 24 h. With tannin treated flaxseed, hydrogenation of 18:3n-3 was limited to only 13% over 24 h compared to 43% for untreated flaxseed, while addition of casein to the tannin added no additional protection. To determine if a similar level of protection would occur in vivo, we used two groups of five steers fed either a grain-based or forage-based diet. Five steers were given a grain-based diet during the trial and were fed either ground flaxseed or tannin treated flaxseed for 15 days prior to blood collection for plasma lipid fatty acid analysis. The forage fed steers followed the same regimen. Ingestion of tannin-treated flaxseed did not increase 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 in plasma neutral lipids as compared to non-treated flaxseed. Thus, we demonstrated that treating ground flaxseed with quebracho tannin is not useful for increasing 18:3n-3 in the neutral lipid of bovine blood plasma, and suggest caution when interpreting results from in vitro trials that test potential treatments for protecting fatty acids from hydrogenation by ruminal microbes. PMID:17985170

  4. Glioblastoma Treatment: Bypassing the Toxicity of Platinum Compounds by Using Liposomal Formulation and Increasing Treatment Efficiency With Concomitant Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Charest, Gabriel; Sanche, Leon; Fortin, David; Mathieu, David; Paquette, Benoit

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Treatments of glioblastoma with cisplatin or oxaliplatin only marginally improve the overall survival of patients and cause important side effects. To prevent adverse effects, improve delivery, and optimize the tumor response to treatment in combination with radiotherapy, a potential approach consists of incorporating the platinum agent in a liposome. Methods and Materials: In this study, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, Lipoplatin (the liposomal formulation of cisplatin), and Lipoxal (the liposomal formulation of oxaliplatin) were tested on F98 glioma orthotopically implanted in Fischer rats. The platinum compounds were administered by intracarotid infusion and were assessed for the ability to reduce toxicity, improve cancer cell uptake, and increase survival of animals when combined or not combined with radiotherapy. Results: The tumor uptake was 2.4-fold more important for Lipoxal than the liposome-free oxaliplatin. Lipoxal also improved the specificity of oxaliplatin as shown by a higher ratio of tumor to right hemisphere uptake. Surprisingly, Lipoplatin led to lower tumor uptake compared with cisplatin. However, Lipoplatin had the advantage of largely reducing the toxicity of cisplatin and allowed us to capitalize on the anticancer activity of this agent. Conclusion: Among the five platinum compounds tested, carboplatin showed the best increase in survival when combined with radiation for treatment of glioma implanted in Fischer rats.

  5. Combined cisplatin and aurora inhibitor treatment increase neuroblastoma cell death but surviving cells overproduce BDNF.

    PubMed

    Polacchini, Alessio; Albani, Clara; Baj, Gabriele; Colliva, Andrea; Carpinelli, Patrizia; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Drug-resistance to chemotherapics in aggressive neuroblastoma (NB) is characterized by enhanced cell survival mediated by TrkB and its ligand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); thus reduction in BDNF levels represent a promising strategy to overcome drug-resistance, but how chemotherapics regulate BDNF is unknown. Here, cisplatin treatment in SK-N-BE neuroblastoma upregulated multiple BDNF transcripts, except exons 5 and 8 variants. Cisplatin increased BDNF mRNA and protein, and enhanced translation of a firefly reporter gene flanked by BDNF 5'UTR exons 1, 2c, 4 or 6 and 3'UTR-long. To block BDNF translation we focused on aurora kinases inhibitors which are proposed as new chemotherapeutics. NB cell survival after 24 h treatment was 43% with cisplatin, and 22% by cisplatin+aurora kinase inhibitor PHA-680632, while the aurora kinases inhibitor alone was less effective; however the combined treatment induced a paradoxical increase of BDNF in surviving cells with strong translational activation of exon6-3'UTR-long transcript, while translation of BDNF transcripts 1, 2C and 4 was suppressed. In conclusion, combined cisplatin and aurora kinase inhibitor treatment increases cell death, but induces BDNF overproduction in surviving cells through an aurora kinase-independent mechanism. PMID:27256407

  6. Combined cisplatin and aurora inhibitor treatment increase neuroblastoma cell death but surviving cells overproduce BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Polacchini, Alessio; Albani, Clara; Baj, Gabriele; Colliva, Andrea; Carpinelli, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drug-resistance to chemotherapics in aggressive neuroblastoma (NB) is characterized by enhanced cell survival mediated by TrkB and its ligand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); thus reduction in BDNF levels represent a promising strategy to overcome drug-resistance, but how chemotherapics regulate BDNF is unknown. Here, cisplatin treatment in SK-N-BE neuroblastoma upregulated multiple BDNF transcripts, except exons 5 and 8 variants. Cisplatin increased BDNF mRNA and protein, and enhanced translation of a firefly reporter gene flanked by BDNF 5′UTR exons 1, 2c, 4 or 6 and 3′UTR-long. To block BDNF translation we focused on aurora kinases inhibitors which are proposed as new chemotherapeutics. NB cell survival after 24 h treatment was 43% with cisplatin, and 22% by cisplatin+aurora kinase inhibitor PHA-680632, while the aurora kinases inhibitor alone was less effective; however the combined treatment induced a paradoxical increase of BDNF in surviving cells with strong translational activation of exon6-3′UTR-long transcript, while translation of BDNF transcripts 1, 2C and 4 was suppressed. In conclusion, combined cisplatin and aurora kinase inhibitor treatment increases cell death, but induces BDNF overproduction in surviving cells through an aurora kinase-independent mechanism. PMID:27256407

  7. Treatment of mining acidic leachates with indigenous limestone, Zimapan Mexico.

    PubMed

    Labastida, I; Armienta, M A; Lara-Castro, R H; Aguayo, A; Cruz, O; Ceniceros, N

    2013-11-15

    An experimental study to evaluate the potential of using indigenous limestones in a passive system to treat acid mine drainage, at a mining zone of Mexico was carried out. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of four types of native rocks (KIT1, KIT2, KSS, QZ) showed distinct CaCO3 contents. Synthetic aqueous leachates from an old tailings impoundment had a pH of 2.18, 34 mg/L As, 705 mg/L Fetotal, and 3975 mg/L SO4(2-). To evaluate dissolution behavior of rocks, kinetic batch experiments with an acid Fe-rich solution were performed. Decaying kinetic constants adjusting H(+) concentration to a first order exponential process were: KIT1 (k = 2.89), KIT2 (k = 0.89) and KSS (k = 0.47). Infrared spectrum and XRD of precipitates showed schwertmannite formation. To determine As and heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Zn, Al) removal from the synthetic leachates, batch experiments using KIT1 were developed. Arsenic decreased from 34.00 mg/L to 0.04 mg/L, Fe and Al were totally removed, and concentrations of Zn and Cd decreased 88% and 91% respectively. Analyses by IR and SEM-EDS indicate that co-precipitation with Fe-Hydroxides formed upon leachate interaction with limestone is the main As removal process. Chamosite, identified by XRD may participate in the removal of Al, SiO2 and a fraction of Fe. PMID:22819958

  8. Sodium bicarbonate treatment extends life of formerly acid lake

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    For the second time, researchers have used a familiar home remedy to restore the balance of a once acid lake. On September 29, Wolf Pond, in New York's Adirondack State Park, was treated with sodium bicarbonate to adjust alkalinity and keep pH at normal levels at least into the 1990's. Since it was first treated with bicarbonate in 1984, Wolf Pond has recovered and stabilized enough to sustain fish life once again. Repeated dosing is necessary because acid rain and runoff gradually deplete alkalinity in the lake over a period of years. Wolf Pond was selected for study because it has very little outflow and its major source of replenishment is rain. As the 1986 study explained, sodium bicarbonate was chosen for this application because it provides four advantages: (1) it is very soluble; (2) it cannot raise pH above 8.5; (3) it is easy to handle and apply; and (4) it is safe enough to be a common ingredient of many pharmaceuticals and foods.

  9. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT THE LEVIATHAN MINE SITE, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA SITE Program is conducting a detailed sampling and evaluation of several innovative acid mine drainage treatment technologies at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site in California. Technologies include BiPhasic Lime Treatment Plant, an alkaline lagoon, and an innovative bio...

  10. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  11. Oleanolic Acid Prevents Increase in Blood Pressure and Nephrotoxicity in Nitric Oxide Dependent Type of Hypertension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bachhav, Sagar S.; Bhutada, Mukesh S.; Patil, Sachin P.; Sharma, Kinjal S.; Patil, Savita D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, we have reported antihypertensive activity of oleanolic acid (OA) in glucocorticoid-induced hypertension with restoration of nitric oxide (NO) level. However, the involvement of NO-releasing action of OA was unclear. Objective: To explore antihypertensive activity of OA in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertensive rats wherein NO is completely blocked, which would allow exploring the possibility of involvement of NO-releasing action of OA. Materials and Methods: Five groups of rats were investigated as normal control, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + enalapril (15 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + l-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), and L-NAME + OA (60 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. The systolic blood pressure, body weight, and heart rate were measured weekly for 4 weeks. Serum nitrate/nitrite (NOx) level, urine electrolytes concentration, cardiac mass index, and serum creatinine level were determined followed by organ histopathology. Results: OA and enalapril delayed the rise in blood pleasure following L-NAME administration. Decreased serum NOx level was not significantly increased with any of the treatment. OA produced a small, though nonsignificant, increase in the NOx level. L-NAME administration did not affect cardiac mass index. There was an increase in serum creatinine upon L-NAME administration which was prevented by OA. Decreased urine volume, urine sodium and potassium were reversed by OA. Conclusion: These results suggest that the antihypertensive effect of OA in L-NAME hypertension is due to diuresis and nephroprotection. However, OA has nonsignificantly affected the NO levels. PMID:26692754

  12. Increased Flow of Fatty Acids toward β-Oxidation in Developing Seeds of Arabidopsis Deficient in Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Activity or Synthesizing Medium-Chain-Length Fatty Acids1

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Yves; Ventre, Giovanni; Caldelari, Daniela

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from intermediates of fatty acid β-oxidation was used as a tool to study fatty acid degradation in developing seeds of Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants expressing a peroxisomal PHA synthase under the control of a napin promoter accumulated PHA in developing seeds to a final level of 0.06 mg g−1 dry weight. In plants co-expressing a plastidial acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase from Cuphea lanceolata and a peroxisomal PHA synthase, approximately 18-fold more PHA accumulated in developing seeds. The proportion of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid monomer in the PHA was strongly increased, indicating a large flow of capric acid toward β-oxidation. Furthermore, expression of the peroxisomal PHA synthase in an Arabidopsis mutant deficient in the enzyme diacylglycerol acyltransferase resulted in a 10-fold increase in PHA accumulation in developing seeds. These data indicate that plants can respond to the inadequate incorporation of fatty acids into triacylglycerides by recycling the fatty acids via β-oxidation and that a considerable flow toward β-oxidation can occur even in a plant tissue primarily devoted to the accumulation of storage lipids. PMID:10594123

  13. Calyculin and okadaic acid promote perilipin phosphorylation and increase lipolysis in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    He, Jinhan; Jiang, Hongfeng; Tansey, John T; Tang, Chaoshu; Pu, Shenshen; Xu, Guoheng

    2006-02-01

    Lipolysis is primarily regulated by protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates perilipin and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and causes translocation of HSL from cytosol to lipid droplets in adipocytes. Perilipin coats lipid droplet surface and assumes to prevent lipase access to triacylglycerols, thus inhibiting basal lipolysis; phosphorylated perilipin facilitates lipolysis on PKA activation. Here, we induced lipolysis in primary rat adipocytes by inhibiting protein serine/threonine phosphatase with specific inhibitors, okadaic acid and calyculin. The incubation with calyculin promotes incorporation of 32Pi into perilipins, thus, confirming that perilipin is hyperphosphorylated. The lipolysis response to calyculin is gradually accompanied by increased accumulation of phosphorylated perilipin A in a concentration- and time-responsive manner. When perilipin phosphorylation is abrogated by the addition of N-ethylmaleimide, lipolysis ceases. Different from a considerable translocation of HSL upon PKA activation with isoproterenol, calyculin does not alter HSL redistribution in primary or differentiated adipocytes, as confirmed by both immunostaining and immunoblotting. Thus, we suggest that inhibition of the phosphatase by calyculin activates lipolysis via promoting perilipin phosphorylation rather than eliciting HSL translocation in adipocytes. Further, we show that when the endogenous phosphatase is inhibited by calyculin, simultaneous PKA activation with isoproterenol converts most of the perilipin to the hyperphosphorylated species, and induces enhanced lipolysis. Apparently, as PKA phosphorylates perilipin and stimulates lipolysis, the phosphatase acts to dephosphorylate perilipin and attenuate lipolysis. This suggests a two-step strategy governed by a kinase and a phosphatase to modulate the steady state of perilipin phosphorylation and hence the lipolysis response to hormonal stimulation. PMID:16545598

  14. Treatment of acid mine drainage with anaerobic solid-substrate reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, W.J.

    1999-10-01

    Anaerobic solid-substrate reactors were used in a laboratory study of acid mine drainage treatment. Parallel systems were run continuously for 23 months, both containing a solid substrate of 2:1 (weight) cow manure and sawdust. One system had cheese whey added with the mine drainage to provide an additional electron donor source to simulate sulfate-reducing bacteria activity. Effluent pH from the reactor with whey addition was relatively constant at 6.5. Effluent pH from the reactor without whey addition dropped over time from 6.7 to approximately 5.5. Whey addition increased effluent alkalinity [550 to 700 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) versus 50 to 300 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}] and sulfate removal (98 to 80% versus 60 to 40%). Sulfate removal rate with whey addition decreased over time from 250 to 120 mmol/m{sup 3}{center{underscore}dot}d, whereas it decreased from 250 to 40 mmol/m{sup 3}{center{underscore}dot}d without whey addition. Whey addition increased removal of dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, and dissolved zinc in the second part of the experiment. Copper and cadmium removals were greater than 99%, and arsenic removal was 84% without whey addition and 89% with whey addition. Effluent sulfide concentrations were approximately 1 order of magnitude greater with whey addition. A 63-day period of excessive loading permanently decreased treatment efficiency without whey addition.

  15. Heat treatment of pre-hydrolyzed silane increases adhesion of phosphate monomer-based resin cement to glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Cotes, Caroline; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Leite, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different forms of heat treatment on a pre-hydrolyzed silane to improve the adhesion of phosphate monomer-based (MDP) resin cement to glass ceramic. Resin and feldspathic ceramic blocks (n=48, n=6 for bond test, n=2 for microscopy) were randomly divided into 6 groups and subject to surface treatments: G1: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + MDP resin cement (Panavia F); G2: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G3: Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G4: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G5: Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G6: Silane + Panavia F. Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to categorize the failure types. Data were analyzed statistically using two-way test ANOVA and Tukey's test (=0.05). Heat treatment of the silane containing MDP, with prior etching with HF (G2: 13.15 ± 0.89a; G4: 12.58 ± 1.03a) presented significantly higher bond strength values than the control group (G1: 9.16 ± 0.64b). The groups without prior etching (G3: 10.47 ± 0.70b; G5: 9.47 ± 0.32b) showed statistically similar bond strength values between them and the control group (G1). The silane application without prior etching and heat treatment resulted in the lowest mean bond strength (G6: 8.05 ± 0.37c). SEM analysis showed predominantly adhesive failures and EDS analysis showed common elements of spectra (Si, Na, Al, K, O, C) characterizing the microstructure of the glass-ceramic studied. Heat treatment of the pre-hydrolyzed silane containing MDP in an oven at 100 °C for 2 min or with hot air application at 50 ± 5 ºC for 1 min, was effective in increasing the bond strength values between the ceramic and resin cement containing MDP. PMID:25672383

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Increases Free Fatty Acids Absorption and Promotes its Replication Via Down-Regulating GADD45α Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, An-ling; Yang, Gui; Hu, Han-ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as a major cause of chronic hepatic diseases, is always accompanied with an abnormality of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of free fatty acids (FFA) in human HCV infection. Material/Methods Peripheral blood lipid indexes among HCV patients with different viral loads (199 samples) and healthy donors (80 samples) were detected by clinical biochemistry tests. HCV replication and the expression of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene 45-α (GADD45α) in Huh7 cells and clinical samples were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Lipid accumulation in Huh7 cells was detected by immunofluorescence. Results In this study, we found that FFA showed a significant positive correlation with viral load in peripheral blood of HCV patients, but not total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). GADD45α expression in HCV patients dramatically decreased with the increase of viral load. In Huh7 cells, FFA treatment significantly enhanced HCV replication. HCV infection inhibited GADD45α expression, and this effect was further enhanced with the presence of FFA treatment. Ectopic expression of GADD45α in HCV-infected Huh7 cells markedly inhibited the absorption of FFA and HCV replication. However, FFA significantly elevated GADD45α expression without HCV infection. Conclusions These results demonstrated that HCV down-regulates GADD45α expression to enhance FFA absorption and thus facilitate its replication. GADD45α is an essential mediator for the pathogenesis of HCV infection. Thus, our study provides potential clues in the search for novel therapeutics and fatty lipid control options for HCV patients. PMID:27381636

  17. Increased neuronal survival in the brainstem during liver injury: role of γ-aminobutyric acid and serotonin chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shilpa, J; Anitha, M; Paulose, C S

    2013-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and serotonin (5-HT)-mediated cell signaling, neuronal survival enhancement, and reduced neuronal death in brainstem during liver injury followed by active liver regeneration have a critical role in maintaining routine bodily functions. In the present study, GABAB and 5-HT2A receptor functional regulation, interrelated actions of neuronal survival factors, and expression of apoptotic factors in the brainstem during GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles-induced active liver regeneration in partially hepatectomized rats were evaluated. Partially hepatectomized rats were treated with the nanoparticles, and receptor assays and confocal microscopic studies of GABAB and 5-HT2A receptors, gene expression studies of GABAB and 5-HT2A receptors, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Akt-1, phospholipase C, Bax, and caspase-8 were performed with the brainstems of experimental animals. A significant decrease in GABAB and 5-HT2A receptor numbers and gene expressions denoted a homeostatic adjustment by the brain to trigger the sympathetic innervations during elevated DNA synthesis in the liver. The neuronal apoptosis resulting from the loss of liver function after partial hepatectomy was minimized by nanoparticle treatment in rats compared with rats with no treatment during regeneration. This was confirmed from the gene expression patterns of NF-κB, TNF-α, Akt-1, phospholipase C, Bax, and caspase-8. The present study revealed the potential of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles for increasing neuronal survival in the brainstem during liver injury following regeneration, which avoids many neuropsychiatric problems. PMID:23861071

  18. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Beneden, Katrien; Geers, Caroline; Pauwels, Marina; Mannaerts, Inge; Wissing, Karl M.; Van den Branden, Christiane; Grunsven, Leo A. van

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  19. Exogenous Melatonin Treatment Increases Chilling Tolerance and Induces Defense Response in Harvested Peach Fruit during Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Song, Chunbo; Shao, Jiarong; Bian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2016-06-29

    The effect of exogenous melatonin on chilling injury in peach fruit after harvest was investigated. To explore the optimum concentration of melatonin for chilling tolerance induction, peach fruit were treated with 50, 100, or 200 μM melatonin for 120 min and then stored for 28 days at 4 °C. The results showed that application of melatonin at 100 μM was most effective in reducing chilling injury of peach fruit after harvest. Peaches treated with melatonin at this concentration displayed higher levels of extractable juice rate and total soluble solids than the non-treated peaches. In addition, melatonin treatment enhanced expression of PpADC, PpODC, and PpGAD and consequently increased polyamines and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents. Meanwhile, the upregulated transcripts of PpADC and PpODC and inhibited PpPDH expression resulted in the higher proline content in melatonin-treated fruit compared to the control fruit. Our results revealed that melatonin treatment may be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury in cold-stored peach fruit. The chilling tolerance of harvested peaches induced by melatonin treatment is associated with higher levels of polyamine, GABA, and proline. These data provided here are the first protective evidence of exogenous melatonin in harvested horticultural products in response to direct chilling stress. PMID:27281292

  20. Brain microsomal fatty acid elongation is increased in abcd1-deficient mouse during active myelination phase.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masashi; Kawamichi, Misato; Shimura, Yusuke; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Watanabe, Shiro; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2015-12-01

    The dysfunction of ABCD1, a peroxisomal ABC protein, leads to the perturbation of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism and is the cause of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Abcd1-deficient mice exhibit an accumulation of saturated VLCFAs, such as C26:0, in all tissues, especially the brain. The present study sought to measure microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain of wild-type (WT) and abcd1-deficient mice during the course of development. The fatty acid elongation activity in the microsomal fraction was measured by the incorporation of [2-(14)C]malonyl-CoA into fatty acids in the presence of C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA. Cytosolic fatty acid synthesis activity was completely inhibited by the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain was significantly high at 3 weeks after birth and decreased substantially at 3 months after birth. Furthermore, we detected two different types of microsomal fatty acid elongation activity by using C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA as the substrate and found the activity toward C20:0-CoA in abcd1-deficient mice was higher than the WT 3-week-old animals. These results suggest that during the active myelination phase the microsomal fatty acid elongation activity is stimulated in abcd1-deficient mice, which in turn perturbs the lipid composition in myelin. PMID:26108493

  1. Delta-aminolevulinic acid as a photosensitizer precursor for the treatment of hepatoma cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukka, Mark A.; Wang, Kenneth K.

    1994-07-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid ((delta) -ALA) has been recently proposed as a tumor photosensitizer precursor with increased selectivity and decreased toxicity for the treatment of neoplasms. We investigated the conversion and cytotoxicity of (delta) -ALA in a human hepatoma cell line to determine its clinical potential. SK-HEP-1 (ATCC) cells were plated on 35 mm coverslips in media for use in a digital fluorescence microscopic imaging system. (delta) -ALA was added to achieve final concentrations between 0-5 mM. Cells were excited with 450-490 nm light while a 610 nm long pass filter was used to assess fluorescence from conversion to protoporphyrin IX, the putative photosensitizer. After maximal fluorescence was obtained at each initial concentration of (delta) -ALA, cells were radiated with 10 J/cm2 of light from a xenon lamp fitted with a 515 nm band pass filter. After photoradiation, cell death was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide labeling. Protoporphyrin IX accumulation was constant at Ksequals0.001 until a plateau was achieved 2 hours after the addition of (delta -ALA. Photoradiation with 10 J/cm2 at a concentration of 1 mM (delta ALA resulted in a linear increase in cell death over time with 5% cell death at 2 hours and 12% at 5 hours compared to controls. Interestingly, controls with (delta) -ALA alone demonstrated a cytoprotective effect with a logarithmic relationship between increasing cell survival and increasing dose of drug.

  2. Rosiglitazone increases fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) but not carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat muscle mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Carley R; Holloway, Graham P; Campbell, S E; Yoshida, Yuko; Tandon, Narendra N; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J J F P; Spriet, Lawrence L; Bonen, Arend

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter the expression of genes involved in regulating lipid metabolism. Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, induces tissue-specific effects on lipid metabolism; however, its mode of action in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Since fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) was recently identified as a possible regulator of skeletal muscle fatty acid transport and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we examined in this tissue the effects of rosiglitazone infusion (7 days, 1 mg day−1) on FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein, its plasmalemmal content and fatty acid transport. In addition, in isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria we examined rates of fatty acid oxidation, FAT/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) protein, and CPTI and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activities. Rosiglitazone did not alter FAT/CD36 mRNA or protein expression, FAT/CD36 plasmalemmal content, or the rate of fatty acid transport into muscle (P > 0.05). In contrast, rosiglitazone increased the rates of fatty acid oxidation in both SS (+21%) and IMF mitochondria (+36%). This was accompanied by concomitant increases in FAT/CD36 in subsarcolemmal (SS) (+43%) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria (+46%), while SS and IMF CPTI protein content, and CPTI submaximal and maximal activities (P > 0.05) were not altered. Similarly, citrate synthase (CS) and β-HAD activities were also not altered by rosiglitazone in SS and IMF mitochondria (P > 0.05). These studies provide another example whereby changes in mitochondrial fatty oxidation are associated with concomitant changes in mitochondrial FAT/CD36 independent of any changes in CPTI. Moreover, these studies identify for the first time a mechanism by which rosiglitazone stimulates fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, namely the chronic, subcellular relocation of FAT/CD36 to mitochondria. PMID:18238811

  3. Comprehensive Treatment of Periorbital Region with Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Camila Roos Mariano Da; Bastos, Julien Toni De; Silva, Priscila Mara Chaves e

    2015-01-01

    The periorbital subunit is one of the first facial regions to show signs of aging, primarily due to volume depletion of the soft tissue and bony resorption. Surgical and office-based nonsurgical procedures form an important basis for periorbital rejuvenation. It is important to make a detailed clinical evaluation of the patient to indicate the most appropriate procedure to be performed. With the objective of showing a nonsurgical procedure for the rejuvenation of the periorbital area, the authors describe a technique of applying fillers in the upper and lower periorbital regions, paying attention to the anatomy of this facial region and the type of product to be used besides the expected results of the procedure and its possible adverse effects and complications. The nonsurgical rejuvenation of the periorbicular region with hyaluronic acid is a new and innovative technique. In the opinion of the authors, it is a great aesthetic impact area and consequently brings high satisfaction to patients. PMID:26155325

  4. Comprehensive Treatment of Periorbital Region with Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Bruna Souza Felix; Rocha, Camila Roos Mariano Da; Bastos, Julien Toni De; Silva, Priscila Mara Chaves E

    2015-06-01

    The periorbital subunit is one of the first facial regions to show signs of aging, primarily due to volume depletion of the soft tissue and bony resorption. Surgical and office-based nonsurgical procedures form an important basis for periorbital rejuvenation. It is important to make a detailed clinical evaluation of the patient to indicate the most appropriate procedure to be performed. With the objective of showing a nonsurgical procedure for the rejuvenation of the periorbital area, the authors describe a technique of applying fillers in the upper and lower periorbital regions, paying attention to the anatomy of this facial region and the type of product to be used besides the expected results of the procedure and its possible adverse effects and complications. The nonsurgical rejuvenation of the periorbicular region with hyaluronic acid is a new and innovative technique. In the opinion of the authors, it is a