Science.gov

Sample records for acid treatment system

  1. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  2. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  3. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  4. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF SRB TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB) technology to treat acid mine drainage (AMD), Bench-scale testing, field demonstrations, and engineered applications of SRBs for the treatment of AMD will be presented...

  6. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD.

  7. Parallel electrochemical treatment system and application for identifying acid-stable oxygen evolution electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan J R; Shinde, Aniketa; Guevarra, Dan; Xiang, Chengxiang; Haber, Joel A; Jin, Jian; Gregoire, John M

    2015-02-09

    Many energy technologies require electrochemical stability or preactivation of functional materials. Due to the long experiment duration required for either electrochemical preactivation or evaluation of operational stability, parallel screening is required to enable high throughput experimentation. Imposing operational electrochemical conditions to a library of materials in parallel creates several opportunities for experimental artifacts. We discuss the electrochemical engineering principles and operational parameters that mitigate artifacts in the parallel electrochemical treatment system. We also demonstrate the effects of resistive losses within the planar working electrode through a combination of finite element modeling and illustrative experiments. Operation of the parallel-plate, membrane-separated electrochemical treatment system is demonstrated by exposing a composition library of mixed-metal oxides to oxygen evolution conditions in 1 M sulfuric acid for 2 h. This application is particularly important because the electrolysis and photoelectrolysis of water are promising future energy technologies inhibited by the lack of highly active, acid-stable catalysts containing only earth abundant elements.

  8. Microbiological monitoring of acid mine drainage treatment systems and aquatic surroundings using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Han, J S; Kim, C G

    2009-01-01

    In general, acid mine drainage (AMD) causes low pH and high metal concentrations in mining areas and surroundings. The aim of this research was to achieve microbiological monitoring for AMD and to assess whether mine water outflows have any ecological effects on the aqueous ecosystem receiving effluents from different types of treatment system. The water quality of aquatic sample was analyzed and the molecular biological diversity of the samples was assessed using 16S rRNA methods, which were implemented to determine which bacteria existed throughout various unit processes for different AMD treatment systems and their receiving water environments. Acidiphilium cryptum, a heterotrophic acidophile, was found at the AMD sites, and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, which can reduce iron using insoluble Fe(III) as an electron acceptor, was detected at many AMD treatment facilities and downstream of the treatment processes. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on specific genes of selected bacteria. Surprisingly, obvious trends were observed in the relative abundance of the various bacteria that corresponded to the water quality analytical results. The copy number of Desulfosporosinus orientus, a sulfate reducing bacteria, was also observed to decrease in response to decreases in metals according to the downstream flow of the AMD treatment system.

  9. Effect of Putrescine Treatment on Chilling Injury, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant System in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingzhen; Wang, Feng; Rao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mM) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis ‘Hongyang’). We achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mM putrescine. Furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increases in superoxide anion production rate and H2O2 concentration, while maintaining higher membrane lipid unsaturation as well as increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, putrescine treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes related to the ascorbate–glutathione cycle while causing higher levels of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Our results suggest that induced tolerance against chilling injury via putrescine treatment in cold-stored kiwifruit may be due to enhanced antioxidant activity, increased unsaturation of membrane lipids, and inhibited ethylene production. PMID:27607076

  10. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  11. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Song [Fort Collins, CO; Fallgren, Paul H [Laramie, WY; Morris, Jeffrey M [Laramie, WY

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  12. Parallel Electrochemical Treatment System and Application for Identifying Acid-Stable Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Ryan J. R.; Shinde, Aniketa; Guevarra, Dan; ...

    2015-01-05

    There are many energy technologies require electrochemical stability or preactivation of functional materials. Due to the long experiment duration required for either electrochemical preactivation or evaluation of operational stability, parallel screening is required to enable high throughput experimentation. We found that imposing operational electrochemical conditions to a library of materials in parallel creates several opportunities for experimental artifacts. We discuss the electrochemical engineering principles and operational parameters that mitigate artifacts int he parallel electrochemical treatment system. We also demonstrate the effects of resistive losses within the planar working electrode through a combination of finite element modeling and illustrative experiments. Operationmore » of the parallel-plate, membrane-separated electrochemical treatment system is demonstrated by exposing a composition library of mixed metal oxides to oxygen evolution conditions in 1M sulfuric acid for 2h. This application is particularly important because the electrolysis and photoelectrolysis of water are promising future energy technologies inhibited by the lack of highly active, acid-stable catalysts containing only earth abundant elements.« less

  13. Parallel Electrochemical Treatment System and Application for Identifying Acid-Stable Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ryan J. R.; Shinde, Aniketa; Guevarra, Dan; Xiang, Chengxiang; Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Gregoire, John M.

    2015-01-05

    There are many energy technologies require electrochemical stability or preactivation of functional materials. Due to the long experiment duration required for either electrochemical preactivation or evaluation of operational stability, parallel screening is required to enable high throughput experimentation. We found that imposing operational electrochemical conditions to a library of materials in parallel creates several opportunities for experimental artifacts. We discuss the electrochemical engineering principles and operational parameters that mitigate artifacts int he parallel electrochemical treatment system. We also demonstrate the effects of resistive losses within the planar working electrode through a combination of finite element modeling and illustrative experiments. Operation of the parallel-plate, membrane-separated electrochemical treatment system is demonstrated by exposing a composition library of mixed metal oxides to oxygen evolution conditions in 1M sulfuric acid for 2h. This application is particularly important because the electrolysis and photoelectrolysis of water are promising future energy technologies inhibited by the lack of highly active, acid-stable catalysts containing only earth abundant elements.

  14. Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage By A Semipassive Barrier System, The Kristineberg Mine Site, Northern Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, T. A.; Herbert, R.; Hallberg, R.

    The production of acidic mine waters containing high concentrations of sulphate and metals are of great environmental concern. One method for removing metals from leachate waters is by stimulating sulphate reduction in a treatment system, thereby producing alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide. Dissolved metals and hydrogen sulphide may then precipitate as metal sulphides. Laboratory and field studies have been con- ducted for the evaluation of the removal processes in a groundwater treatment system, in which both inorganic and organic materials have been used to neutralize acidity and to promote the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Dissolution of olivine and dolomite was found to be successful in neutralizing acidity, since a continuous pH buffering was obtained from pH 2-3 to pH 5-6. Column studies with olivine indi- cate higher dissolution rates obtained with higher flow rates, where Mg is released at a higher rate than Si. The rate of dolomite dissolution also shows a correlation with acid- ity flux at lower fluxes. At higher acidity fluxes, the Ca release rate appears to reach a constant level, suggesting that there are factors limiting the removal of Ca from the dolomite surface. Electron microscopy studies suggest that gypsum has formed in the columns. Field sampling during two years and laboratory results indicate that at most a limited development of sulphate reducing bacteria is obtained in the organic leaf com- post. The SRB are probably present at near neutral pH that is measured in the system, but they are not very active. One main reason for this may be the complexity of the organic substrate used. In the column studies using unamended compost, sulphate and iron removal is obtained in the organic matter at a range of flow rates, initially due to adsorption and precipitation. After the addition of an easily degradable organic carbon source, a full development of SRB was obtained with an effective removal of both iron and sulphate. Iron sulphide

  15. [The blood glutathione system in cerebral vascular diseases and its treatment with alpha-lipoic acid].

    PubMed

    Kolesnichenko, L S; Kulinskiĭ, V I; Shprakh, V V; Bardymov, V V; Verlan, N V; Gubina, L P; Pensionerova, G A; Sergeeva, M P; Stanevich, L M; Filippova, G T

    2008-01-01

    The changes of glutathione metabolism are rare in dyscirculatory encephalopathy and ischemic stroke (IS) of mild severity. The frequent and considerable changes have been revealed in IS of moderate and high severity as well as in hemorrhagic stroke. An increase of activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase is the most typical. The increase of enzyme activity was not observed at the beginning of treatment after 3 days and in patients with severe degree of disease who died later. A standard therapy decreased the quantity and/or expression of changes of the glutathione metabolism in patients with IS of moderate and high severity while the addition of alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA) led to the complete normalization in IS of moderate severity and normalization of most parameters in IS of high severity. The increase of functional activity of the glutathione system at the early stage of treatment of IS and the favorable changes during the treatment, in particular after the addition of alpha-LA, were correlated with the improvement of neurological status assessed with the NIHSS. It has been confirmed that the glutathione system plays an important role in the tolerance to brain ischemia.

  16. Passive treatment of acid mine drainage in down-flow limestone systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    Passive down-flow systems, consisting of compost and/or limestone layers, may be well suited for treatment of acidic mine drainage containing ferric iron and/or aluminum. Two columns were constructed and operated in the laboratory. The first column simulated a downward, vertical-flow anaerobic wetland, also referred to as successive alkalinity-producing systems (SAPS), and has received mine drainage for 97 weeks. The 0.16-m diameter column was vertically oriented and (from bottom to top) consisted of a 0.30-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost, and 0.91 m of free standing water. Water flowed vertically downward through the system. A second column, filled with only limestone, received water from the same source as the first column. This limestone column contained a 1.06-m thick layer of limestone and 0.91 m of free standing water and has received water for 55 weeks. Actual acid mine drainage (pH = 3.1, acidity = 200 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = 600 mg/L, Total Fe = 10 mg/L, Mn = 14 mg/L, and Al = 18 mg/L) was collected every two weeks from a nearby abandoned deep mine and applied to these columns at a rate of 3.8 mL/min. For the compost/limestone column, effluent pH remained above 6.2 (6.2-7.9); however, pH at a depth of 0.38 m in the compost (halfway) dropped to < 4 after 28 weeks (net acidic). At the bottom of the compost pH remained > 4.5 for all 97 weeks. Alkalinity was generated by a combination of limestone dissolution and sulfate reduction. Over the 97 week period, the column generated an average of 330 mg/L of alkalinity, mostly due to limestone dissolution. Bacterial sulfate reduction displayed an ever decreasing trend, initially accounting for more than 200 mg/L of alkalinity and after 40 weeks only accounting for about 50 mg/L.

  17. Passive treatment of acid mine drainage in systems containing compost and limestone: Laboratory and field results

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.; Pappas, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Passive, down-flow systems, consisting of compost and limestone layers, termed successive alkalinity producing systems (SAPS), may be well suited for treatment of mine drainage containing ferric iron and/or aluminum. A column, simulating a SAPS, has been operated in the laboratory for 52 weeks. The 0.16-m diameter column consisted of a 0.30-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost and 0.91 m of free standing water. Actual AMD (pH = 3.02, acidity = 218 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4} = 600 mg/L, Fe = 16.0 mg/L, Mn = 12.1 mg/L, and Al = 17.1 mg/L) was applied to the column at a rate of 3.8 mL/min. Effluent pH has remained above 6.2 (6.2-7.9) in the column system. A SAPS located in Jefferson County, PA has been monitored for the past 4.5 years. The SAPS has an approximate area of 1000 m{sup 2} and contains a 0.4-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.2-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost, and 1.5 m of free standing water. Mine water (acidity = 335 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4} = 1270 mg/L, Fe = 246 mg/L, Mn = 38.4 mg/L, and Al = <0.2 mg/L) flowed into the SAPS at a rate of 140 L/min. Water samples from the field and laboratory systems have been collected at strategic locations on a regular basis and analyzed for pH, alkalinity, acidity, Fe{sup 2+}, total Fe, Mn, Al, SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, Na, Co, Ni, and Zn. Alkalinity has been generated in both field and laboratory systems by a combination of limestone dissolution and sulfate reduction. The column generated an average of 378 mg/L of alkalinity; 74% due to limestone dissolution and 26% due to bacterial reduction of sulfate. The field SAPS generated an average of 231 mg/L of alkalinity and exhibited seasonal trends.

  18. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-02-01

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs).

  19. Evaluation of layered and mixed passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Jeen, Sung-Wook; Mattson, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory column tests for passive treatment systems for mine drainage from a waste rock storage area were conducted to evaluate suitable reactive mixture, system configuration, effects of influent water chemistry, and required residence time. Five columns containing straw, chicken manure, mushroom compost, and limestone (LS), in either layered or mixed configurations, were set up to simulate the treatment system. The results showed that all of the five columns removed metals of concern (i.e. Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn) with a residence time of 15 h and greater. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the removal of metals may include sulfate reduction and subsequent sulfide precipitation, precipitation of secondary carbonates and hydroxides, co-precipitation, and sorption on organic substrates and secondary precipitates. The results suggest that the mixed systems containing organic materials and LS perform better than the layered systems, sequentially treated by organic and LS layers, due to the enhanced pH adjustment, which is beneficial to bacterial activity and precipitation of secondary minerals. The column tests provide a basis for the design of a field-scale passive treatment system, such as a reducing and alkalinity producing system or a permeable reactive barrier.

  20. Modeling and optimizing the design of matrix treatments in carbonate reservoirs with self-diverting acid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakova, G. T.; Kharisov, R. Ya; Sharifullin, A. R.; Pestrikov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Application of a self-diverting-acid based on viscoelastic surfactant (SDVA) is a promising technology for improving the efficacy of acid treatment in oil and gas-bearing carbonate reservoirs. In this study, we present a mathematical model for assessing SDVA flow and reaction with carbonate rock using the SDVA rheological characteristics. The model calculates the technological parameters for acidizing operations and the prediction of well productivity after acid treatment, in addition to technical and economic optimization of the acidizing process by modeling different acid treatment options with varying volumes, injection rates, process fluids stages and initial economic scenarios.

  1. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  2. Skin Delivery of Kojic Acid-Loaded Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalez, M. L.; Corrêa, M. A.; Chorilli, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aging process causes a number of changes in the skin, including oxidative stress and dyschromia. The kojic acid (KA) is iron chelator employed in treatment of skin aging, and inhibits tyrosinase, promotes depigmentation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems (LCSs), can modulate drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug activity. This study is aimed at structurally developing and characterizing a kojic acid-loaded LCS, consists of water (W), cetostearyl isononanoate (oil—O) and PPG-5-CETETH-20 (surfactant-S) and evaluating its in vitro skin permeation and retention. Three regions of the diagram were selected for characterization: A (35% O, 50% S, 15% W), B (30% O, 50% S, 20% W) and C (20% O, 50% S, 30% W), to which 2% KA was added. The formulations were subjected to polarized light microscopy, which indicated the presence of a hexagonal mesophase. Texture and bioadhesion assay showed that formulation B is suitable for topical application. According to the results from the in vitro permeation and retention of KA, the formulations developed can modulate the permeation of KA in the skin. The in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that KA-unloaded LCS and KA-loaded LCS didn't present cytotoxicity. PPG-5-CETETH-20-based systems may be a promising platform for KA skin delivery. PMID:24369010

  3. New approach in the treatment of data from an acid-base potentiometric titrationI. Monocomponent systems of monofunctional acids and bases.

    PubMed

    Maslarska, Vania; Tencheva, Jasmina; Budevsky, Omortag

    2003-01-01

    Based on precise analysis of the acid-base equilibrium, a new approach in the treatment of experimental data from a potentiometric titration is proposed. A new general formula giving explicitly the relation V=f([H(+)]) is derived, valid for every acid-base titration, which includes mono- and polyfunctional protolytes and their mixtures. The present study is the first practical application of this formula for the simplest case, the analysis of one monofunctional protolyte. The collected mV data during the titration are converted into pH-values by means of an auto pH-calibration procedure, thus avoiding preliminary preparation of the measuring system. The mentioned pH-calibration method is applicable also in water-organic mixtures and allows the quantitative determination of sparingly soluble substances (particularly pharmaceuticals). The treatment of the data is performed by means of ready-to-use software products, which makes the proposed approach accessible for a wide range of applications.

  4. Application of novel catalytic-ceramic-filler in a coupled system for long-chain dicarboxylic acids manufacturing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Shengbing; Dai, Bibo; Huang, Jungchen; Zhou, Weili; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    To gain systematic technology for long-chain dicarboxylic acids (LDCA) manufacturing wastewater treatment, catalytic micro-electrolysis (CME) coupling with adsorption-biodegradation sludge (AB) process was studied. Firstly, novel catalytic-ceramic-filler was prepared from scrap iron, clay and copper sulfate solution and packed in the CME reactor. To remove residual n-alkane and LDCA, the CME reactor was utilized for LDCA wastewater pretreatment. The results revealed that about 94% of n-alkane, 98% of LDCA and 84% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed by the aerated CME reactor at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.0 h. In this process, catalysis from Cu and montmorillonites played an important role in improving the contaminants removal. Secondly, to remove residual COD in the wastewater, AB process was designed for the secondary biological treatment, about 90% of the influent COD could be removed by biosorption, bio-flocculation and biodegradation effects. Finally, the effluent COD (about 150 mg L(-1)) discharged from the coupled CME-AB system met the requirement of the national discharged standard (COD ≤ 300 mg L(-1)). All of these results suggest that the coupled CME-AB system is a promising technology due to its high-efficient performance, and has the potential to be applied for the real LDCA wastewater treatment.

  5. Systemic treatment with the enteric bacterial fermentation product, propionic acid, produces both conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Foley, Kelly A; Gibson, James; Fudge, Melissa A; Kavaliers, Martin; Cain, Donald P; Macfabe, Derrick F

    2012-02-01

    Propionic acid, an enteric bacterial fermentation product, has received recent attention in regards to satiety and obesity in humans. The possibility that propionic acid might produce internal aversive cues was investigated in two experiments using conditioned taste avoidance and place avoidance procedures to index the potential aversive nature of systemic treatment with propionic acid in male rats. Experiment 1 examined the effect of systemic treatment with propionic acid (500 mg/kg), LiCl (95 mg/kg) or vehicle (all corrected to pH 7.5) on the formation of conditioned taste avoidance using a lickometer procedure. On 3 acquisition days three groups of rats were injected with propionic acid, LiCl or vehicle, following 30 min access to 0.3M sucrose solution. Both the Propionic acid group and the LiCl group evidenced a conditioned taste avoidance by the end of the acquisition period. During a drug free extinction phase the Propionic acid group showed extinction of the taste avoidance whereas the LiCl group did not. Experiment 2 involved place preference conditioning with propionic acid treatment associated with one novel context and vehicle with a different novel context on 6 conditioning trials for each type of injection. Place avoidance was assessed on two drug free extinction trials. Multi-variable assessment of the unconditioned (Acquisition Trials) and conditioned effects (Extinction Trials) of propionic acid on locomotor activity was quantified as was chamber choice time on the extinction trials. Propionic acid induced a significant place avoidance and significantly reduced locomotor activity on some acquisition trials. During the extinction trials rats exhibited enhanced locomotor activity levels in the propionic acid associated chamber, likely due to the conditioned aversive nature of this chamber.

  6. Role of low molecular weight organic acids on pyrite dissolution in aqueous systems: implications for catalytic chromium (VI) treatment.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study combining batch experiments with spectroscopic analyses was carried out to better understand the effects of various organic acids on pyrite dissolution and subsequent Cr(VI) removal in aqueous systems. Our results suggest that organic acids had no effect on total Fe dissolution from pyrite relative to systems containing no acid. However, while nearly 100% of total Fe dissolved from pyrite was in Fe(II) form in the absence of ligands, the addition of organic acids led to significant oxidation of Fe(II) species to Fe(III). The degree and extent of Fe(II) oxidation increased in the order: tartrate < salicylate < oxalate ≈ citrate < EDTA. Except for salicylate (an aromatic compound), this stimulatory effect observed in Fe(II) oxidation was well correlated with the strength of Fe-ligand complexes. In systems containing Cr(VI), the amount of Fe dissolved increased significantly relative to non-Cr(VI) containing system, and the ligands enhanced the dissolution of surface oxidation products from pyrite. Overall, it is clear that the dissolution of pyrite with organic acids had very little effect on solution phase Cr(VI) removal, but significantly stimulated surface phase Cr(VI) reduction by removing surface oxidation products, and thus creating new surface sites for extended Cr(VI) removal.

  7. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  8. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please fill ... This is an amino acid that helps remove ammonia from the blood. Babies with HCY may need ...

  9. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  10. A bioabsorbable delivery system for antibiotic treatment of osteomyelitis. The use of lactic acid oligomer as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Wei, G; Kotoura, Y; Oka, M; Yamamuro, T; Wada, R; Hyon, S H; Ikada, Y

    1991-03-01

    We prepared a composite of D,L-lactic acid oligomer and dideoxykanamycin B for use as a biodegradable antibiotic delivery system with sustained effect. The composite was implanted in the distal portion of the rabbit femur, and the effective concentration of the antibiotic was measured in the cortex, the cancellous bone, and the bone marrow. In all bone tissues around the implant, the concentration of antibiotic exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration for the common causative organisms of osteomyelitis for six weeks. Most of the implant material had been absorbed and the bone marrow had been repaired to a nearly normal state within nine weeks of implantation. The implant caused no systemic side effects, and it is likely to prove clinically useful as a drug delivery system for treating chronic osteomyelitis.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify methylmalonic acid in urine. The identification of methylmalonic acid in urine is used in the diagnosis and treatment...

  12. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    PubMed

    Zgonc, David; Baideme, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  13. Characterization of limestone reacted with acid-mine drainage in a pulsed limestone bed treatment system at the Friendship Hill National Historical Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Sibrell, P.L.; Belkin, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    Armoring of limestone is a common cause of failure in limestone-based acid-mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems. Limestone is the least expensive material available for acid neutralization, but is not typically recommended for highly acidic, Fe-rich waters due to armoring with Fe(III) oxyhydroxide coatings. A new AMD treatment technology that uses CO2 in a pulsed limestone bed reactor minimizes armor formation and enhances limestone reaction with AMD. Limestone was characterized before and after treatment with constant flow and with the new pulsed limestone bed process using AMD from an inactive coal mine in Pennsylvania (pH = 2.9, Fe = 150 mg/l, acidity = 1000 mg/l CaCO3). In constant flow experiments, limestone is completely armored with reddish-colored ochre within 48 h of contact in a fluidized bed reactor. Effluent pH initially increased from the inflow pH of 2.9 to over 7, but then decreased to 6 during operation. Limestone removed from a pulsed bed pilot plant is a mixture of unarmored, rounded and etched limestone grains and partially armored limestone and refractory mineral grains (dolomite, pyrite). The ???30% of the residual grains in the pulsed flow reactor that are armored have thicker (50- to 100-??m), more aluminous coatings and lack the gypsum rind that develops in the constant flow experiment. Aluminium-rich zones developed in the interior parts of armor rims in both the constant flow and pulsed limestone bed experiments in response to pH changes at the solid/solution interface. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acid peptic diseases: pharmacological approach to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Alex; Kraft, Walter K

    2011-01-01

    Acid peptic disorders are the result of distinctive, but overlapping pathogenic mechanisms leading to either excessive acid secretion or diminished mucosal defense. They are common entities present in daily clinical practice that, owing to their chronicity, represent a significant cost to healthcare. Key elements in the success of controlling these entities have been the development of potent and safe drugs based on physiological targets. The histamine-2 receptor antagonists revolutionized the treatment of acid peptic disorders owing to their safety and efficacy profile. The proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent a further therapeutic advance due to more potent inhibition of acid secretion. Ample data from clinical trials and observational experience have confirmed the utility of these agents in the treatment of acid peptic diseases, with differential efficacy and safety characteristics between and within drug classes. Paradigms in their speed and duration of action have underscored the need for new chemical entities that, from a single dose, would provide reliable duration of acid control, particularly at night. Moreover, PPIs reduce, but do not eliminate, the risk of ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs, reflecting untargeted physiopathologic pathways and a breach in the ability to sustain an intragastric pH of more than 4. This review provides an assessment of the current understanding of the physiology of acid production, a discussion of medications targeting gastric acid production and a review of efficacy in specific acid peptic diseases, as well as current challenges and future directions in the treatment of acid-mediated diseases. PMID:21822447

  15. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  16. Growth and fatty acid characterization of microalgae isolated from municipal waste-treatment systems and the potential role of algal-associated bacteria in feedstock production

    PubMed Central

    Stemmler, Kevin; Massimi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Much research has focused on growing microalgae for biofuel feedstock, yet there remain concerns about the feasibility of freshwater feedstock systems. To reduce cost and improve environmental sustainability, an ideal microalgal feedstock system would be fed by municipal, agricultural or industrial wastewater as a main source of water and nutrients. Nonetheless, the microalgae must also be tolerant of fluctuating wastewater quality, while still producing adequate biomass and lipid yields. To address this problem, our study focused on isolating and characterizing microalgal strains from three municipal wastewater treatment systems (two activated sludge and one aerated-stabilization basin systems) for their potential use in biofuel feedstock production. Most of the 19 isolates from wastewater grew faster than two culture collection strains under mixotrophic conditions, particularly with glucose. The fastest growing wastewater strains included the genera Chlorella and Dictyochloris. The fastest growing microalgal strains were not necessarily the best lipid producers. Under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions, single strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus each produced the highest lipid yields, including those most relevant to biodiesel production. A comparison of axenic and non-axenic versions of wastewater strains showed a notable effect of commensal bacteria on fatty acid composition. Strains grown with bacteria tended to produce relatively equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an ideal lipid blend for biodiesel production. These results not only show the potential for using microalgae isolated from wastewater for growth in wastewater-fed feedstock systems, but also the important role that commensal bacteria may have in impacting the fatty acid profiles of microalgal feedstock. PMID:26989618

  17. [Injection treatment with hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Jerosch, J

    2015-11-01

    This article presents the spectrum of indications for the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) based on the recommendations of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI), the International Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) taking the reality of patient care in Europe into account.

  18. Tumor-targeted Chlorotoxin-coupled Nanoparticles for Nucleic Acid Delivery to Glioblastoma Cells: A Promising System for Glioblastoma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Pedro M; Cardoso, Ana L; Mendonça, Liliana S; Serani, Angelo; Custódia, Carlos; Conceição, Mariana; Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João N; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed at the development and application of a lipid-based nanocarrier for targeted delivery of nucleic acids to glioblastoma (GBM). For this purpose, chlorotoxin (CTX), a peptide reported to bind selectively to glioma cells while showing no affinity for non-neoplastic cells, was covalently coupled to liposomes encapsulating antisense oligonucleotides (asOs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The resulting targeted nanoparticles, designated CTX-coupled stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs), exhibited excellent features for in vivo application, namely small size (<180 nm) and neutral surface charge. Cellular association and internalization studies revealed that attachment of CTX onto the liposomal surface enhanced particle internalization into glioma cells, whereas no significant internalization was observed in noncancer cells. Moreover, nanoparticle-mediated miR-21 silencing in U87 human GBM and GL261 mouse glioma cells resulted in increased levels of the tumor suppressors PTEN and PDCD4, caspase 3/7 activation and decreased tumor cell proliferation. Preliminary in vivo studies revealed that CTX enhances particle internalization into established intracranial tumors. Overall, our results indicate that the developed targeted nanoparticles represent a valuable tool for targeted nucleic acid delivery to cancer cells. Combined with a drug-based therapy, nanoparticle-mediated miR-21 silencing constitutes a promising multimodal therapeutic approach towards GBM. PMID:23778499

  19. Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinmann, Robert L. P.

    1990-03-01

    During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines. Biological treatment of mine waste water is typically conducted in a series of small excavated ponds that resemble, in a superficial way, a small marsh area. The ponds are engineered to first facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron; ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate that supports a population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter process raises the pH. During the past four years, over 400 wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands as a result of research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In general, mine operators find that the wetlands reduce chemical treatment costs enough to repay the cost of wetland construction in less than a year. Actual rates of iron removal at field sites have been used to develop empirical sizing criteria based on iron loading and pH. If the pH is 6 or above, the wetland area (m2) required is equivalent to the iron load (grams/day) divided by 10. Theis requirement doubles at a pH of 4 to 5. At a pH below 4, the iron load (grams/day) should be divided by 2 to estimate the area required (m2).

  20. Influence of heat treatment in air, and subsequent hydrothermal treatment in the liquid phase or water treatment in the liquid phase on a mixed Langmuir-Blodgett film of merocyanine dye-arachidic acid- n-octadecane ternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiaki; Maio, Ari; Fukuda, Akira; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2010-07-01

    We have investigated the influence of heat treatment in air (HT), and subsequent hydrothermal treatment in the liquid phase (HTTL) or water treatment in the liquid phase (WTL) on the H-aggregate of mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of merocyanine dye (MS 18)-arachidic acid (C 20)- n-octadecane (AL 18) ternary system by means of polarized visible and IR absorption spectroscopy. The MS 18 monomer is obtained from the first application of HT to the H-aggregate, and the monomer rapidly changes into the J-aggregate upon subsequent HTTL. This demonstrates variation via the monomer for reorganization of the MS 18 chromophore from H- to J-aggregates induced by directly performing HTTL to the H-aggregate in our previous study. While the number of gauche conformers in the MS 18 hydrocarbon chain increases by initial HT, the hydrocarbon chain adopts an all- trans conformation after subsequent HTTL. In addition, the degree of orientation of the MS 18 hydrocarbon chain after HT also approximates to that before HT. The C 20 hexagonal packing after HT turns to orthorhombic one with subsequent HTTL, and the orientation disorder of C 20 hydrocarbon chain caused by HT is renovated as well. The structural changes in the MS 18 and C 20 hydrocarbon chains resulting from latter HTTL arise from the hydrophobic effect in the presence of warm water. Moreover, it has been verified that the AL 18 evaporation strongly relates to the dissociation of H-aggregate, but is not responsible for the variation from the monomer to J-aggregate. Comparing the results obtained upon application of HT/HTTL and HT/WTL, it has been concluded that both large relative permittivity and thermal energy inherent in warm water are quite essential in inducing the rapid reconstitution of MS 18 aggregation state from the monomer to J-aggregate. These also promote the restoration of conformation and orientation changes in the MS 18 hydrocarbon chain, and the modification of subcell packing and orientation disorder in

  1. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  2. Systemic treatment of hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    del Boz, J

    2015-05-01

    Until quite recently, clinical guidelines and reviews on the treatment of hyperhidrosis advised against the use of systemic therapies based on their unacceptable adverse effects and a lack of evidence of usefulness. Numerous studies published over the past few years, however, have shown that, when used appropriately, these treatments are effective and in general have a favorable tolerability profile, making them an additional option for the treatment of hyperhidrosis, particularly for disease that is widespread, multifocal, or resistant to other treatments. In this review, the first of its kind, we examine the systemic therapies available for hyperhidrosis, including antihypertensives, psychoactive agents, and in particular oral anticholinergics, although none of these drugs are currently approved for this indication.

  3. Regulation of the plasma amino acid profile by leucine via the system L amino acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Hongmin; Nakamura, Koichi; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuya; Kondo, Yusuke; Xu, Minjun; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of amino acids reflect the intracellular amino acid pool in mammals. However, the regulatory mechanism requires clarification. In this study, we examined the effect of leucine administration on plasma amino acid profiles in mice with and without the treatment of 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) or rapamycin as an inhibitor of system L or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, respectively. The elevation of plasma leucine concentration after leucine administration was associated with a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; BCH treatment almost completely blocked the leucine-induced decrease in plasma amino acid concentrations. Rapamycin treatment had much less effects on the actions of leucine than BCH treatment. These results suggest that leucine regulates the plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, and that system L amino acid transporters are involved in the leucine action.

  4. [Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M; Passi, S; Picardo, M; Breathnach, A S; Zina, G

    1989-04-01

    This review is an update of the literature accumulated over the past 6 years following the original observation that topically applied azelaic acid, a non-toxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, has a beneficial therapeutic effect on acne vulgaris. These studies have shown that azelaic acid has a modulating influence on the process of keratinization, and that it acts as a keratolytic and anti-comedogenic agent. There is evidence that it inhibits mitochondrial and microsomal oxido-reductases, including 5-alpha-reductase, and that it may interfere with the process of sebogenesis. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial activity, both in vitro and in vivo, against aerobic microorganisms and is effective against the anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes. Extensive multi-centre clinical trials have established that topical azelaic acid (a 20% cream) is an effective treatment for all types of acne. It compares well with other agents, such as topical tretinoin or benzoyl-peroxide, or oral tetracycline. It is non-irritant, and does not give rise to allergic or photo-toxic reactions. Its use is not associated with teratogenicity, possible endocrine unbalance, or the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment. It can be applied for long periods, in recurrences, and as maintenance "spot" therapy against individual lesions.

  5. Ionic complex systems based on hyaluronic acid and PEGylated TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jeong; Chae, Su Young; Jin, Cheng-Hao; Sivasubramanian, M; Son, Sohee; Choi, Ki Young; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Chan Kwon, Ick; Lee, Kang Choon; Park, Jae Hyung

    2010-12-01

    The clinical applications of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), an emerging therapeutic protein for cancer and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are limited by its instability and short biological half-life. In this study, efficient therapeutic modalities for RA treatment were developed in the form of nano-sized complexes (nanocomplexes) based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-derivatized TRAIL (PEG-TRAIL) formed by N-terminal specific PEGylation. The nanocomplexes were prepared by simply mixing the positively charged PEG-TRAIL and negatively charged HA, and showed negligible loss of bioactivity compared with the PEG-TRAIL. The in vivo biodistribution and diffusion kinetics of Cy5.5-labeled PEG-TRAIL in mice were observed using a near-infrared optical imaging system after subcutaneous injection of three different formulations: PEG-TRAIL in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), nanocomplex in PBS, or nanocomplex in 1% HA solution. The results suggested that PEG-TRAIL is released slowly in vivo from the nanocomplex in 1% HA. Experiments in a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model demonstrated that the magnitudes of therapeutic effects, as judged by clinical scores and histology, were significantly enhanced by the sustained delivery of PEG-TRAIL, with the order of nanocomplex in 1% HA>nanocomplex in PBS>PEG-TRAIL in PBS. In addition, sustained delivery of PEG-TRAIL from the nanocomplex in 1% HA resulted in significant reduction of serum inflammatory cytokines and collagen-specific antibodies that are responsible for the pathogenesis of RA. These results imply that HA/PEG-TRAIL nanocomplex formulations are promising therapeutic modalities for the treatment of RA.

  6. Nucleic acid based logical systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2014-05-12

    Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.

  7. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented.

  8. Treatment of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Medsger, T A

    1991-01-01

    Proper classification of patients into diffuse cutaneous and limited cutaneous subsets and the anticipation of complications are the keys to the management of subjects with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Patients with early diffuse disease and rapidly progressive skin thickening are at highest risk of developing serious disease of the internal organs (intestine, lung, heart, kidney) and should be considered for disease modifying treatment. The targets of the disease and sites of possible intervention are vascular endothelium (vasoprotective agents), mononuclear cell subsets (immunosuppressive agents), and fibroblasts (colchicine, D-penicillamine). A number of new agents with sound scientific rationale are currently undergoing therapeutic trials. Much can be done to improve the lifestyle of those with scleroderma. The most dramatic recent development is the ability to reverse kidney disease by the prompt use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and modern methods of renal dialysis and transplantation. Scleroderma is not a hopeless disease. PMID:1750801

  9. From highly polluted Zn-rich acid mine drainage to non-metallic waters: implementation of a multi-step alkaline passive treatment system to remediate metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Rötting, Tobias S; Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Complete metal removal from highly-polluted acid mine drainage was attained by the use of a pilot multi-step passive remediation system. The remediation strategy employed can conceptually be subdivided into a first section where the complete trivalent metal removal was achieved by the employment of a previously tested limestone-based passive remediation technology followed by the use of a novel reactive substrate (caustic magnesia powder dispersed in a wood shavings matrix) obtaining a total divalent metal precipitation. This MgO-step was capable to abate high concentrations of Zn together with Mn, Cd, Co and Ni below the recommended limits for drinking waters. A reactive transport model anticipates that 1 m(3) of MgO-DAS (1 m thick × 1 m(2) section) would be able to treat a flow of 0.5 L/min of a highly acidic water (total acidity of 788 mg/L CaCO(3)) for more than 3 years.

  10. Novel integrated mechanical biological chemical treatment (MBCT) systems for the production of levulinic acid from fraction of municipal solid waste: A comprehensive techno-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Ng, Kok Siew; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2016-09-01

    This paper, for the first time, reports integrated conceptual MBCT/biorefinery systems for unlocking the value of organics in municipal solid waste (MSW) through the production of levulinic acid (LA by 5wt%) that increases the economic margin by 110-150%. After mechanical separation recovering recyclables, metals (iron, aluminium, copper) and refuse derived fuel (RDF), lignocelluloses from remaining MSW are extracted by supercritical-water for chemical valorisation, comprising hydrolysis in 2wt% dilute H2SO4 catalyst producing LA, furfural, formic acid (FA), via C5/C6 sugar extraction, in plug flow (210-230°C, 25bar, 12s) and continuous stirred tank (195-215°C, 14bar, 20min) reactors; char separation and LA extraction/purification by methyl isobutyl ketone solvent; acid/solvent and by-product recovery. The by-product and pulping effluents are anaerobically digested into biogas and fertiliser. Produced biogas (6.4MWh/t), RDF (5.4MWh/t), char (4.5MWh/t) are combusted, heat recovered into steam generation in boiler (efficiency: 80%); on-site heat/steam demand is met; balance of steam is expanded into electricity in steam turbines (efficiency: 35%).

  11. Jasmonic acid treatment to part of the root system is consistent with simulated leaf herbivory, diverting recently assimilated carbon towards untreated roots within an hour.

    PubMed

    Henkes, Gunnar Jakob; Thorpe, Michael R; Minchin, Peter E H; Schurr, Ulrich; Röse, Ursula S R

    2008-09-01

    It is known that shoot application of jasmonic acid (JA) leads to an increased carbon export from leaves to stem and roots, and that root treatment with JA inhibits root growth. Using the radioisotope (11)C, we measured JA effects on carbon partitioning in sterile, split-root, barley plants. JA applied to one root half reduced carbon partitioning to the JA-treated tissue within minutes, whereas the untreated side showed a corresponding--but slower--increase. This response was not observed when instead of applying JA, the sink strength of one root half was reduced by cooling it: there was no enhanced partitioning to the untreated roots. The slower response in the JA-untreated roots, and the difference between the effect of JA and temperature, suggest that root JA treatment caused transduction of a signal from the treated roots to the shoot, leading to an increase in carbon allocation from the leaves to the untreated root tissue, as was indeed observed 10 min after the shoot application of JA. This supports the hypothesis that the response of some plant species to both leaf and root herbivores may be the diversion of resources to safer locations.

  12. Lignor process for acidic rock drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T

    2004-09-01

    The process using lignosulfonates for acidic rock drainage (ARD) treatment is referred to as the Lignor process. Lignosulfonates are waste by-products produced in the sulfite pulping process. The present study has shown lignosulfonates are able to protect lime from developing an external surface coating, and hence to favor its dissociation. Further, the addition of lignosulfonates to ARD solutions increased the dotting and settling rate of the formed sludge. The capability of lignosulfonates to form stable metal-lignin complexes makes them very useful in retaining metal ions and thus improving the long-term stability of the sludge against leaching. The Lignor process involves metal sorption with lignosulfonates, ARD neutralization by lime to about pH 7, pH adjustment with caustic soda to 9.4 - 9.6, air oxidation to lower the pH to a desired level, and addition of a minimum amount of FeCl3 for further removal of dissolved metals. The Lignor process removes all concerned metals (especially Al and Mn) from the ARD of the Britannia Mine (located at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada) to a level lower than the limits of the B.C. Regulations. Compared with the high-density sludge (HDS) process, the Lignor process has many advantages, such as considerable savings in lime consumption, greatly reduced sludge volume, and improved sludge stability.

  13. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye syndrome: A myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Al Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is a common condition that can severely impair the quality of life. Systemic and topical omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids have been used as treatment for patients with dry eye disease and showed promising results. Further multicenter randomized controlled trials are required in order to establish a standardized protocol for the treatment of dry eye syndrome with those essential fatty acids. PMID:25278796

  14. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue.

  15. [PREPARATIONS OF PAMIDRONOVIC ACID IN COMPLEX TREATMENT ON OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA].

    PubMed

    Zyma, A M; Guk, Yu M; Magomedov, O M; Gayko, O G; Kincha-Polishchuk, T A

    2015-07-01

    Modern view of drug therapy in the complex treatment of orthopedic manifestations of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was submitted. Developed and tested system of drug correction of structural and functional state of bone tissue (BT) using drugs pamidronovic acid, depending on osteoporosis severity and type of disease. Such therapy is appropriate to apply both independently and in conjunction with surgery to correct deformations of long bones of the lower extremities. Effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods of drug therapy was proved, most patients resume features walking and support.

  16. Highly efficient and stable Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 electrode for mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid in a sequential treatment system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zesheng; Yu, Yanxin; Liu, Han; Niu, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 (Zr-PbO2) film electrodes were prepared at different bath temperatures. The Zr-PbO2 electrode doped at 75°C (75-Zr-PbO2) featured high oxygen evolution overpotential, large effective area and good electrocatalytic performance. The oxygen evolution potential and the effective area of 75-Zr-PbO2 achieved 1.91V (vs. SCE) and 9.1cm(2), respectively. The removal efficiency and the defluorination ratio of PFOA reached 97.0% and 88.1% after 90min electrolysis. The primary mineralization products (i.e., F(-) and intermediates) and their change trends were determined. The 75-Zr-PbO2 electrode was introduced to sequentially treat the PFOA wastewater. In an 116h of 75-Zr-PbO2 electrocatalysis sequential process, the PFOA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA, PFBA, PFPrA, TFA, and TOC concentrations were reduced to below 30, 2.5, 1.3, 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, and 9mgL(-1), respectively, demonstrating the promising application of the sequential treatment system for the treatment of PFOA wastewater.

  17. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  18. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  19. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, BS; Ashwini, KR; Vasanth, Vani; Navale, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA) combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron's global scarring grading system (GSGS), before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars. PMID:25821727

  20. Expert systems help design cementing and acidizing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Onan, D.D.; Kulakofsky, D.; Van Domelen, M.S.; Ford, W.G.F. )

    1993-04-19

    Knowledge-based expert information systems can help train less-experienced designers and orient seasoned designers at new locations. These systems are playing an increased role in completion and production operations. Expert systems help: design treatments based on an accumulation of knowledge from experts; provide technical information and guidelines on the proper use of additives; and serve as a training tool for less-experienced personnel. The paper describes expert systems design; practical applications; and details about a cement job and acidizing.

  1. Open-label evaluation of a novel skin brightening system containing 0.01% decapeptide-12 in combination with 20% buffered glycolic acid for the treatment of mild to moderate facial melasma.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Sandra P; Carvajal, Alfonso C; Salazar, Juan C; Arroyave, Gladys; Flórez, Ana M; Echeverry, Hector F

    2013-06-01

    Melasma is a cutaneous disorder that primarily affects females of Hispanic and Asian descent. Previous studies have shown that use of a brightening system comprised of 0.01% decapeptide-12 cream, an antioxidant cleanser, a 20% buffered glycolic acid lotion, and a broad spectrum SPF 30 sunscreen yields good clearance of mild-to-moderate melasma in Caucasian and Asian volunteers. The present open-label, prospective, and multicenter study sought to determine the tolerability and efficacy of the above-mentioned brightening system on mild-to-moderate melasma in 33 Hispanic females over 16 weeks. Clinical measures included self-assessment of tolerability, clinical grading, determination of Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores, and standardized clinical photography. Results showed that the system was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. Mean decreases of 36%, 46%, 54%, and 60% in MASI scores were observed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16, respectively, which were further corroborated by standardized photography showing visible reduction in the appearance of melasma. Results suggest that the brightening system consisting of 0.01% decapeptide-12 cream, an antioxidant cleanser, 20% buffered glycolic acid lotion, and broad spectrum SPF 30 sunscreen is safe and efficacious for the treatment of mild-to-moderate melasma in Hispanic females.

  2. [Hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute valproic acid intoxication].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Sánchez, R J; Peces, C; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid is increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed for bipolar affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia and migraine prophylaxis. Valproic acid intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, pancytopenia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively low molecular weight, small volume of distribution and saturable protein-binding render it potentially amenable to exracorporeal removal (hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or hemofiltration ), but published experience is scarce. We describe a case report involving valproic acid intoxication with ingestion of ethanol, who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of valproic acid was reduced with rapid lowering of valproic acid levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious valproic acid intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique.

  3. 15. INTERIOR MIDDLE BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING WEST. ACID TREATMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR MIDDLE BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING WEST. ACID TREATMENT, CUTTING EQUIPMENT, LOCKERS ABANDONED ON SITE. TRACKS FOR MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS VISIBLE HANGING FROM CEILING. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  5. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in treatment of atopic dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarski, Maciej; Sawicka-Żukowska, Małgorzata; Bobrus-Chociej, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Some recent studies indicate that unsaturated fatty acids, components of cellular membranes and precursors of immunomodulators, play a significant role in the pathogenesis of some symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Since they cannot be synthesized by the human body, they must be provided with nutrition as the so called exogenous fatty acids: linoleic (a precursor of arachidonic acid) and α-linolenic acid (a precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)). Their deficiency facilitates the development of some disorders, e.g. of the cardiovascular system or of the nervous system, or becomes the cause of intensification of ailments in their course e.g. pruritus and dryness in atopic dermatitis. Though clinical examinations to date confirm the efficacy of fatty acid supplementation in treatment of atopic dermatitis, their results are not explicit. PMID:24278056

  6. Intra-Articular Injections of Platelet-Rich Plasma versus Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial in the Context of the Spanish National Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Montañez-Heredia, Elvira; Irízar, Sofia; Huertas, Pedro J.; Otero, Esperanza; del Valle, Marta; Prat, Isidro; Díaz-Gallardo, Macarena S.; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A.; Hernandez-Lamas, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been established as a suitable treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Here, we present a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, conducted in a public Hospital of the Spanish National Health Care System, to evaluate the efficacy of injecting autologous PRP versus hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis. PRP was manufactured in Malaga’s Regional Blood Center (Spain). Patients that met the eligibility criteria were randomized into a PRP group or a HA group. Pain and functional improvements were assessed pre- and post-treatment (three and six months follow-up) using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the Knee and Osteoarthritis Outcome System (KOOS) scale and the European Quality of Life scale (EUROQOL). Both groups presented pain reduction at six months. The VAS scores for the PRP group improved by at least 50% from their initial value, particularly at three months following the final infiltration, with results resembling those of the HA group at six months. PRP was more effective in patients with lower osteoarthritis grades. Both treatments improved pain in knee osteoarthritis patients without statistically significant differences between them. However, PRP injection was proved to improve pain three months after the final infiltration and to be more effective in lower osteoarthritis grades. PMID:27384560

  7. Intra-Articular Injections of Platelet-Rich Plasma versus Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial in the Context of the Spanish National Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Montañez-Heredia, Elvira; Irízar, Sofia; Huertas, Pedro J; Otero, Esperanza; Del Valle, Marta; Prat, Isidro; Díaz-Gallardo, Macarena S; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A; Hernandez-Lamas, María Del Carmen

    2016-07-02

    Intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been established as a suitable treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Here, we present a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, conducted in a public Hospital of the Spanish National Health Care System, to evaluate the efficacy of injecting autologous PRP versus hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis. PRP was manufactured in Malaga's Regional Blood Center (Spain). Patients that met the eligibility criteria were randomized into a PRP group or a HA group. Pain and functional improvements were assessed pre- and post-treatment (three and six months follow-up) using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the Knee and Osteoarthritis Outcome System (KOOS) scale and the European Quality of Life scale (EUROQOL). Both groups presented pain reduction at six months. The VAS scores for the PRP group improved by at least 50% from their initial value, particularly at three months following the final infiltration, with results resembling those of the HA group at six months. PRP was more effective in patients with lower osteoarthritis grades. Both treatments improved pain in knee osteoarthritis patients without statistically significant differences between them. However, PRP injection was proved to improve pain three months after the final infiltration and to be more effective in lower osteoarthritis grades.

  8. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Gelinda; Kettle, Christine; Hayes, David; Dennis, Christina; Tucci, Joseph

    2017-01-02

    Depression is a common, recurrent, and debilitating illness that has become more prevalent over the past 100 years. This report reviews the etiology and pathophysiology of depression, and explores the role of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as a possible treatment. In seeking to understand depression, genetic factors and environmental influences have been extensively investigated. Research has led to several hypotheses for the pathophysiological basis of depression but a definitive pathogenic mechanism, or group thereof, has hitherto remained equivocal. To date, treatment has been based on the monoamine hypothesis and hence, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been the most widely used class of medication. In the last decade, there has been considerable interest in n-3 PUFAs and their role in depression. These fatty acids are critical for development and function of the central nervous system. Increasing evidence from epidemiological, laboratory, and randomized placebo-controlled trials suggests deficiency of dietary n-3 PUFAs may contribute to development of mood disorders, and supplementation with n-3 PUFAs may provide a new treatment option. Conclusions based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of published trials to date vary. Research into the effects of n-3 PUFAs on depressed mood is limited. Furthermore, results from such have led to conflicting conclusions regarding the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs in affecting reduction in symptoms of depression. PUFAs are generally well tolerated by adults and children although mild gastrointestinal effects are reported. There is mounting evidence to suggest that n-3 PUFAs play a role in depression and deserve greater research efforts.

  9. Bioelectrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage dominated with iron.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Neculita, Carmen M; Yue, Xiaodi; Ng, How Yong

    2012-11-30

    Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) dominated with iron (Fe), the most common metal, is a long-term expensive commitment, the goal of which is to increase the pH and remove Fe. In the present study, a proton exchange membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) showed promise for the efficient treatment of an AMD dominated with ferric iron (pH 2.4±0.1; 500 mg L(-1) Fe(3+)). Briefly, Fe(3+) was reduced to Fe(2+) at the cathode of the MFC, followed by Fe(2+) re-oxidation and precipitation as oxy(hydroxi)des. Oxygen reduction and cation transfer to the cathode of the MFC further caused a rise in pH. A linear relationship was observed between the charge transferred in the MFC and the performance of the system up to 880 C. Optimal conditions were found at a charge of 662 C, achieved within 7 d at an acetate concentration of 1.6 g L(-1) in a membrane MFC. This caused the pH to rise to 7.9 and resulted in a Fe removal of 99%. Treated effluent met the pH discharge limits of 6.5-9. The maximum power generation achieved under these conditions averaged 8.6±2.3 W m(-3), which could help reduce the costs of full-scale bioelectrochemical treatment of AMD dominated with Fe.

  10. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya K.; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K.; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid. PMID:27733857

  11. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya K; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid.

  12. Polysulfone affinity membranes for the treatment of amino acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodemann, K; Staude, E

    1995-06-20

    Affinity membranes for the treatment of solutions containing amino acids were obtained via lithiating polysulfone that was subsequently converted with glycidylether. From this polymer asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes were cast. The membranes were reacted with iminodiacetic acid yielding membranes fitted out with bidentate chelates. The same reaction path was applied to commercially available symmetric microfiltration membranes. The chelate-bearing membranes were complexed with Cu, Ni, and Zn ions. For the experiments with amino acids only the Cu-complexed membranes were used. The complexation constants for histidine and tryptophan for six different membranes were determined. Because of the affinity of these two amino acids for the complexed Cu ions, they could easily be separated from solutions containing amino acids such as alanine, glycine, and valine. Also, concentrating very dilute amino acid solutions was carried out successfully.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base status... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base status... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base status... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section 862.1450....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1450 - Lactic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid test system. 862.1450 Section 862.1450....1450 Lactic acid test system. (a) Identification. A lactic acid test system is a device intended to measure lactic acid in whole blood and plasma. Lactic acid measurements that evaluate the acid-base...

  18. UV Treatment for Small Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Environmental Education, Conservation and Research (CECIA) at InterAmerican University of Puerto Rico (IAUPR) has organized the 10th CECIA-IAUPR Biennial Symposium on Potable Water Issues in Puerto Rico. This presentation on UV Treatment for Small Systems will be ...

  19. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%.

  20. Levulinic acid production by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica using dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hanseob; Jang, Soo-Kyeong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Soo Min; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, In-Gyu

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce a levulinic acid by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica and to investigate the effect of treatment parameter (reaction temperature range: 100-230°C; sulfuric acid (SA) concentration range: 0-2%) on the levulinic acid yield. After 1(st) step acid-catalyzed treatment, most of the hemicellulosic C5 sugars (15.6gg/100gbiomass) were released into the liquid hydrolysate at the reaction temperature of 150°C in 1% SA; the solid fraction, which contained 53.5% of the C6 sugars, was resistant to further loss of C6 sugars. Subsequently, 2(nd) step acid-catalyzed treatment of the solid fractions was performed under more severe conditions. Finally, 16.5g/100g biomass of levulinic acid was produced at the reaction temperature of 200°C in 2% SA, corresponding to a higher conversion rate than during single-step treatment.

  1. Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2014-05-15

    This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents.

  2. Ethylene Evolution following Treatment with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid and Ethephon in an in Vitro Olive Shoot System in Relation to Leaf Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Lavee, S.; Martin, George C.

    1981-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) supplied via the cut base of detached olive shoots caused a burst of ethylene from leaves, but other cyclopropanes tested did not exhibit this effect. Ethephon (ET) and another ethylene-releasing compound caused a prolonged increase in ethylene evolution. ACC had only a very limited effect on leaf abscission regardless of concentration, whereas shoots placed with cut bases in ET for 60 to 80 minutes exhibited 100% leaf abscission within 90 hours. Shoots with inflorescences treated with ET just prior to anthesis began to wilt in vitro within 20 to 30 hours and failed to exhibit leaf abscission. At earlier stages of development, ET induced more leaf abscission on reproductive shoots than on vegetative shoots. It is suggested that the duration of ethylene evolution from the leaves governs their potential for abscission and that bursts of ethylene evolution even though large in amount may not induce abscission. Images PMID:16661837

  3. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Y; Ohtsuka, Y; Shimizu, T; Nittono, H; Urao, M; Miyano, T; Kawakami, S; Hayasawa, H

    1994-03-01

    To assess whether ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment has any beneficial effect on essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in patients who have had a Kasai operation for extrahepatic atresia (EBA), responses of serum fatty acids to UDCA administration (15 mg/kg/d) were investigated in eight jaundice-free patients and in eight patients with jaundice (serum total bilirubin > or = 1.0 mg/dL). All patients were also given taurine supplementation (100 mg/kg/d). Serum fatty acid composition was determined before and 6 months after UDCA treatment. Serum total bile acid concentration and serum total bilirubin value, as a part of conventional liver function tests, were measured before and during UDCA therapy. Before UDCA treatment, the concentrations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly lower (P > .05 for the former; P > .01 for the latter) in both the jaundice and jaundice-free groups than in the controls. After 6 months of treatment, the linoleic acid concentration significantly increased (P > .05), to the normal range, in the jaundice-free group, but not in the jaundice group. The arachidonic acid concentration did not increase significantly in either group. The serum total bile acid concentration was lower in six of the eight jaundice-free patients and in four of the eight jaundice patients. The serum total bilirubin value decreased in six of the eight jaundice-free patients and in four of the eight jaundice patients; however, the degree of improvement was not statistically significant in either group. No side effects developed, and there were no changes in blood chemistry values unrelated to liver disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOEpatents

    Ludwig, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  5. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-12-21

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  6. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-08-17

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  7. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Faghihi, Gita; Saraeian, Sara; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen) were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001) in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09). None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid – treated patients (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects. PMID:27904577

  8. Acid sensing by the Drosophila olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Minrong; Min, Soohong; Grosjean, Yael; Leblanc, Charlotte; Bell, Rati; Benton, Richard; Suh, Greg S B

    2010-12-02

    The odour of acids has a distinct quality that is perceived as sharp, pungent and often irritating. How acidity is sensed and translated into an appropriate behavioural response is poorly understood. Here we describe a functionally segregated population of olfactory sensory neurons in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, that are highly selective for acidity. These olfactory sensory neurons express IR64a, a member of the recently identified ionotropic receptor (IR) family of putative olfactory receptors. In vivo calcium imaging showed that IR64a+ neurons projecting to the DC4 glomerulus in the antennal lobe are specifically activated by acids. Flies in which the function of IR64a+ neurons or the IR64a gene is disrupted had defects in acid-evoked physiological and behavioural responses, but their responses to non-acidic odorants remained unaffected. Furthermore, artificial stimulation of IR64a+ neurons elicited avoidance responses. Taken together, these results identify cellular and molecular substrates for acid detection in the Drosophila olfactory system and support a labelled-line mode of acidity coding at the periphery.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295....1295 Folic acid test system. (a) Identification. A folic acid test system is a device intended to measure the vitamin folic acid in plasma and serum. Folic acid measurements are used in the diagnosis...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295....1295 Folic acid test system. (a) Identification. A folic acid test system is a device intended to measure the vitamin folic acid in plasma and serum. Folic acid measurements are used in the diagnosis...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  13. Free amino acids: an innovative treatment for ocular surface disease.

    PubMed

    Rusciano, Dario; Roszkowska, Anna Maria; Gagliano, Caterina; Pezzino, Salvatore

    2016-09-15

    Amino acids are the basic constituents of living organisms, and have both a structural and an active dynamic role in tissue and cell physiology. Human tears contain 23 amino acids, the relative proportion of which may change with the different physiological states of the eye surface. In this review, we present a collection of data from the published literature that indicate an active role of amino acids in the maintenance of eye surface homeostasis. Moreover, another series of published clinical data indicate that supplementation of amino acids, either as food supplements or as a topical treatment in enriched eye drops, is beneficial to the eye surface, and may improve its healing in cases of eye surface disease due to different causes.

  14. Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1795 - Vanilmandelic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilmandelic acid test system. 862.1795 Section... Systems § 862.1795 Vanilmandelic acid test system. (a) Identification. A vanilmandelic acid test system is a device intended to measure vanilmandelic acid in urine. Measurements of vanilmandelic...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1795 - Vanilmandelic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilmandelic acid test system. 862.1795 Section... Systems § 862.1795 Vanilmandelic acid test system. (a) Identification. A vanilmandelic acid test system is a device intended to measure vanilmandelic acid in urine. Measurements of vanilmandelic...

  17. Rapid acid treatment of Escherichia coli: transcriptomic response and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Geetha; Wilks, Jessica C; Fitzgerald, Devon M; Jones, Brian D; BonDurant, Sandra S; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2008-01-01

    Background Many E. coli genes show pH-dependent expression during logarithmic growth in acid (pH 5–6) or in base (pH 8–9). The effect of rapid pH change, however, has rarely been tested. Rapid acid treatment could distinguish between genes responding to external pH, and genes responding to cytoplasmic acidification, which occurs transiently following rapid external acidification. It could reveal previously unknown acid-stress genes whose effects are transient, as well as show which acid-stress genes have a delayed response. Results Microarray hybridization was employed to observe the global gene expression of E. coli K-12 W3110 following rapid acidification of the external medium, from pH 7.6 to pH 5.5. Fluorimetric observation of pH-dependent tetR-YFP showed that rapid external acidification led to a half-unit drop in cytoplasmic pH (from pH 7.6 to pH 6.4) which began to recover within 20 s. Following acid treatment, 630 genes were up-regulated and 586 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes included amino-acid decarboxylases (cadA, adiY, gadA), succinate dehydrogenase (sdhABCD), biofilm-associated genes (bdm, gatAB, and ymgABC), and the Gad, Fur and Rcs regulons. Genes with response patterns consistent with cytoplasmic acid stress were revealed by addition of benzoate, a membrane-permeant acid that permanently depresses cytoplasmic pH without affecting external pH. Several genes (yagU, ygiN, yjeI, and yneI) were up-regulated specifically by external acidification, while other genes (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA) presented a benzoate response consistent with cytoplasmic pH stress. Other genes (the nuo operon for NADH dehydrogenase I, and the HslUV protease) showed delayed up-regulation by acid, with expression rising by 10 min following the acid shift. Conclusion Transcriptomic profiling of E. coli K-12 distinguished three different classes of change in gene expression following rapid acid treatment: up-regulation with or without recovery, and

  18. Treatment of odorous volatile fatty acids using a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y F; Chua, H; Sin, S N; Chan, S Y

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a novel fibrous bioreactor was developed for treating odorous compounds present in contaminated air. The first stage of this work was a preliminary study which aimed at investigating the feasibility of using the fibrous bioreactor for the removal of malodorous volatile fatty acids (VFA) that is a common odorous contaminant generated from anaerobic degradation of organic compounds. The kinetics of microbial growth and VFA degradation in the selected culture, and the performance of the submerged bioreactor at different VFA mass loadings were studied. Above 95% of VFA removal efficiencies were achieved at mass loadings up to 22.4 g/m(3)/h. In the second stage, the odour treatment process was scaled up with system design and operational considerations. A trickling biofilter with synthetic fibrous packing medium was employed. The effects of inlet VFA concentration and empty bed retention time (EBRT) on the process performance were investigated. The bioreactor was effective in removing VFA at mass loadings up to 32 g/m(3)/h, beyond which VFA started to accumulate in the recirculation liquid, indicating the biofilm was unable to degrade all of the VFA introduced. Although VFA accumulated in the liquid phase, the removal efficiency remained above 99%. This suggested that the biochemical reaction rather than gas-liquid mass transfer was the limiting step of the treatment process. In addition, the biotrickling filter was stable for long-term operation with relatively low and steady pressure drop, no clogging and degeneration of the packing material occurred during the four-month study.

  19. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  20. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Systemic Metabolic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis is characteristically a manifestation of a systemic metabolic disorder. It has a prevalence of about 10% among all stone formers, the third most common type of kidney stone in the industrialized world. Uric acid stones form primarily due to an unduly acid urine; less deciding factors are hyperuricosuria and a low urine volume. The vast majority of uric acid stone formers have the metabolic syndrome, and not infrequently, clinical gout is present as well. A universal finding is a low baseline urine pH plus insufficient production of urinary ammonium buffer. Persons with gastrointestinal disorders, in particular chronic diarrhea or ostomies, and patients with malignancies with a large tumor mass and high cell turnover comprise a less common but nevertheless important subset. Pure uric acid stones are radiolucent but well visualized on renal ultrasound. A 24 h urine collection for stone risk analysis provides essential insight into the pathophysiology of stone formation and may guide therapy. Management includes a liberal fluid intake and dietary modification. Potassium citrate to alkalinize the urine to a goal pH between 6 and 6.5 is essential, as undissociated uric acid deprotonates into its much more soluble urate form. PMID:25045326

  1. Sludge recycle and reuse in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, G.B.; Sack, W.A.

    1983-03-01

    Neutralization of acid mine drainage produces vast quantities of iron-rich sludge, and large quantities of unused lime remain in the sludge after treatment. In a study in which sludge was recycled to increase lime utilization, sludge was mixed with raw acid mine drainage and settled out in an intermediate clarifier. The clarifier supernatant was then treated by lime addition, aeration and sedimentation. The low-pH sludge was withdrawn from the intermediate clarifier. The iron was recovered by acidification and used as wastewater coagulant. The recycle scheme resulted in a 30% decrease in lime requirements, and the resultant coagulant performed well when compared with stock iron coagulant solutions.

  2. Acidic and hydrogen peroxide treatment of polyaluminum chloride (PACL) sludge from water treatment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, J H; Park, K Y; Park, J H; Lee, S H; Ahn, K H

    2004-01-01

    The water treatment sludge including coagulants cannot be easily removed by conventional dewatering methods. The possibility of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation as a pretreatment to enhance the dewaterability of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) sludge from water works was investigated. H2O2 treatment alone was not effective but H2O2 treatment under acidic condition significantly reduced both the cake water content and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), indicating the enhancement of dewaterability and filterability. The filterability after acid/H2O2 treatment was comparable to polymer conditioning and even more dewatered cake than polymer conditioning was produced. By H202 combined with sulfuric acid (H2SO4), leached iron caused Fenton's reaction, which showed a potential to significantly reduce the amount of solids mass and to produce more compact cake with higher filterability.

  3. Effect of 82% Lactic Acid in Treatment of Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Goyal, Sapna; Ahmed, Qazi Rais; Gupta, Narendra; Singh, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired, chronic, and symmetrical hypermelanosis, characterized by brown patches of variable darkness on sun exposed areas of body. There are numerous modalities of treatment currently in use for this disease, of which the chemical peeling is very commonly used. Therefore, the present work was done to see the effect of 82% lactic acid peel in the treatment of melasma. A total number of 20 patients of either sex attending the OPD of dermatology department with clinically evident melasma were included in the study. 82% Lactic acid peel was applied on the face for 12 weeks in each patient. Patients were evaluated clinically and photographically at various intervals and in follow-up till 24 weeks. Assessment of patient satisfaction and side effects were also noted. All the subjects completed the study. Application of this peel for 12 weeks significantly decreased the melasma area severity index score and also melasma severity scale score. Patient and physician analogue scales also showed the improvement by the treatment. Regarding the adverse effects, burning sensation was the only side effect noted in our study. In conclusion, 82% lactic acid peel is well tolerated and can be used for the treatment of melasma. PMID:27355080

  4. Glycyrrhizic Acid in the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-yuan; Cao, Hong-yan; Cheng, Gen-hong; Sun, Ming-yu

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions. PMID:24963489

  5. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  6. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pyruvic acid test system. 862.1655 Section 862....1655 Pyruvic acid test system. (a) Identification. A pyruvic acid test system is a device intended to measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma....

  7. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862....1095 Ascorbic acid test system. (a) Identification. An ascorbic acid test system is a device intended to measure the level of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in plasma, serum, and urine. Ascorbic...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775....1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to measure uric acid in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775....1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to measure uric acid in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pyruvic acid test system. 862.1655 Section 862....1655 Pyruvic acid test system. (a) Identification. A pyruvic acid test system is a device intended to measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma....

  11. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862....1095 Ascorbic acid test system. (a) Identification. An ascorbic acid test system is a device intended to measure the level of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in plasma, serum, and urine. Ascorbic...

  12. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed.

  13. Sonic spectrometer and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Slomka, B.J.

    1997-06-03

    A novel system and method is developed for treating an object with sonic waveforms. A traveling broad-band sonic waveform containing a broad-band of sonic frequencies is radiated at the object. A traveling reflected sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies reflected by the object is received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. A traveling transmitted sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies transmitted through the object is also received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. In a resonance mode, the frequency spectra of the broad-band and reflected sonic waveforms is analyzed so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate. An electrical resonance treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. In an absorption mode, the frequency spectra of the electrical broad-band, reflected, and transmitted sonic waveforms is compared so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object. An electrical absorption treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. 1 fig.

  14. Sonic spectrometer and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Slomka, Bogdan J.

    1997-06-03

    A novel system and method for treating an object with sonic waveforms. A traveling broad-band sonic waveform containing a broad-band of sonic frequencies is radiated at the object. A traveling reflected sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies reflected by the object is received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. A traveling transmitted sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies transmitted through the object is also received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. In a resonance mode, the frequency spectra of the broad-band and reflected sonic waveforms is analyzed so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate. An electrical resonance treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. In an absorption mode, the frequency spectra of the electrical broad-band, reflected, and transmitted sonic waveforms is compared so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object. An electrical absorption treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object.

  15. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4 min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed.

  16. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-06-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS).

  17. Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?

    PubMed

    Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

    2008-10-01

    The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication.

  18. Cathepsin K in treatment monitoring following intravenous zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    JAHN, OLIVER; WEX, THOMAS; KLOSE, SILKE; KROPF, SIEGFRIED; ADOLF, DANIELA; PIATEK, STEFAN

    2014-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is mainly expressed by osteoclasts and plays an important role in bone resorption. As CatK is expressed and secreted by osteoclasts during active bone resorption, it may be a useful and specific biochemical marker of osteoclastic activity. Therefore, CatK serum levels were studied for monitoring the treatment of females with postmenopausal osteoporosis by zoledronic acid. The serum CatK levels were determined in nine postmenopausal females before and after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. The levels were significantly reduced after 3 and 6 months (P<0.05), whereas they returned to baseline after 1 year. Taken together, the serum level of CatK may be suitable for monitoring anti-osteoporotic therapy in association with treatment response. PMID:25279169

  19. [Hyaluronic Acid (hyalgan(r)) in the treatment of gonarthritis.].

    PubMed

    Pavelka, K; Vlasáková, V; Vítová, J; Stehlíková, H; Slanský, J

    1995-01-01

    The authors made an open multicentre clinical study with the administration of hyaluronic acid (Hyalgan(R) - Fidia) in patients with gonarthritis. The study comprised 31 patients with gonarthritis grade II-III according to Kellgren, 30 of whom completed the study. Hyalgan was administered to the patients - vials á 2 ml in five injections in weekly intervals by the intraarticular route. The patients were followed up for another three months after completed treatment. A significant decline of pain on the visual analogue scale (VAS) was recorded already two weeks after onset of treatment (p = 0.001) and this decline persisted for another 13 weeks after termination of treatment. The algofunctional indices (Lequesne, Jezek) also declined after the first injection, whereby a statistically significant reduction was recorded still after 12 weeks, as compared with values before the onset of treatment (p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained also in objective evaluations (effusion, temperature above joint, tenderness). Already after the second injection a significantly shorter time was required for a 20 m walk. The mean daily paracetamol consumption declined from a mean value of 1496 +/- 777 mg before administration to 670 6 661 mg at the end of the investigation (p = 0.00006). Undesirable effects (increased intensity of pain after puncture) was recorded in one patient (3.3%). Evidence was provided that Hyalgan(R) belongs as to its profile of effectiveness among so-called SYSADOAs (symptomatic slow acting drugs for OA). Treatment is quite safe. Key words: knee osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid, i. a. treatment.

  20. Constructed wetland treatment system for upper blackfoot mining complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, F.S.

    1996-12-31

    A combined passive oxidation/sedimentation (pre-treatment) and constructed wetland (polishing) system has been designed and installed to treat mine drainage at the inactive Upper Blackfoot River Mining Complex northeast of Lincoln, MT. The system is designed to treat up to 100 gpm flow with moderate heavy metal concentrations (25 to 95 mg/L Zn; lower concentrations of Pb, Cu, and As), moderate Fe concentrations (< 100 mg/L), and periodic high acidity (pH 2.6 to 3.5). The treatment scheme is flexible to accommodate a wide range of flows, metal concentrations, and acidity in order to gain cost-efficiencies and to meet restrictive discharge standards for the environmentally-sensitive Blackfoot River watershed. The wetland treatment system presently is undergoing start-up testing and initial tuning and will be operational during summer, 1996. Conceptual and engineering designs are presented along with preliminary data.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1775 - Uric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Uric acid test system. 862.1775 Section 862.1775...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1775 Uric acid test system. (a) Identification. A uric acid test system is a device intended to...

  4. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Bassir, Mahshid Mohammadi; Bagheri, Golnaz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H3PO4)-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H3PO4-pumice compound (split-mouth design). Both treatment compounds were applied for 30-second periods and treatment continued up to 10 minutes. Before and after treatment, standardized photographs were taken. The photographs were compared by two experienced observers unaware of the modality of treatment. Two indices of aesthetics, improvement in appearance (IA) and degree of stain removal (DSR), were determined according to a visual analog scale. The inter- and intra-correlation coefficients were made; then, statistical analyses were calculated using Mann-Whitney and t-test. Results: There were no significant differences in interobserver evaluation. Improvements in aesthetic indices were observed in all fluorotic teeth by both compounds; however, the mean treatment time with HCl-pumice was significantly lower than H3PO4-pumice. Conclusion: The H3PO4-pumice compound improved aesthetic indices in fluorotic teeth similar to the HCl-pumice compound. PMID:23349575

  5. Nitric-phosphoric acid treatment of TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Pierce, R.A.; Sturcken, E.F.

    1993-09-30

    A general process is being developed for the treatment of solid TRU and hazardous organic waste. Experimental data indicates that 100 lb/hr of aliphatic organic (plastics) and 1,000 lb/hr of non-aliphatic organic compounds can be quantitatively oxidized in a 1,000 gallon reaction vessel. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allows oxidation at temperatures up to 200{degrees}C and is relatively non-corrosive on 304-L stainless steel, especially at room temperature. Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sup 2+} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. Polyethylene is quantitatively oxidized in 1.0M HNO{sub 3}/13.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution while contained in pressure vessels heated with microwave energy. This is probably due to the high concentrations of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} obtained in the reaction environment.

  6. The impact of chronic imipramine treatment on amino acid concentrations in the hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Murakami, Tatsuro; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between antidepressants and monoamine concentrations in the brain has been well investigated, but few studies have investigated the relationship between antidepressants and amino acid concentrations in the brain. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of the chronic antidepressant imipramine on amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the mouse brain and plasma. Chronic imipramine treatment decreased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleaceticacid/5-hydroxytryptamine in the cerebral cortex and increased that of norepinephrine (NE) in the hippocampus. Since these changes were conspicuous effects of the antidepressant, we concluded that imipramine acts on the central nervous system. No change in amino acid concentrations in plasma was induced by chronic imipramine treatment, but several changes were confirmed in the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus and the hippocampus. Chronic imipramine treatment caused increases in L-methionine, L-tyrosine, and L-lysine in the cerebral cortex, and an increase in L-aspartate in the hypothalamus. Contrary to this, the concentrations of L-aspartate, L-serine, L-asparagine, glycine, L-glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, L-threonine, L-arginine, L-proline, L-valine, and L-methionine in the hippocampus were decreased by chronic imipramine treatment. The present results demonstrate that the metabolism of several amino acids in the brain, but not of those in plasma, was altered by chronic imipramine treatment. The findings in the present study may help to further elucidate the relationship between amino acids and the effects and side effects of antidepressants.

  7. Support Systems for Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately operationalized treatment integrity procedures…

  8. Treatment of vinasse from tequila production using polyglutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Bujang, Kopli

    2012-03-01

    Vinasse, the wastewater from ethanol distillation, is characterised by high levels of organic and inorganic matter, high exit process temperature (ca. 90°C) and low pH (3.0-4.5). In this study, the treatment of tequila vinasse was achieved by a flocculation-coagulation process using poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA). Results showed that the use of PGA (250-300 ppm) combined with sodium hypochlorite and sand filtration managed to remove about 70% of the turbidity and reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 79.5% with the extra benefit of colour removal. PGA showed its best flocculating activity at pH 2.5-3.5 and a temperature of 30-55°C. Such a treatment may be a solution for small tequila companies for which other solutions to deal with their vinasse may not be economically affordable.

  9. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  10. The effect of various treatment conditions on natural zeolites: ion exchange, acidic, thermal and steam treatments.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ayten; Hardacre, Christopher

    2012-04-15

    Two different natural zeolites having different phase compositions were obtained from different regions of Turkey and modified by ion-exchange (0.5M NH(4)NO(3)) and acid leaching using 1M HCl. The natural and modified samples were treated at low temperature (LT), high temperature (HT) and steam (ST) conditions and characterised by XRF, XRD, BET, FTIR, DR-UV-Vis, NH(3)-TPD and TGA. Ion-exchange with NH(4)(+) of natural zeolites results in the exchange of the Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations and the partial exchange of the Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) cations. However, steam and acidic treatments cause significant dealumination and decationisation, as well as loss of crystalline, sintering of phases and the formation of amorphous material. The presence of mordenite and quartz phases in the natural zeolites increases the stability towards acid treatment, whereas the structure of clinoptilolite-rich zeolites is mostly maintained after high temperature and steam treatments. The natural and modified zeolites treated at high temperature and in steam were found to be less stable compared with synthetic zeolites, resulting in a loss of crystallinity, a decrease in the surface area and pore volume, a decrease in the surface acidity as well as dealumination, and decationisation.

  11. Gambogic acid-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles in colorectal cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Qian, Hanqing; Yang, Mi; Li, Rutian; Hu, Jing; Li, Li; Yu, Lixia; Liu, Baorui; Qian, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is expected to be a potential new antitumor drug, but its poor aqueous solubility and inevitable side effects limit its clinical application. Despite these inhe rent defects, various nanocarriers can be used to promote the solubility and tumor targeting of GA, improving antitumor efficiency. In addition, a cell membrane-coated nanoparticle platform that was reported recently, unites the customizability and flexibility of a synthetic copolymer, as well as the functionality and complexity of natural membrane, and is a new synthetic biomimetic nanocarrier with improved stability and biocompatibility. Here, we combined poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with red blood-cell membrane (RBCm), and evaluated whether GA-loaded RBCm nanoparticles can retain and improve the antitumor efficacy of GA with relatively lower toxicity in colorectal cancer treatment compared with free GA. We also confirmed the stability, biocompatibility, passive targeting, and few side effects of RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles. We expect to provide a new drug carrier in the treatment of colorectal cancer, which has strong clinical application prospects. In addition, the potential antitumor drug GA and other similar drugs could achieve broader clinical applications via this biomimetic nanocarrier. PMID:28280328

  12. Enhanced volatile fatty acid production from excess sludge by combined free nitrous acid and rhamnolipid treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Lian; Guo, Wan-Qian; Bao, Xian; Zheng, He-Shan; Yin, Ren-Li; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Luo, Hai-Chao; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-01-01

    VFA production from excess sludge (ES) was greatly enhanced by a low-cost and high-efficient treatment: 0.67mg/L free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment combined with 0.04g/g TSS rhamnolipid (RL) addition (FNA+RL), which significantly shortened fermentation time to 3days and increased VFA production to 352.26mgCOD/g VSS (5.42 times higher than raw ES). Propionic and acetic acids were the two leading components (71.86% of the total VFA). Mechanism investigation manifested FNA+RL improved the biodegradability of ES, achieved positive synergetic effect on solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification efficiencies, and inhibited methanation. Microbial community distribution further explained the above phenomena. The bacteria related to polysaccharides/protein utilization and VFA generation, including Clostridium, Megasphaera and Proteiniborus, were mainly observed in FNA+RL, whereas gas-forming bacteria Anaerolineae and acid-consuming bacteria Proteobacteria were assuredly suppressed. Besides, Propionibacterineae associated with propionic acid generation was exclusively enriched in sole RL and FNA+RL.

  13. Optimization of CSO storage and treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.; O`Connor, T.P.

    1997-03-01

    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO) must be controlled by a storage-treatment system because storm flow in the combined sewerage system is intermittent and highly variable in both pollutant concentration and flow rate. A treatment facility operating without the benefit of upstream storage would need to be very large and costly in order to handle the relatively high volume and flow rate of a CSO. Similarly, if storage is used without treatment, the storage volume required would be very large and also expensive. This paper describes a strategy to optimize a CSO control system. This optimized system maximizes the use of the existing system before new construction and sizes the storage volume in concert with the wastewater treatment plant capacity to obtain the lowest-cost storage and treatment system.

  14. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Bahareh; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in patients’ and investigator's satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05). However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01). Conclusion: This study's results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma. PMID:25422661

  15. The Hybrid Orthodontic Treatment System (HOTS).

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Tomio; Wong, Ricky Wing-Kit; Hägg, Urban; Lee, Wilson; Hibino, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the Hybrid Orthodontic Treatment System (HOTS), an innovative method used in first premolar extraction cases. It comprises the following three components: (1) a miniscrew, (2) dual-dimension wires, and (3) multiloop edgewise archwires. HOTS consists of four clearly defined treatment steps: (1) setup, (2) leveling, (3) separate but simultaneous anterior and canine teeth retraction, and (4) final adjustment. HOTS achieves a predictable treatment outcome with a shorter treatment time.

  16. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  17. Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment.

    PubMed

    Billi de Catabbi, Silvia C; Faletti, Alicia; Fuentes, Federico; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C; Cochón, Adriana C

    2005-04-15

    Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porphyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and omega-OH/omega-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2

  18. Preferential lectin binding of cancer cells upon sialic acid treatment under nutrient deprivation.

    PubMed

    Badr, Haitham A; Elsayed, Abdelaleim I; Ahmed, Hafiz; Dwek, Miriam V; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B

    2013-10-01

    The terminal monosaccharide of glycoconjugates on a eukaryotic cell surface is typically a sialic acid (Neu5Ac). Increased sialylation usually indicates progression and poor prognosis of most carcinomas. Here, we utilize two human mammary epithelial cell lines, HB4A (breast normal cells) and T47D (breast cancer cells), as a model system to demonstrate differential surface glycans when treated with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation. Under a starved condition, sialic acid treatment of both cells resulted in increased activities of α2→3/6 sialyltransferases as demonstrated by solid phase assay using lectin binding. However, a very strong Maackia amurensis agglutinin I (MAL-I) staining on the membrane of sialic acid-treated T47D cells was observed, indicating an increase of Neu5Acα2→3Gal on the cell surface. To our knowledge, this is a first report showing the utility of lectins, particularly MAL-I, as a means to discriminate between normal and cancer cells after sialic acid treatment under nutrient deprivation. This method is sensitive and allows selective detection of glycan sialylation on a cancer cell surface.

  19. Robust antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates by hydrochloric acid vapor treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Geng, Zhi

    2015-04-15

    Antireflective coatings on polymer substrates have received significant attention for their potential applications. In this paper, robust microporous antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates were prepared from acid-catalyzed silica sol followed by hydrochloric acid vapor solidification at mild temperature below glass transition temperatures of common polymers. The coatings passed 3H pencil hardness test, sand flow test and water-drop test. They had excellent antireflective and antifogging properties. The maximum transmittance of coatings on PMMA substrates reached 100.0% (the maximum transmittance wavelength could be regulated) and average transmittance reached 99.0% in 400-800 nm. The advantage and mechanism of hydrochloric acid vapor solidification and mechanical strength enhancement of coatings are discussed in contrast to ammonia vapor treatment and air vapor treatment. The hydrochloric acid vapor treatment results in a dense integrated microporous film structure. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. Surface morphologies and structures of coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM).

  20. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  1. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase.

  2. Sulfidogenic fluidized bed treatment of real acid mine drainage water.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Gunes, Fatih M; Ucar, Deniz; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of real acid mine drainage water (pH 2.7-4.3) containing sulfate (1.5-3.34 g/L) and various metals was studied in an ethanol-fed sulfate-reducing fluidized bed reactor at 35°C. The robustness of the process was tested by increasing stepwise sulfate, ethanol and metal loading rates and decreasing feed pH and hydraulic retention time. Highest sulfate reduction rate (4.6g/L day) was obtained with feed sulfate concentration of 2.5 g/L, COD/sulfate ratio of 0.85 and HRT of 12 h. The corresponding sulfate and COD removal efficiencies were about 90% and 80%, respectively. The alkalinity produced in sulfidogenic ethanol oxidation neutralized the acidic mine water. Highest metal precipitation efficiencies were observed at HRT of 24 h, the percent metal removal being over 99.9% for Al (initial concentration 55 mg/L), Co (9.0 mg/L), Cu (49 mg/L), Fe (435 mg/L), Ni (3.8 mg/L), Pb (7.5 mg/L) and Zn (6.6 mg/L), and 94% for Mn (7.21 mg/L).

  3. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

    1998-12-22

    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  4. Efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid in the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Tandogdu, Zafer

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential in treating many disorders and they are widely used in spite of their negative impact on the skeletal system. As bisphosphonates reduce bone resorption through their action on osteoclasts, they play an important role in management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Unlike other bisphosphonates, zoledronic acid is given by intravenous infusion and it has a potential advantage of increasing the compliance and adherence of patients when it is given 5 mg once a year. However, this treatment modality seems to be associated with more adverse events than oral administrations, and further studies with longer follow-up periods must be conducted to determine the safety and cost-effectiveness of long-term treatment with zoledronic acid. PMID:20526439

  5. Analysis of Vaginal Acetic Acid in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Chaudry, Amjad N.; Travers, Paul J.; Yuenger, Jeffrey; Colletta, Lorraine; Evans, Phillip; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Tummon, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A “gold standard” method for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is lacking. The clinical criteria described by the Amsel technique are subjective and difficult to quantify. Alternatively, the reading of Gram-stained vaginal smears by scoring techniques such as those that use the Nugent or Hay-Ison scoring systems is again subjective, requires expert personnel to perform the reading, and is infrequently used clinically. Recently, a new diagnostic device, the Osmetech Microbial Analyzer—Bacterial Vaginosis (OMA-BV), which determines a patient's BV status on the basis of measurement of the amount of acetic acid present in a vaginal swab specimen, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The present study uses the conducting polymer gas-sensing technology of OMA-BV to measure the concentration of acetic acid in the headspace above vaginal swab specimens from patients undergoing treatment for BV with metronidazole. In 97.8% of the cases the level of acetic acid detected fell sharply during the treatment period, crossing from above to below the diagnostic threshold of 900 ppm. The diagnosis obtained on the basis of the level of vaginal acetic acid was compared with the diagnoses obtained by use of the Amsel criteria and the Nugent scoring system both at the time of initial entry into the study and at the repeat samplings on days 7 and 14. The results obtained with OMA-BV showed overall agreements compared with the results of the Amsel and Nugent tests of 98 and 94%, respectively, for the 34 patients monitored through the treatment process. This provides further evidence that the measurement of vaginal acetic acid by headspace analysis with conducting polymer sensors is a valid alternative to present tests for the diagnosis of BV. PMID:15528711

  6. Hydroxybenzoic acid isomers and the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Today we are beginning to understand how phytochemicals can influence metabolism, cellular signaling and gene expression. The hydroxybenzoic acids are related to salicylic acid and salicin, the first compounds isolated that have a pharmacological activity. In this review we examine how a number of hydroxyphenolics have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular problems related to aging such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The compounds focused upon include 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Pyrocatechuic acid), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Gentisic acid), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Protocatechuic acid), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (α-Resorcylic acid) and 3-monohydroxybenzoic acid. The latter two compounds activate the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors with a consequence there is a reduction in adipocyte lipolysis with potential improvements of blood lipid profiles. Several of the other compounds can activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway that increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes, thereby decreasing oxidative stress and associated problems such as endothelial dysfunction that leads to hypertension as well as decreasing generalized inflammation that can lead to problems such as atherosclerosis. It has been known for many years that increased consumption of fruits and vegetables promotes health. We are beginning to understand how specific phytochemicals are responsible for such therapeutic effects. Hippocrates’ dictum of ‘Let food be your medicine and medicine your food’ can now be experimentally tested and the results of such experiments will enhance the ability of nutritionists to devise specific health-promoting diets. PMID:24943896

  7. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C; Huang, Yixing

    2017-02-16

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  8. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C.; Huang, Yixing

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  9. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris.

  10. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for Treatment of Enlarged Polycystic Liver.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takashi; Hoshino, Junichi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Sumida, Keiichi; Mise, Koki; Kawada, Masahiro; Imafuku, Aya; Hayami, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Hasegawa, Eiko; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2016-02-01

    Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and polycystic liver disease (PLD) often have elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat biliary tract diseases, but its effect on PLD remains unclear. UDCA was administered for 1 year at a dose of 300 mg daily to seven PLD patients with elevated ALP or GGT levels who were selected for this treatment by experienced clinicians. Laboratory data and liver volumes were compared among three time points: 1 year before UDCA treatment, at the start of UDCA therapy, and 1 year after the start of therapy. Median GGT did not show a significant change between 1 year before UDCA (180 IU/L) and the start of UDCA therapy (209 IU/L), but it decreased significantly to 98 IU/L after 1 year of UDCA therapy (P = 0.015 vs. the start of therapy). ALP showed a significant increase from 1 year before UDCA (456 IU/L) to the start of UDCA therapy (561 IU/L), and then decreased significantly after 1 year of UDCA therapy (364 IU/L). Median liver volume did not show any significant changes among these three time points of assessment. UDCA may be effective for reducing biliary enzyme levels and inhibiting the growth of liver cysts in patients with PLD.

  11. System and process for biomass treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  12. Novel passive co-treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Strosnider, William H J; Winfrey, Brandon K; Nairn, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, four-stage continuous-flow reactor system was constructed to test the viability of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) passive co-treatment. Synthetic AMD of pH 2.6 and acidity of 1870 mg L(-1) as CaCO3 equivalent containing a mean 46, 0.25, 2.0, 290, 55, 1.2, and 390 mg L(-1) of Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn, respectively, was added at a 1:2 ratio with raw MWW from the City of Norman, OK, to the system which had a total residence time of 6.6 d. During the 135-d experiment, dissolved Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were consistently decreased by 99.8, 87.8, 97.7, 99.8, 13.9, 87.9, and 73.4%, respectively, pH increased to 6.79, and net acidic influent was converted to net alkaline effluent. At a wasting rate of 0.69% of total influent flow, the system produced sludge with total Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations at least an order of magnitude greater than the influent mix, which presents a metal reclamation opportunity. Results indicate that AMD and MWW passive co-treatment is a viable approach to use wastes as resources to improve water quality with minimal use of fossil fuels and refined materials.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1509 Section 862.1509 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Test Systems § 862.1509 Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification....

  14. Glucose Disappearance in Biological Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jeris, John S.; Cardenas, Raul R.

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment units were conditioned with a daily slug-feed of glucose. After a period of acclimation and stabilization, glucose disappearance was monitored continuously after the slug feed. A continuous sampling apparatus is described. Mathematical analysis of the data indicate zero-order reactions for both biological treatment systems. PMID:16349685

  15. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  16. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING FISHBONE APATITE IITM

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT. In 2000, a reactive barrier was installed on the East Fork of Ninemile Creek near Wallace, Idaho to treat acid mine discharge. The barrier was filled with fishbone derived Apatite IITM to remove the contaminants of concern (Zn, Pb, and Cd) and raise the pH of the acidic mine discharge. Metal removal has been achieved by a combination of chemical, biological, and physical precipitation. Flow for the water ranges from 5 to 35 gallons per minute. The water is successfully being treated, but the system experienced varying degrees of plugging. In 2002, gravel was mixed with the Apatite IITM to help control plugging. In 2003 the Idaho National Laboratory was ask to provide technical support to the Coeur d’Alene Basin Commission to help identify a remedy to the plugging issue. Air sparging was employed to treat the plugging issues. Plastic packing rings were added in the fall of 2005, which have increased the void space in the media and increased flows during the 10 months of operation since the improvements were made.

  17. The influence of acid treatments over vermiculite based material as adsorbent for cationic textile dyestuffs.

    PubMed

    Stawiński, Wojciech; Freitas, Olga; Chmielarz, Lucjan; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Komędera, Kamila; Błachowski, Artur; Figueiredo, Sónia

    2016-06-01

    The influence of different acid treatments over vermiculite was evaluated. Equilibrium, kinetic and column studies have been conducted. The results showed that vermiculite first treated with nitric acid and then with citric acid has higher adsorption capacity, presenting maximum adsorption capacities in column experiments: for Astrazon Red (AR), 100.8 ± 0.8 mg g(-1) and 54 ± 1 mg g(-1) for modified and raw material, respectively; for Methylene Blue (MB) 150 ± 4 mg g(-1) and 55 ± 2 mg g(-1) for modified and raw material, respectively. Materials characterization by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, N2 adsorption and CEC determination, has been performed. The results suggest the existence of exchange of interlayer cations, leaching of metals from vermiculite's sheets and formation of an amorphous phase in the material. Adsorption follows pseudo 2(nd) order model kinetics for both dyestuffs and equilibrium occurs accordingly to Langmuir's model for AR and Freundlich's model for MB. In column systems Yan's model is the best fit. The enhanced properties of acid treated vermiculite offer new perspectives for the use of this adsorbent in wastewater treatment.

  18. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON RA; MEEUWSEN WE

    2009-03-12

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

  19. Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Brieger, Emmet F.

    2001-01-01

    A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

  20. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology.

  1. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated

  2. Waste Treatment of Acidic Solutions from the Dissolution of Irradiated LEU Targets for 99-Mo Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, Allen J.; Conner, Cliff; Quigley, Kevin; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-10-01

    One of the missions of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program (and now the National Nuclear Security Administrations Material Management and Minimization program) is to facilitate the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. The conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets will require five to six times more uranium to produce an equivalent amount of 99Mo. The work discussed here addresses the technical challenges encountered in the treatment of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH)/nitric acid solutions remaining after the dissolution of LEU targets. Specifically, the focus of this work is the calcination of the uranium waste from 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. Work with our calciner system showed that high furnace temperature, a large vent tube, and a mechanical shield are beneficial for calciner operation. One- and two-step direct calcination processes were evaluated. The high-temperature one-step process led to contamination of the calciner system. The two-step direct calcination process operated stably and resulted in a relatively large amount of material in the calciner cup. Chemically assisted calcination using peroxide was rejected for further work due to the difficulty in handling the products. Chemically assisted calcination using formic acid was rejected due to unstable operation. Chemically assisted calcination using oxalic acid was recommended, although a better understanding of its chemistry is needed. Overall, this work showed that the two-step direct calcination and the in-cup oxalic acid processes are the best approaches for the treatment of the UNH/nitric acid waste solutions remaining from dissolution of LEU targets for 99Mo production.

  3. Amino acid isotopic analysis in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new approach to stable isotopic analysis—referred to as compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA)—has emerged, centering on the measurement of 15N:14N ratios in amino acids (glutamic acid and phenylalanine). CSIA has recently been used to generate trophic position estimates among anima...

  4. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  5. Building a Personalized Cancer Treatment System.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alexandra; López, Gustavo; Bola Nos, Constantino; Alvarado, Daniel; Solano, Andrés; López, Mariana; Báez, Andrés; Quirós, Steve; Mora, Rodrigo

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the process by which a personalized cancer treatment system was built, following a user-centered approach. We give some background on personalized cancer treatment, the particular tumor chemosensitivity assay supported by the system, as well as some quality and legal issues related to such health systems. We describe how Contextual Design was applied when building the system. Contextual design is a user-centered design technique involving seven steps. We also provide some details about the system implementation. Finally, we explain how the Think-Aloud protocol and Heuristic Evaluation methods were used to evaluate the system and report its results. A qualitative assessment from the users perspective is also provided. Results from the heuristic evaluation indicate that only one of ten heuristics was missing from the system, while five were partially covered and four were fully covered.

  6. Melasma: systematic review of the systemic treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linghong Linda; Baibergenova, Akerke

    2017-02-27

    Currently available treatment options for melasma include prevention of UV radiation, topical lightening agents, chemical peels, and light-based and laser therapies. However, none have shown effective and sustained results, with incomplete clearance and frequent recurrences. There has been increasing interest recently in oral medications and dietary supplements in improving melasma. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety/tolerability of oral medications and dietary supplements for the treatment of melasma. Multiple databases were systematically searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of oral medication for treatment of melasma alone or in combination with other treatments. A total of eight RCTs met inclusion criteria. Oral medications and dietary supplements evaluated include tranexamic acid, Polypodium leucotomos extract, beta-carotenoid, melatonin, and procyanidin. These agents appear to have a beneficial effect on melasma improvement. In conclusion, oral medications have a role in melasma treatment and have been shown to be efficacious and tolerable with a minimal number and severity of adverse events. Therefore, dermatologists should keep oral medications and dietary supplements in their armamentarium for the treatment of melasma.

  7. Geochemical modelling of EGS fracture stimulation applying weak and strong acid treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigfusson, Bergur; Sif Pind Aradottir, Edda

    2015-04-01

    Engineered Geothermal systems (EGS) provide geothermal power by tapping into the Earth's deep geothermal resources that are otherwise not exploitable due to lack of water and fractures, location or rock type. EGS technologies have the potential to cost effectively produce large amounts of electricity almost anywhere in the world. The EGS technology creates permeability in the rock by hydro-fracturing the reservoir with cold water pumped into the first well (the injection well) at a high pressure. The second well (the production well) intersects the stimulated fracture system and returns the hot water to the surface where electricity can be generated. A significant technological hurdle is ensuring effective connection between the wells and the fracture system and to control the deep-rooted fractures (can exceed 5 000 m depth). A large area for heat transfer and sufficient mass flow needs to be ensured between wells without creating fast flowing paths in the fracture network. Maintaining flow through the fracture system can cause considerable energy penalty to the overall process. Therefore, chemical methods to maintain fractures and prevent scaling can be necessary to prevent excessive pressure build up in the re-injection wells of EGS systems. The effect of different acid treatments on the porosity development of selected rock types was simulated with the aid of the Petrasim interface to the Toughreact simulation code. The thermodynamic and kinetic database of Aradottir et al. (2014) was expanded to include new minerals and the most important fluoride bearing species involved in mineral reactions during acid stimulation of geothermal systems. A series of simulations with injection waters containing fluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and CO2 or mixtures thereof were then carried out and porosity development in the fracture system monitored. The periodic injection of weak acid mixtures into EGS systems may be cost effective in some isolated cases to prevent pressure

  8. Co-treatment of acid mine drainage with municipal wastewater: performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Theresa A; Gray, Nicholas F

    2013-11-01

    Co-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with municipal wastewater (MWW) using the activated sludge process is a novel treatment technology offering potential savings over alternative systems in materials, proprietary chemicals and energy inputs. The impacts of AMD on laboratory-scale activated sludge units (plug-flow and sequencing batch reactors) treating synthetic MWW were investigated. Synthetic AMD containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and SO4 at a range of concentrations and pH values was formulated to simulate three possible co-treatment processes, i.e., (1) adding raw AMD to the activated sludge aeration tank, (2) pre-treating AMD prior to adding to the aeration tank by mixing with digested sludge and (3) pre-treating AMD by mixing with screened MWW. Continuous AMD loading to the activated sludge reactors during co-treatment did not cause a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon removal; average COD removal rates ranged from 87-93%. Enhanced phosphate removal was observed in reactors loaded with Fe- and Al-rich AMD, with final effluent TP concentrations<2 mg/L. Removal rates for dissolved Al, Cu, Fe and Pb were 52-84%, 47-61%, 74-86% and 100%, respectively, in both systems. Manganese and Zn removal were strongly linked to acidity; removal from net-acidic AMD was <10% for both metals, whereas removal from circum-neutral AMD averaged 93-95% for Mn and 58-90% for Zn. Pre-mixing with screened MWW was the best process option in terms of AMD neutralization and metal removal. However, significant MWW alkalinity was consumed, suggesting an alkali supplement may be necessary.

  9. Thoron-tartaric acid systems for spectrophotometric determination of thorium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Fletcher, M.H.

    1956-01-01

    Thoron is commonly used for the spectrophotometric determination of thorium. An undesirable feature of its use is its high sensitivity to zirconium. This study describes the use of tartaric acid as a masking reagent for zirconium. Three tartaric acid-thoron systems, developed for the determination of thorium, differ with respect to the concentrations of thoron and tartaric acid. Mesotartaric acid, used in one of the systems, is most effective in masking zirconium. The behavior of rarer elements, usually associated with thorium ores, is determined in two systems, and a dilution method is described for the direct determination of thorium in monazite concentrates.

  10. Nucleic acids in human glioma treatment: innovative approaches and recent results.

    PubMed

    Catuogno, S; Esposito, C L; Quintavalle, C; Condorelli, G; de Franciscis, V; Cerchia, L

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors with a dismal prognosis. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, current treatment regimens have a modest survival benefit. A crucial challenge is to deliver drugs effectively to invasive glioma cells residing in a sanctuary within the central nervous system. New therapies are essential, and oligonucleotide-based approaches, including antisense, microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and nucleic acid aptamers, may provide a viable strategy. Thanks to their unique characteristics (low size, good affinity for the target, no immunogenicity, chemical structures that can be easily modified to improve their in vivo applications), these molecules may represent a valid alternative to antibodies particularly to overcome challenges presented by the blood-brain barrier. Here we will discuss recent results on the use of oligonucleotides that will hopefully provide new effective treatment for gliomas.

  11. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  12. Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…

  13. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer.

  14. Impact of Arsenic Treatment Systems on Distribution System Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program, 50 arsenic removal treatment systems were installed and their performance evaluated over a period of one to three years. The program was limited to small systems whose population served were less than 10,000. Ten of the systems were ...

  15. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Strain, James E.; Ross, Harley H.

    1981-01-01

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  16. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Strain, J.E.; Ross, H.H.

    1980-01-11

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  17. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not improve efficacy of meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment in lead-exposed suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Varnai, Veda Marija; Piasek, Martina; Blanusa, Maja; Juresa, Dijana; Sarić, Marija; Kostial, Krista

    2003-10-01

    It was suggested that ascorbic acid as a natural chelating agent can influence lead toxicokinetics and improve chelating properties of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in adult rats. In this paper potential benefits of ascorbic acid supplementation, alone or combined with DMSA, in decreasing lead retention in suckling rats were evaluated. Such data in young mammals are not available. L-Ascorbic acid (daily dose 650 mg/kg b.wt.) and/or DMSA (daily dose 91 mg/kg b.wt.) were administered orally to suckling Wistar rats either during ongoing 8-day oral lead exposure (as acetate; daily dose 2 mg lead/kg b.wt.) or after 3-day lead exposure (total dose 12 mg lead/kg b.wt.). Lead concentrations were analysed in the carcass (skeleton), liver, kidneys and brain by atomic absorption spectrometry. By ascorbic acid supplementation lead retention was not reduced under either lead exposure condition. Lead concentration was even increased in the carcass. Treatment with DMSA under both exposure conditions significantly reduced lead in all analysed tissues. Combined treatment with ascorbic acid and DMSA during ongoing lead exposure was substantially less effective than DMSA treatment alone, and did not affect DMSA efficacy when administered after lead exposure. It was concluded that ascorbic acid administered either during or after lead exposure in suckling rats has no beneficial effect on either lead retention or DMSA chelation effectiveness.

  18. A Framework for Intelligent Battlefield Treatment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; Wu, Biao; Yi, Renjie; Zhu, Jie

    With the development of high technology weapon, the execution and precision of weapon have made great improvement, which arouse many new challenge for treatment of war wounds. It is very urgent to research how to reduce casualty of individual solider. However, researches focus only on daily application recently. This paper discusses Intelligent Battlefield Treatment System (IBTS), and designs the framework of the service-oriented system based on WCF. The system has the following functions: testing the physical condition of a solider, disposing the distress signals intelligently, dispatching rescuers and assisting self-rescue or mutual-rescue to the wounded. The IBTS characteristics of data aggregate, multi-platform operation and data sharing can improve the treatment efficiency.

  19. Removal of bile acids by two different extracorporeal liver support systems in acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Krisper, Peter; Beuers, Ulrich; Haditsch, Bernd; Schneditz, Daniel; Jung, Aleksandra; Putz-Bankuti, Csilla; Holzer, Herwig; Trauner, Michael; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2007-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is accompanied by marked intrahepatic cholestasis leading to accumulation of cytotoxic bile acids. Extracorporeal liver support systems efficiently remove bile acids, but their effect on bile acid composition in ACLF is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare elimination of individual plasma bile acids by albumin dialysis (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System, MARS) and fractionated plasma separation (Prometheus). Eight consecutive patients with ACLF underwent alternating 6-hour sessions with MARS or Prometheus in a randomized, cross-over design. Serum samples were obtained before, during, and after each treatment, and individual bile acids including cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) were measured by gas chromatography. MARS and Prometheus removed total bile acids to a similar extent (reduction ratio, 45% and 46%, respectively). Both devices cleared cholic acid more efficiently than did CDCA. The molar fraction of CDCA (fCDCA) was elevated at baseline and correlated with the degree of liver dysfunction. Prometheus but not MARS treatments further increased fCDCA. Although both devices eliminate total bile acids to a similar extent, clearance of individual bile acids is different, leading to a slight change of the bile acid profile toward hydrophobic bile acids during Prometheus treatments.

  20. Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

  1. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  2. Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.

    PubMed

    Barton, Michael D; Delneri, Daniela; Oliver, Stephen G; Rattray, Magnus; Bergman, Casey M

    2010-08-17

    Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental conditions, we conclude that

  3. Modeling of free fatty acid dynamics: insulin and nicotinic acid resistance under acute and chronic treatments.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Robert; Kroon, Tobias; Almquist, Joachim; Jirstrand, Mats; Oakes, Nicholas D; Evans, Neil D; Chappel, Michael J; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2017-02-21

    Nicotinic acid (NiAc) is a potent inhibitor of adipose tissue lipolysis. Acute administration results in a rapid reduction of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Sustained NiAc exposure is associated with tolerance development (drug resistance) and complete adaptation (FFA returning to pretreatment levels). We conducted a meta-analysis on a rich pre-clinical data set of the NiAc-FFA interaction to establish the acute and chronic exposure-response relations from a macro perspective. The data were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects framework. We also developed a new turnover model that describes the adaptation seen in plasma FFA concentrations in lean Sprague-Dawley and obese Zucker rats following acute and chronic NiAc exposure. The adaptive mechanisms within the system were described using integral control systems and dynamic efficacies in the traditional [Formula: see text] model. Insulin was incorporated in parallel with NiAc as the main endogenous co-variate of FFA dynamics. The model captured profound insulin resistance and complete drug resistance in obese rats. The efficacy of NiAc as an inhibitor of FFA release went from 1 to approximately 0 during sustained exposure in obese rats. The potency of NiAc as an inhibitor of insulin and of FFA release was estimated to be 0.338 and 0.436 [Formula: see text], respectively, in obese rats. A range of dosing regimens was analyzed and predictions made for optimizing NiAc delivery to minimize FFA exposure. Given the exposure levels of the experiments, the importance of washout periods in-between NiAc infusions was illustrated. The washout periods should be [Formula: see text]2 h longer than the infusions in order to optimize 24 h lowering of FFA in rats. However, the predicted concentration-response relationships suggests that higher AUC reductions might be attained at lower NiAc exposures.

  4. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  5. PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM A SUBSURFACE MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  6. Emergency esophagogastrectomy for treatment of hydrochloric acid injury.

    PubMed

    Horváth, O P; Oláh, T; Zentai, G

    1991-07-01

    Eight patients with severe hydrochloric acid injury of the esophagus and stomach had early esophagogastrectomy. Four patients survived and 6 to 8 weeks later underwent successful substernal colon replacement. The value of early diagnosis and subsequent aggressive surgical management of patients who have ingested hydrochloric acid is stressed.

  7. System Toward Automation in Radiotherapy Treatment: START

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew Y. S.; Tsoi, Kenneth Y. P.

    1994-10-01

    START is a new automation system invented for nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment. A laser scanner system capable of non-contact digitization of 3D surface is used to digitize the contours of the patient's face, shoulder and special landmark reference features of the patient. These features are stored in the computer in 3D digitized format. The digitized facial features with traced landmark reference features are used for fabrication of a true sized wood-particle laminates mould by a computer numerical controlled milling system. A Cobex mask is formed on this mould by using vacuum forming technique. With an image analysis and computer aided design system, the X-ray film with treatment window marked is traced automatically and converted to match the prescanned 3D information. A computer controlled 6-axis robot can precisely mark out the required areas on the Cobex cast for treatment. Finally, the patient receives radiotherapy treatment with the Cobex case as a positioning registration device. The new system will replace the manual procedure with better patient comfort, higher efficiency and enhanced accuracy.

  8. Amino acid auxotrophy as a system of immunological control nodes.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    Cells of the immune system are auxotrophs for most amino acids, including several nonessential ones. Arginine and tryptophan are used within the regulatory immune networks to control proliferation and function through pathways that actively deplete the amino acid from the microenvironment or that create regulatory molecules such as nitric oxide or kynurenines. How immune cells integrate information about essential amino acid supplies and then transfer these signals to growth and activation pathways remains unclear but has potential for pathway discovery about amino sensing. In applied research, strategies to harness amino acid auxotrophy so as to block cancerous lymphocyte growth have been attempted for decades with limited success. Emerging insights about amino acid metabolism may lead to new strategies in clinical medicine whereby both amino acid auxotrophy and the immunoregulatory pathways controlled by amino acids can be manipulated.

  9. [Pharmacological significance of alpha lipoic acid in up to date treatment of diabetic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Becić, Fahir; Kapić, Elvedina; Rakanović-Todić, Maida

    2008-01-01

    Alpha lipoic acid is important intramolecular redox system. It is coenzyme of piruvate dehydrogenase and ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Alpha lipoic acid has enzymatic and cytoprotective effect. It has key role in citric acid cycle, as a coenzyme. Therapeutic efficacy of alpha lipoic acid in diabetic neuropathy is based on reaction with free radicals and lipophylic antioxydans properties. Clinical studies results showed efficacy and safety of alpha liponic acid application in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  10. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOEpatents

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  11. Metformin impairs systemic bile acid homeostasis through regulating SIRT1 protein levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Yang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Huabing; Kong, Xingxing; Yao, Lu; Cui, Xiaona; Zou, Yongkang; Fang, Fude; Yang, Jichun; Chang, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Metformin is widely used to treat hyperglycemia. However, metformin treatment may induce intrahepatic cholestasis and liver injury in a few patients with type II diabetes through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that metformin decreases SIRT1 protein levels in primary hepatocytes and liver. Both metformin-treated wild-type C57 mice and hepatic SIRT1-mutant mice had increased hepatic and serum bile acid levels. However, metformin failed to change systemic bile acid levels in hepatic SIRT1-mutant mice. Molecular mechanism study indicates that SIRT1 directly interacts with and deacetylates Foxa2 to inhibit its transcriptional activity on expression of genes involved in bile acids synthesis and transport. Hepatic SIRT1 mutation elevates Foxa2 acetylation levels, which promotes Foxa2 binding to and activating genes involved in bile acids metabolism, impairing hepatic and systemic bile acid homeostasis. Our data clearly suggest that hepatic SIRT1 mediates metformin effects on systemic bile acid metabolism and modulation of SIRT1 activity in liver may be an attractive approach for treatment of bile acid-related diseases such as cholestasis.

  12. Portable medical status and treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A portable medical status and treatment system is discussed. The vital signs monitor includes electrocardiogram, respiration, temperature, blood pressure, alarm, and power subsystems, which are described. A DC defibrillator module, a radio module, and their packaging are also described. These subsystems were evaluated and the results and recommendations are presented.

  13. Chronic suppurative otitis media due to nontuberculous mycobacteria: A case of successful treatment with topical boric acid.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marie-Astrid; Quach, Caroline; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-07-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasingly recognized cause of chronic suppurative otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes. Treatment of this condition is difficult and typically requires a combination of systemic antibiotics and surgical debridement. We present the first case of a 2-year-old male with chronic suppurative otitis media due to NTM who failed systemic antibiotic therapy and was successfully managed with topical boric acid powder. This report highlights the challenges involved in treating this infection, and introduces boric acid as a potentially valuable component of therapy.

  14. Preparation of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue

    2012-06-20

    Recently, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid has been reported to have novel features, such as free radical scavenging activities, antioxidant activities, promotion of excisional wound healing, etc. In the present work, degradation of native hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment was performed for preparation of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. The molecular weight of native hyaluronic acid was reduced from 1535 to 87 kDa for 120 min at 40°C. The rate of reduction of molecular weight was 94.33%. The FT-IR, 13C NMR, and UV-vis spectra suggested that there was no obvious modification of chemical structure of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. The use of degradation of native hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment can be a useful alternative for production of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid.

  15. Effects of Acid Treatment on Dental Zirconia: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Haifeng; Shen, Shuping; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Feimin; Chen, Chen; Tay, Franklin R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric (HF) acid, acetic acid, and citric acid treatments on the physical properties and structure of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) at ambient temperature. In total, 110 bar-shaped zirconia specimens were randomly assigned to 11 groups. The specimens in the control group (C) received no surface treatment, while those in the Cage group were hydrothermally aged at 134°C and 0.2 MPa for 20 h. Ten specimens each were immersed at ambient temperature in 5% and 40% HF acid for 2 h (40HF0), 1 day (5HF1, 40HF1), and 5 days (5HF5, 40HF5), while 10 each were immersed at ambient temperature in 10% acetic acid and 20% citric acid for 7 (AC7, CI7) and 14 days (AC14, CI14). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to quantitatively estimate the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, flexural strength, surface roughness, and surface Vickers hardness were measured after treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology. The Cage group specimens exhibited an increased monoclinic phase and flexural strength. Furthermore, 40% HF acid immersion decreased the flexural strength and surface hardness and deteriorated the surface finish, while 5% HF acid immersion only decreased the surface hardness. All the HF acid-immersed specimens showed an etched surface texture on SEM observations, while the other groups did not. These findings suggest that the treatment of Y-TZP with 40% HF acid at ambient temperature causes potential damage, while treatment with 5% HF acid, acetic acid, and citric acid is safe. PMID:26301413

  16. Update and future of systemic acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Piquero-Martin, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Systemic treatment is required in patients with moderate-to-severe acne, especially when acne scars start to occur. Antibiotics with anti-inflammatory properties, such as tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, tetracycline chloride, doxycycline, minocycline and limecycline) and macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin and azithromycin) are the agents of choice for papulopustular acne, even though the emerging resistant bacterial strains are minimizing their effect, especially regarding erythromycin. Systemic antibiotics should be administered during a period of 8-12 weeks. In severe papulopustular and in nodulocystic/conglobate acne, oral isotretinoin is the treatment of choice. Hormonal treatment represents an alternative regimen in female acne, whereas it is mandatory in resistant, severe pubertal or post-adolescent forms of the disease. Compounds with anti-androgenic properties include estrogens combined with progestins, such as ethinyl estradiol with cyproterone acetate, chlormadinone acetate, desogestrel, drospirenone, levonogestrel, norethindrone acetate, norgestimate, and other anti-androgens directly blocking the androgen receptor (flutamide) or inhibiting androgen activity at various levels, corticosteroids, spironolactone, cimetidine, and ketoconazole. After 3 months of treatment control of seborrhea and acne can be obtained. Low-dose corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone, or dexamethasone) are indicated in patients with adrenal hyperandrogenism or acne fulminans. New developments and future trends represent low-dose long-term isotretinoin regimens, new isotretinoin formulations (micronized isotretinoin), isotretinoin metabolites, combination treatments to reduce toxicity, insulin-sensitizing agents, 5alpha-reductase type 1 inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotide molecules, and, especially, new anti-inflammatory agents, such as lipoxygenase inhibitors.

  17. Malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments for protecting sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal proteins against ruminal degradation and increasing intestinal amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J M; González, J; Ouarti, M; Silván, J M; Ruiz del Castillo, M L; de la Peña Moreno, F

    2013-02-01

    The protection of sunflower meal (SFM) proteins by treatments with solutions of malic acid (1 M) or orthophosphoric acid (0.67 M) and heat was studied in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design using three diets and three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers. Acid solutions were applied to SFM at a rate of 400 ml/kg under continuous mixing. Subsequently, treated meals were dried in an oven at 150°C for 6 h. Diets (ingested at 75 g/kg BW0.75) were isoproteic and included 40% Italian ryegrass hay and 60% concentrate. The ratio of untreated to treated SFM in the concentrate was 100 : 0 in the control diet and around 40 : 60 in diets including acid-treated meals. The use of acid-treated meals did not alter either ruminal fermentation or composition of rumen contents and led to moderate reductions of the rumen outflow rates of untreated SFM particles, whereas it did not affect their comminution and mixing rate. In situ effective estimates of by-pass (BP) and its intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of dry matter (DM), CP and amino acids (AAs) were obtained considering both rates and correcting the particle microbial contamination in the rumen using 15N infusion techniques. Estimates of BP and IED decreased applying microbial correction, but these variations were low in agreement with the small contamination level. Protective treatments increased on average the BP of DM (48.5%) and CP (267%), mainly decreasing both the soluble fraction and the degradation rate but also increasing the undegradable fraction, which was higher using orthophosphoric acid. Protective treatments increased the IED of DM (108%) and CP, but this increase was lower using orthophosphoric acid (11.8%) than malic acid (20.7%). Concentrations of AA were similar among all meals, except for a reduction in lysine concentrations using malic acid (16.3%) or orthophosphoric acid (20.5%). Protective treatments also increased on average the BP of all AA, as well as the IED of most of them. Evidence of higher

  18. Solution of Azelaic Acid (20%), Resorcinol (10%) and Phytic Acid (6%) Versus Glycolic Acid (50%) Peeling Agent in the Treatment of Female Patients with Facial Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Faghihi, Gita; Taheri, Azam; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Melasma, a common acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, especially in women, is often resistant to therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid solution in chemical peeling of melasma in comparison to 50% glycolic acid. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed, on 42 female patients with bilateral melasma. Severity of melasma was assessed by melasma area and severity index (MASI). Combination of (20% azelaic acid + 10% resorcinol + 6% phytic acid) was used as a new peeling agent on the right side of the face and 50% glycolic acid on the left side every 2 weeks for 6 times. Follow-up was carried out for 3 months after the last session. Any decrease in MASI score and unwanted complications following peeling were evaluated and compared during the trial. Results: Patients showed marked improvement as calculated with MASI score before and after treatment in both sides of the face. The efficacy of combination formula (azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid) was similar to glycolic acid, but with fewer complications. There was no statistically difference in improvement between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the patient's discomfort following procedures was significantly lower with azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic compared with the glycolic acid peels (P < 0.05) and there was the same duration in the beginning of the therapeutic response in both groups. Conclusion: Results showed that triple-combination was found to be an effective and safe peeling agent in the treatment of melasma and it was as effective as 50% glycolic acid peel. PMID:28299301

  19. Fluidized bed ash and passive treatment reduce the adverse effects of acid mine drainage on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Porter, Clint M; Nairn, Robert W

    2010-10-15

    Elevated concentrations of acidity and metals in acid mine drainage (AMD) may be effectively addressed by active and passive treatment technologies. However, typical evaluations consider only chemical water quality with little if any regard for biological metrics. Robust evaluations including both chemical and biological indicators of water quality improvement are needed. In this study, injection of alkaline fluidized bed ash (FBA) into a flooded underground coal mine was coupled with a five-cell passive treatment system to ameliorate an abandoned AMD discharge in eastern Oklahoma. The passive system included process units promoting both aerobic and anaerobic treatment mechanisms. Resulting water quality changes and biological responses were evaluated. Organisms of two distinct functional groups (the filter-feeding mollusk Corbicula fluminea and the wide-spectrum feeding fish Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to mine waters in several treatment cells. The combination of treatment technologies was hypothesized to limit potential negative effects on these aquatic organisms. Tissues were harvested and analyzed for concentrations of several metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Ni, Cu and Zn) of interest. Organismal responses, such as hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and condition index, did not vary significantly among organisms exposed within different treatment cells when compared to non-AMD impaired waters. Metal tissue accumulation trends, compared to aqueous concentrations, were observed for Fe, Ni and Zn. Exposure experiments with these two organisms indicated that FBA introductions coupled with passive treatment decreased the potential adverse effects of AMD to biological systems.

  20. Ultraviolet-induced oxidation of ascorbic acid in a model juice system: identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Tikekar, Rohan V; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Elias, Ryan J; LaBorde, Luke F

    2011-08-10

    Degradation products of ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) treated ascorbic acid (AA) are reported. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS) conducted in a 0.5% malic acid model juice system (pH 3.3) demonstrated increased degradation of AA above untreated controls with concomitant increases in dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and 2,3-diketogulonic acid (DKGA) levels. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy studies, conducted in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to increase detection sensitivity, demonstrated that ascorbyl radical (AA•) formation occurs simultaneously with AA degradation. Consistent with a previous study in which UV treatments were shown to accelerate dark storage degradation, AA• radicals continued to form for up to 200 min after an initial UV treatment. Results from this study suggest that the mechanism for UV-induced degradation is the same as the general mechanism for metal-catalyzed oxidation of AA in juice.

  1. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Krumhansl, James L.; Chwirka, Joseph D.

    2009-04-07

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  2. Limestone fluidized bed treatment of acid-impacted water at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.J.; Haines, T.A.; Spaulding, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of atmospheric acid deposition have resulted in widespread lake and river acidification in the northeastern U.S. Biological effects of acidification include increased mortality of sensitive aquatic species such as the endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a limestone-based fluidized bed system for the treatment of acid-impacted waters. The treatment system was tested at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine over a period of 3 years. The product water from the treatment system was diluted with hatchery water to prepare water supplies with three different levels of alkalinity for testing of fish health and survival. Based on positive results from a prototype system used in the first year of the study, a larger demonstration system was used in the second and third years with the objective of decreasing operating costs. Carbon dioxide was used to accelerate limestone dissolution, and was the major factor in system performance, as evidenced by the model result: Alk = 72.84 ?? P(CO2)1/2; R2 = 0.975. No significant acidic incursions were noted for the control water over the course of the study. Had these incursions occurred, survivability in the untreated water would likely have been much more severely impacted. Treated water consistently provided elevated alkalinity and pH above that of the hatchery source water. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Pirillo, Angela; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2013-12-20

    Hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease; high-risk patients with HTG, such as those with metabolic syndrome or diabetes, may benefit from hypolipidaemic therapies. Several lipid-lowering drugs act by reducing triglyceride (TG) levels, including fibrates, nicotinic acid and omega-3 fatty acids. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dose-dependently reduce plasma TG levels; the effect tends to be greater in patients with higher TG levels at baseline. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that EPA+DHA doses of ≥ 2 g/day are required to achieve significant effects. The optimal TG-lowering doses of EPA+DHA are 3-4 g/day, with little evidence to support lipid-altering efficacy of doses of EPA and DHA <1g/day. Predicted changes in fasting serum TG levels at the recommended dietary intakes of EPA and/or DHA of 200-500 mg/day are -3.1% to -7.2%. Reductions of plasma TG levels at the optimal doses are from 25-35% up to 45% in the presence of severely elevated TG levels (≥ 500 mg/dl; ≥ 5.65 mmol/l), along with a reduction in non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and an increase in HDL-C. This observation has also been confirmed in statin-treated patients.

  4. Comparison of shear bond strength of two porcelain repair systems after different surface treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ashish; Mohan, Murali S.; Gowda, E. Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraoral chair side porcelain repair system is a quick, painless and highly patient acceptable procedure, without removal of restoration or fabrication of new restoration. There are very limited studies conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of repair systems after different surface treatment. Objectives of Research: The objective of research was to evaluate the shear bond strength of two intraoral porcelain repair systems Clearfil repair system (Kuraray) and Ceramic repair system (Ivoclar) to repair metal-ceramic restoration after three different surface treatment. Materials and Methods: Totally, 120 discs of base metal alloy were fabricated. The opaque, dentine and enamel of ceramic were applied to achieve the uniform thickness. Defect was created, and repair was done using two repair systems after different surface treatment. Shear bond strength was measured. Results: Analysis of variance was utilized. Ceramic repair system after 40% phosphoric acid surface treatment showed the highest mean value and Clearfil repair system after surface treatment with 37% phosphoric acid showed the lowest. The statistical difference was found to be significant between the groups. Conclusion: The shear bond strength of Ceramic repair system with 40% phosphoric acid etching showed highest shear bond strength as compared to other system and surface treatment used in the study. PMID:26097354

  5. Amino acid synthesis in a supercritical carbon dioxide - water system.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Shiohara, Tomoo; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Manome, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-06-15

    Mars is a CO(2)-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO(2)-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO(2)/liquid H(2)O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life's origin.

  6. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Shiohara, Tomoo; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Manome, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin. PMID:19582225

  7. Population dynamics in bioaugmented membrane bioreactor for treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Wang, Jing; Xing, Lin-Lin; Jiang, Nan; Gou, Min; Salah Uddin, M

    2009-01-01

    The performances and microbial population changes in laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) augmented with Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY were investigated in the present study. It was demonstrated that after 30 days acclimation, the non-augmented MBR system were able to degrade bromoamine acid (BAA) well. However, the efficiency of the system decreased with BAA concentration increasing. While the augmented MBR showed higher capability, in which the color and COD removal were more than 90% and 50%, respectively. By ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), it was found that BAA-utilizing populations gradually increased to become the dominant species in the non-augmented MBR. However, the augmented MBR possessed relatively stable treatment abilities, in which the introduced strain QYY could be persistent and co-exist well with the indigenous populations.

  8. Acid-base homeostasis in the human system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Acid-base regulation is a cooperative phenomena in vivo with body fluids, extracellular and intracellular buffers, lungs, and kidneys all playing important roles. The present account is much too brief to be considered a review of present knowledge of these regulatory systems, and should be viewed, instead, as a guide to the elements necessary to construct a simple model of the mutual interactions of the acid-base regulatory systems of the body.

  9. Acid pre-treatment method for in situ ore leaching

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.; Braun, R.L.

    1975-10-28

    An acid leaching method is described for the recovery of a desired element from a subterranean rubblized body of primary ore containing the element and also having associated therewith a carbonate mineral wherein the rubblized ore body is flooded with an aqueous acidic solution in order to release carbon dioxide from the associated carbonate mineral. After a substantial portion of the available carbon dioxide is released and removed from the ore body, as by venting to the atmosphere, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the flooded, rubblized ore to oxidize the ore and form an acid leach solution effective in the presence of the dissolved oxidizing gas to dissolve the ore and cause the desired element to go into solution. The leach solution is then circulated to the surface where the metal values are recovered therefrom.

  10. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Palak J; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by progressive nonsuppurative destruction of small bile ducts, resulting in intrahepatic cholestasis, fibrosis and ultimately end-stage liver disease. Timely intervention with ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with excellent survival, although approximately one-third of all patients fail to achieve biochemical response, signifying a critical need for additional therapeutic strategies. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a potent ligand of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Activation of FXR inhibits bile acid synthesis and protects against toxic accumulation in models of cholestasis and facilitates hepatic regeneration in preclinical studies. Data from recent Phase II and III controlled trials suggest a therapeutic impact of OCA in PBC biochemical nonresponders, as evidenced by change in proven laboratory surrogates of long-term outcome. Dose-dependent pruritus is a common adverse effect, but may be overcome through dose-titration. Longer term studies are needed with focus on safety and long-term clinical efficacy.

  11. Kinetics of color development of melanoidins formed from fructose/amino acid model systems.

    PubMed

    Echavarría, A P; Pagán, J; Ibarz, A

    2014-03-01

    The formation of soluble melanoidins from a single combination of sugar (fructose) and amino acid model systems were evaluated kinetically. The selected amino acids, commonly found in apple juice and highly reactive in the Maillard reaction, were asparagine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. The effect of these reagents and the treatment at different temperatures (50 , 85 , and 100 ) during 96 h on the color intensity of the melanoidin formed was measured by absorbance at different wavelengths (280, 325, 405, and 420 nm). The absorbance of the melanoidin formed from all model systems was located on the wavelength of 405 nm, that is, the area of the visible spectrum close to the UV region. The color of the melanoidins was directly measured using the CIELAB color space system. A first-order kinetic model was applied to the evolution of the ΔE * (color difference) and L * (lightness) of the color. The fructose/aspartic acid model system values of a * (redness) and b * (yellowness) were found in the brown-red zone. Therefore, the color development of the melanoidins was influenced by the type of amino acid and temperature. Especially, it is thought that the a * and b * values can be used to explain the differences among the amino acids in the color development of melanoidins.

  12. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    PubMed

    Mladenović, Ivica; Lažetić, Goran; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of

  13. Improvements in patient treatment planning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Atkinson, C.A.; Babcock, R.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) software system is used to develop treatment planning information. In typical use BNCT-Rtpe consists of three main components: (1) Semi-automated geometric modeling of objects (brain, target, eyes, sinus) derived from MRI, CT, and other medical imaging modalities, (2) Dose computations for these geometric models with rtt-MC, the INEL Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code, and (3) Dose contouring overlaid on medical images as well as generation of other dose displays. We continue to develop a planning system based on three-dimensional image-based reconstructions using Bspline surfaces. Even though this software is in an experimental state, it has been applied for large animal research and for an isolated case of treatment for a human glioma. Radiation transport is based on Monte Carlo, however there will be implementations of faster methods (e.g. diffusion theory) in the future. The important thing for treatment planning is the output which must convey, to the radiologist, the deposition of dose to healthy and target tissue. Many edits are available such that one can obtain contours registered to medical image, dose/volume histograms and most information required for treatment planning and response assessment. Recent work has been to make the process more automatic and easier to use. The interface, now implemented for contouring and reconstruction, utilizes the Xwindowing system and the MOTIF graphical users interface for effective interaction with the planner. Much work still remains before the tool can be applied in a routine clinical setting.

  14. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles in treatment of acid mine water from in situ uranium leaching.

    PubMed

    Klimkova, Stepanka; Cernik, Miroslav; Lacinova, Lenka; Filip, Jan; Jancik, Dalibor; Zboril, Radek

    2011-02-01

    Acid mine water from in situ chemical leaching of uranium (Straz pod Ralskem, Czech Republic) was treated in laboratory scale experiments by zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI). For the first time, nZVI were applied for the treatment of the real acid water system containing the miscellaneous mixture of pollutants, where the various removal mechanisms occur simultaneously. Toxicity of the treated saline acid water is caused by major contaminants represented by aluminum and sulphates in a high concentration, as well as by microcontaminants like As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, U, V, and Zn. Laboratory batch experiments proved a significant decrease in concentrations of all the monitored pollutants due to an increase in pH and a decrease in oxidation-reduction potential related to an application of nZVI. The assumed mechanisms of contaminants removal include precipitation of cations in a lower oxidation state, precipitation caused by a simple pH increase and co-precipitation with the formed iron oxyhydroxides. The possibility to control the reaction kinetics through the nature of the surface stabilizing shell (polymer vs. FeO nanolayer) is discussed as an important practical aspect.

  15. Enzyme-entrapped mesoporous silica for treatment of uric acid disorders.

    PubMed

    Muthukoori, Shanthini; Narayanan, Naagarajan; Chandra, Manuguri Sesha Sarath; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2013-05-01

    Gout is an abnormality in the body resulting in the accumulation of uric acid mainly in joints. Dissolution of uric acid crystals into soluble allantoin by the enzyme uricase might provide a better alternative for the treatment of gout. This work aims to investigate the feasibility of a transdermal patch loaded with uricase for better patient compliance. Mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was chosen as the matrix for immobilisation of uricase. Highly oriented mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized, characterized and uricase was physisorbed in the mesoporous material. The percentage adsorption and release of enzyme in borate buffer was monitored. The release followed linear kinetics and greater than 80% enzyme activity was retained indicating the potential of this system as an effective enzyme immobilization matrix. The enzyme permeability was studied with Wistar rat skin and human cadaver skin. It was found that in case of untreated rat skin 10% of enzyme permeated through skin in 100 h. The permeation increased by adding permeation enhancer (combination of oleic acid in propylene glycol (OA in PG)). The permeation enhancement was studied under two concentrations of OA in PG (1%, 5%) in both rat and human cadaver skin and it was found that 1% OA in PG showed better result in rat skin and 5% OA in PG showed good results in human cadaver skin.

  16. Sequential lignin depolymerization by combination of biocatalytic and formic acid/formate treatment steps.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Christoph A; Čvančarová, Monika; Ammann, Erik M; Schäffer, Andreas; Shahgaldian, Patrick; Corvini, Philippe F-X

    2017-03-01

    Lignin, a complex three-dimensional amorphous polymer, is considered to be a potential natural renewable resource for the production of low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds. In the present study, a novel sequential lignin treatment method consisting of a biocatalytic oxidation step followed by a formic acid-induced lignin depolymerization step was developed and optimized using response surface methodology. The biocatalytic step employed a laccase mediator system using the redox mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Laccases were immobilized on superparamagnetic nanoparticles using a sorption-assisted surface conjugation method allowing easy separation and reuse of the biocatalysts after treatment. Under optimized conditions, as much as 45 wt% of lignin could be solubilized either in aqueous solution after the first treatment or in ethyl acetate after the second (chemical) treatment. The solubilized products were found to be mainly low-molecular-weight aromatic monomers and oligomers. The process might be used for the production of low-molecular-weight soluble aromatic products that can be purified and/or upgraded applying further downstream processes.

  17. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria and their potential in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Allergy is one of the most important and very common health problems worldwide. To reduce the proportion of people suffering from allergy, alternative methods of prevention and treatment are sought. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics are live microorganisms belonging mainly to the lactic acid bacteria. They modify the microflora of the human digestive system, especially the intestinal microflora. Prophylactic administration of probiotics in the early stages of life (naturally in breast milk or milk substitute synthetic compounds) is very important because intestinal microflora plays a huge role in the development of the immune system. Prevention of allergies as early as in the prenatal and postnatal periods provides huge opportunities for inhibiting the growing problem of allergy in emerging and highly developed societies. Effects of probiotic therapy depend on many factors such as the species of the microorganism used, the dose size and characteristics of the bacteria such as viability and capacity of adhesion to the intestinal walls. Authors of several studies showed beneficial effects of probiotics in the perinatal period, infancy, and also in adults in the prevention of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. Probiotics, due to their immunomodulatory properties and safety of use are a good, natural alternative for the prevention and treatment of many diseases including allergies. It is therefore important to explore the knowledge about their use and to carry out further clinical trials. PMID:26155109

  18. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  19. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: successful treatment with squaric acid dibutylester.

    PubMed

    Kehdy, Jessica; Erickson, Corrine; Rady, Peter; Tyring, Stephen; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2015-08-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare disorder characterized by disseminated cutaneous warts in predisposed patients who are highly susceptible to genus ß-papillomavirus infections. We present the case of a 40-year-old lymphocytopenic woman with a balanced chromosomal translocation and a 25-year history of refractory EV that was successfully treated with squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) contact immunotherapy.

  20. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elimination of microbial and/or enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot-water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases. Other so...

  1. Could peracetic acid be an alternative treatment in aquaculture?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing and medical facilities. It has recently been tested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Saprolegnia parasitica. Free-swimming theronts of I. multifiliis can be eliminated u...

  2. Dynamic peracetic acid (PAA) exposure, a treatment strategy against ectoparasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternative therapeutic agents is a difficult and laborious task. The use of peracetic acid (PAA) has recently been evaluated as an alternative compound for disinfection (Gustavino et al., 2005). In addition to having a broad antimicrobial spectrum, PAA does not contribute to the form...

  3. The Promotion of Indole-3-acetic Acid Oxidation in Pea Buds by Gibberellic Acid and Treatment 1

    PubMed Central

    Ockerse, Ralph; Waber, Jack

    1970-01-01

    Terminal buds of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings have an indole-3-acetic acid oxidase which does not require Mn2+ and 2,4-dichlorophenol as cofactors. Oxidase activity is at least 50 times higher in buds of tall peas than in dwarf seedlings. Administration of gibberellic acid to dwarf peas stimulates both growth and indoleacetic acid oxidase activity to the same levels as in tall seedlings. By contrast, indoleacetic acid oxidation assayed in the presence of Mn2+ and 2,4-dichlorophenol proceeds at similar rates regardless of gibberellin application. Treatment of tall peas with the growth retardant AMO-1618 reduces growth and oxidase activity. Such treated seedlings are indistinguishably dwarf. The enzyme does not appear to be polyphenol oxidase, nor do the results suggest that reduced activity in dwarf buds is due to higher levels of a dialyzable inhibitor. The peroxidative nature of the oxidase is probable. PMID:5500209

  4. High throughput chemical munitions treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Haroldsen, Brent L [Manteca, CA; Stofleth, Jerome H [Albuquerque, NM; Didlake, Jr., John E.; Wu, Benjamin C-P [San Ramon, CA

    2011-11-01

    A new High-Throughput Explosive Destruction System is disclosed. The new system is comprised of two side-by-side detonation containment vessels each comprising first and second halves that feed into a single agent treatment vessel. Both detonation containment vessels further comprise a surrounding ventilation facility. Moreover, the detonation containment vessels are designed to separate into two half-shells, wherein one shell can be moved axially away from the fixed, second half for ease of access and loading. The vessels are closed by means of a surrounding, clam-shell type locking seal mechanisms.

  5. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  6. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  7. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kiriyama, Yoshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems. PMID:28053803

  8. THE USE OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey A. Canty; Jess W. Everett

    2004-09-30

    In 1994 a demonstration project was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of using CCBs for the in situ treatment of acidic mine water. Actual injection of alkaline material was performed in 1997 with initial positive results; however, the amount of alkalinity added to the system was limited and resulted in short duration treatment. In 1999, a CBRC grant was awarded to further investigate the effectiveness of alkaline injection technology (AIT). Funds were released in fall 2001. In December 2001, 2500 tons of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash were injected into the wells used in the 1997 injection project. Post injection monitoring continued for 24 months. During this period the mine chemistry had gone through a series of chemical changes that manifested as stages or ''treatment phases.'' The mine system appeared to be in the midst of reestablishing equilibrium with the partial pressure of mine headspace. Alkalinity and pH appeared to be gradually increasing during this transition. As of December 2003, the pH and alkalinity were roughly 7.3 and 65 ppm, respectively. Metal concentrations were significantly lower than pre-injection levels, but iron and manganese concentrations appeared to be gradually increasing (roughly 30 ppm and 1.25 ppm, respectively). Aluminum, nickel, and zinc were less than pre-injection concentrations and did not appear to be increasing (roughly

  9. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 862.1509 Section 862.1509 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... The identification of methylmalonic acid in urine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of methylmalonic aciduria, a heritable metabolic disorder which, if untreated, may cause mental retardation....

  10. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 862.1509 Section 862.1509 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... The identification of methylmalonic acid in urine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of methylmalonic aciduria, a heritable metabolic disorder which, if untreated, may cause mental retardation....

  11. 21 CFR 862.1509 - Methylmalonic acid (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 862.1509 Section 862.1509 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... The identification of methylmalonic acid in urine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of methylmalonic aciduria, a heritable metabolic disorder which, if untreated, may cause mental retardation....

  12. Electrochemical treatment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in groundwater impacted by aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Charles E; Andaya, Christina; Urtiaga, Ana; McKenzie, Erica R; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-09-15

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the use of electrochemical treatment for the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), as well as other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)-impacted groundwater collected from a former firefighter training area and PFAA-spiked synthetic groundwater. Using a commercially-produced Ti/RuO2 anode in a divided electrochemical cell, PFOA and PFOS decomposition was evaluated as a function of current density (0-20 mA/cm(2)). Decomposition of both PFOA and PFOS increased with increasing current density, although the decomposition of PFOS did not increase as the current density was increased above 2.5 mA/cm(2). At a current density of 10 mA/cm(2), the first-order rate constants, normalized for current density and treatment volume, for electrochemical treatment of both PFOA and PFOS were 46 × 10(-5) and 70 × 10(-5) [(min(-1)) (mA/cm(2))(-1) (L)], respectively. Defluorination was confirmed for both PFOA and PFOS, with 58% and 98% recovery as fluoride, respectively (based upon the mass of PFOA and PFOS degraded). Treatment of other PFAAs present in the groundwater also was observed, with shorter chain PFAAs generally being more recalcitrant. Results highlight the potential for electrochemical treatment of PFAAs, particularly PFOA and PFOS, in AFFF-impacted groundwater.

  13. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  14. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-05

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As.

  15. A combined CaO/electrochemical treatment of the acid mine drainage from the "Robule" Lake.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was development and application of the purification system suitable for the treatment of the acid mine drainage (AMD) accumulated in the "Robule" Lake, which represents the part of the Bor copper mining and smelting complex, Serbia. The study was undertaken in order to minimize adverse effect on the environment caused by the discharge of untreated AMD, which was characterized with low pH value (2.63) and high concentration of heavy metals (up to 610 mg/L) and sulfates (up to 12,000 mg/L). The treatment of the effluent included pretreatment/pH adjustment with CaO followed by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrode sets. Following the final treatment, the decrease in the concentration of heavy metals ranged from 40 up to 61000 times depending on the metal and its initial concentration. The parameters, color and turbidity were removed completely in the pretreatment step, while the removal efficiencies for other considered parameters were as follows: EC = 55.48%, SO(4) (2-) = 70.83%, Hg = 98.36%, Pb = 97.50%, V = 98.43%, Cr = 99.86%, Mn = 97.96%, Fe = 100.00%, Co = 99.96%, Ni = 99.78%, Cu = 99.99% and Zn = 99.94%. Because the concentrations of heavy metals in the electrochemically treated AMD (ranging from 0.001 to 0.336 mg/L) are very low, the negative impact of this effluent on the aquatic life and humans is not expected. The sludge generated during the treatment of AMD is suitable for reuse for at least two purposes (pretreatment of AMD and covering of the flotation waste heap). From the presented results, it could be concluded that electrochemical treatment is a suitable approach for the treatment of AMD.

  16. [Injuries caused by acids and bases - emergency treatment].

    PubMed

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Kaiser, Guido; Freudenberg, Matthias; Kerner, Thoralf

    2014-06-01

    Emergency medical care for injuries caused by acids and bases is challenging for rescue services. They have to deal with operational safety, detection of the toxic agent, emergency medical care of the patient and handling of the rescue mission. Because of the rareness of such situations experience and routine are largely missing. This article highlights some basic points for the therapy and provides support for such rescue missions.

  17. Development and characterization of a hydrophobic treatment for jute fibres based on zinc oxide nanoparticles and a fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, M. A.; Dolez, P. I.; Dubé, M.; David, É.

    2017-03-01

    This work aims at developing a hydrophobic treatment for jute fibres based on the grafting and growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods on the fibre surface. The first step consists in removing impurities from the fibre surface with a scouring treatment. In the second step, the jute fibres are coated with a layer of ZnO nanoseeds. A hydrothermal process is carried out as a third step to ensure a uniform growth of ZnO nanorods on the surface of the jute fibres. Finally, a hydrophobic treatment is performed on the ZnO nanorod-covered jute fibres using stearic acid (SA), i.e., a typical fatty acid. A large improvement in the fibre hydrophobicity was obtained without any negative effect on thermal stability and limited reduction in strength. Complementary measurements by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were also performed and revealed a hexagonal system for the ZnO nanorods.

  18. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application.

  19. Surface Treatment System Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Ryan; Gershman, Sophia; Faust, Jessica

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have been used recently to improve surface properties of materials. For example, plasma treatment improves wettability, activates and functionalizes the surface of polyethylene making it more suitable for biological applications. We have designed and constructed a system that allows the study of the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the surface properties of treated materials. Preliminary results show that 55 second treatment by the DBD in a 1mm gap reduces the contact angle of polyethylene from 78 +/- 1 before to 40 +/- 1 after the treatment. The DBD is generated using a 15kV, 1kHz pulsed dc power supply a mixture of Ar and O2 as the carrier gas. The study parameters include the ratios of O2 to Ar, the power supply frequency and duty cycle. To perform surface analysis, we have designed a transfer chamber. A bellows drive is used to transport the sample to the mobile transfer chamber and then to a test chamber without exposure to the environment. Plasma treatment improves biological compatibility of polyethylene and makes it suitable for use in implants, prosthetics, and cell cultures.

  20. Systemic Treatment of Pediatric Psoriasis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Balato, Anna; Ayala, Fabio; Lembo, Serena; Villani, Alessia; Balato, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory skin disease, affecting 1-3% of the white population. Although the existence of two psoriasis incidence peaks has been suggested (one in adolescence before 20 years of age and another in adulthood), its onset may occur at any age, including childhood and adolescence, in which the incidence is now estimated at 40.8 per 100,000. As for adult psoriasis, pediatric psoriasis has recently been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, increased waist circumference percentiles and metabolic laboratory abnormalities, warranting early monitoring and lifestyle modifications. In addition, due to psoriasis' chronic nature and frequently occurring relapses, psoriatic patients tend to have an impaired quality of life, often requiring long-term treatment. Therefore, education of both pediatric patients and their parents is essential to successful and safe disease management. Given the lack of officially approved therapies, the very limited evidence-based data from randomized controlled trials, and the absence of standardized guidelines, to date, pediatric psoriasis treatment is primarily based on published case reports, case series, guidelines for adult psoriasis, expert opinions and experience with these drugs in other pediatric disorders coming from the disciplines of rheumatology, gastroenterology and oncology. This review focuses on the use of systemic treatments in pediatric psoriasis and their specific features, analyzing the few literature evidences available, expanding the treatment repertoire and guiding dermatologists in better managing of recalcitrant pediatric psoriasis.

  1. A treatment planning system for pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandell, Julia; Chang, Chang; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2010-02-01

    Uniform light fluence distribution for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is critical to ensure predictable PDT outcome. However, common practice uses a point source to deliver light to the pleural cavity. To improve the uniformity of light fluence rate distribution, we have developed a treatment planning system using an infrared camera to track the movement of the point source. This study examines the light fluence (rate) delivered to chest phantom to simulate a patient undergoing pleural PDT. Fluence rate (mW/cm2) and cumulative fluence (J/cm2) was monitored at 7 different sites during the entire light treatment delivery. Isotropic detectors were used for in-vivo light dosimetry. Light fluence rate in the pleural cavity is also calculated using the diffusion approximation with a finite-element model. We have established a correlation between the light fluence rate distribution and the light fluence rate measured on the selected points based on a spherical cavity model. Integrating sphere theory is used to aid the calculation of light fluence rate on the surface of the sphere as well as inside tissue assuming uniform optical properties. The resulting treatment planning tool can be valuable as a clinical guideline for future pleural PDT treatment.

  2. Systemic vasculitis associated with vemurafenib treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mirouse, Adrien; Savey, Léa; Domont, Fanny; Comarmond, Cloé; Barete, Stéphane; Plaisier, Emmanuelle; Rouvier, Philippe; Cacoub, Patrice; Saadoun, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Vemurafenib, an inhibitor of mutated B-rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma, is frequently used in the treatment of melanoma and Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) patients. Inflammatory adverse effects have been increasingly reported after vemurafenib treatment. Patient concerns and diagnose: We report 6 cases of vemurafenib-associated vasculitis, of whom a personal case of a 75-year-old man with history of ECD who developed purpura and rapidly progressive pauci-immune glomerulonephritis during treatment with vemurafenib. Intervention: In the 5 others cases from the literature, all patients presented skin vasculitis, and with joint involvement in 60% of them. Vemurafenib treatment was stopped (n = 3), continued at reduced doses (n = 1), or continued at the same dose (n = 2). Outcomes: Three patients (50%) received corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide (n = 1), and all achieved remission of vasculitis. One patient experienced vasculitis relapse after vemurafenib therapy was restarted. Lessons: Systemic vasculitis is a rare vemurafenib-associated adverse event that may be life-threatening. PMID:27861332

  3. [Maintenance and monitoring of water treatment system].

    PubMed

    Pontoriero, G; Pozzoni, P; Tentori, F; Scaravilli, P; Locatelli, F

    2005-01-01

    Water treatment systems must be submitted to maintenance, disinfections and monitoring periodically. The aim of this review is to analyze how these processes must complement each other in order to preserve the efficiency of the system and optimize the dialysis fluid quality. The correct working of the preparatory process (pre-treatment) and the final phase of depuration (reverse osmosis) of the system need a periodic preventive maintenance and the regular substitution of worn or exhausted components (i.e. the salt of softeners' brine tank, cartridge filters, activated carbon of carbon tanks) by a competent and trained staff. The membranes of reverse osmosis and the water distribution system, including dialysis machine connections, should be submitted to dis-infections at least monthly. For this purpose it is possible to use chemical and physical agents according to manufacturer' recommendations. Each dialysis unit should predispose a monitoring program designed to check the effectiveness of technical working, maintenance and disinfections and the achievement of chemical and microbiological standards taken as a reference. Generally, the correct composition of purified water is monitored by continuous measuring of conductivity, controlling bacteriological cultures and endotoxin levels (monthly) and checking water contaminants (every 6-12 months). During pre-treatment, water hardness (after softeners) and total chlorine (after chlorine tank) should be checked periodically. Recently the Italian Society of Nephrology has developed clinical guidelines for water and dialysis solutions aimed at suggesting rational procedures for production and monitoring of dialysis fluids. It is hopeful that the application of these guidelines will lead to a positive cultural change and to an improvement in dialysis fluid quality.

  4. Effects of fluoride treatment on phosphoric acid-etching in primary teeth: an AFM observation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Rhee, Yeri; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride application on 37% phosphoric acid-etching by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in primary tooth samples based on a clinical protocol used in a pediatric dental hospital. Enamel samples were prepared from 36 exfoliated and non-carious primary teeth. Primary tooth samples were randomly assigned to one of the four groups based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. Group 1 received no fluoride application, Group 2 was pre-treated with fluoride and then received acid-etching 2 weeks later. One week separated the fluoride treatment and the acid-etching in Group 3, while Group 4 received acid-etching immediately after the fluoride treatment. The vestibular enamel surfaces of each primary tooth sample were scanned in air at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels and a scan speed of 0.8 line/s. On the enamel surfaces of the primary teeth after APF pre-treatment, debris were observed although the teeth were smoother than they were prior to APF. As a result, it was concluded that APF treatment is responsible for decreased primary tooth surface roughness. The enamel surfaces etched for 20s showed that acid-etching was effective not only in removing scratches and debris, but also for evaluating enamel rod characteristics. Primary tooth enamel surfaces after etching showed minute structures caused by the decreased hydroxyapatite nanoparticle space, compared to those before etching. Also, acid-etching showed significantly increased roughness effects (p<0.0001, n=9). Finally, as more time elapsed after APF pre-treatment, the roughness was decreased to a lesser degree (p=0.005, n=9). We suggest that primary teeth etching 2 weeks after APF pre-treatment used clinically in pediatric hospitals may be effective to obtain properly etched enamel surfaces.

  5. Microbial Nucleic Acid Sensing in Oral and Systemic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Crump, K E; Sahingur, S E

    2016-01-01

    One challenge in studying chronic infectious and inflammatory disorders is understanding how host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), specifically toll-like receptors (TLRs), sense and respond to pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, their communication with each other and different components of the immune system, and their role in propagating inflammatory stages of disease. The discovery of innate immune activation through nucleic acid recognition by intracellular PRRs such as endosomal TLRs (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9) and cytoplasmic proteins (absent in melanoma 2 and DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor) opened a new paradigm: Nucleic acid sensing is now implicated in multiple immune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., atherosclerosis, cancer), viral (e.g., human papillomavirus, herpes virus) and bacterial (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, pneumonia) diseases, and autoimmune disorders (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis). Clinical investigations reveal the overexpression of specific nucleic acid sensors in diseased tissues. In vivo animal models show enhanced disease progression associated with receptor activation. The involvement of nucleic acid sensors in various systemic conditions is further supported by studies reporting receptor knockout mice being either protected from or prone to disease. TLR9-mediated inflammation is also implicated in periodontal diseases. Considering that persistent inflammation in the oral cavity is associated with systemic diseases and that oral microbial DNA is isolated at distal sites, nucleic acid sensing may potentially be a link between oral and systemic diseases. In this review, we discuss recent advances in how intracellular PRRs respond to microbial nucleic acids and emerging views on the role of nucleic acid sensors in various systemic diseases. We also highlight new information on the role of intracellular PRRs in the pathogenesis of oral diseases including periodontitis

  6. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862.1320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1095 - Ascorbic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ascorbic acid test system. 862.1095 Section 862.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862.1320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862.1320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862.1320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862.1320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pyruvic acid test system. 862.1655 Section 862.1655 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pyruvic acid test system. 862.1655 Section 862.1655 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  2. [Systemic treatment of melanoma brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Mateus, C; Mortier, L; Dhermain, F; Guillot, B; Grob, J-J; Lebbe, C; Thomas, M; Jouary, T; Leccia, M-T; Robert, C

    2015-02-01

    Melanomas have a high rate of brain metastases. Both the functional prognosis and the overall survival are poor in these patients. Until now, surgery and radiotherapy represented the two main modalities of treatment. Nevertheless, due to the improvement in the management of the extracerebral melanoma, the systemic treatment may be an option in patients with brain metastases. Immunotherapy with anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4) - ipilimumab - or BRAF (serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf) inhibitors - vemurafenib, dabrafenib - has shown efficacy in the management of brain metastases in a- or pauci-symptomatic patients. Studies are ongoing with anti-PD1 (programmed cell death 1) and combinations of targeted therapies associating anti-RAF (raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) and anti-MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase).

  3. [Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression].

    PubMed

    Wilczyńska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities. The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not. There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between the decline of omega-3 PUFA intake and an increasing risk for developing depression is considered.

  4. Alkyl polyglucose enhancing propionic acid enriched short-chain fatty acids production during anaerobic treatment of waste activated sludge and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Sun, Han; Shen, Qiuting; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong

    2015-04-15

    Adding alkyl polyglucose (APG) into an anaerobic treatment system of waste activated sludge (WAS) was reported to remarkably improve the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid via simultaneously accelerating solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancing acidification, inhibiting methanogenesis and balancing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of substrate. Not only the production of SCFAs, especially propionic acid, was significantly improved by APG, but also the feasible operation time was shortened. The SCFAs yield at 0.3 g APG per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) within 4 d was 2988 ± 60 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter, much higher than that those from sole WAS or sole WAS plus sole APG. The corresponding yield of propionic acid was 1312 ± 25 mg COD/L, 7.9-fold of sole WAS. Mechanism investigation showed that during anaerobic treatment of WAS in the presence of APG both the solubilization and hydrolysis were accelerated and the acidification was enhanced, while the methanogenesis was inhibited. Moreover, the activities of key enzymes involved in WAS hydrolysis and acidification were improved through the adjustment of C/N ratio of substrates with APG. The abundance of microorganisms responsible for organic compounds hydrolysis and SCFAs production was also observed to be greatly enhanced with APG via 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis.

  5. Treatment of endometriosis with local acetylsalicylic acid injection: experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Juliana Menezes; Barreto, Adriana Beatriz; Saad-Hossne, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effects of introduction of acetylsalicylic acid solution into peritoneal implants in autologous endometrium as a method for treating endometriosis. Forty adult female rabbits were subdivided into 4 groups of 10 rabbits each, and endometriosis was induced via autotransplantation of endometrial fragments into the peritoneal cavity. At 30 days after induction of endometriosis, all animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 protocols. In protocol 1, animals were evaluated at 24 hours after treatment; group 1 (control) received physiologic solution, and group 2 received acetylsalicylic acid. In protocol 2, animals were evaluated at 10 days after treatment, group 3 (control) and group 4 received acetylsalicylic acid. After measuring the lesion, the endometriotic focus was removed and prepared for mounting on slides for histologic analysis. Imaging software was used for analysis of the total remaining area of endometrial tissue. The affected area in acetylsalicylic acid-treated animals was smaller than that in control animals at 24 hours and 10 days after treatment; a significant difference was found between control and treated groups (p < .001). Statistical analysis comparing protocols 1 and 2 demonstrated no differences between controls groups or acetylsalicylic acid groups (p = .30), and no differences between times (p = .75). Acetylsalicylic acid solution led to less growth (or higher involution) of endometrial implants. Acetylsalicylic acid injected directly into endometriotic foci was effective in their destruction. This presents new perspectives for treatment of endometriosis and for clinical applications based on further clinical studies.

  6. Malonic acid suppresses mucin-type O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Goso, Yukinobu

    2016-03-01

    Hydrazine treatment is frequently used for releasing mucin-type O-glycans (O-glycans) from glycoproteins because the method provides O-glycans that retain a reducible GalNAc at their reducing end, which is available for fluorescent labeling. However, many O-glycans are degraded by "peeling" during this treatment. In the current study, it was found that malonic acid suppressed O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of bovine fetuin or porcine gastric mucin in both the gas and liquid phases. This is paradoxical because the release of O-glycans from glycoproteins occurs under alkaline conditions. However, malonic acid seems to prevent the degradation through its acidic property given that other weak acids also prevented the degradation. Accordingly, disodium malonate did not suppress O-glycan degradation. Application of this method to rat gastric mucin demonstrated that the majority of the major O-glycans obtained in the presence of malonic acid were intact, whereas those obtained in the absence of malonic acid were degraded. These results suggest that hydrazine treatment in the presence of malonic acid would allow glycomic analysis of native mucin glycoproteins.

  7. Acid-sensing ion channels 3: a potential therapeutic target for pain treatment in arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Lai; Chen, Fei-Hu; Lu, Wei-Guo; Li, Xia

    2010-10-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels 3 (ASIC3) is the most sensitive to such a pH change, predominantly distributed in the sensory peripheral nervous system, and strongly correlated with pain. Recently, there is increasing evidence that ASIC3 may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory pain diseases due to it is predominantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons making it a good candidate for a pain sensor. Elevated expression of ASIC3 was found in DRG of rodents with inflamed hind paws. In addition, it has been shown that ASIC3 gene knock-out mice (ASIC3-/-) exhibited no enhanced hyperalgesia in inflamed joint. All theses findings suggest that ASIC3 have important biological effects in inflammation that might be a promising therapeutic target for arthritis pain. In this review, we will briefly discuss the biological features of ASIC3 and summarize recent advances on the role of ASIC3 in the pathogenesis and treatment of arthritis pain.

  8. Hyperargininemia: clinical course and treatment with sodium benzoate and phenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, N; Maehara, M; Hayakawa, C; Kato, T; Watanabe, K; Suzuki, S

    1983-01-01

    In a patient with hyperargininemia, oral administration of sodium benzoate or phenylacetic acid together with an essential amino acid mixture was used to prevent hyperammonemia and to decrease plasma and CSF concentrations of arginine. Sodium benzoate reduced the plasma ammonia levels, which was confirmed by the increase of urinary excretion of hippuric acid. Phenylacetic acid also controlled hyperammonemia, and EEG findings also improved. By these treatments, plasma and CSF concentrations of arginine showed a slight decrease, but were far above the normal range. There was no clinical improvement, and spasticity of the lower and upper extremities was progressive with mental deterioration.

  9. Expert system for neurosurgical treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew Y. S.; Chung, Sally S. Y.; Kwok, John C. K.

    1996-04-01

    A specially designed expert system is in development for neurosurgical treatment planning. The knowledge base contains knowledge and experiences on neurosurgical treatment planning from neurosurgeon consultants, who also determine the risks of different regions in human brains. When completed, the system can simulate the decision making process of neurosurgeons to determine the safest probing path for operation. The Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan images for each patient are grabbed as the input. The system also allows neurosurgeons to include for any particular patient the additional information, such as how the tumor affects its neighboring functional regions, which is also important for calculating the safest probing path. It can then consider all the relevant information and find the most suitable probing path on the patient's brain. A 3D brain model is constructed for each set of the CT/MRI scan images and is displayed real-time together with the possible probing paths found. The precise risk value of each path is shown as a number between 0 and 1, together with its possible damages in text. Neurosurgeons can view more than one possible path simultaneously, and make the final decision on the selected path for operation.

  10. Occurrence of several acidic drugs in sewage treatment plants in Switzerland and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Tauxe-Wuersch, A; De Alencastro, L F; Grandjean, D; Tarradellas, J

    2005-05-01

    The occurrence and fate of five acidic drugs (Mefenamic acid, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac and Clofibric acid) were analysed in three sewage treatment plants (STP) over 4-7 consecutive days. The results point out that the five substances were persistent in wastewater effluents after municipal wastewater treatment. At the most, half of Mefenamic acid was eliminated. Ibuprofen was well removed (80%) by one sewage treatment plant. The removal of Ibuprofen is dependent on the residence time of wastewater in the STPs. A long raining period induce an important decrease of removal of Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen. Removal rates showed a great variability according to sewage treatment plants and types of treatments (e.g. biological, physico-chemical). The concentrations of Ibuprofen, Mefenamic acid and Diclofenac were relatively high in the effluents (150-2000 ng/l), showing a potential contamination of surface water. An environmental risk assessment is presented. Mefenamic acid seems to present a risk for the aquatic environment, with a ratio PEC/PNEC higher than one.

  11. Gastric acid inhibition in the treatment of peptic ulcer hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Kevin A; Kovacs, Thomas O G; Jensen, Dennis M

    2009-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding from peptic ulcer disease is a common clinical event, resulting in considerable patient morbidity and significant health care costs. Inhibiting gastric acid secretion is a key component in improving clinical outcomes, including reducing rebleeding, transfusion requirements, and surgery. Raising intragastric pH promotes clot stability and reduces the influences of gastric acid and pepsin. Patients with high-risk stigmata for ulcer bleeding (arterial bleeding, nonbleeding visible vessels, and adherent clots) benefit significantly from and should receive high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) after successful endoscopic hemostasis. For patients with low-risk stigmata (flat spots or clean ulcer base), oral PPI therapy alone is sufficient. For oozing bleeding (an intermediate risk finding), successful endoscopic hemostasis and oral PPI are recommended. Using intravenous PPIs before endoscopy appears to reduce the frequency of finding high-risk stigmata on later endoscopy, but has not been shown to improve clinical outcomes. High-dose oral PPIs may be as effective as intravenous infusion in achieving positive clinical outcomes, but this has not been documented by randomized studies and its cost-effectiveness is unclear.

  12. Nanofiltration and granular activated carbon treatment of perfluoroalkyl acids.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Timothy D; Dickenson, Eric R V; Bellona, Christopher; Higgins, Christopher P

    2013-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are of concern because of their persistence in the environment and the potential toxicological effects on humans exposed to PFAAs through a variety of possible exposure routes, including contaminated drinking water. This study evaluated the efficacy of nanofiltration (NF) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in removing a suite of PFAAs from water. Virgin flat-sheet NF membranes (NF270, Dow/Filmtec) were tested at permeate fluxes of 17-75 Lm(-2)h(-1) using deionized (DI) water and artificial groundwater. The effects of membrane fouling by humic acid on PFAA rejection were also tested under constant permeate flux conditions. Both virgin and fouled NF270 membranes demonstrated >93% removal for all PFAAs under all conditions tested. GAC efficacy was tested using rapid small-scale columns packed with Calgon Filtrasorb300 (F300) carbon and DI water with and without dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM effects were also evaluated with F600 and Siemens AquaCarb1240C. The F300 GAC had <20% breakthrough of all PFAAs in DI water for up to 125,000 bed volumes (BVs). When DOM was present, >20% breakthrough of all PFAAs by 10,000 BVs was observed for all carbons.

  13. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  14. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  15. Bone-bonding properties of Ti metal subjected to acid and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshiyuki; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Pattanayak, Deepak K; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Kokubo, Tadashi

    2012-12-01

    The effects of surface treatment on the bone-bonding properties of Ti metal were examined by both mechanical detaching test and histological observation after implantation into rabbit tibiae for various periods ranging from 4 to 26 weeks. The bone-bonding ability of Ti metal, which is extremely low as it is abraded, was hardly increased by simple heat treatment at 600 °C or treatment with H(2)SO(4)/HCl mixed acid alone, but was markedly increased by the heat treatment after the acid treatment. Even Ti metal that had been previously subjected to NaOH treatment showed considerably high bone-bonding ability after acid and heat treatments. Such high bonding abilities were attributed to their high apatite-forming ability in the body environment. Their high apatite-forming abilities were attributed to a high positive surface charge, and not to the type of crystalline phase or specific roughness of their surfaces. The present study has demonstrated that acid and subsequent heat treatments are effective for conferring stable fixation properties on Ti metal implants.

  16. Phytic acid as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models

    PubMed Central

    Anekonda, Thimmappa S.; Wadsworth, Teri L.; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes progressive age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunctions leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid beta pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48–72-hour treatment with phytic acid provided complete protection against amyloid precursor protein-C-terminal fragment-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating levels of increased intracellular calcium, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, beta amyloid oligomers, and moderately up-regulated the expression of autophagy (beclin-1) protein. In a tolerance paradigm, wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid in drinking water for 70 days. Phytic acid was well tolerated. Ceruloplasmin activity, brain copper and iron levels and brain superoxide dismutase and ATP levels were unaffected by the treatment. There was a significant increase in brain levels of cytochrome oxidase and a decrease in lipid peroxidation with phytic acid administration. In a treatment paradigm, 12-month old Tg2576 and wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid or vehicle for 6 months. Brain levels of copper, iron, and zinc were unaffected. The effects of phytic acid were modest on the expression of APP trafficking-associated protein AP180, autophagy-associated proteins (beclin-1, LC3B), sirtuin 1, the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (PAMPK) to AMPK, soluble Aβ1-40, and insoluble Aβ1-42. These results suggest that phytic acid may provide a viable treatment option for AD. PMID:20930278

  17. Phytic acid as a potential treatment for alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Anekonda, Thimmappa S; Wadsworth, Teri L; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Quinn, Joseph F

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive, age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunction leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48-72-hour treatment with phytic acid provided complete protection against amyloid precursor protein-C-terminal fragment-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating levels of increased intracellular calcium, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, Aβ oligomers, and moderately upregulated the expression of autophagy (beclin-1) protein. In a tolerance paradigm, wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid in drinking water for 70 days. Phytic acid was well tolerated. Ceruloplasmin activity, brain copper and iron levels, and brain superoxide dismutase and ATP levels were unaffected by the treatment. There was a significant increase in brain levels of cytochrome oxidase and a decrease in lipid peroxidation with phytic acid administration. In a treatment paradigm, 12-month old Tg2576 and wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid or vehicle for 6 months. Brain levels of copper, iron, and zinc were unaffected. The effects of phytic acid were modest on the expression of AβPP trafficking-associated protein AP180, autophagy-associated proteins (beclin-1, LC3B), sirtuin 1, the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (PAMPK) to AMPK, soluble Aβ1-40, and insoluble Aβ1-42. These results suggest that phytic acid may provide a viable treatment option for AD.

  18. Phase diagram of a system of adipic, glutaric, and sebacic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolyado, A. V.; Alenova, S. M.; Garkushin, I. K.

    2016-06-01

    Adipic acid-glutaric acid, glutaric acid-sebacic acid, and adipic acid-sebacic acid binary systems are studied, along with an adipic acid-glutaric acid-sebacic acid ternary system. It is shown all of these systems are eutectic. Phase equilibria for the diagram elements of the binary systems and the ternary system are described. It is concluded that the above low-melting compounds can be recommended for use as working bodies in heat accumulators, and for preparing electrolytes used in the thin-layer anodic oxidation of aluminum alloys.

  19. Computer program design for land treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.K. ); Jantrania, A.

    1989-10-01

    Municipal Sludge Land Application expert System (MuSLAXS)is as expert system developed for site assessment and design analysis of municipal sludge application on agricultural land. The system has knowledge on the technical and regulatory aspects of sludge land application and understanding of soil-plant systems for South Carolina. It can be effectively used outside South Carolina with modifications to incorporate specific regulations on land treatment and soil and crop database. A database supports this expert system and provides appropriate default values for sludge and soil characteristics, and fertilizer recommendations for crops commonly grown in South Carolina. Information on the sludge characteristics is gathered from the user, if it is available, or it is retrieved from the sludge database. Based on the recommendations by the EPA and the expert, a list of 22 constituents, for which the sludge should be analyzed is developed. This list includes: total solids, volatile solids, total nitrogen (TNK), ammonia-nitrogen, organic-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, PCBs, calcium, magnesium, chromium, boron, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and molybdenum.

  20. Treatment of acid mine drainage with anaerobic solid-substrate reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, W.J.

    1999-10-01

    Anaerobic solid-substrate reactors were used in a laboratory study of acid mine drainage treatment. Parallel systems were run continuously for 23 months, both containing a solid substrate of 2:1 (weight) cow manure and sawdust. One system had cheese whey added with the mine drainage to provide an additional electron donor source to simulate sulfate-reducing bacteria activity. Effluent pH from the reactor with whey addition was relatively constant at 6.5. Effluent pH from the reactor without whey addition dropped over time from 6.7 to approximately 5.5. Whey addition increased effluent alkalinity [550 to 700 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) versus 50 to 300 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}] and sulfate removal (98 to 80% versus 60 to 40%). Sulfate removal rate with whey addition decreased over time from 250 to 120 mmol/m{sup 3}{center{underscore}dot}d, whereas it decreased from 250 to 40 mmol/m{sup 3}{center{underscore}dot}d without whey addition. Whey addition increased removal of dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, and dissolved zinc in the second part of the experiment. Copper and cadmium removals were greater than 99%, and arsenic removal was 84% without whey addition and 89% with whey addition. Effluent sulfide concentrations were approximately 1 order of magnitude greater with whey addition. A 63-day period of excessive loading permanently decreased treatment efficiency without whey addition.

  1. Factors Governing the Emergence of Resistance to Nalidixic Acid in Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, David; O'Grady, Francis

    1977-01-01

    Cultures of Escherichia coli were exposed to nalidixic acid in an in vitro model in which the conditions of drug-organism interaction resembled those of bacterial cystitis treatment. Results obtained in this way suggested that emergence of bacterial resistance should not be a major problem in treatment of uncomplicated urinary infection; such cases might indeed respond to a less intensive course of treatment than is usual. More prolonged, high-dosage therapy with nalidixic acid may be required for patients with more complicated infections if the risk of failure from the emergence of bacterial resistance is to be minimized. PMID:337890

  2. A postmarketing surveillance study of dexrabeprazole in the treatment of acid peptic disorders.

    PubMed

    Jain, S C

    2009-02-01

    Dexrabeprazole [R(+) rabeprazole] is a novel proton-pump inhibitor which has recently become available in India for the treatment of acid peptic diseases. Experimental and clinical studies have shown superiority of dexrabeprazole (at half the recommended rabeprazole dose) over rabeprazole in terms of favourable pharmacokinetics, better efficacy and faster and greater healing activity. Results of present study in a large population of 4931 patients of acid peptic disorders, reconfirmed safety and efficacy of dexrabeprazole 10 mg once daily in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and also showed its effectiveness in the treatment of patients with peptic ulcers (gastric/duodenal).

  3. Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R.; Dunn, C.

    1997-12-31

    In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.

  4. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Beneden, Katrien; Geers, Caroline; Pauwels, Marina; Mannaerts, Inge; Wissing, Karl M.; Van den Branden, Christiane; Grunsven, Leo A. van

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  5. Comprehensive Treatment of Periorbital Region with Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Camila Roos Mariano Da; Bastos, Julien Toni De; Silva, Priscila Mara Chaves e

    2015-01-01

    The periorbital subunit is one of the first facial regions to show signs of aging, primarily due to volume depletion of the soft tissue and bony resorption. Surgical and office-based nonsurgical procedures form an important basis for periorbital rejuvenation. It is important to make a detailed clinical evaluation of the patient to indicate the most appropriate procedure to be performed. With the objective of showing a nonsurgical procedure for the rejuvenation of the periorbital area, the authors describe a technique of applying fillers in the upper and lower periorbital regions, paying attention to the anatomy of this facial region and the type of product to be used besides the expected results of the procedure and its possible adverse effects and complications. The nonsurgical rejuvenation of the periorbicular region with hyaluronic acid is a new and innovative technique. In the opinion of the authors, it is a great aesthetic impact area and consequently brings high satisfaction to patients. PMID:26155325

  6. Siphons for Geosiphon{trademark} Treatment Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.A.

    2001-07-26

    GeoSiphon{trademark} systems (patent pending) induce contaminated groundwater flow through permeable treatment media by utilizing a siphon between two points of hydraulic head difference. A siphon is a closed conduit that conveys liquid from a point of higher hydraulic head to one of lower head after raising it to a higher intermediate elevation, at sub-atmospheric conditions (negative gauge pressures or vacuum), without external power input. All surface waters and groundwaters contain dissolved gases, which degas within a siphon due to the vacuum and temperature within the siphon. Bubbles form, and if not properly managed will accumulate in the siphon, gradually reducing the flow rate until the system is ultimately shut down. Therefore appropriate management of gas within a siphon is the primary factor that must be considered to maintain continuous siphon flow. This report provides an overview of GeoSiphon technology and generic details concerning de-gassing in siphons and associated gas management methods.

  7. Medical waste treatment and decontamination system

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.

    2001-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which hybrid microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional hybrid microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  8. Downhole seismic monitoring of an acid treatment in the Beowawe Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, R.; Albright, J.N.; Bradley, C.

    1984-01-01

    During the acid treatment of a subeconomic well at the Beowawe Geothermal Field, numerous seismic events were detected of which 22 could be located. The events occurred following a first stage of the acid treatment and generally define a trend paralleling the surface trace of the Malpais fault. No seismic signals were detected following a second stage of the acid treatment, despite the injection of almost twice as much additional fluid. It is postulated that the cause of seismic events following the first stage was due to shear failure of chemically weakened cemented fracturs or joints in the reservoir. Presumably reservoir strain was sufficiently reduced to preclude further rock failure during the second day of treatment.

  9. Status of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.; Prokopius, P. R.; Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the current commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system development efforts is presented. In both the electric utility and on-site integrated energy system applications, reducing cost and increasing reliability are important. The barrier to the attainment of these goals has been materials. The differences in approach among the three major participants are their technological features, including electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, fuel selection and system design philosophy.

  10. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous nucleation in water-dicarboxylic acid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hienola, A. I.; Vehkamäki, H.; Riipinen, I.; Kulmala, M.

    2009-03-01

    Binary heterogeneous nucleation of water-succinic/glutaric/malonic/adipic acid on nanometer-sized particles is investigated within the frame of classical heterogeneous nucleation theory. Homogeneous nucleation is also included for comparison. It is found that the nucleation probabilities depend on the contact angle and on the size of the seed particles. New thermodynamical properties, such as saturation vapor pressure, density and surface tension for all the dicarboxylic acid aqueous solutions are included in the calculations. While the new surface tension and density formulations do not bring any significant difference in the computed nucleation rate for homogeneous nucleation for succinic and glutaric acids, the use of the newly derived equations for the vapor pressure decrease the acid concentrations in gas phase by 3 orders of magnitude. According to our calculations, the binary heterogeneous nucleation of succinic acid-water and glutaric acid-water - although it requires a 3-4 orders of magnitude lower vapor concentrations than the homogeneous nucleation - cannot take place under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand binary homogeneous nucleation of adipic acid-water systems might be possible under conditions occuring in upper boundary layer. However, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between the surface and the molecules of the nucleating vapor should be considered in the future.

  11. Benefits and risks of folic acid to the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, E

    2002-01-01

    During three decades of neurological practice I have witnessed a remarkable change in attitudes to the benefits and risks of folic acid therapy in nervous system disorders. In the 1960s all that was known and taught was that folic acid was harmful to the nervous system, especially in precipitating or exacerbating the neurological complications of vitamin B12 deficiency. So deeply held was this view that the possibility of neuropsychological benefits from this vitamin was initially viewed with considerable scepticism.1 PMID:11971038

  12. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  13. Corn starch granules with enhanced load-carrying capacity via citric acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C

    2013-01-02

    This research investigated conditions by which maize starch granule porosity and load-carrying capacity (LCC) might be enhanced via treatment with varying citric acid concentrations (0.5-1.5 M), temperatures (40-60 °C), and lengths of treatment (1-8 h). At the lowest temperatures (40 and 50 °C), citric acid treatment induced minimal physicochemical changes to granules. In contrast, both aqueous and oil LCCs of starches treated at 60 °C (0.5 M citric acid, 2 h) were almost doubled (15.69 and 14.48 mL/10 g starch, respectively), recovering 92% of the granular starch after treatment. Such treatment increased starch hydration capacity (0.97-1.91) and reduced gelatinization enthalpy (10.6-7.4 J/g). More severe treatment conditions adversely impacted aqueous LCC (due to excessive granule swelling), but improved oil absorption. The basis for LCC enhancement by citric acid treatment was ascribed to leaching of starch material from granules and partial disruption of the granule crystalline structure, as opposed to starch hydrolysis or chemical substitution.

  14. Phorbic Acid Biosynthesis in the Latex Vessel System of Euphorbia

    PubMed Central

    Nordal, Arnold; Benson, A. A.

    1969-01-01

    Evidence is presented that phorbic acid is formed in the latex producing cell system, rather than in photosynthetic or chlorophyll-free tissues of Euphorbia resinifera Berg. When a branch of the plant was kept first in a 14CO2 atmosphere with 12 hr light-dark periods for 2 days and then left under natural conditions in the air outside for at least 2 to 3 days, radioactive phorbic acid was found in the latex. Phorbic acid synthesis appeared to be independent of the photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the plant. Besides phorbic acid 2 other major radioactive compounds were recognized in the latex, a glycoside or oligosaccharide, and a lipid belonging to the group of triterpenoid compounds characteristic of the latex in several species of Euphorbia. Images PMID:16657036

  15. Virulence of viable but nonculturable S. Typhimurium LT2 after peracetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Jolivet-Gougeon, A; Sauvager, F; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Colwell, R R; Cormier, M

    2006-11-01

    S. Typhimurium LT2 cells suspended in sterilized sewage effluent water (SEW) and in distilled water microcosms were exposed to 0, 7, 15 and 20 mg/l peracetic acid, and tested for viability and virulence. After treatment for one hour, colony forming units decreased by at least 5 log units at peracetic acid concentration of 7 mg/l. In SEW, at peracetic acid concentration of 15 mg/l, the cells were nonculturable (VNC), but retained virulence as demonstrated by invasion assays of HeLa cells. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 20 mg/l) resulted in bacterial death, i.e. substrate non-responsive cells. Despite morphological alterations of the bacteria after peracetic acid treatment, visualized by transmission electronic microscopy, conservation of both adhesive and invasive capacities was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy after exposure to 0-15 mg/l peracetic acid. Public health professionals need to recognize that peracetic acid-treated Salmonella is capable of modifying its physiological characteristics, including entering and recovering from the viable but nonculturable state, and may remain virulent after a stay in SEW followed by peracetic acid treatment.

  16. The influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on central nervous system polyunsaturated fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Brenna, J Thomas; Diau, Guan-Yeu

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies on perinatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition have clarified the influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) on central nervous system PUFA concentrations. In humans, omnivorous primates, and piglets, DHA and ARA plasma and red blood cells concentrations rise with dietary preformed DHA and ARA. Brain and retina DHA are responsive to diet while ARA is not. DHA is at highest concentration in cells and tissues associated with high energy consumption, consistent with high DHA levels in mitochondria and synaptosomes. DHA is a substrate for docosanoids, signaling compounds of intense current interest. The high concentration in tissues with high rates of oxidative metabolism may be explained by a critical role related to oxidative metabolism.

  17. The Influence of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid on Central Nervous System Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Brenna, J. Thomas; Diau, Guan-Yeu

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies on perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition have clarified the influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) on central nervous system PUFA concentrations. In humans, omnivorous primates, and piglets, DHA and ARA plasma and red blood cells concentrations rise with dietary preformed DHA and ARA. Brain and retina DHA are responsive to diet while ARA is not. DHA is at highest concentration cells and tissues associated with high energy consumption, consistent with high DHA levels in mitochondria and synaptosomes. DHA is a substrate for docosanoids, signaling compounds of intense current interest. The high concentration in tissues with high rates of oxidative metabolism may be explained by a critical role related to oxidative metabolism. PMID:18023566

  18. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.

  19. Therapeutic paracetamol treatment in older persons induces dietary and metabolic modifications related to sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Pickering, Gisèle; Lyan, Bernard; Ducheix, Gilles; Brandolini-Bunlon, Marion; Glomot, Françoise; Dardevet, Dominique; Dubray, Claude; Papet, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    Sulfur amino acids are determinant for the detoxification of paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) through sulfate and glutathione conjugations. Long-term paracetamol treatment is common in the elderly, despite a potential cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Detoxification could occur at the expense of anti-oxidative defenses and whole body protein stores in elderly. We tested how older persons satisfy the extra demand in sulfur amino acids induced by long-term paracetamol treatment, focusing on metabolic and nutritional aspects. Effects of 3 g/day paracetamol for 14 days on fasting blood glutathione, plasma amino acids and sulfate, urinary paracetamol metabolites, and urinary metabolomic were studied in independently living older persons (five women, five men, mean (±SEM) age 74 ± 1 years). Dietary intakes were recorded before and at the end of the treatment and ingested sulfur amino acids were evaluated. Fasting blood glutathione, plasma amino acids, and sulfate were unchanged. Urinary nitrogen excretion supported a preservation of whole body proteins, but large-scale urinary metabolomic analysis revealed an oxidation of some sulfur-containing compounds. Dietary protein intake was 13% higher at the end than before paracetamol treatment. Final sulfur amino acid intake reached 37 mg/kg/day. The increase in sulfur amino acid intake corresponded to half of the sulfur excreted in urinary paracetamol conjugates. In conclusion, older persons accommodated to long-term paracetamol treatment by increasing dietary protein intake without any mobilization of body proteins, but with decreased anti-oxidative defenses. The extra demand in sulfur amino acids led to a consumption far above the corresponding population-safe recommendation.

  20. Study of Self Assembly Systems Formed by Malic Acid and Alkyloxy Benzoic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, Vellalapalayam Nallagounder; Madhu Mohan, Mathukumalli Lakshmi Narayana

    2010-12-01

    Self assembly systems formed by malic acid and alkyloxy benzoic acids are characterized. The ferroelectric ingredient malic acid formed double hydrogen bond with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acids. Various hydrogen bonded complexes have been synthesized with malic acid and pentyl to dodecyloxy benzoic acid, respectively. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) studies confirm the hydrogen bond formation. Polarizing optical microscopic (POM) studies revealed the textural information while the transition and enthalpy values are calculated from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. A phase diagram has been constructed from the POMand DSC studies. A new smectic ordering, smectic X*, has been identified which exhibits a finger print type texture. This phase has been characterized by POM, DSC, helix, and tilt angle studies. The transition from traditional cholesteric to smectic X* phase is observed to be first order. The tilt angle data in this phase has been fitted to a power law and the temperature variation of the tilt angle follows mean field theory predictions. The results of FTIR, POM, DSC, tilt angle, and helicoidal studies are discussed.

  1. Difference between Chitosan Hydrogels via Alkaline and Acidic Solvent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jingyi; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) has generated considerable interest for its desirable properties and wide applications. Hydrogel has been proven to be a major and vital form in the applications of CS materials. Among various types of CS hydrogels, physical cross-linked CS hydrogels are popular, because they avoided the potential toxicity and sacrifice of intrinsic properties caused by cross-linking or reinforcements. Alkaline solvent system and acidic solvent system are two important solvent systems for the preparation of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, and also lay the foundations of CS hydrogel-based materials in many aspects. As members of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, gel material via alkaline solvent system showed significant differences from that via acidic solvent system, but the reasons behind are still unexplored. In the present work, we studied the difference between CS hydrogel via alkaline system and acidic system, in terms of gelation process, hydrogel structure and mechanical property. In-situ/pseudo in-situ studies were carried out, including fluorescent imaging of gelation process, which provided dynamic visualization. Finally, the reasons behind the differences were explained, accompanied by the discussion about design strategy based on gelation behavior of the two systems. PMID:27786262

  2. Difference between Chitosan Hydrogels via Alkaline and Acidic Solvent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Jingyi; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2016-10-01

    Chitosan (CS) has generated considerable interest for its desirable properties and wide applications. Hydrogel has been proven to be a major and vital form in the applications of CS materials. Among various types of CS hydrogels, physical cross-linked CS hydrogels are popular, because they avoided the potential toxicity and sacrifice of intrinsic properties caused by cross-linking or reinforcements. Alkaline solvent system and acidic solvent system are two important solvent systems for the preparation of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, and also lay the foundations of CS hydrogel-based materials in many aspects. As members of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, gel material via alkaline solvent system showed significant differences from that via acidic solvent system, but the reasons behind are still unexplored. In the present work, we studied the difference between CS hydrogel via alkaline system and acidic system, in terms of gelation process, hydrogel structure and mechanical property. In-situ/pseudo in-situ studies were carried out, including fluorescent imaging of gelation process, which provided dynamic visualization. Finally, the reasons behind the differences were explained, accompanied by the discussion about design strategy based on gelation behavior of the two systems.

  3. Biomimetic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite by Mixed Acid Treatment of Titanium Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J M; Park, W U; Hwang, K H; Lee, J K; Yoon, S Y

    2015-03-01

    A simple chemical method was established for inducing bioactivity of Ti metal. In the present study, two kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coatings successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in the simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid etching was used to increase the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surfaces allow better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrate. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Some specimens were treated with a 5 M NaOH aqueous solution, and then heat treated at 600 °C in order to form an amorphous sodium titanate layer on their surface. This treated titanium metal is believed to form a dense and uniform bone-like apatite layer on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF). This study proved that mixed acid treatment is not only important for surface passivation but is also another bioactive treatment for titanium surfaces, an alternative to alkali treatment. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than alkali treatment.

  4. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  5. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  6. Influence of nitric acid treatment in different media on X-ray structural parameters of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sudip Maity; Ashim Choudhury

    2008-11-15

    The treatment of coal with nitric acid in aqueous and non-aqueous media introduces changes in the chemical and spatial structure of the organic mass. Four coals of different rank have been treated with nitric acid in aqueous and glacial acetic acid media for assessing the changes in the structural parameters by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Slow-scan XRD has been performed for the raw and treated coals, and X-ray structural parameters (d002, Lc, and Nc) and aromaticity (fa) have been determined by profile-fitting software. Considerable variation of the structural parameters has been observed with respect to the raw coals. The d002 values have decreased in aqueous medium but increased in acetic acid medium; however, Lc, Nc, and fa values have increased in aqueous medium but decreased in acetic acid medium. It is also observed that considerable oxidation takes place during nitric acid treatment in aqueous medium, but nitration is the predominant phenomenon in acetic acid medium. Disordering of the coal structure increases in acetic acid medium, but a reverse trend is observed in the aqueous medium. As a result, structurally modified coals (SMCs) are derived as new coal-derived substances. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Systemic D-Phenylalanine and D-Leucine for Effective Treatment of Pain in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    McKibbin, L. S.; Cheng, R. S. S.

    1982-01-01

    This study showed that subcutaneous injection of a solution of D-amino acids produced effective analgesia in horses. It is postulated that systemic D-phenylalanine and D-leucine may become one of the safe, effective and nonaddictive drugs for acute and chronic pain treatment. These D-amino acids cause analgesia by presumably preserving brain endorphins. They may bind reversibly to enkephalinases and prevent enzymatic degradation of enkephalins. PMID:17422107

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ZENOGEM™ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS - ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental Systems (Zenon) has developed the ZenoGem™ process to remove organic compounds from wastewater by integrating biological treatment and membrane-based ultrafiltration. This innovative system combines biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compou...

  9. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Signs or symptoms caused by the ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

  10. [Cost-analysis of viscosupplementation treatment with hyaluronic acid in candidate knee replacement patients with osteoarhritis].

    PubMed

    Mar, J; Romero Jurado, M; Arrospide, A; Enrique Fidalgo, A; Soler López, B

    2013-01-01

    A high percentage of knee osteoarthritis finally need a knee replacement. Previous treatments used including viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid can delay the knee replacement. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact in the short, medium and long term of the knee replacement delay, by conducting a budget impact analysis of the incorporation of viscosupplementation to the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. From the data of patients treated at a specialized Knee Osteoarthritis Unit we built a discrete event simulation model that reproduced the progress of patients, as it could represent changes in the health status of an individual and their interaction with the system. The model allowed the number of prostheses and replacements performed each year to be calculated in a population including 1,000 patients each year according to the use of viscosupplementation. The budget impact analysis was estimated for 10 years by adding the cost of each treatment. A total of 224 patient candidates to receive a knee replacement were studied. The viscosupplementation use delayed the need to perform the knee replacement by 2.67 years The budgetary impact would lead to net savings during the 10 years. However, it is much greater in the earlier years. The sum of the savings in the first three years would be 36 million euros. The study concludes that the use of viscosupplementation reduced the economic burden of knee osteoarthritis in the health system as a result of delayed knee replacement. The simulation model enabled the economic impact in both the short and long term to be analysed.

  11. A continuous acetic acid system for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of gliadins and other prolamines.

    PubMed

    Clements, R L

    1988-02-01

    A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system buffered by acetic acid alone was developed for electrophoresis of prolamines. When applied to gliadin electrophoresis, the acetic acid system produces more bands than does a conventional aluminum lactate-lactic acid system (using 12% acrylamide gels). The acetic acid system is relatively simple, requiring a single buffer component that is universally available in high purity.

  12. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3580 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. (a) Identification. A lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system is a device intended to measure lysergic acid diethylamide,...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3580 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. (a) Identification. A lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system is a device intended to measure lysergic acid diethylamide,...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3580 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. (a) Identification. A lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system is a device intended to measure lysergic acid diethylamide,...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3580 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. (a) Identification. A lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system is a device intended to measure lysergic acid diethylamide,...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3580 - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3580 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system. (a) Identification. A lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) test system is a device intended to measure lysergic acid diethylamide,...

  17. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  18. [Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids and systemic lupus erythematosus: what do we know?].

    PubMed

    Borges, Mariane Curado; Santos, Fabiana de Miranda Moura; Telles, Rosa Weiss; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on the concentration of C reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the supplementation of these types of lipids may represent additional option treatment for chronic systemic diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematous and other rheumatic diseases. The role of these lipids has not been well established, yet. However, it seems there is a direct relationship between its intake and the decrease of the disease clinical manifestations as well as of the inflammatory status of the patients. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to present a thorough review on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with SLE. Bibliographic data set as the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) were searched using as key words: systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), antioxidants and diet. Manuscripts published up to September 2013 were included. There were 43 articles related to the topic, however only 15 pertained human studies, with three review articles and 12 clinical studies.

  19. Alleviation of postharvest chilling injury of tomato fruit by salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Asghari, Mohammadreza; Khorsandi, Orojali; Mohayeji, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    Tomato fruit at the mature green stage were treated with salicylic acid at different concentration (0, 1 and 2 mM) and analyzed for chilling injury (CI), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents and phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities during cold storage. PLD and LOX activities were significantly reduced by salicylic acid treatment. Compared with the control fruit, salicylic acid treatment alleviated chilling injury, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content and increased proline content. Our result suggest that the reduce activity of PLD and LOX, by salicylic acid may be a chilling tolerance strategy in tomato fruit. Inhibition of PLD and LOX activity during low temperature storage could ameliorate chilling injury and oxidation damage and enhance membrane integrity in tomato fruit.

  20. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  1. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  2. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... inactivation. (c) Inactivation treatment technology requirements. Unfiltered systems must use chlorine dioxide... section. (1) Systems that use chlorine dioxide or ozone and fail to achieve the...

  3. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... inactivation. (c) Inactivation treatment technology requirements. Unfiltered systems must use chlorine dioxide... section. (1) Systems that use chlorine dioxide or ozone and fail to achieve the...

  4. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... inactivation. (c) Inactivation treatment technology requirements. Unfiltered systems must use chlorine dioxide... section. (1) Systems that use chlorine dioxide or ozone and fail to achieve the...

  5. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inactivation. (c) Inactivation treatment technology requirements. Unfiltered systems must use chlorine dioxide... section. (1) Systems that use chlorine dioxide or ozone and fail to achieve the...

  6. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivation. (c) Inactivation treatment technology requirements. Unfiltered systems must use chlorine dioxide... section. (1) Systems that use chlorine dioxide or ozone and fail to achieve the...

  7. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  8. Formic acid-based treatments for control of Varroa destructor in a Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Satta, Alberto; Floris, Ignazio; Eguaras, Martin; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Melis, Marinella

    2005-04-01

    Two formic acid autumnal treatments, gel packets (BeeVar formulation) and impregnated paperwick (Liebig-Dispenser), were tested in apiary to evaluate their effectiveness against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman and their residues in honey in a Mediterranean region (Sardinia, Italy). Both treatments were efficient in the apiary control of the varroosis, with values of percentage of mite mortality ranging between 93.6 and 100%, without statistical differences between them. The more gradual release of formic acid from the gel application allowed a longer action (2 wk for each treatment) compared with the Liebig-Dispenser (approximately 3d for each treatment). The rate of daily evaporation ranged between approximately 5 and 9 g/d from BeeVar and approximately 26 and 35 g/d from the Liebig-Dispenser, in the first and second treatment, respectively. The total amount of formic acid administered per hive during all the treatment period was approximately 200 g for either treatment. A significantly higher adult bee mortality was recorded in the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives compared with the BeeVar-treated group. On the contrary, BeeVar treatment produced an interruption of brood reared, whereas the extension of the sealed brood area of the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives was not significantly different from that of the control hives. Neither queen mortality nor robbing activity was observed due to the treatments. Formic acid residues in honey collected in the nest were 3,855 +/- 2,061 and 3,030 +/- 1,624 mg/kg for the BeeVar- and the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives, respectively. After 21 d from the end of the treatment, the residues fell to 1,261 +/- 1,054 and 794 +/- 518 mg/kg for the honey sampled from the BeeVar and Liebig-Dispenser groups, respectively.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1305 - Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system. 862.1305 Section 862.1305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1305 - Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) test system. 862.1305 Section 862.1305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  11. Dynamic Buffer Capacity in Acid-Base Systems.

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    The generalized concept of 'dynamic' buffer capacity βV is related to electrolytic systems of different complexity where acid-base equilibria are involved. The resulting formulas are presented in a uniform and consistent form. The detailed calculations are related to two Britton-Robinson buffers, taken as examples.

  12. Platelet-derived Factor Concentrates with Hyaluronic Acid Scaffolds for Treatment of Deep Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Minabe, Toshiharu; Yamakawa, Tomomi; Araki, Jun; Sano, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A deep burn wound is a critical condition that generally necessitates vascularized tissue coverage. We performed the injection of platelet-derived factor concentrates combined with non–cross-linked hyaluronic acid scaffolds for 2 patients with critical burn wounds with bone and tendon exposure and achieved successful healing. Hyaluronic acid was considered to have served as a controlled-release carrier of platelet-derived factors, being clinically effective for the treatment of deep burn wounds. PMID:27826482

  13. How does the entering of copper nanoparticles into biological wastewater treatment system affect sludge treatment for VFA production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Xiang; Luo, Jingyang

    2014-10-15

    Usually the studies regarding the effect of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), which are released to wastewater treatment plant, on sludge anaerobic treatment in the literature have been conducted by directly adding NPs to sludge treatment system. Actually, NPs must enter into the wastewater treatment facility from influent before sludge being treated. Thus, the documented results can not reflect the real situations. During sludge anaerobic treatment for producing volatile fatty acids (VFA, the preferred carbon source for wastewater biological nutrient removal), it was found in this study that the entering of CuNPs to biological wastewater treatment system had no significant effect on sludge-derived VFA generation, while direct addition of CuNPs to sludge fermentation reactor caused a much lower VFA production, when compared to the control test. Further investigation revealed that the entering of CuNPs into wastewater biological treatment system improved sludge solubilization due to the decline of sludge particle size and the increase of sludge microorganism cells breakage. In addition, there was no obvious influence on hydrolysis, while significant inhibition was observed on acidification, resulting in the final VFA production similar to the control. When CuNPs were directly added to the fermentation system, the solubilization was little influenced, however the hydrolysis and acidification were seriously inhibited, causing the ultimate VFA generation decreased. Therefore, selecting proper method close to the real situation is vital to accurately assess the toxicity of nanoparticles on sludge anaerobic fermentation.

  14. Efficient treatment of perfluorohexanoic acid by nanofiltration followed by electrochemical degradation of the NF concentrate.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Álvaro; Gorri, Daniel; Urtiaga, Ane

    2017-04-01

    The present study was aimed at the development of a strategy for removing and degrading perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) from industrial process waters at concentrations in the range 60-200 mg L(-1). The treatment train consisted of nanofiltration (NF) separation followed by electrochemical degradation of the NF concentrate. Using a laboratory-scale system and working in the total recirculation mode, the DowFilm NF270 membrane provided PFHxA rejections that varied in the range 96.6-99.4% as the operating pressure was increased from 2.5 to 20 bar. The NF operation in concentration mode enabled a volume reduction factor of 5 and increased the PFHxA concentration in the retentate to 870 mg L(-1). Results showed that the increase in PFHxA concentration and the presence of calcium sulfate salts did not induce irreversible membrane fouling. The NF retentate was treated in a commercial undivided electrochemical cell provided with two parallel flow-by compartments separated by bipolar boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode, BDD counter anode, and counter cathode. Current densities ranging from 20 to 100 A m(-2) were examined. The electrochemical degradation rate of PFHxA reached 98% and was accompanied by its efficient mineralization, as the reduction of total organic carbon was higher than 95%. Energy consumption, which was 15.2 kWh m(-3) of treated NF concentrate, was minimized by selecting operation at 50 A m(-2). While most of the previous research on the treatment of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) focused on the removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), these compounds have been phased out by chemical manufacturers. Our findings are relevant for the treatment of PFHxA, which appears to be one of the present alternatives to long-chain PFASs thanks to its lower bioaccumulative potential than PFOA and PFOS. However, PFHxA also behaves as a persistent pollutant. Moreover, our results highlight the potential of combining

  15. Biochemical changes in grape rootstocks resulted from humic acid treatments in relation to nematode infection

    PubMed Central

    Kesba, Hosny H; El-Beltagi, Hossam S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of humic acid on nematode infected, resistant and susceptible grapes in relation to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant mechanisms on selected biochemical parameters known as proactive substances. Methods The grape rootstocks, superior, superior/freedom and freedom were reacted differently to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis according to rootstock progenitor. Two weeks after inoculation, two commercial products of humic acid were applied at the rate of (2, 4 mL or grams/plant) as soil drench. After 4 months, nematode soil populations were extracted and counted. A subsample of roots from each plant was stained and gall numbers, embedded stages per root were calculated, final population, nematode build up (Pf/Pi), average of eggs/eggmass were estimated. Subsamples of fresh root of each treatment were chemically analyzed. Results Freedom reduced significantly the nematode criteria and build up. Humic acid granules appeared to be more suppressive to nematode build up on superior and the higher dose on superior/freedom than liquid treatments. On freedom, all treatments reduced significantly the nematode build up regardless to the material nature. The higher dose was more effective than the lower one. As a result of humic acid applications, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were significantly reduced after humic acid treatments while the antioxidant compounds glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (ASA) and total phenol contents were significantly increased when compared with check. Antioxidant defense enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)showed significant increase in their specific activities in treated plants compared with nematode treated check. Conclusions Humic acid treatments improve the yield of grape by increasing the contents of antioxidant compounds and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23569915

  16. Using 80% trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of ingrown toenails*

    PubMed Central

    Barreiros, Hugo; Matos, Diogo; Goulão, João; Serrano, Pedro; João, Alexandre; Brandão, Francisco Menezes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ingrown nails are a very common problem. There are different stages of disease and diverse therapeutic options. Phenol and sodium hydroxide are commonly used agents for chemical matricectomy but both frequently entail excessive healing times. OBJECTIVE This prospective study aimed mainly to evaluate the efficacy of partial nail avulsion and selective chemical cauterization of the matrix using 80% TCA in the treatment of the ingrowing nail. METHODS One-hundred-and-thirty-three patients with 197 ingrown toenails were included in this study. Preoperatively, we tried to find predisposing factors to the disease. In the postoperative period, patients were evaluated for potential complications at days 3, 30, 180, 270 and 360. Pain was measured before surgery, as well as 24 hours and 72 hours after surgery. RESULTS There were only 3 cases (out of 197) of ingrown nail recurrence. Preoperatively, we found the presence of drainage in 82% of patients, which, following the first visit after surgery, was reduced to 19%. Persistent granulation tissue was found in 3% of the patients (versus 75% prior to surgery). The most frequent predisposing factors for the ingrown nail were excessive trimming of the lateral nail plate (63%), plantar hyperhidrosis (58%) and heavy nail folds (39%). Pain was substantially reduced after surgery. CONCLUSION It is assumed that chemical procedures for the ingrown toenail are associated with delayed healing times but our results demonstrated quick recovery. Using 80% TCA for selective matricectomy in the ingrown toenail is an effective, quick and easy method. PMID:24474095

  17. Neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid in central nervous system lesions consequent to peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Amenta, Francesco; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ghelardini, Carla; Nwankwo, Innocent E; Pacini, Alessandra; Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS) changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+)- and (-)-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for treating disorders associated with increased oxidative stress. Sciatic nerve CCI was made in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and in normotensive reference cohorts. Rats were untreated or treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with (+/-)-, (+)-, or (-)-thioctic acid. Oxidative stress, astrogliosis, myelin sheets status, and neuronal injury in motor and sensory cerebrocortical areas were assessed. Increase of oxidative stress markers, astrogliosis, and neuronal damage accompanied by a decreased expression of neurofilament were observed in SHR. This phenomenon was more pronounced after CCI. Thioctic acid countered astrogliosis and neuronal damage, (+)-thioctic acid being more active than (+/-)- or (-)-enantiomers. These findings suggest a neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid on CNS lesions consequent to CCI and that the compound may represent a therapeutic option for entrapment neuropathies.

  18. Neuroprotective Activity of Thioctic Acid in Central Nervous System Lesions Consequent to Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghelardini, Carla; Nwankwo, Innocent E.; Pacini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS) changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+)- and (−)-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for treating disorders associated with increased oxidative stress. Sciatic nerve CCI was made in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and in normotensive reference cohorts. Rats were untreated or treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with (+/−)-, (+)-, or (−)-thioctic acid. Oxidative stress, astrogliosis, myelin sheets status, and neuronal injury in motor and sensory cerebrocortical areas were assessed. Increase of oxidative stress markers, astrogliosis, and neuronal damage accompanied by a decreased expression of neurofilament were observed in SHR. This phenomenon was more pronounced after CCI. Thioctic acid countered astrogliosis and neuronal damage, (+)-thioctic acid being more active than (+/−)- or (−)-enantiomers. These findings suggest a neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid on CNS lesions consequent to CCI and that the compound may represent a therapeutic option for entrapment neuropathies. PMID:24527432

  19. Recent advances in delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu; Oupický, David

    2013-12-10

    Cancer treatment that uses a combination of approaches with the ability to affect multiple disease pathways has been proven highly effective in the treatment of many cancers. Combination therapy can include multiple chemotherapeutics or combinations of chemotherapeutics with other treatment modalities like surgery or radiation. However, despite the widespread clinical use of combination therapies, relatively little attention has been given to the potential of modern nanocarrier delivery methods, like liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles, to enhance the efficacy of combination treatments. This lack of knowledge is particularly notable in the limited success of vectors for the delivery of combinations of nucleic acids with traditional small molecule drugs. The delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations is particularly challenging due to differences in the physicochemical properties of the two types of agents. This review discusses recent advances in the development of delivery methods using combinations of small molecule drugs and nucleic acid therapeutics to treat cancer. This review primarily focuses on the rationale used for selecting appropriate drug-nucleic acid combinations as well as progress in the development of nanocarriers suitable for simultaneous delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations.

  20. Binary nucleation in acid-water systems. II. Sulfuric acid-water and a comparison with methanesulfonic acid-water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyslouzil, B. E.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Flagan, R. C.; Okuyama, K.

    1991-05-01

    This work presents a systematic investigation of binary nucleation rates for sulfuric acid and water and the effect of temperature on these rates at isothermal, subsaturated conditions. The results from nucleation rate measurements for the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) -water system are discussed and compared to those previously presented for methanesulfonic acid (MSA)-water [B. E. Wyslouzil, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, and K. Okuyama, J. Chem. Phys. (submitted)]. Experiments were conducted at relative humidities (Rh) ranging from 0.006acidities (Ra) in the range of 0.04acid molecules in the critical nucleus for both the H2SO4 -water and MSA-water systems.

  1. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients.

  2. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  3. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P < 0.05) and the treatment with high available chlorine concentration (15 and 30 mg/L) showed stronger anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet than that of lower available chlorine concentration (5 mg/L). In conclusion, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts.

  4. [Treatment of rheumatic diseases with intraarticular drug delivery systems].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Andrea; Zelkó, Romána; Antal, István

    2011-01-01

    Present work provides an overall study about the types and the medicinal treatment of the rheumatic diseases especially the intraarticular formulations. Due to the localized nature of the joint, intraarticular injections are very favourable drug delivery systems. It has a big advantage over the oral medication; the systemic side effects are kept away. The review shows two types of the rheumatic diseases on the example of the healthy joint: the joint damage (osteoarthritis) and the inflamed joint (rheumatoid arthritis). There are many active ingredients for the treatment of the rheumatic diseases but the number of the intraarticular products is limited. At present are only formulations with hyaluronic acid or glucocorticoid on the market. Several physiological and biopharmaceutical aspects must be considered for the design of intraarticular injections. During and after the production many quality requirements have to be complied. On the market the formulations in solution or in suspension are available, which provide a short-term effect. The aim of the developments is to achieve long-term effect based on nano- or microparticles.

  5. Amino acid transport by prosthecae of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum: evidence for a broad-range transport system.

    PubMed

    Tam, E; Pate, J L

    1985-10-01

    Prosthecae purified from cells of Asticcaulis biprosthecum possess active transport systems that transport all 20 amino acids tested. Using ascorbate-reduced phenazine methosulphate in the presence of oxygen, all 20 amino acids are accumulated against a concentration gradient by isolated prosthecae. Results of experiments testing the inhibition of transport of one amino acid by another, and of experiments testing the exchange of exogenous amino acids with those preloaded in prosthecae, along with characteristics of mutants defective in amino acid transport, suggest the presence in prosthecae of three amino acid transport systems. One, the general or G system, transports at least 18 of the 20 amino acids tested. Another system, referred to as the proline or P system, transports seven amino acids (including proline) that are also transported by the G system. The third system transports only glutamate and aspartate, and is referred to as the acidic amino acid transport system or A system.

  6. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the Udenfriend's system.

    PubMed

    Wakizaka, A; Imai, Y

    1974-11-01

    The autocatalytic oxidation of linoleate was observed in the incubation mixture containing ferrous ion and ascorbic acid as the catalysts (Undenfriend's system). The rate of oxidation of linoleate was estimated wither by the TBA method, iodometry or by the measurement of the absorbance at 235 nm. Reaction products were analyzed by TLC, GLC and UV-, IR-, NMR- and mass spectrometries. The main oxidized products were assumed to have one oxygen atom at the position of carbon 9 or 13 of linoleate or two oxygen atoms at the both positions of the original acid. The conjugated double bond was formed at carbon 10 and 12 of the carbon chain of linoleate.

  7. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid but not arachidonic acid influences central nervous system fatty acid status in baboon neonates.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Andrea T; Brenna, J Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on infant central nervous system (CNS) composition has implications for neural development, including vision, cognition, and motor function. We consider here combined results of three published studies of DHA/AA-containing formulas and breastfeeding to evaluate the CNS tissue response of baboon neonates with varied concentration and duration of DHA/AA consumption [G.Y. Diau, A.T. Hsieh, E.A. Sarkadi-Nagy, V. Wijendran, P.W. Nathanielsz, J.T. Brenna, The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system, BMC Med. 3 (2005) 11; A.T. Hsieh, J.C. Anthony, D.A. Diersen-Schade, et al., The influence of moderate and high dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on baboon neonate tissue fatty acids, Pediatr. Res. 61 (2007) 537-45; E. Sarkadi-Nagy, V. Wijendran, G.Y. Diau, et al., The influence of prematurity and long chain polyunsaturate supplementation in 4-week adjusted age baboon neonate brain and related tissues, Pediatr. Res. 54 (2003) 244-252]. A total of 43 neonates born spontaneously at term, or preterm by Cesarean section, consumed diets with DHA-AA (%w/w) at several levels: none (0,0), moderate (0.3, 0.6), or high (>0.6, 0.67 or 1.2). CNS fatty acids were analyzed at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum for term baboons and 7.5 weeks for preterm neonates. CNS DHA was consistently greater by 5-30% in neonates consuming DHA and nearer 30% for cortex. In contrast, CNS AA was unaffected by dietary AA and decreased in all structures with age. Dietary DHA consistently supports greater CNS DHA and maintenance of cortex DHA concentration with feeding duration, while CNS AA is not related to dietary supply. These data on structure-specific LCPUFA accretion may provide insight into neural mechanisms responsible for suboptimal functional outcomes in infants consuming diets that do not

  8. Caffeic acid treatment alters the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets and lymphocytes of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Javed; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Gutierres, Jessié; Thomé, Gustavo; Cardoso, Andreia; Zanini, Daniela; Martins, Caroline; Palma, Heloisa Einloft; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Schmatz, Roberta; Leal, Cláudio Alberto Martins; da Costa, Pauline; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of caffeic acid on ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase), Ecto-NPP (nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in platelets and lymphocytes of rats, as well as in the profile of platelet aggregation. Animals were divided into five groups: I (control); II (oil); III (caffeic acid 10 mg/kg); IV (caffeic acid 50 mg/kg); and V (caffeic acid 100 mg/kg). Animals were treated with caffeic acid diluted in oil for 30 days. In platelets, caffeic acid decreased the ATP hydrolysis and increased ADP hydrolysis in groups III, IV and V when compared to control (P<0.05). The 5'-nucleotidase activity was decreased, while E-NPP and ADA activities were increased in platelets of rats of groups III, IV and V (P<0.05). Caffeic acid reduced significantly the platelet aggregation in the animals of groups III, IV and V in relation to group I (P<0.05). In lymphocytes, the NTPDase and ADA activities were increased in all groups treated with caffeic acid when compared to control (P<0.05). These findings demonstrated that the enzymes were altered in tissues by caffeic acid and this compound decreased the platelet aggregation suggesting that caffeic acid should be considered a potentially therapeutic agent in disorders related to the purinergic system.

  9. Advancing polymeric delivery systems amidst a nucleic acid therapy renaissance

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Paul A.; Pun, Suzie H.; Reineke, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid therapeutics are attracting renewed interest due to recent clinical advances and product approvals. Most leading programs use chemical conjugates, or viral vectors in the case of gene therapy, while several use no delivery system at all. Polymer systems, which have been at the periphery of this renaissance, often involve greater molecular complexity than competing approaches, which must be justified by their advantages. Advanced analytical methods, along with biological tools for characterizing biotransformation and intracellular trafficking, are increasingly being applied to nucleic acid delivery systems including those based on polymers. These frontiers of investigation create the opportunity for an era where highly defined polymer compositions are optimized based on mechanistic insights in a way that has not been previously possible, offering the prospect of greater differentiation from alternatives. This will require integrated collaboration between polymer scientists and those from other disciplines. PMID:24683504

  10. Skin delivery of ferulic acid from different vesicular systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Xiangli; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present research is to evaluate the skin delivery capabilities of different vesicular systems, including conventional liposomes (CL), Tween 80-based deformable liposomes (DL), invasomes (INS) and ethosomes bearing ferulic acid (FA) being an antioxidant exhibiting a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases. All of the test formulations were characterized for particle size distribution, zeta-potential, vesicular shape and surface morphology, in vitro human skin permeation and skin deposition. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) defined that all of liposomal vesicles were almost spherical, displaying unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (PDI < 0.2) and nanometric size range (z-average no more than 150 nm). In addition, all the vesicular systems except conventional liposomes were negatively charged to a certain extent. In vitro skin permeation and skin deposition experiments demonstrated that the permeation profile of ferulic acid through human stratum corneum epidermis membrane (SCE) and the drug deposition in skin were both improved significantly using these vesicular liposomal systems. Permeation and skin deposition enhancing effect was highlighted by the ethosomal system containing 18.0 mg/ml of ferulic acid with an significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced skin flux (267.8 +/- 16.77 microg/cm2/h) and skin drug deposition (51.67 +/- 1.94 microg/cm2), which was 75 times and 7.3 times higher than those of ferulic acid from saturated PBS (pH 7.4) solution, respectively. This study demonstrated that ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for delivering ferulic acid into or across the skin.

  11. Non-toxic agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system containing gallic acid for antifungal application.

    PubMed

    Lam, P-L; Gambari, R; Kok, S H-L; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Bian, Z-X; Lee, K K-H; Chui, C-H

    2015-02-01

    Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is a common species of Aspergillus molds. Cutaneous aspergillosis usually occurs in skin sites near intravenous injection and approximately 6% of cutaneous aspergillosis cases which do not involve burn or HIV-infected patients are caused by A. niger. Biomaterials and biopharmaceuticals produced from microparticle-based drug delivery systems have received much attention as microencapsulated drugs offer an improvement in therapeutic efficacy due to better human absorption. The frequently used crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, in gelatin-based microencapsulation systems is considered harmful to human beings. In order to tackle the potential risks, agarose has become an alternative polymer to be used with gelatin as wall matrix materials of microcapsules. In the present study, we report the eco-friendly use of an agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system to enhance the antifungal activity of gallic acid and reduce its potential cytotoxic effects towards human skin keratinocytes. We used optimal parameter combinations, such as an agarose/gelatin ratio of 1:1, a polymer/oil ratio of 1:60, a surfactant volume of 1% w/w and a stirring speed of 900 rpm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of microencapsulated gallic acid (62.5 µg/ml) was significantly improved when compared with that of the original drug (>750 µg/ml). The anti-A. niger activity of gallic acid -containing microcapsules was much stronger than that of the original drug. Following 48 h of treatment, skin cell survival was approximately 90% with agarose/gelatin microcapsules containing gallic acid, whereas cell viability was only 25-35% with free gallic acid. Our results demonstrate that agarose/gelatin-based microcapsules containing gallic acid may prove to be helpful in the treatment of A. niger-induced skin infections near intravenous injection sites.

  12. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  13. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  14. Modulating protein adsorption onto hydroxyapatite particles using different amino acid treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Van, Kim Linh; Zavgorodniy, Alexander V.; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a material of choice for bone grafts owing to its chemical and structural similarities to the mineral phase of hard tissues. The combination of osteogenic proteins with HA materials that carry and deliver the proteins to the bone-defective areas will accelerate bone regeneration. The study investigated the treatment of HA particles with different amino acids such as serine (Ser), asparagine (Asn), aspartic acid (Asp) and arginine (Arg) to enhance the adsorption ability of HA carrier for delivering therapeutic proteins to the body. The crystallinity of HA reduced when amino acids were added during HA preparation. Depending on the types of amino acid, the specific surface area of the amino acid-functionalized HA particles varied from 105 to 149 m2 g–1. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme were used as model proteins for adsorption study. The protein adsorption onto the surface of amino acid-functionalized HA depended on the polarities of HA particles, whereby, compared with lysozyme, BSA demonstrated higher affinity towards positively charged Arg-HA. Alternatively, the binding affinity of lysozyme onto the negatively charged Asp-HA was higher when compared with BSA. The BSA and lysozyme adsorptions onto the amino acid-functionalized HA fitted better into the Freundlich than Langmuir model. The amino acid-functionalized HA particles that had higher protein adsorption demonstrated a lower protein-release rate. PMID:21957116

  15. Citric acid treatment of chronic nonhealing ulcerated tophaceous gout with bursitis.

    PubMed

    Nagoba, Basavaraj S; Punpale, Ajay; Poddar, Ashok; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Swami, Ganesh A; Selkar, Sohan P

    2013-12-01

    The ulceration associated with gout tophi is very difficult to treat because of impaired and halted local inflammatory response resulting from the gout treatment regimen. We report chronic nonhealing tophaceous gout with bursitis in an 80-year-old male, not responding to conventional treatment modality for months together. This nonhealing ulcer was treated successfully with local application of 3% citric acid ointment for 22 days.

  16. Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

  17. Enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system: proof of principle and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingxing; Carballa, Marta; Van De Caveye, Pieter; Verstraete, Willy

    2009-07-01

    Full-scale anaerobic single-phase digesters can be confronted with process instabilities, which often result in the accumulation of propionic acid (HPr). As a solution, an enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system has been conceptually designed and experimentally tested at lab-scale. The system consisted of two components: a liquid/solid separator containing a microfiltration membrane and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor specialized in HPr degradation. Two lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were used, i.e. the CSTR(control) and the CSTR(treatment). Firstly, the CSTRs were stressed by organic overloading to obtain high HPr levels. During the recovery period, besides stop feeding, no actions were taken to decrease the residual HPr concentration in the CSTR(control), while the CSTR(treatment) was connected to EPAD system in order to accelerate its recovery. By the end of the experiment, the CSTR(treatment) completely recovered from HPr accumulation, while no significant decrease of the HPr level in the CSTR(control) was observed. Based on the experimental results, the up-scaling of EPAD system was evaluated and it would only account for about 2% of the volume of the full-scale digester, thus suggesting that the implementation of a mobile EPAD system in full-scale practice should be feasible.

  18. A fully automatic system for acid-base coulometric titrations

    PubMed Central

    Cladera, A.; Caro, A.; Estela, J. M.; Cerdà, V.

    1990-01-01

    An automatic system for acid-base titrations by electrogeneration of H+ and OH- ions, with potentiometric end-point detection, was developed. The system includes a PC-compatible computer for instrumental control, data acquisition and processing, which allows up to 13 samples to be analysed sequentially with no human intervention. The system performance was tested on the titration of standard solutions, which it carried out with low errors and RSD. It was subsequently applied to the analysis of various samples of environmental and nutritional interest, specifically waters, soft drinks and wines. PMID:18925283

  19. Commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Warshay, M.; Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the current commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development efforts is presented. In both the electric utility and on-site integrated energy system applications, reducing cost and increasing reliability are the technology drivers at this time. The longstanding barrier to the attainment of these goals, which manifests itself in a number of ways, has been materials. The differences in approach among the three major participants (United Technologies Corporation (UTC), Westinghouse Electric Corporation/Energy Research Corporation (ERC), and Engelhard Industries) and their unique technological features, including electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, fuel selection and system design philosophy are discussed.

  20. Viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid for treatment of osteoarthritis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Abate, M; Pulcini, D; Di Iorio, A; Schiavone, C

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is very disabling condition in the elderly. The current therapeutic approaches (analgesics, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, steroids) do not delay the OA progression or reverse joint damage. Moreover, they may cause relevant systemic side effects. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a physiologic component of the synovial fluid and is reduced in OA joints. Therefore, intra-articular injection of HA, due to its viscoelastic properties and protective effect on articular cartilage and soft tissue surfaces of joints, can restore the normal articular homoeostasis. These effects are evident when HA is properly administered into the articular space; therefore, the use of "image-guided" infiltration techniques is mandatory. Viscosupplementation (VS), with different HA preparations (Low and High molecular weight), can be considered when the patient has not found pain relief from other therapies or is intolerant to analgesics or NSAIDs. A 3-5 doses regimen is usually recommended with 1 week interval between each injection. Several studies have shown the efficacy of HA for the treatment of knee OA, with positive effects on pain, articular function (Western Ontario and Mc Master Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], Lequesne Index [LI], Range of Motion [ROM]), subjective global assessment and reduction in NSAIDs consumption. In general, the benefit is evident within 3 months and persists in the following 6-12 months. Encouraging but inconclusive results have also been observed for the treatment of shoulder, carpo-metacarpal, hip and ankle OA. However there is the need of better designed studies to prove the effectiveness of these medications, in order to rule out a placebo effect. The therapy is well tolerated with absence of systemic side effects and only with limited local discomfort.

  1. Treatment of Arctic wastewater by chemical coagulation, UV and peracetic acid disinfection.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-02-16

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m(3) was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m(3) for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.

  2. Treatment of infectious skin defects or ulcers with electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K; Harii, K

    1997-01-01

    A chronic ulcer with an infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is hard to heal. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons often encounter such chronic ulcers that are resistant to surgical or various conservative treatments. We applied conservative treatment using an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution and obtained satisfactory results. The lesion was washed with the solution or soaked in a bowl of the solution for approximately 20 min twice a day. Fresh electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is unstable and should be stored in a cool, dark site in a sealed bottle. It should be used within a week after it has been produced. Here we report on 15 cases of infectious ulcers that were treated by electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution. Of these cases, 7 patients were healed, 3 were granulated, and in 5, infection subsided. In most cases the lesion became less reddish and less edematous. Discharge or foul odor from the lesion was decreased. Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was especially effective for treating a chronic refractory ulcer combined with diabetes melitus or peripheral circulatory insufficiency. This clinically applied therapy of electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was found to be effective so that this new therapeutic technique for ulcer treatment can now be conveniently utilized.

  3. IR-UV photochemistry of protein-nucleic acid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kozub, J.; Edwards, G.

    1995-12-31

    UV light has often been used to induce the formation of covalent bonds between DNA (or RNA) and tightly-bound protein molecules. However, the internal photoreactions of nucleic acids and proteins limit the yield and complicate the analysis of intermolecular crosslinks. In an ongoing search for improved reaction specificity or new photoreactions in these systems, we have employed UV photons from a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser and mid-IR photons from the Vanderbilt FEL. Having crosslinked several protein-nucleic acid systems with nanosecond UV laser pulses, we are currently studying the effect of various IR wavelengths on a model system (gene 32 protein and poly[dT]). We have found that irradiation with sufficiently intense FEL macropulses creates an altered form of gene 32 protein which was not observed with UV-only irradiation. The electrophoretic nobility of the product is consistent with the formation of a specific protein-protein crosslink. No evidence of the non-specific protein damage typically induced by UV light is found. The yield of the new photoproduct is apparently enhanced by exposure to FEL macropulses which are synchronized with UV laser pulses. With ideal exposure parameters, the two-color reaction effectively competes with UV-only reactions. Experiments designed to determine the reaction mechanism and to demonstrate FEL-induced reactions in other protein-nucleic acid systems are currently underway.

  4. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  5. The impact of acid treatment on soilwater chemistry at the Humex site

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.D.; Ranneklev, S.B.; Mykkelbost, T.C. )

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acid treatment on soil water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic chemistry are being monitored at the Humic Lake Acidification Experiment (HUMEX) in western Norway. The HUMEX project involves artificial acidification of half of a dystrophic lake and the corresponding drainage basin. Soil water chemistry data were collected from 30 monitoring lysimeters and 130 grid lysimeters. The samples from the monitoring lysimeters were collected before and, for a period of two years, after the onset of acid treatment. Operationally-defined functional fractions of DOC showed that hydrophilic (HPI) and hydrophobic (HPO) acids account for 60% to 90% of the DOC. In soils rich in DOC, the HPO acids were dominant, whereas in mineral soil horizons low in DOC, the HPI acid fractions were highest. The amount of DOC relative to labile aluminum and iron may determine the HPO/HPI acid ratio. The sulphate concentration has increased more in the treated than in the reference side. Coincident decreases in DOC and organically complexes aluminum (Al[sub 0]) concentrations were observed for surface histosol locations. The temporal and spatial variations in c(Al[sub 0]) were mainly explained by variation in c(DOC). 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Treatment of actinic cheilitis by photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and blue light activation.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin; Clement, Annabelle

    2011-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC), a common disorder of the lower lip, should be treated early to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) activated by blue light for the treatment of AC. Fifteen patients with clinically evident or biopsy-proven AC received two treatments with ALA PDT with blue light activation. Treatments were spaced three to five weeks apart. Most patients achieved 65% to 75% clearance three to five weeks after the first treatment and all achieved more than 75% clearance one month after the second treatment. Three patients achieved complete clearance. Pain and burning during irradiation were absent or mild. All patients said they would repeat the procedure. ALA PDT with 417 nm blue light is a promising option for the treatment of AC of the lower lip.

  7. Solid-boundary treatment for moment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khieu, Loc Huu

    Hyperbolic-relaxation systems for describing fluid flow, such as Grad's 13-moment (13M) system, are an alternative to the systems generated by the Chapman-Enskog expansion, which include derivatives of increasing order. The former have a number of numerical advantages stemming from the compactness of their spatial operator. They have been demonstrated to be suited for subsonic and transonic flow. In this dissertation we explore the solid-wall boundary conditions that have to supplement these moment systems. Starting from the boundary treatment proposed by Grad, we first remove an inconsistency in his theory that would lead to ambiguous results. We formulate two boundary conditions, 1— C and 2—C, containing one and two parameters, respectively; these are used to satisfy the non-penetration condition in 1— C and 2—C, and an additional normalization condition in 2—C. The boundary conditions are implemented in a computational code based on the 13M system. In order to study the accuracy of the new boundary condition we also develop a benchmark code based on the Boltzmann equation with Bhatnagar—Gross—Krook collision model (BGK equation), and implement the same boundary conditions in there. Both codes include a Finite-Volume (FV) and a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) option (piecewise-linear discretization). These codes are used to solve three types of flow problems: low-speed Couette flow with zero difference in wall temperatures, zero-speed Couette flow with appreciable wall-temperature difference, and low-speed Poiseuille flow. The Knudsen number ranged from 0.01 to 10. For these problems, incompressible Navier—Stokes—Fourier (NSF) solutions are available for comparison (except for the temperature-driven flow); here the boundary condition used is a first-or second-order velocity-slip boundary condition. The numerical experiments indicate that the 13M/1

  8. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of hepatic steatosis: a (13)C NMR metabolic study.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Patrícia M; Jones, John G; Rolo, Anabela P; Palmeira, Carlos M M; Carvalho, Rui A

    2011-11-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is commonly used for the treatment of hepatobiliary disorders. In this study, we tested whether a 4-week treatment with this bile acid (12-15 mg/kg/day) could improve hepatic fatty acid oxidation in obese Zucker rats - a model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatosis. After 24 h of fasting, livers were perfused with physiological concentrations of [U-(13) C]nonesterified fatty acids and [3-(13) C]lactate/[3-(13) C]pyruvate. Steatosis was associated with abundant intracellular glucose, lactate, alanine and methionine, and low concentrations of choline and betaine. Steatotic livers also showed the highest output of glucose and lactate. Glucose and glycolytic products were mostly unlabeled, indicating active glycogenolysis and glycolysis after 24 h of fasting. UDCA treatment resulted in a general amelioration of liver metabolic abnormalities with a decrease in intracellular glucose and lactate, as well as their output. Hepatic betaine and methionine were also normalized after UDCA treatment, suggesting the amelioration of anti-oxidative defenses. Choline levels were not affected by the bile acid, which may indicate a deficient synthesis of very-low-density lipoproteins. The percentage contribution of [U-(13) C]nonesterified fatty acids to acetyl-coenzyme A entering the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was significantly lower in livers from Zucker obese rats relative to control rats: 23.1 ± 4.9% versus 44.1 ± 2.7% (p < 0.01). UDCA treatment did not alter significantly fatty acid oxidation in control rats, but improved significantly oxidation in Zucker obese rats to 46.0 ± 6.1% (p > 0.05), comparable with control group values. The TCA cycle activity subsequent to fatty acid oxidation was reduced in steatotic livers and improved when UDCA was administered (0.24 ± 0.04 versus 0.37 ± 0.05, p = 0.05). We further suggest that the mechanism of action of UDCA is either related to the activity of the

  9. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  10. Sanitizing with peracetic acid (PAA)- An alternative treatment to use in aquaculture ...?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the lack of approved treatments for fish disease, disinfectants were tested to treat fish pathogens. One of these substances is peracetic acid (PAA). PAA is an agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harmful ...

  11. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess impact of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between VFA and VFA pool size (VFAmol), possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg), suggest issues...

  12. LIME TREATMENT LAGOONS TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM TWO MINING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are someof the most environmentally damaging land uses i the US. Acid Mine drainage (AMD) from mining sites across the country requires treatment because of high metal concentrations that exceed regulatory standards for safe disc...

  13. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  14. COMPOST-FREE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE, TECHNICAL EVALUATION BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  15. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE - TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  16. Combined metoprolol and ascorbic acid treatment prevents intrinsic damage to the heart during diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Saran, Varun; Sharma, Vijay; Wambolt, Richard; Yuen, Violet G; Allard, Michael; McNeill, John Hugh

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic disturbances and oxidative stress have been highlighted as potential causative factors for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The β-blocker metoprolol is known to improve function in the diabetic rat heart and ameliorates the sequelae associated with oxidative stress, without lowering oxidative stress. The antioxidant ascorbic acid is known to improve function in the diabetic rat heart. We tested whether a combination of ascorbic acid and metoprolol treatment would improve function further than each drug individually. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats were treated with metoprolol (15 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), via an osmotic pump) and (or) ascorbic acid (1000 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), via their drinking water). To study the effect of treatment on the development of dysfunction, we examined time points before (5 weeks diabetic) and after (7 weeks diabetic) development of overt systolic dysfunction. Echocardiography and working-heart-perfusion were used to assess cardiac function. Blood and tissue samples were collected to assess the severity of disease and oxidative stress. While both drugs improved function, only ascorbic acid had effects on oxidative damage. Combination treatment had a more pronounced improvement in function. Our β-blocker + antioxidant treatment strategy focused on oxidative stress, not diabetes specifically; therefore, it may prove useful in other diseases where oxidative stress contributes to the pathology.

  17. Evaluation of continuous 4 day exposure to peracetic acid as a treatment for Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. The most effective treatment, malachite green, has been banned in Europe and North America for use in food-fish production. Peracetic acid (PAA) was foun...

  18. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

  19. SO2 gas adsorption by modified kaolin clays: influence of previous heating and time acid treatments.

    PubMed

    Volzone, Cristina; Ortiga, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Modified kaolin clays were used as adsorbents for SO(2) gas adsorptions. The clays were heated up to 900 °C previous to acid treatments with 0.5 N sulfuric acid solutions at boiling temperature during different times up to 1440 min. Equilibrium adsorption at 25 °C and 0.1 MPa was carried out by using a volumetric apparatus. The samples were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis. The heating of the clays followed by acid treatment improved the adsorption capacity of the kaolin clays. The presence of amorphous silica and hydroxyl in the final products improved SO(2) adsorption capacity. Better properties for SO(2) adsorption were found in kaolin rich in not well ordered kaolinite clay mineral.

  20. Incorporation of salicylic acid derivatives to hydrophilic copolymer systems with biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Elvira, C; Gallardo, A; Lacroix, N; Schacht, E; San Román, J

    2001-06-01

    Hydrogels based on polymeric derivatives of salicylic acid have been prepared for biomedical applications by free radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxy-4-methacrylamidobenzoic acid, 4HMA, and 2-hydroxy-5-methacrylamidobenzoic acid, 5HMA, with 2- hydroxyethylmethacrylate, HEMA, in a wide range of compositions. The reactivity ratios of 4HMA and 5HMA with HEMA in radical copolymerization processes have been determined from their 1H NMR spectra by applying linearization methods and non-linear least square treatments. Tgs of the corresponding copolymers were analyzed by DSC. The swelling behavior in water of the prepared copolymers was studied in comparison to poly-(HEMA), poly-(4HMA) and poly-(5HMA) hydration degrees, being in all cases superior to 35%. The hydrolytical behavior of the synthesized copolymers was studied at three different pHs (2, 7.4 and 10) determining the release percentage of the salicylic acid derivatives, 4-amino salicylic acid, 4ASA, and 5-amino salicylic acid, 5ASA, analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The release analysis was followed during 230 days and a pH dependence was observed obtaining the highest release percentages at pH=10, whereas at physiological pH (7.4) the release percentages were in range from 2 to 5% at that time for all copolymer systems. The hydrolytical stability is enough for long-term applications like bone cements, ionomers, etc.

  1. Occurrence and fate of the human pharmaceutical metabolite ritalinic acid in the aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Letzel, Marion; Weiss, Klaus; Schüssler, Walter; Sengl, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the occurrence and fate of ritalinic acid - the main human metabolite of the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate - in the aquatic environment, a HPLC-electrospray-MS/MS method for the quantification of ritalinic acid in wastewater, surface water and bank filtrate was developed. Carbamazepine known as very stable in the aquatic environment was analyzed as anthropogenic marker in parallel. Furthermore, the removal of ritalinic acid was studied in a sewage treatment plant using an activated sludge system during a field study and in lab-scale plants. In good agreement between lab-scale and field studies a low removal rate of 13% and 23%, respectively, was determined. As a consequence, the concentration of ritalinic acid in the wastewater effluents were in the range of <50-170 ngL(-1) which corresponds to a mean specific load per capita of 17.7 μgd(-1). Ritalinic acid has further been detected in German rivers at concentrations of 4-23 ngL(-1) and in bank filtrate samples in 100-850 m distance from the river up to 5 ngL(-1) demonstrating the widespread occurrence of this stable metabolite in the aquatic environment. A comparison to available sales data shows that a significant amount of methylphenidate applied can be found in waters as ritalinic acid.

  2. Treatment of portal systemic encephalopathy: standard and new treatments.

    PubMed

    Marín, E; Uribe, M

    1990-07-01

    The management of hepatic encephalopathy should be considered accordingly with the precipitating factor and the type of encephalopathy. Ideally the therapeutic approach must be useful for both acute and chronic forms of encephalopathy. Current treatment of hepatic encephalopathy consists of certain well-established measures attempting to identify and treat the precipitating factors, and to reduce the intestinal nitrogenous compounds formation and absorption by dietary restriction or bowel-cleansing with catartics or antibiotics such as neomycin, metronidazol, etc. This review describes briefly several therapeutic modalities.

  3. Electrochemical treatment of acidic aqueous ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate as models for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Bunce, N J; Chartrand, M; Keech, P

    2001-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem in the mining industry. The present work describes electrolytic reduction of solutions of synthetic AMD, comprising FeSO4/H2SO4 and CuSO4/H2SO4, in flow-through cells whose anode and cathode compartments were separated using ion exchange membranes. In the case of FeSO4/H2SO4 at constant flow rate, the pH of the effluent from the catholyte increased progressively with current at a variety of cathodes, due to electrolytic reduction of H+ ions to elemental hydrogen. Near-quantitative removal of iron was achieved by sparging air into the catholyte effluent, thereby precipitating iron outside the electrochemical cell, and avoiding fouling of the electrodes. The anode reaction was the oxidation of water to O2, a proton-releasing process. Using cation exchange membranes and sodium sulfate as the supporting electrolyte in the anode compartment, the efficiency of the process was compromised at high currents by transport of H+ competitively with Na+ from the anode to the cathode compartments. Higher efficiencies were obtained when anion exchange membranes were used, and in this case no additional supporting electrolyte other than dilute H2SO4 was needed, the net reaction being the electrochemically driven transfer of the elements of H2SO4 from the cathode to the anode compartments. Current efficiencies approximately 50% were achieved, the loss of efficiency being accounted for by ohmic heating of the solutions. In the case of CuSO4/H2SO4 and anion exchange membranes at high currents, reduction of Cu2+ and H+ ions and transport of SO4(2-) ions out of the catholyte caused unacceptably high potentials to be generated.

  4. Chloroethene dechlorination in acidic groundwater: Implications for combining fenton's treatment with natural attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Singletary , Michael A.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2007-01-01

    A sulfuric acid leak in 1988 at a chloroethene-contaminated groundwater site at the Naval Air Station Pensacola has resulted in a long-term record of the behavior of chloroethene contaminants at low pH and a unique opportunity to assess the potential impact of source area treatment technologies, which involve acidification of the groundwater environment (e.g., Fenton's-based in situ chemical oxidation), on downgradient natural attenuation processes. The greater than 75 percent decrease in trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations and the shift in contaminant composition toward predominantly reduced daughter products (dichloroethene [DCE] and vinyl chloride [VC]) that were observed along a 30-m groundwater flow path characterized by highly acidic conditions (pH = 3.5 ± 0.4) demonstrated that chloroethene reductive dechlorination can continue to be efficient under persistent acidic conditions. The detection of Dehalococcoides-type bacteria within the sulfuric acid/chloroethene co-contaminant plume was consistent with biotic chloroethene reductive dechlorination. Microcosm studies conducted with 14C-TCE and 14C-VC confirmed biotic reductive dechlorination in sediment collected from within the sulfuric acid/chloroethene co-contaminant plume. Microcosms prepared with sediment from two other locations within the acid plume, however, demonstrated only a limited mineralization to 14CO2 and 14CO, which was attributed to abiotic degradation because no significant differences were observed between experimental and autoclaved control treatments. These results indicated that biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to chloroethene attenuation in the acid plume at NAS Pensacola and that remediation techniques involving acidification of the groundwater environment (e.g., Fenton's-based source area treatment) do not necessarily preclude efficient chloroethene degradation.

  5. Hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanerva, M.; Johansson, L.-S.; Campbell, J. M.; Revitzer, H.; Sarlin, E.; Brander, T.; Saarela, O.

    2015-02-01

    Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten-CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔGc≈ 8.4 J/m2.

  6. Formation and fate of haloacetic acids (HAAs) within the water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Manuel J; Serodes, Jean; Roy, Danielle

    2007-10-01

    Most research on the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has focused on trihalomethane (THM) formation and evolution, in particular within distribution systems. In this research, we investigated the variability of the occurrence of haloacetic acids (HAAs) during the treatment process in two facilities where surface water is pre-chlorinated before being treated by conventional physico-chemical processes. The investigation focused on both seasonal and point-to-point fluctuations of HAAs. In both facilities, samples were collected weekly during 1 complete year at four points in order to generate robust data on HAAs and on complementary parameters. The results showed that the initial formation of HAAs was the highest and the most variable in the plant where levels of DBP precursor indicators and the pre-chlorination dose were both higher and more variable. Subsequent formation of HAAs from the pre-chlorination point until the settled water occurred due to remaining levels of residual chlorine and DBP precursors. However, HAA levels and in particular dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) (the preponderant HAA species in the waters under study) decreased dramatically during filtration, very probably because of biodegradation within the filter. The effect of filtration on DCAA fate was season-dependant, with the highest degradation in warm water periods and practically no variation during winter. Statistical modeling was applied to empirically identify the operational factors responsible for HAA formation and fate. Model performance to identify HAA variability in waters following pre-chlorination was much better than for water following filtration, which is due to the lack of information on mechanisms and conditions favoring DCAA degradation.

  7. Short communication: rearrangement of rumenic Acid in ruminant fats: a marker of thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Destaillats, F; Japiot, C; Chouinard, P Y; Arul, J; Angers, P

    2005-05-01

    Rumenic (cis-9,trans-11 18:2) acid is the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer in milk and other ruminant fats. Anhydrous regular and high-CLA butterfats were heated at 200 degrees C for 2, 4, and 6 h under atmospheric conditions. [1,5] Sigmatropic isomerization of rumenic acid occurred, resulting in the formation of trans-8,cis-10 18:2 acid, as determined by mass spectrometry of its 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivative. Rate of isomerization was monitored by gas-liquid chromatography, using a 120-m capillary column coated with 70% equivalent cyanoalkylpolysiloxane polymer, and reaction was of first order. Furthermore, [1,5] sigmatropic rearrangement product analysis can be used as an indicator of heat treatment of natural fats and oils containing CLA.

  8. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    PubMed Central

    Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in nucleic acid-based electrical

  9. Mechanism of chlorogenic acid treatment on femoral head necrosis and its protection of osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjuan; Hu, Xianda

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of chlorogenic acid on hormonal femoral head necrosis and its protection of osteoblasts. The study established a femoral head necrosis model in Wistar rats using Escherichia coli endotoxin and prednisolone acetate. The rats were divided into five groups and were treated with different concentrations of chlorogenic acid (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). The main detected indicators were the blood rheology, bone mineral density, and the hydroxyproline and hexosamine (HOM) contents. At a cellular level, osteoblasts were cultured and treated by drug-containing serum. Subsequently, cell proliferation and the osteoblast cycle were measured using flow cytometry, and the protein expression levels of Bax and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were detected using western blotting. Chlorogenic acid at a concentration of 20 mg/kg (high-dose) enhanced the bone mineral density of the femoral head and femoral neck following ischemia. Simultaneously, blood flow following the injection of prednisolone acetate was significantly improved, and the HOM contents of the high-dose chlorogenic acid group were significantly different. The results from the flow cytometry analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid can efficiently ameliorate hormone-induced necrosis. The osteoblasts were isolated and cultured. The MTT colorimetric assay showed that chlorogenic acid at different densities can increase the proliferation capabilities of osteoblasts and accelerate the transition process of G0/G1 phase to S phase, as well as enhance mitosis and the regeneration of osteoblasts. Western blotting detection indicated that chlorogenic acid may prohibit the decrease of Bcl-2 and the increase of Bax during apoptosis, thereby inhibiting osteoblast apoptosis and preventing the deterioration of femoral head necrosis. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid at the density of 20 mg/kg is effective in the treatment of hormonal femoral head necrosis, which may be

  10. Branched-chain amino acids vs lactulose in the treatment of hepatic coma: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fanelli, F; Riggio, O; Cangiano, C; Cascino, A; De Conciliis, D; Merli, M; Stortoni, M; Giunchi, G

    1982-10-01

    A controlled study was carried out in two groups of 20 patients with cirrhosis of the liver and deep coma in order to compare the efficacy of intravenous branched-chain amino acid solutions in 20% glucose (group A) vs lactulose plus glucose in isocaloric amount (group B). There were 3 drop-outs from each group. Plasma amino acids and ammonia were assayed at fixed intervals throughout the 10-day observation period. Routine tests were assayed daily. Complete mental recovery was obtained in 70% of patients in group A and in 47% in group B. The difference was not significant, likely due to the lack of placebo group. With the exception of free tryptophan/all competing amino acids ratio, the modifications in plasma amino acid levels showed no correlation with the clinical course under either treatment. Ammonia, like free tryptophan, decreased significantly upon mental recovery, paralleling the clinical course throughout the study. In conclusion, branched-chain amino acids are at least as effective as lactulose in deep hepatic coma. It is suggested that branched-chain amino acids may reverse coma either by competing with brain entry of the aromatic amino acid or by metabolically decreasing free tryptophan and ammonia.

  11. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yi Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  12. Superabsorbent biphasic system based on poly(lactic acid) and poly(acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Pandini, Stefano; Baldi, Francesco; Bignotti, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    In this research work, biocomposites based on crosslinked particles of poly(acrylic acid), commonly used as superabsorbent polymer (SAP), and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) were developed to elucidate the role of the filler (i.e., polymeric crosslinked particles) on the overall physico-mechanical behavior and to obtain superabsorbent thermoplastic products. Samples prepared by melt-blending of components in different ratios showed a biphasic system with a regular distribution of particles, with diameter ranging from 5 to 10 μm, within the PLLA polymeric matrix. The polymeric biphasic system, coded PLASA i.e. superabsorbent poly(lactic acid), showed excellent swelling properties, demonstrating that cross-linked particles retain their superabsorbent ability, as in their free counterparts, even if distributed in a thermoplastic polymeric matrix. The thermal characteristics of the biocomposites evidence enhanced thermal stability in comparison with neat PLLA and also mechanical properties are markedly modified by addition of crosslinked particles which induce regular stiffening effect. Furthermore, in aqueous environments the particles swell and are leached from PLLA matrix generating very high porosity. These new open-pore PLLA foams, produced in absence of organic solvents and chemical foaming agents, with good physico-mechanical properties appear very promising for several applications, for instance in tissue engineering for scaffold production.

  13. Antibacterial drug treatment increases intestinal bile acid absorption via elevated levels of ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter but not organic solute transporter α protein.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drug treatment increases the bile acid pool size and hepatic bile acid concentration through the elevation of hepatic bile acid synthesis. However, the involvement of intestinal bile acid absorption in the increased bile acid pool size remains unclear. To determine whether intestinal bile acid absorption contributes to the increased bile acid pool in mice treated with antibacterial drugs, we evaluated the levels of bile acid transporter proteins and the capacity of intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in ampicillin (ABPC)-treated mice, whereas organic solute transporter α (OSTα) mRNA levels, but not protein levels, significantly decreased in mice. Similar alterations in the expression levels of bile acid transporters were observed in mice treated with bacitracin/neomycin/streptomycin. The capacity for intestinal bile acid absorption was evaluated by an in situ loop method. Increased ileal absorption of taurochenodeoxycholic acid was observed in mice treated with ABPC. These results suggest that intestinal bile acid absorption is elevated in an ASBT-dependent manner in mice treated with antibacterial drugs.

  14. UV Spectra of Amino Acid Immobilized at Nanoparticles Formation through Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) by Plasma Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamad, Farizan; Agam, Mohd Arif; Nur, Hadi

    2011-05-25

    The modifying of nanospheres structures by plasma treatments to the fabricated nanoparticles arrays by Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) techniques to create Periodic Particles Arrays (PPAs) with different size, shape and orientation. Spectra of amino acid that immobilized to the nanoparticles arrays under Ultra Violet (UV) spectrums were studied. The PPAs with different sizes, shapes and orientation were fabricated by plasma treatment of 5 sec, 7 sec and 10 sec to the Polystyrene Nanosphere (PSN). Plasma treatment will effect to the PSN including etching part of the PSN to produce a much bigger channel to the single layer template of the PSN. Metal was deposited at interstitial sites between of the polymer balls and later removed by dissolving them in organic solvent, leaving a hexagonal pattern of metal structures at the interstitial sites. The nanoparticles immobilized with the standard amino acid, which later investigated under UV spectrums. The spectrums shows the possibilities use as biosensor devices.

  15. PeaT1-induced systemic acquired resistance in tobacco follows salicylic acid-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei; Mao, Jianjun; Gao, Qiufeng

    2011-04-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defense mechanism which plays a central role in protecting plants from pathogen attack. A new elicitor, PeaT1 from Alternaria tenuissima, was expressed in Escherichia coil and characterized with systemic acquired resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). PeaT1-treated plants exhibited enhanced systemic resistance with a significant reduction in number and size of TMV lesions on wild tobacco leaves as compared with control. The quantitative analysis of TMV CP gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR showed there was reduction in TMV virus concentration after PeaT1 treatment. Similarly, peroxidase (POD) activity and lignin increased significantly after PeaT1 treatment. The real-time quantitative PCR revealed that PeaT1 also induced the systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related gene, PR-1a and PR-1b which are the markers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), NPR1 gene for salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway and PAL gene for SA synthesis. The accumulation of SA and the failure in development of similar level of resistance as in wild type tobacco plants in PeaT1 treated nahG transgenic tobacco plants indicated that PeaT1-induced resistance depended on SA accumulation. The present work suggested that the molecular mechanism of PeaT1 inducing disease resistance in tobacco was likely through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NPR1 gene.

  16. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Schultz, N; Capion, N

    2013-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored M0 to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to M0 was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P=0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1%, respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P=0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P=0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P=0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P<0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use.

  17. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes.

  18. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Andrew S.; O’Neil, Shawn T.; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. PMID:26163705

  19. Taenia crassiceps: host treatment alters glycolisis and tricarboxilic acid cycle in cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2012-02-01

    Human cysticercosis by Taenia crassiceps is rare although it is considered of zoonotic risk, especially to immunocompromised individuals. Albendazole and praziquantel are widely used and effective in its treatment. Their active forms inhibit the glucose uptake by the parasite and induce muscle contractions that alter its glycogen levels interfering in the energetic metabolism of the parasite and leading to its death. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glucose concentrations caused by low dosage treatments of the hosts with albendazole and praziquantel. Therefore, T. crassiceps intraperitoneally infected mice were treated by gavage feeding with 5.75 or 11.5 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 or 7.67 mg/kg of praziquantel. The treated mice were euthanized after 24 h and the cysticerci collected were morphologically classified into initial, larval or final phases. Concentrations of the organic acid produced and glucose were evaluated to detect alterations into the glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways through chromatography and spectrophotometry. The low dosage treatment caused a partial blockage of the glucose uptake by the cysticerci in spite of the non significant difference between its concentrations. An activation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was noted in the cysticerci that received the treatment due to an increase in the production of citrate, malate and α-ketoglutarate and the consumption of oxaloacetate, succinate and fumarate. The detection of α-ketoglutarate indicates that the cysticerci which were exposed to the drugs after host treatment present different metabolic pathways than the ones previously described after in vitro treatment.

  20. Impact of treatment processes on the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from the drinking water production chain.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Beerendonk, Erwin; Scholte-Veenendaal, Petra; De Voogt, Pim

    2012-02-07

    The behavior of polyfluoralkyl acids (PFAAs) from intake (raw source water) to finished drinking water was assessed by taking samples from influent and effluent of the several treatment steps used in a drinking water production chain. These consisted of intake, coagulation, rapid sand filtration, dune passage, aeration, rapid sand filtration, ozonation, pellet softening, granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration, slow sand filtration, and finished drinking water. In the intake water taken from the Lek canal (a tributary of the river Rhine), the most abundant PFAA were PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), PFBS (perfluorobutane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid). During treatment, longer chain PFAA such as PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFOS were readily removed by the GAC treatment step and their GAC effluent concentrations were reduced to levels below the limits of quantitation (LOQ) (0.23 and 0.24 ng/L for PFOS and PFNA, respectively). However, more hydrophilic shorter chain PFAA (especially PFBA and PFBS) were not removed by GAC and their concentrations remained constant through treatment. A decreasing removal capacity of the GAC was observed with increasing carbon loading and with decreasing carbon chain length of the PFAAs. This study shows that none of the treatment steps, including softening processes, are effective for PFAA removal, except for GAC filtration. GAC can effectively remove certain PFAA from the drinking water cycle.The enrichment of branched PFOS and PFOA isomers relative to non branched isomers during GAC filtration was observed during treatment. The finished water contained 26 and 19 ng/L of PFBA and PFBS. Other PFAAs were present in concentrations below 4.2 ng/L The concentrations of PFAA observed in finished waters are no reason for concern for human health as margins to existing guidelines are sufficiently large.

  1. Novel treatments for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Gayed, Mary; Gordon, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that is associated with the production of autoantibodies, and with considerable morbidity and mortality. There has been much interest in developing more specific therapies for this disease, which is currently managed with immunosuppressive drugs, predominantly corticosteroids, azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide, in combination with hydroxychloroquine. Mycophenolate mofetil has been demonstrated to be as efficacious as cyclophosphamide in patients with lupus nephritis, and is being used increasingly in the clinic despite not being licensed for this indication. Novel methods of reducing autoantibody formation in SLE include the use of mAbs that modulate and/or deplete B-cells (anti-CD22 and anti-CD20 antibodies, respectively), or that interfere with the stimulatory effects of the soluble factor B-lymphocyte stimulator (anti-BLys antibodies). Alternative approaches include the use of atacicept (Merck Serono), a transmembrane activator and calcium modulator ligand interactor (TACI)-Ig fusion protein, which inhibits B-cell stimulation by binding to BLys and a profileration-inducing ligand (APRIL), or toleragens such as abetimus. Blocking costimulatory molecule interactions, such as the CD40-CD40 ligand interaction with mAbs and the CD28-B7 interaction with a soluble cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4)-IgG1 construct (abatacept), has also been attempted as a therapeutic strategy for SLE. The most promising strategy for a new drug for SLE is belimumab (Human Genome Sciences/GlaxoSmithKline), an anti-BLys antibody, as two phase III clinical trials with this drug recently met their primary endpoints. In this review, these novel approaches to the treatment of SLE, including the potential of targeting cytokine pathways involved in autoimmunity, are discussed.

  2. [Linoleic acid and the immune system. Controversies about lipid emulsions].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo, A; Culebras, J M

    1992-01-01

    The selection of a given lipidic function for nutritional backup requires not only knowledge of the metabolism of the different existing lipidic emulsions and of their specific therapeutic indications, but also of their contraindications and controversies because, apart from their calorific value, the contribution of liposoluble vitamins and their function in preventing essential fatty acid deficiencies, we know that they are powerful metabolic modulators. This in associated with the fact that manipulation of dietary lipids (enteral or parenteral) can affect and modulate the response to the disease, attack or infection by improving or impairing the different immune functions. This review is focused on the scientific publications which have examined the varying effects of lipidic emulsions, in quantity and in quality (particularly linoleic acid) on the immune system, on the fatty acid composition of the cellular membranes and on the production of and prostaglandins and leukotrienes. An update is given of the known interrelation between lipids and immunity, with appraisal of triglycerides and long-medium -- and short-chain fatty acids, mixtures of medium -- and long-chain triglycerides, the proportions between infinity-3/infinity-6, and structured lipids.

  3. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  4. System for portable nucleic acid testing in low resource settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I.; Carey, Thomas; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    Our overall goal is to enable timely diagnosis of infectious diseases through nucleic acid testing at the point-of-care and in low resource settings, via a compact system that integrates nucleic acid sample preparation, isothermal DNA amplification, and nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection. We herein present an interim milestone, the design of the amplification and detection subsystem, and the characterization of thermal and fluidic control and assay execution within this system. Using an earlier prototype of the amplification and detection unit, comprised of a disposable cartridge containing flexible pouches, passive valves, and electrolysis-driven pumps, in conjunction with a small heater, we have demonstrated successful execution of an established and clinically validated isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) reaction targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA, coupled to NALF detection. The refined design presented herein incorporates miniaturized and integrated electrolytic pumps, novel passive valves, overall design changes to facilitate integration with an upstream sample preparation unit, and a refined instrument design that automates pumping, heating, and timing. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that facilitates fluid handling and appropriate thermal control. The disposable cartridge is manufactured using low-cost and scalable techniques and forms a closed system to prevent workplace contamination by amplicons. In a parallel effort, we are developing a sample preparation unit based on similar design principles, which performs mechanical lysis of mycobacteria and DNA extraction from liquefied and disinfected sputum. Our next step is to combine sample preparation, amplification, and detection in a final integrated cartridge and device, to enable fully automated sample-in to answer-out diagnosis of active tuberculosis in primary care facilities of low-resource and high-burden countries.

  5. Medical treatment of orthotopic glioblastoma with transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles encapsulating zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Porru, Manuela; Zappavigna, Silvia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Luce, Amalia; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Artuso, Simona; Lusa, Sara; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Leonetti, Carlo; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly aggressive adult brain tumors with poor clinical outcome. In the central nervous system (CNS) the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the most important limiting factor for both development of new drugs and drug delivery. Here, we propose a new strategy to treat glioblastoma based on transferrin (Tf)-targeted self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating zoledronic acid (ZOL) (NPs-ZOL-Tf). NPs-ZOL-Tf have been assessed on the glioblastoma cell line U373MG-LUC that showed a refractoriness in vitro to temozolomide (TMZ) and fotemustine (FTM). NPs-ZOL-Tf treatment resulted in higher in vitro cytotoxic activity than free ZOL. However, the potentiation of anti-proliferative activity of NPs-ZOL-Tf was superimposable to that one induced by NPs-ZOL (not armed with Tf). On the other hand, NPs-ZOL-Tf showed a higher antitumor efficacy if compared with that one caused by NPs-ZOL in immunosuppressed mice intramuscularly bearing U373MG-LUC xenografts, inducing a significant tumor weight inhibition (TWI). The experiments performed on mice with intracranial U373MG-LUC xenografts confirmed the efficacy of NPs-ZOL-Tf. These effects were paralleled by a higher intratumour localization of fluorescently-labeled-NPs-Tf both in intramuscular and intracranial xenografts. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the encapsulation of ZOL increases the antitumor efficacy of this drug in glioblastoma through the acquisition of ability to cross the BBB. PMID:25431953

  6. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  10. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ji-Min; Kim, Ji-Won; Song, Ji-Won; Blank, Lars M.; Park, Jin-Byung

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid)-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3). Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1)) into n-heptanoic acid (5) and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4). This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass. PMID:27681369

  11. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ji-Min; Kim, Ji-Won; Song, Ji-Won; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid)-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3). Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1)) into n-heptanoic acid (5) and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4). This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass.

  12. Role of omega-3 Fatty acids for prevention or treatment of perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Borja-Hart, Nancy L; Marino, Jehan

    2010-02-01

    Perinatal depression is a complex mental health disorder that can manifest during pregnancy or after childbirth. Women with perinatal depression may not receive proper medical treatment because of concerns over teratogenic effects related to drug therapy. Evidence suggests that low levels of omega-3 fatty acids are correlated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after delivery. Omega-3 fatty acids may produce antidepressant effects due to their role in serotonin functioning. A literature search identified seven clinical trials of omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention or treatment of perinatal depression. Depression rating scale scores used in the studies improved, but results were statistically significant in only three trials. Four studies were randomized and placebo controlled, and three were open label. One study evaluating the prevention of postpartum depression in women with a history of depression was discontinued early due to relapse of depressive symptoms. In the trials we evaluated, the most common adverse effects were foul breath and/or unpleasant taste, and gastrointestinal complaints; no serious adverse events were reported. The seven studies were limited by small sample sizes and variable dosing and study durations. In the studies that demonstrated statistical significance, improvement in depression rating scale scores for omega-3 fatty acids was comparable to placebo. Overall, results have been inconclusive, but further investigation of omega-3 fatty acids is warranted because they did improve depression scores and appeared to be safe during pregnancy.

  13. Effect of boric acid treatment on the secondary cycle at ANO-2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Siegwarth, D.P.; McNea, D.A.; Sawochka, S.G.

    1985-11-01

    Because of the rapid progression of denting at the steam generator upper support plates at Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 2 (ANO-2), Arkansas Power and Light (AP and L) implemented boric acid treatment during the third fuel cycle. Minimal effects of boric acid on secondary cycle ionic transport were observed; however, indications of accelerated corrosion of copper alloys in portions of the cycle were noted. Since the primary-to-secondary hydrogen diffusion rate data did not conform to the relation expected based on laboratory studies with Alloy 600, hydrogen transport data could not be employed to conclusively demonstrate the effect of boric acid on steam generator corrosion. Assuming that the basic form of the diffusion relation remained the same during operation with and without boric acid, a net increase in corrosion-generated hydrogen transport appeared to result from the adoption of boric acid treatment. This increase may be attributable to an increase in secondary cycle copper alloy corrosion rates, although additional measurements would be required to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. Fatty acid microemulsion for the treatment of neonatal conjunctivitis: quantification, characterisation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Butt, Ummara; ElShaer, Amr; Snyder, Lori A S; Chaidemenou, Athina; Alany, Raid G

    2016-12-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are used by many organisms as defence mechanism against virulent bacteria. The high safety profile and broad spectrum of activity make them potential alternatives to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of eye infections in neonates. The current study utilised a Design of Experiment approach to optimise the quantification of five fatty acids namely; lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The significance of the influence of the experimental parameters such as volume of catalyst, volume of n-hexane, incubation temperature, incubation time and the number of extraction steps on derivatisation was established by statistical screening with a factorial approach. Derivatisation was confirmed using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR) and 1H NMR spectrum. A gas chromatographic method (GC-FID) was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines for the identification and quantification of fatty acids. The results were found to be linear over the concentration range studied with coefficient of variation greater than 0.99 and high recovery values and low intra-day and inter-day variation values for all FAs. Then, different α-linolenic acid-based microemulsions (MEs) were prepared using Tween 80 as surfactant, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) as co surfactant and water as aqueous phase. The developed GC method was used to quantify the FA content in ME formulations. The results indicated that the developed GC method is very effective to quantify the FA content in the ME formulations. The antimicrobial efficacy of FA-based MEs were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. It was concluded that the FA-based MEs have strong antimicrobial effect against S. aureus.

  15. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes by Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Kenneth R.; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Dietary free fatty acids (FFAs), such as ω-3 fatty acids, regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes, with many of these effects attributed to FFAs interacting with a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Selective synthetic ligands for free fatty acid receptors (FFA1-4) have consequently been developed as potential treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, clinical studies show that Fasiglifam, an agonist of the long-chain FFA receptor, FFA1, improved glycemic control and reduced HbA1c levels in T2D patients, with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia. However, this ligand was removed from clinical trials due to potential liver toxicity and determining if this is a target or a ligand-specific feature is now of major importance. Pre-clinical studies also show that FFA4 agonism increases insulin sensitivity, induces weight loss, and reduces inflammation and the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are linked with FFA2 and FFA3 activation. In this review, we therefore show that FFA receptor agonism is a potential clinical target for T2D treatment and discuss ongoing drug development programs within industry and academia aimed at improving the safety and effectiveness of these potential treatments. PMID:25221541

  16. Amino Acid PET – An Imaging Option to Identify Treatment Response, Posttherapeutic Effects, and Tumor Recurrence?

    PubMed Central

    Galldiks, Norbert; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Routine diagnostics and treatment monitoring in patients with primary and secondary brain tumors is usually based on contrast-enhanced standard MRI. However, the capacity of standard MRI to differentiate neoplastic tissue from non-specific posttreatment effects may be limited particularly after therapeutic interventions such as radio- and/or chemotherapy or newer treatment options, e.g., immune therapy. Metabolic imaging using PET may provide relevant additional information on tumor metabolism, which allows a more accurate diagnosis especially in clinically equivocal situations, particularly when radiolabeled amino acids are used. Amino acid PET allows a sensitive monitoring of a response to various treatment options, the early detection of tumor recurrence, and an improved differentiation of tumor recurrence from posttherapeutic effects. In the past, this method had only limited availability due to the use of PET tracers with a short half-life, e.g., C-11. In recent years, however, novel amino acid PET tracers labeled with positron emitters with a longer half-life (F-18) have been developed and clinically validated, which allow a more efficient and cost-effective application. These developments and the well-documented diagnostic performance of PET using radiolabeled amino acids suggest that its application continues to spread and that this technique may be available as a routine diagnostic tool for several indications in the field of neuro-oncology. PMID:27516754

  17. Low- and high-affinity transport systems for citric acid in the yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed Central

    Cássio, F; Leáo, C

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid-grown cells of the yeast Candida utilis induced two transport systems for citric acid, presumably a proton symport and a facilitated diffusion system for the charged and the undissociated forms of the acid, respectively. Both systems could be observed simultaneously when the transport was measured at 25 degrees C with labelled citric acid at pH 3.5 with the following kinetic parameters: for the low-affinity system, Vmax, 1.14 nmol of undissociated citric acid s-1 mg (dry weight) of cells-1, and Km, 0.59 mM undissociated acid; for the high-affinity system, Vmax, 0.38 nmol of citrate s-1 mg (dry weight) of cells-1, and Km, 0.056 mM citrate. At high pH values (above 5.0), the low-affinity system was absent or not measurable. The two transport systems exhibited different substrate specificities. Isocitric acid was a competitive inhibitor of citric acid for the high-affinity system, suggesting that these tricarboxylic acids used the same transport system, while aconitic, tricarballylic, trimesic, and hemimellitic acids were not competitive inhibitors. With respect to the low-affinity system, isocitric acid, L-lactic acid, and L-malic acid were competitive inhibitors, suggesting that all of these mono-, di-, and tricarboxylic acids used the same low-affinity transport system. The two transport systems were repressed by glucose, and as a consequence diauxic growth was observed. Both systems were inducible, and not only citric acid but also lactic acid and malic acid may induce those transport systems. The induction of both systems was not dependent on the relative concentration of the anionic form(s) and of undissociated citric acid in the culture medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1664712

  18. Stream ecosystem response to limestone treatment in acid impacted watersheds of the allegheny plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClurg, S.E.; Petty, J.T.; Mazik, P.M.; Clayton, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Restoration programs are expanding worldwide, but assessments of restoration effectiveness are rare. The objectives of our study were to assess current acid-precipitation remediation programs in streams of the Allegheny Plateau ecoregion of West Virginia (USA), identify specific attributes that could and could not be fully restored, and quantify temporal trends in ecosystem recovery. We sampled water chemistry, physical habitat, periphyton biomass, and benthic macroinvertebrate and fish community structure in three stream types: acidic (four streams), naturally circumneutral (eight streams), and acidic streams treated with limestone sand (eight streams). We observed no temporal trends in ecosystem recovery in treated streams despite sampling streams that ranged from 2 to 20 years since initial treatment. Our results indicated that the application of limestone sand to acidic streams was effective in fully recovering some characteristics, such as pH, alkalinity, Ca2+, Ca:H ratios, trout biomass and density, and trout reproductive success. However, recovery of many other characteristics was strongly dependent upon spatial proximity to treatment, and still others were never fully recovered. For example, limestone treatment did not restore dissolved aluminum concentrations, macroinvertebrate taxon richness, and total fish biomass to circumneutral reference conditions. Full recovery may not be occurring because treated streams continue to drain acidic watersheds and remain isolated in a network of acidic streams. We propose a revised stream restoration plan for the Allegheny Plateau that includes restoring stream ecosystems as connected networks rather than isolated reaches and recognizes that full recovery of acidified watersheds may not be possible. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Detection and treatment of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in psychiatric practice: Rationale and implementation.

    PubMed

    Messamore, Erik; McNamara, Robert K

    2016-02-10

    A body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and potentially etiology of different psychiatric disorders. Case-control studies have consistently observed low erythrocyte (red blood cell) EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Low erythrocyte EPA + DHA biostatus can be treated with fish oil-based formulations containing preformed EPA + DHA, and extant evidence suggests that fish oil supplementation is safe and well-tolerated and may have therapeutic benefits. These and other data provide a rationale for screening for and treating LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency in patients with psychiatric illness. To this end, we have implemented a pilot program that routinely measures blood fatty acid levels in psychiatric patients entering a residential inpatient clinic. To date over 130 blood samples, primarily from patients with treatment-refractory mood or anxiety disorders, have been collected and analyzed. Our initial results indicate that the majority (75 %) of patients exhibit whole blood EPA + DHA levels at ≤ 4 percent of total fatty acid composition, a rate that is significantly higher than general population norms (25 %). In a sub-set of cases, corrective treatment with fish oil-based products has resulted in improvements in psychiatric symptoms without notable side effects. In view of the urgent need for improvements in conventional treatment algorithms, these preliminary findings provide important support for expanding this approach in routine psychiatric practice.

  20. Wastewater Treatment by a Prototype Slow Rate Land Treatment System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    vari- lon ( in also o( ( ur in relo( ,(I i( r(iones with- ation of native N in the soil. Only a few systems in an othvrs, isi aerated soil it the N and...minerals is a aerated The organic C content is generally low, process unlikely to be of major significance for particularly when secondary wastewaters are...prototypes were totally stored in subsurface concrete tanks for use in ex- enclosed, all of the drainage water could be di- periments that required

  1. Systemic regulation of soybean nodulation by acidic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Han; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2012-12-01

    Mechanisms inhibiting legume nodulation by low soil pH, although highly prevalent and economically significant, are poorly understood. We addressed this in soybean (Glycine max) using a combination of physiological and genetic approaches. Split-root and grafting studies using an autoregulation-of-nodulation-deficient mutant line, altered in the autoregulation-of-nodulation receptor kinase GmNARK, determined that a systemic, shoot-controlled, and GmNARK-dependent mechanism was critical for facilitating the inhibitory effect. Acid inhibition was independent of aluminum ion concentration and occurred early in nodule development, between 12 and 96 h post inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Biological effects were confirmed by measuring transcript numbers of known early nodulation genes. Transcripts decreased on both sides of split-root systems, where only one side was subjected to low-pH conditions. Our findings enhance the present understanding of the innate mechanisms regulating legume nodulation control under acidic conditions, which could benefit future attempts in agriculture to improve nodule development and biological nitrogen fixation in acid-stressed soils.

  2. Effect of acid and alkali treatment of soybean meal on nitrogen utilization by ruminants.

    PubMed

    Waltz, D M; Loerch, S C

    1986-09-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) was treated with acid or alkali to determine effects on N solubility, in vitro NH3-N accumulation, in situ N degradability, and N digestion and retention in growing lambs. The following SBM treatments resulted in decreased (P less than .05) N solubility and in vitro NH3-N accumulation compared with control SBM: spraying with 2.5 or 5% acetic or propionic acid, soaking in .5 N HCl, .5 N NaOH or .5 N propionic acid followed by air drying, and soaking in H2O, .5 N HCl or .5 N propionic acid followed by drying at 100 C. In situ residual N was determined for SBM subjected to the above treatments. Soybean meal sprayed with 2.5 or 5% acetic or propionic acid had greater (P less than .05) in situ residual N after 4, 8 and 12 h of incubation than control SBM. Soybean meal soaked in .5 N HCl or .5 N NaOH and air-dried, and soaked in H2O, .5 N propionic acid or .5 N HCl and dried at 100 C had greater (P less than .05) in situ residual N after 4, 8, 12 and 24 h of incubation than control SBM. In a lamb N balance trial, SBM treated by spraying with 5% acetic or propionic acid or by soaking in .5 N NaOH did not result in reduced N digestion compared to control SBM. Feeding SBM soaked in .5 N NaOH resulted in a 39% increase (P less than .05) in N retention compared with control SBM (5.21 vs 3.74 g/d, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Bile Acids in Polycystic Liver Diseases: Triggers of Disease Progression and Potential Solution for Treatment.

    PubMed

    Perugorria, Maria J; Labiano, Ibone; Esparza-Baquer, Aitor; Marzioni, Marco; Marin, Jose J G; Bujanda, Luis; Banales, Jesús M

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are a group of genetic hereditary cholangiopathies characterized by the development and progressive growth of cysts in the liver, which are the main cause of morbidity. Current therapies are based on surgical procedures and pharmacological strategies, which show short-term and modest beneficial effects. Therefore, the determination of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis appears to be crucial in order to find new potential targets for pharmacological therapy. Ductal plate malformation during embryogenesis and abnormal cystic cholangiocyte growth and secretion are some of the key mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PLDs. However, the discovery of the presence of bile acids in the fluid collected from human cysts and the intrahepatic accumulation of cytotoxic bile acids in an animal model of PLD (i.e. polycystic kidney (PCK) rat) suggest a potential role of impaired bile acid homeostasis in the pathogenesis of these diseases. On the other hand, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has emerged as a new potential therapeutic tool for PLDs by promoting the inhibition of cystic cholangiocyte growth in both PCK rats and highly symptomatic patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD: most common type of PLD), and improving symptoms. Chronic treatment with UDCA normalizes the decreased intracellular calcium levels in ADPKD human cholangiocytes in vitro, which results in the reduction of their baseline-stimulated proliferation. Moreover, UDCA decreases the liver concentration of cytotoxic bile acids in PCK rats and the bile acid-dependent enhanced proliferation of cystic cholangiocytes. Here, the role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of PLDs and the potential therapeutic value of UDCA for the treatment of these diseases are reviewed and future lines of investigation in this field are proposed.

  4. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  5. Influence of Fluorine on the Conductivity and Oxidation of Silicon Nanomembranes after Hydrofluoric Acid Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiang-Fu; Han, Ping; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2011-08-01

    After immersion in hydrofluoric acid, the sheet resistance of a 220-nm-thick silicon nanomembrane, measured in dry air by van der Pauw method, drops around two orders of magnitude initially, then increases and reaches the level of a sample with a native oxide surface in about one month. The surface component and oxidation rate are also characterized by x-ray photo electronic spectroscopy measurement. Fluorine is found to play a significant role in improving conductivity and has no apparent influence on the oxidation rate after hydrofluoric acid treatment.

  6. The effects of acid treatment and calcium ions on the solubility of concanavalin A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacioppo, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acid treatment (which removes Mn and Ca ions) and Ca(2+) ions on the solubility of jack-bean-meal concanavalin A were investigated using two techniques: the sitting drop technique and the microcolumn technique. It was found that the solubility of concanavalin A varied with the protein preparation procedures and with measurement techniques. Addition of Ca(2+) resulted in greatly lowered solubilities compared with the acid treated protein. The sitting drop solubilities for the recalcified protein agreed better with those reported by Mikol and Giege (1989) than with solubilities determined from column data.

  7. Treatment of Rapidly Progressive Systemic Sclerosis: Current and Futures Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Fabian A.; Mansoor, Maryah; Jimenez, Sergio A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by severe and often progressive cutaneous, pulmonary, cardiac and gastrointestinal tract fibrosis, cellular and humoral immunologic alterations, and pronounced fibroproliferative vasculopathy. There is no effective SSc disease modifying therapy. Patients with rapidly progressive SSc have poor prognosis with frequent disability and very high mortality. Areas Covered This paper reviews currently available therapeutic approaches for rapidly progressive SSc and discuss novel drugs under study for SSc disease modification. Expert Opinion The extent, severity, and rate of progression of SSc skin and internal organ involvement determines the optimal therapeutic interventions for SSc. Cyclophosphamide for progressive SSc-associated interstitial lung disease and mycophenolate for rapidly progressive cutaneous involvement have shown effectiveness. Methotrexate has been used for less severe skin progression and for patients unable to tolerate mycophenolate. Rituximab was shown to induce improvement in SSc-cutaneous and lung involvement. Autologous bone marrow transplantation is reserved for selected cases in whom poor survival risk outweighs the high mortality rate of the procedure. Novel agents capable of modulating fibrotic and inflammatory pathways involved in SSc pathogenesis, including tocilizumab, pirfenidone, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, lipid lysophosphatidic acid 1, and NOX4 inhibitors are currently under development for the treatment of rapidly progressive SSc. PMID:27812432

  8. New approach in the treatment of refractory vitiligo: CO2 laser combined with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Scabine Pessotti, Nabila; Bonati Mattos, Camila; Salai, Ana Flavia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of fractional carbon dioxide laser (CO2 ) with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution in the treatment of patients with refractory vitiligo in hands. Each hand of the patient was randomly assigned to one of two groups: lesion treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser associated with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution administration or lesion treated only with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution. We conclude that combined treatment with fractional carbon dioxide laser and betamethasone associated with salicylic acid solution could effectively and safely be used in the treatment of refractory vitiligo.

  9. Green Chemical Treatments for Heating and Cooling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    of condenser wa- ter treatment with a key ingredient being polyaspartate (PASP). Polyaspar- tic acid was the 1996 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge...cooling water biocide tetrakis (hy- droxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS). THPS won the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 1997. The...Legionella pneumophila bacterium, which causes Legion- naire’s Disease. 2.3 Steam Line Treatment The third and final product in the Green Chemistry project

  10. The impact of high fructose on cardiovascular system: Role of α-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Saygin, M; Asci, H; Cankara, F N; Bayram, D; Yesilot, S; Candan, I A; Alp, H H

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on oxidative damage and inflammation that occur in endothelium of aorta and heart while constant consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The rats were randomly divided into three groups with each group containing eight rats. The groups include HFCS, HFCS + α-LA treatment, and control. HFCS was given to the rats at a ratio of 30% of F30 corn syrup in drinking water for 10 weeks. α-LA treatment was given to the rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally for the last 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed by cervical dislocation. The blood samples were collected for biochemical studies, and the aortic and cardiac tissues were collected for evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant system, tissue bath, and pathological examination. HFCS had increased the levels of malondialdehyde, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, and uric acid and showed significant structural changes in the heart of the rats by histopathology. Those changes were improved by α-LA treatment as it was found in this treatment group. Immunohistochemical expressions of tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased in HFCS group, and these receptor levels were decreased by α-LA treatment. All the tissue bath studies supported these findings. Chronic consumption of HFCS caused several problems like cardiac and endothelial injury of aorta by hyperuricemia and induced oxidative stress and inflammation. α-LA treatment reduced uric acid levels, oxidative stress, and corrected vascular responses. α-LA can be added to cardiac drugs due to its cardiovascular protective effects against the cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage performance of postharvest citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xiaohua; Wang, Jinqiu; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-02-01

    The loss of organic acids during postharvest storage is one of the major factors that reduces the fruit quality and economic value of citrus. Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruits. Molecular evidence has proved that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt plays a key role in citrate metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous GABA treatment on citrate metabolism and storage quality of postharvest citrus fruit. The content of citrate was significantly increased, which was primarily attributed to the inhibition of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Amino acids, including glutamate, alanine, serine, aspartate and proline, were also increased. Moreover, GABA treatment decreased the fruit rot rate. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of energy source ATP were affected by the treatment. Our results indicate that GABA treatment is a very effective approach for postharvest quality maintenance and improvement of storage performance in citrus production.

  12. A clinical pilot study of lignin--ascorbic acid combination treatment of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Blanca Silvia Gonzalez; Yamamoto, Masaji; Utsumi, Katsuaki; Aratsu, Chiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Antiviral drugs as well as natural remedies have been used to reduce symptoms and the rate of recurrences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, a common disease. To evaluate anti-HSV-1 activity of a pine cone lignin and ascorbic acid treatment, a clinical pilot study was carried out. Forty-eight healthy patients of both genders between 4 and 61 years old (mean: 31+/-16 years), with active lesions of HSV-1, took part in the study. According to the HSV-1 stage at the presentation, the patients were classified into the prodromic (16 patients), erythema (11 patients), papule edema (1 patient), vesicle/pustule (13 patients) and ulcer stages (7 patients). One mg of lignin-ascorbic acid tablet or solution was orally administered three times daily for a month. Clinical evaluations were made daily the first week and at least three times a week during the second week after the onset and every six months during the subsequent year to identify recurrence episodes. The patients who began the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment within the first 48 hours of symptom onset did not develop HSV-1 characteristic lesions, whereas those patients who began the treatment later experienced a shorter duration of cold sore lesions and a decrease in the symptoms compared with previous episodes. The majority of the patients reported the reduction in the severity of symptoms and the reduction in the recurrence episodes after the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment compared with previous episodes, suggesting its possible applicability for the prevention and treatment of HSV-1 infection.

  13. Sebaceous hyperplasia: systemic treatment with isotretinoin*

    PubMed Central

    Tagliolatto, Sandra; Santos, Octavio de Oliveira; Alchorne, Maurício Mota de Avelar; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the therapeutic action of isotretinoin in the treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia. During two months, 20 patients with sebaceous hyperplasia took isotretinoin at a dosage of 1mg/kg per day. Their skin lesions were counted and photographed before and after treatment and re-evaluated two years later. The average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions before treatment was 24 per patient. At the end of two months of therapy, the number of lesions decreased to 2 per patient. The statistically analyzed data showed a reduction in the number of lesions following isotretinoin use (p < 0.05). Two years after the end of the treatment, the average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions was 4 per patient. There were no severe side effects. Thus, the data analysis suggests that isotretinoin is a safe and effective drug for treating the disease under study. PMID:25830991

  14. Sebaceous hyperplasia: systemic treatment with isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Tagliolatto, Sandra; Santos Neto, Octavio de Oliveira; Alchorne, Maurício Mota de Avelar; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the therapeutic action of isotretinoin in the treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia. During two months, 20 patients with sebaceous hyperplasia took isotretinoin at a dosage of 1mg/kg per day. Their skin lesions were counted and photographed before and after treatment and re-evaluated two years later. The average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions before treatment was 24 per patient. At the end of two months of therapy, the number of lesions decreased to 2 per patient. The statistically analyzed data showed a reduction in the number of lesions following isotretinoin use (p < 0.05). Two years after the end of the treatment, the average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions was 4 per patient. There were no severe side effects. Thus, the data analysis suggests that isotretinoin is a safe and effective drug for treating the disease under study.

  15. Natural Treatment Systems as Sustainable Ecotechnologies for the Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed. PMID:23878819

  16. Natural treatment systems as sustainable ecotechnologies for the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah; Afsheen, Sumera

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed.

  17. Medical treatment of a grossly enlarged adenomyotic uterus with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.

    PubMed

    Fong, Y F; Singh, K

    1999-09-01

    Adenomyosis is an important cause of menorrhagia. Besides hysterectomy, the treatment options for adenomyosis have been limited. Presented here is the successful treatment of adenomyosis in a woman presenting with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and an enlarging uterus, for whom conservative therapy initiated with mefenamic acid was unsatisfactory. The patient had insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). A marked decrease in uterine size occurred within 12 months of insertion accompanied by resolution of the menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Thus, the LNG-IUS is a viable option and represents a real advance in the treatment of adenomyosis.

  18. Effects of in vitro UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment on membrane fatty acids and activities of antioxidant enzymes in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Punnonen, K.; Jansen, C.T.; Puntala, A.; Ahotupa, M. )

    1991-02-01

    Human Keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were exposed to either plain ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation or to 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment. Lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid in various cellular lipid subclasses and in the culture medium were measured. Both UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induced significant changes in the distribution of arachidonic acid and increased the liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. At 24 h after either UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive material was significantly increased, whereas the amount of conjugated dienes was unaffected. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, were already significantly decreased at 0.5 h after UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment. The enzyme activities were partially restored during the following 24 h incubation. From the present study, we suggest that in keratinocytes both plain UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induce changes in the distribution of membrane fatty acids and cause an impairment in the enzymic defense system against oxidative stress.

  19. Combinations of distinct long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid species for improved dietary treatment against allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Beermann, Christopher; Neumann, Sandy; Fußbroich, Daniela; Zielen, Stefan; Schubert, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with an increasing incidence in Western societies. Exposure to allergens provokes recurrent attacks of breathlessness, airway hyperreactivity, wheezing, and coughing. For the early phase and milder forms of allergic asthma, dietary supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), predominantly fish oil-associated eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 ω-3), and distinct crop oil-derived fatty acids might provide a sustainable treatment strategy, as discussed in several studies. In addition to immune-controlling prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes, specialized proresolving mediators, such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins, are metabolized from different LCPUFA, which actively resolve inflammation. The aim of this review was to discuss the possible synergistic effects of ω-3 and ω-6 LCPUFA combinations concerning rebuilding fatty acid homeostasis in cellular membranes, modifying eicosanoid metabolic pathways, controlling inflammatory processes by focusing on resolving inflammation in the bronchoalveolar system on the cellular level, and helping to control clinical symptoms in bronchial asthma.

  20. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  1. The reliability of an epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system.

    PubMed

    Standridge, Shannon; Faist, Robert; Pestian, John; Glauser, Tracy; Ittenbach, Richard

    2014-10-01

    We developed a content validated computerized epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system to assist clinicians with selecting the best antiepilepsy treatments. Before disseminating our computerized epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system, further rigorous validation testing was necessary. As reliability is a precondition of validity, we verified proof of reliability first. We evaluated the consistency of the epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system in three areas including the preferred antiepilepsy drug choice, the top three recommended choices, and the rank order of the three choices. We demonstrated 100% reliability on 15,000 executions involving a three-step process on five different common pediatric epilepsy syndromes. Evidence for the reliability of the epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system was essential for the long-term viability of the system, and served as a crucial component for the next phase of system validation.

  2. Availability: A Metric for Nucleic Acid Strand Displacement Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement systems have transformative potential in synthetic biology. While powerful examples have been reported in DNA nanotechnology, such systems are plagued by leakage, which limits network stability, sensitivity, and scalability. An approach to mitigate leakage in DNA nanotechnology, which is applicable to synthetic biology, is to introduce mismatches to complementary fuel sequences at key locations. However, this method overlooks nuances in the secondary structure of the fuel and substrate that impact the leakage reaction kinetics in strand displacement systems. In an effort to quantify the impact of secondary structure on leakage, we introduce the concepts of availability and mutual availability and demonstrate their utility for network analysis. Our approach exposes vulnerable locations on the substrate and quantifies the secondary structure of fuel strands. Using these concepts, a 4-fold reduction in leakage has been achieved. The result is a rational design process that efficiently suppresses leakage and provides new insight into dynamic nucleic acid networks. PMID:26875531

  3. Treatment System for Removing Halogenated Compounds from Contaminated Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Yestrebsky, Cherie L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A treatment system and a method for removal of at least one halogenated compound, such as PCBs, found in contaminated systems are provided. The treatment system includes a polymer blanket for receiving at least one non-polar solvent. The halogenated compound permeates into or through a wall of the polymer blanket where it is solubilized with at least one non-polar solvent received by said polymer blanket forming a halogenated solvent mixture. This treatment system and method provides for the in situ removal of halogenated compounds from the contaminated system. In one embodiment, the halogenated solvent mixture is subjected to subsequent processes which destroy and/or degrade the halogenated compound.

  4. Improvement in electrochemical capacitance of activated carbon from scrap tires by nitric acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Dong, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char is treated by concentrated nitric acid (AC-HNO3) and then used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Surface properties and electrochemical capacitances of AC and ACHNO3 are studied. It is found that the morphology and the porous texture for AC and AC-HNO3 have little difference, while the oxygen content increases and functional groups change after the acid treatment. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the AC-HNO3 electrode displays higher specific capacitance, better stability and cycling performance, and lower equivalent series resistance, indicating that AC obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char treated by concentrated nitric acid is applicable for supercapacitors.

  5. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems.

  6. Effect of Acinetobacter glutaminase-asparaginase treatment on free amino acids in mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Holcenberg, J S; Tang, E; Dolowy, W C

    1975-05-01

    Acinetobacter glutaminase-asparaginase (AGA) and Escherichia coli asparaginase were compared for their effects on plasma and tissue levels of amino acids, ammonia, and glutamyl transferase activity in the mouse. Free asparagine was depleted similarly in plasma and tissues by both enzymes. AGA treatment produced partial depletion of glutamine concentrations in muscle, spleen, small intestine, and liver. Brain and kidney glutamine concentrations actually rose with treatment. Despite over 100-fold increase in plasma glutamate, only the kidney showed a substantial increase in free glutamate levels during AGA treatment. Glutamine biosynthesis measured by glutamyl transferase activity showed an appreciable increase only in the kidney. Ammonia levels in tissues and plasma rose 1.3- to 4.3-fold. In general, E. coli asparaginase treatment had much less effect on these measurements than did AGA. The changes in these levels are discussed in relation to sites of possible toxicity and antitumor effects.

  7. Effective treatment of acne scars using pneumatic injection of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tapan; Tevet, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Acne scars remain a challenging condition to treat despite multiple currently available technologies. This study evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of pneumatic injections of Hyaluronic Acid in the treatment of acne scars. Two patients (Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V) with acne scars received two sessions of pneumatic, needleless injections of crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) at 4-week intervals. The treatment response was assessed by comparing pre- and 3-month posttreatment clinical photography. The patients' acne scar grade improved from 2 to 1 in the first case, and 3 to 2 in the second case, based on independent physician assessment. Patient degree of satisfaction was similar to the physicians' assessment. No significant adverse events were noted. We conclude that pneumatic injection technology to deliver HA to the tissue is an effective and safe method for improving acne scars, even in patients with dark complexion.

  8. Structure elucidation of new compounds from acidic treatment of the progestins gestodene and drospirenone.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Diego; Bombieri, Gabriella; Lenna, Roberto; Marchini, Nicoletta; Modica, Emilia; Scala, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    Gestodene acidic treatment afforded a single rearrangement product, namely 13-beta-ethyl-18,19-dinorpregna-4,14,16-trien-3,20-dione 3, which was originated through HCl-catalyzed Rupe rearrangement. Drospirenone acidic treatment yielded two epimeric lactones by addition of HCl to the 6beta,7beta-cyclopropane ring, namely 7beta-(chloromethyl)-15beta,16beta-methylene-3-oxo-17beta-pregn-4-ene-21,17-carbolactone 4 and 7beta-(chloromethyl)-15beta,16beta-methylene-3-oxo-17alpha-pregn-4-ene-21,17-carbolactone 5. The structure of the compounds was assessed by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods.

  9. Review of immediate-release omeprazole for the treatment of gastric acid-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Castell, Donald

    2005-11-01

    Immediate-release omeprazole (Zegerid, Santarus) is the first immediate-release oral proton pump inhibitor to reach the market. As a powder formulation for oral suspension, it is indicated for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive oesophagitis, duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer, and is the only proton pump inhibitor approved for the reduction of risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients. Administration of immediate-release omeprazole at bedtime results in a rapid and sustained elevation of gastric pH, and seems to provide better night time control of gastric acidity than that observed with conventional morning dosing of delayed-release proton pump inhibitors. The immediate-release formulation may provide a good treatment option for patients who require flexible dosing, quick onset of action and nocturnal gastric acid control.

  10. Topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid dermal burns. Further assessment of efficacy using an experimental piq model.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B J; MacKinnon, M A; Knowlden, N F; Billmaier, D J; Derelanko, M J; Rusch, G M; Naas, D J; Dahlgren, R R

    1996-05-01

    Several topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid dermal burns (Zephiran, calcium acetate and magnesium hydroxide antacid soaks, and calcium gluconate gel) were assessed for efficacy in a pig model. Gross appearance and histopathology of treated and untreated burn sites were evaluated. For superficial burns, Zephiran was most effective; calcium acetate, magnesium hydroxide antacid, and calcium gluconate gel were less effective. For deep burns, gross observations showed that calcium acetate and Zephiran were most efficacious, whereas histopathology indicated comparable efficacy of Zephiran, calcium acetate, and calcium gluconate gel for all skin layers. Magnesium hydroxide antacid demonstrated efficacy only for the subdermis. The clinically beneficial effects of both Zephiran and calcium gluconate gel were affirmed. Although results suggest that calcium acetate and magnesium-containing antacids may be beneficial for human hydrofluoric acid dermal burns, these are not established clinical treatments.

  11. Effects of heat treatment on chitosan nanocomposite film reinforced with nanocrystalline cellulose and tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Rubentheren, V; Ward, Thomas A; Chee, Ching Yern; Nair, Praveena; Salami, Erfan; Fearday, Christopher

    2016-04-20

    This article presents an analysis of the influence of heat treatment on chitosan nanocomposite film. A series of samples comprising: pure chitosan film, chitosan film embedded with nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), chitosan film crosslinked with tannic acid and chitosan film with a blend of NCC and tannic acid were heat treated using a convection oven. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction test (XRD) shows the changes in chemical interaction of the heat treated films. The heat treated films show significant improvements in moisture absorption. Tensile strength and Young's Modulus were increased up to 7MPa and 259MPa, respectively when the samples were subjected to heat treatment. For the NCC particles, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to inspect the structural properties of cellulose particle in suspension form.

  12. Tranexamic acid: a review of its use in the treatment of hyperfibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2012-03-26

    Tranexamic acid, a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine, is an antifibrinolytic agent that acts by binding to plasminogen and blocking the interaction of plasmin(ogen) with fibrin, thereby preventing dissolution of the fibrin clot. Tranexamic acid (Transamin®) is indicated in Japan for use in certain conditions with abnormal bleeding or bleeding tendencies in which local or systemic hyperfibrinolysis is considered to be involved. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of tranexamic acid in conditions amenable to antifibrinolytic therapy and briefly overviews the pharmacological properties of the drug. In large, randomized controlled trials, tranexamic acid generally significantly reduced perioperative blood loss compared with placebo in a variety of surgical procedures, including cardiac surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, total hip and knee replacement and prostatectomy. In many instances, tranexamic acid also reduced transfusion requirements associated with surgery. It also reduced blood loss in gynaecological bleeding disorders, such as heavy menstrual bleeding, postpartum haemorrhage and bleeding irregularities caused by contraceptive implants. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced all-cause mortality and death due to bleeding in trauma patients with significant bleeding, particularly when administered early after injury. It was also effective in traumatic hyphaema, gastrointestinal bleeding and hereditary angioneurotic oedema. While it reduces rebleeding in subarachnoid haemorrhage, it may increase ischaemic complications. Pharmacoeconomic analyses predicted that tranexamic acid use in surgery and trauma would be very cost effective and potentially life saving. In direct comparisons with other marketed agents, tranexamic acid was at least as effective as ε-aminocaproic acid and more effective than desmopressin in surgical procedures. It was more effective than desmopressin, etamsylate, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid and

  13. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  14. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  15. Direct solid surface fluorescence spectroscopy of standard chemicals and humic acid in ternary system.

    PubMed

    Mounier, S; Nicolodelli, G; Redon, R; Milori, D M B P

    2017-04-15

    The front face fluorescence spectroscopy is often used to quantify chemicals in well-known matrices as it is a rapid and powerful technique, with no sample preparation. However it was not used to investigate extracted organic matter like humic substances. This work aims to fully investigate for the first time front face fluorescence spectroscopy response of a ternary system including boric acid, tryptophan and humic substances, and two binaries system containing quinine sulfate or humic substance in boric acid. Pure chemicals, boric acid, tryptophan, quinine sulfate and humic acid were mixed together in solid pellet at different contents from 0 to 100% in mass. The measurement of excitation emission matrix of fluorescence (3D fluorescence) and laser induced fluorescence were then done in the front face mode. Fluorescence matrices were decomposed using the CP/PARAFAC tools after scattering treatments. Results show that for 3D fluorescence there is no specific component for tryptophan and quinine sulfate, and that humic substances lead to a strong extinction effect for mixture containing quinine sulfate. Laser induced fluorescence gives a very good but non-specific related response for both quinine sulfate and tryptophan. No humic substances fluorescence response was found, but extinction effect is observed as for 3D fluorescence. This effect is stronger for quinine sulfate than for tryptophan. These responses were modeled using a simple absorbance versus emission model.

  16. Non-Viral Nucleic Acid Delivery Strategies to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Tan, James-Kevin Y.; Sellers, Drew L.; Pham, Binhan; Pun, Suzie H.; Horner, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    With an increased prevalence and understanding of central nervous system (CNS) injuries and neurological disorders, nucleic acid therapies are gaining promise as a way to regenerate lost neurons or halt disease progression. While more viral vectors have been used clinically as tools for gene delivery, non-viral vectors are gaining interest due to lower safety concerns and the ability to deliver all types of nucleic acids. Nevertheless, there are still a number of barriers to nucleic acid delivery. In this focused review, we explore the in vivo challenges hindering non-viral nucleic acid delivery to the CNS and the strategies and vehicles used to overcome them. Advantages and disadvantages of different routes of administration including: systemic injection, cerebrospinal fluid injection, intraparenchymal injection and peripheral administration are discussed. Non-viral vehicles and treatment strategies that have overcome delivery barriers and demonstrated in vivo gene transfer to the CNS are presented. These approaches can be used as guidelines in developing synthetic gene delivery vectors for CNS applications and will ultimately bring non-viral vectors closer to clinical application. PMID:27847462

  17. Direct solid surface fluorescence spectroscopy of standard chemicals and humic acid in ternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounier, S.; Nicolodelli, G.; Redon, R.; Milori, D. M. B. P.

    2017-04-01

    The front face fluorescence spectroscopy is often used to quantify chemicals in well-known matrices as it is a rapid and powerful technique, with no sample preparation. However it was not used to investigate extracted organic matter like humic substances. This work aims to fully investigate for the first time front face fluorescence spectroscopy response of a ternary system including boric acid, tryptophan and humic substances, and two binaries system containing quinine sulfate or humic substance in boric acid. Pure chemicals, boric acid, tryptophan, quinine sulfate and humic acid were mixed together in solid pellet at different contents from 0 to 100% in mass. The measurement of excitation emission matrix of fluorescence (3D fluorescence) and laser induced fluorescence were then done in the front face mode. Fluorescence matrices were decomposed using the CP/PARAFAC tools after scattering treatments. Results show that for 3D fluorescence there is no specific component for tryptophan and quinine sulfate, and that humic substances lead to a strong extinction effect for mixture containing quinine sulfate. Laser induced fluorescence gives a very good but non-specific related response for both quinine sulfate and tryptophan. No humic substances fluorescence response was found, but extinction effect is observed as for 3D fluorescence. This effect is stronger for quinine sulfate than for tryptophan. These responses were modeled using a simple absorbance versus emission model.

  18. α-Lipoic acid treatment prevents cystine urolithiasis in a mouse model of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Zee, Tiffany; Bose, Neelanjan; Zee, Jarcy; Beck, Jennifer N; Yang, See; Parihar, Jaspreet; Yang, Min; Damodar, Sruthi; Hall, David; O'Leary, Monique N; Ramanathan, Arvind; Gerona, Roy R; Killilea, David W; Chi, Thomas; Tischfield, Jay; Sahota, Amrik; Kahn, Arnold; Stoller, Marshall L; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2017-03-01

    Cystinuria is an incompletely dominant disorder characterized by defective urinary cystine reabsorption that results in the formation of cystine-based urinary stones. Current treatment options are limited in their effectiveness at preventing stone recurrence and are often poorly tolerated. We report that the nutritional supplement α-lipoic acid inhibits cystine stone formation in the Slc3a1(-/-) mouse model of cystinuria by increasing the solubility of urinary cystine. These findings identify a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical treatment of cystinuria.

  19. Lipogenesis and lipid peroxidation in rat testes after long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mašek, T; Starčević, K

    2016-06-30

    We studied the influence of long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water on the fatty acid profile and lipid peroxidation in rat testes. Male Wistar rats were supplemented with sucrose (30% w/v) or with sucrose and tannic acid (sucrose 30% w/v, tannic acid 0.1% w/v) in drinking water. The treatment with sucrose elevated blood glucose levels in the plasma (p < .05) and decreased the testis weight (p < .05) and testis index (p < .05) of the rats. Sucrose treatment increased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and C22:6n3, and decreased n6 fatty acids in testis tissue. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased after sucrose administration in plasma (p < .05) and testis tissue (p < .01). The addition of tannic acid led to the decrease in lipid peroxidation in the plasma (p < .05) and testis (p < .05), a further increase in MUFA and decrease in n6 fatty acids. In conclusion, sucrose significantly altered the testis fatty acid profile with an increase in MUFA and C22:6n3, and a decrease in n6 fatty acids. Tannic acid attenuated oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia, but it did not improve pathological changes in the fatty acid composition of the testis.

  20. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  1. Influence of Fenofibrate Treatment on Triacylglycerides, Diacylglycerides and Fatty Acids in Fructose Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation. PMID:25198467

  2. Riluzole protects from motor deficits and striatal degeneration produced by systemic 3-nitropropionic acid intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Guyot, M C; Palfi, S; Stutzmann, J M; Mazière, M; Hantraye, P; Brouillet, E

    1997-11-01

    The putative neuroprotective effect of riluzole was investigated in a rat model of progressive striatal neurodegeneration induced by prolonged treatment (three weeks, intraperitoneal) with 3-nitropropionic acid, an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. Quantitative analysis of motor behaviour indicated a significant protective effect (60%) of riluzole (8 mg/kg/day) on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced motor deficits as assessed using two independent motor tests. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of 3-nitropropionic acid-induced lesions indicated a significant 84% decrease in the volume of striatal damage produced by 3-nitropropionic acid, the neuroprotective effect apparently being more pronounced in the posterior striatum and pallidum. In addition, it was checked that this neuroprotective effect of riluzole against systemic 3-nitropropionic acid did not result from a decreased bioavailability of the neurotoxin or a direct action of riluzole on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. We found that riluzole significantly decreased by 48% the size of striatal lesions produced by stereotaxic intrastriatal injection of malonate, a reversible succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor. Furthermore, the inhibition of cortical and striatal succinate dehydrogenase activity induced by systemic 3-nitropropionic acid was left unchanged by riluzole administration. The present results, consistent with a beneficial effect of riluzole in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, suggest that this compound may be useful in the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, C.R.; Schwinkendorf, W.E. |; Bechtold, T.E.

    1997-10-01

    Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE`s mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements.

  4. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  5. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3).

  6. Application of alkaline treatment for sludge decrement and humic acid recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Jin, Yiying; Nie, Yongfeng

    2009-12-01

    A new method was introduced to reduce waste activated sludge and extract humic acid for liquid fertilizer. Sludge was disintegrated with NaOH (0.4 g/g dry solid, 8 h) and then centrifuged to obtain the supernatant. The residual sludge was then dewatered, while the supernatant was used to extract humic acid with an ultrafiltration membrane. The results showed that the alkaline treatment dissolved more than half of the sludge organic matter, which was composed of 24% humic acid by mass. After the supernatant was concentrated 20 times using a membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 1000, the retentate contained 94.5% of the dissolved organics and could be used to produce humic acid fertilizer. Additionally, only 26% of the NaOH was consumed and the residual NaOH in the permeate flux could be reused. Due to the removal of water and organics, the dewatered sludge could be reduced by 60% when compared to samples that did not receive the alkaline treatment.

  7. Removal of fluoride in aqueous solution by adsorption on acid activated water treatment sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinitnantharat, Soydoa; Kositchaiyong, Sriwilai; Chiarakorn, Siriluk

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the use of a pellet of adsorbent made from water treatment sludge (S) and acid activated water treatment sludge (SH) for removal of fluoride in the batch equilibration technique. The influence of pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and effect of other ions were employed to find out the feasibility of acid activated adsorbent to remove fluoride to the permissible concentration of 0.7 mg/L. The results from the adsorption isotherm followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models and the highest fluoride removal was found for adsorbent activated with acetic acid at 2.0 mol/L. The optimum adsorbent dosage was found at 40 g/L, 0.01 mol/L acid activated adsorbent which was able to adsorb fluoride from 10 down to 0.11 mg/L. The adsorption capacity was decreased when the temperature increased. This revealed that the adsorption of fluoride on SH was exothermic. In the presence of nitrate and carbonate ions in the aqueous solution, fluoride removal efficiency of SH decreased from 94.4% to 86.6% and 90.8%, respectively. However, there is no significant effect in the presence of sulfate and chloride ions.

  8. Bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) system for nucleic acid quantification assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassibi, Arjang; Lee, Thomas H.; Davis, Ronald W.; Pourmand, Nader

    2003-07-01

    A new label-free methodology for nucleic acid quantification has been developed where the number of pyrophosphate molecules (PPi) released during polymerization of the target nucleic acid is counted and correlated to DNA copy number. The technique uses the enzymatic complex of ATP-sulfurylase and firefly luciferase to generate photons from PPi. An enzymatic unity gain positive feedback is also implemented to regenerate the photon generation process and compensate any decay in light intensity by self regulation. Due to this positive feedback, the total number of photons generated by the bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) can potentially be orders of magnitude higher than typical chemiluminescent processes. A system level kinetic model that incorporates the effects of contaminations and detector noise was used to show that the photon generation process is in fact steady and also proportional to the nucleic acid quantity. Here we show that BRC is capable of detecting quantities of DNA as low as 1 amol (10-18 mole) in 40μlit aqueous solutions, and this enzymatic assay has a controllable dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. The sensitivity of this technology, due to the excess number of photons generated by the regenerative cycle, is not constrained by detector performance, but rather by possible PPi or ATP (adenosine triphosphate) contamination, or background bioluminescence of the enzymatic complex.

  9. Citric acid treatment of post operative wound infections in HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Nagoba, Basavraj; Patil Dawale, Chandrakala; Raju, Reena; Wadher, Bharat; Chidrawar, Shruti; Selkar, Sohan; Suryawanshi, Namdev

    2014-02-01

    The normal cellular immunity is required for normal wound healing. The HIV infection affects wound healing adversely. Wound infections in HIV/AIDS patients are difficult to manage because of compromised immunity. The result is delayed wound healing and increased susceptibility to wound infection. Here we report two cases of HIV positive patients who had developed the post operative wound gape, not responding to the conventional treatment, treated simply by local application of three percent citric acid ointment.

  10. Symptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection in the setting of severe nitroimidazole allergy: successful treatment with boric acid.

    PubMed

    Muzny, Christina; Barnes, Arti; Mena, Leandro

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a patient with symptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection who was unable to tolerate nitroimidazole drugs because of severe hypersensitivity, for which desensitisation was not possible. Use of intravaginal clotrimazole, intravaginal paromomycin, intravaginal furazolidone, povidone-iodine douches, and oral nitazoxanide were unsuccessful in eradicating the patient's T. vaginalis infection. A 2-month course of intravaginal topical boric acid subsequently achieved a complete symptomatic cure and the patient remained T. vaginalis wet prep- and culture-negative 60 days after treatment.

  11. Treatment of zinc-rich acid mine water in low residence time bioreactors incorporating waste shells and methanol dosing.

    PubMed

    Mayes, W M; Davis, J; Silva, V; Jarvis, A P

    2011-10-15

    Bioreactors utilising bacterially mediated sulphate reduction (BSR) have been widely tested for treating metal-rich waters, but sustained treatment of mobile metals (e.g. Zn) can be difficult to achieve in short residence time systems. Data are presented providing an assessment of alkalinity generating media (shells or limestone) and modes of metal removal in bioreactors receiving a synthetic acidic metal mine discharge (pH 2.7, Zn 15 mg/L, SO(4)(2-) 200mg/L, net acidity 103 mg/L as CaCO(3)) subject to methanol dosing. In addition to alkalinity generating media (50%, v.v.), the columns comprised an organic matrix of softwood chippings (30%), manure (10%) and anaerobic digested sludge (10%). The column tests showed sustained alkalinity generation, which was significantly better in shell treatments. The first column in each treatment was effective throughout the 422 days in removing >99% of the dissolved Pb and Cu, and effective for four months in removing 99% of the dissolved Zn (residence time: 12-14 h). Methanol was added to the feedstock after Zn breakthrough and prompted almost complete removal of dissolved Zn alongside improved alkalinity generation and sulphate attenuation. While there was geochemical evidence for BSR, sequential extraction of substrates suggests that the bulk (67-80%) of removed Zn was associated with Fe-Mn oxide fractions.

  12. Oleic acid stimulates system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Gaccioli, Francesca; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Jones, Helen N; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-03-01

    Obese women have an increased risk to deliver large babies. However, the mechanisms underlying fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies are not well understood. Obese pregnant women typically have elevated circulating lipid levels. We tested the hypothesis that fatty acids stimulate placental amino acid transport, mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Circulating NEFA levels and placental TLR4 expression were assessed in women with varying prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). The effects of oleic acid on system A and system L amino acid transport, and on the activation of the mTOR (4EBP1, S6K1, rpS6), TLR4 (IĸB, JNK, p38 MAPK), and STAT3 signaling pathways were determined in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. Maternal circulating NEFAs (n = 33), but not placental TLR4 mRNA expression (n = 16), correlated positively with BMI (P < 0.05). Oleic acid increased trophoblast JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR activity was unaffected. Furthermore, oleic acid doubled trophoblast system A activity (P < 0.05), without affecting system L activity. siRNA-mediated silencing of TLR4 expression prevented the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on system A activity. Our data suggest that maternal fatty acids can increase placental nutrient transport via TLR4, thereby potentially affecting fetal growth.

  13. Energy from aquatic plant wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemma sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 days to an average of 23 days and produced 0.14-0.28 cu m CH4/kg (dry weight) (2.3-4.5 cu ft/lb) from mature filters. The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimum balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  14. Instrumentation and Automation of Wastewater Collection and Treatment Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Joseph F.; Cummins, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the use of instrumentation and automation of wastewater treatment systems, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes automatic control systems and cost effectiveness of automation of wastewater treatment. A list of 115 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  16. Imatinib in the treatment of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Sindhu; Petersen, Jeffrey; Jacobs, Charlotte; Fiorentino, David; Doeden, Katherine; Lafayette, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a disabling progressive condition that is being reported with increased frequency in patients with kidney disease. Treatment is extremely limited and largely supportive. We report a case of severe nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in a dialysis patient exposed to multiple doses of gadolinium who improved clinically and histologically with treatment with imatinib.

  17. Effect of acoustically assisted treatments on vitamins, antioxidant activity, organic acids and drying kinetics of pineapple.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Óscar; Gomes, Wesley; Rodrigues, Sueli; Fernandes, Fabiano A N

    2017-03-01

    The effects of the application of an acoustically assisted treatment on the vitamins (C, B1, B2, B3, and B5), the antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP), the polyphenol and flavonoid contents, the organic acid contents (citric and malic) and drying kinetics of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. Perola) have been studied. Treatments were carried out using two different soaking media: distilled water and pineapple juice at 30°C during 10, 20 and 30min without and with acoustic assistance (23.2W/L). After treatment, samples were dried at 60°C and 0.5m/s during 8h. The quality parameters were determined in untreated, treated, and treated-dried samples. The acoustic assistance promoted an increment of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5, total flavonoid and malic acid contents, and a reduction of vitamin C, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and citric acid content in treated samples. However, in all treated-dried samples the final content of those quality parameters was higher than the observed in the untreated dried sample.

  18. Efficacy of iopanoic acid for treatment of spontaneous hyperthyroidism in cats.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Alexander E; Panciera, David L

    2011-06-01

    Iopanoic acid is an iodine containing oral cholecystographic agent that has been used to treat hyperthyroidism in humans and has recently been evaluated in an experimental model of feline hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of iopanoic acid in cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Eleven cats were included in the study. Eight were treated initially with 50mg orally q 12h and three were treated with 100mg orally q 12h. Prior to treatment (baseline) and at 2, 4, and 12 weeks of treatment, owner questionnaires, physical exams, complete blood count, biochemistry analyses, and T(3) and T(4) concentrations were evaluated. The mean serum T(3) concentration decreased with treatment at all time periods compared to baseline. Mean T(4) concentrations were increased at weeks 4 and 12 compared to baseline. Five cats had a partial response during the initial 4 weeks of therapy, but the effects were transient and no significant improvements in clinical signs or physical exam findings were noted at any time period. Results suggest that iopanoic acid may be beneficial for acute management of thyrotoxicosis in some cats, but is not suitable for long-term management.

  19. Geochemical and stable isotopic constraints on the generation and passive treatment of acidic, Fe-SO4 rich waters.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Romy; Aplin, Andrew C; Boyce, Adrian J; Jarvis, Adam P

    2012-03-15

    Reducing and Alkalinity Producing Systems (RAPS) remediate net-acidic metalliferous mine drainage by creating anoxic conditions in which bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) raises alkalinity and drives the precipitation of iron and other chalcophilic elements as sulfides. We report chemical and stable isotopic data from a study monitoring the biogeochemical processes involved in the generation of mine waters and their remediation by two RAPS. Sulfur isotopes show that sulfate in all mine waters has a common source (pyrite oxidation), whilst oxygen isotopes show that oxidation of pyritic sulfur is mediated by Fe(III)(aq). The isotopic composition of dissolved sulfide, combined with the sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate in RAPS effluents, proves BSR and details its dual isotope systematics. The occurrence and isotopic composition of solid phase iron sulfides indicate the removal of reduced sulfur within the RAPS, with significant amounts of elemental sulfur indicating reoxidation steps. However, only 0 to 9% of solid phase iron occurs as Fe sulfides, with approximately 70% of the removed iron occurs as Fe(III) (hydr)oxides. Some of the (hydr)oxide is supplied to the wetland as solids and is simply filtered by the wetland substrate, playing no role in alkalinity generation or proton removal. However, the majority of iron is supplied as dissolved Fe(II), indicating that acid generating oxidation and hydrolysis reactions dominate iron removal. The overall contribution of BSR to the sulfur geochemistry in the RAPS is limited and sulfate retention is dominated by sulfate precipitation, comparable to aerobic treatment systems, and show that the proton acidity resulting from iron oxidation and hydrolysis must be subsequently neutralised by calcite dissolution and/or BSR deeper in the RAPS sediments. BSR is not as important as previously thought for metal removal in RAPS. The results have practical consequences for the design, treatment performance and long

  20. An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0629 TITLE: An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Igor P. Dmitriev...Aug 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1...epithelial cells, the origin of most human cancers. However, realization of the full potential of Ad vectors for targeted cancer treatment is currently

  1. Population dynamics of iron-oxidizing communities in pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine waters.

    PubMed

    Heinzel, Elke; Janneck, Eberhard; Glombitza, Franz; Schlömann, Michael; Seifert, Jana

    2009-08-15

    The iron-oxidizing microbial community in two pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine water was monitored to investigate the influence of different process parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and retention time on the stability of the system to evaluate the applicability of this treatment technology on an industrial scale. The dynamics of the microbial populations were followed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) over a period of several months. For a more precise quantification, two TaqMan assays specific for the two prominent groups were developed and the relative abundance of these taxa in the iron-oxidizing community was verified by real-time PCR. The investigations revealed that the iron-oxidizing community was clearly dominated by two groups of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with the poorly known and not yet recognized species "Ferrovum myxofaciens" and with strains related to Gallionella ferruginea, respectively. These taxa dominated the microbial community during the whole investigation period and accelerated the oxidation of ferrous iron despite the changing characteristics of mine waters flowing into the plants. Thus, it is assumed that the treatment technology can also be applied to other mine sites and that these organisms play a crucial role in such treatment systems.

  2. Current Review of Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Prevention and Treatment of Colitis Using Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Miyoshi, Anderson; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by recurrent inflammation that requires lifelong treatments. Probiotic microorganisms appear as an alternative for these patients; however, probiotic characteristics are strain dependent and each probiotic needs to be tested to understand the underlining mechanisms involved in their beneficial properties. Genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was also described as a tool for new IBD treatments. The first part of this review shows different genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB) described for IBD treatment since 2000. Then, the two principally studied strategies are discussed (i) GM-LAB producing antioxidant enzymes and (ii) GM-LAB producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Different delivery systems, including protein delivery and DNA delivery, will also be discussed. Studies show the efficacy of GM-LAB (using different expression systems) for the prevention and treatment of IBD, highlighting the importance of the bacterial strain selection (with anti-inflammatory innate properties) as a promising alternative. These microorganisms could be used in the near future for the development of therapeutic products with anti-inflammatory properties that can improve the quality of life of IBD patients. PMID:26064086

  3. Population dynamics of iron-oxidizing communities in pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Elke Heinzel; Eberhard Janneck; Franz Glombitza; Michael Schlmann; Jana Seifert

    2009-08-15

    The iron-oxidizing microbial community in two pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine water was monitored to investigate the influence of different process parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and retention time on the stability of the system to evaluate the applicability of this treatment technology on an industrial scale. The dynamics of the microbial populations were followed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) over a period of several months. For a more precise quantification, two TaqMan assays specific for the two prominent groups were developed and the relative abundance of these taxa in the iron-oxidizing community was verified by real-time PCR. The investigations revealed that the iron-oxidizing community was clearly dominated by two groups of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with the poorly known and not yet recognized species 'Ferrovum myxofaciens' and with strains related to Gallionella ferruginea, respectively. These taxa dominated the microbial community during the whole investigation period and accelerated the oxidation of ferrous iron despite the changing characteristics of mine waters flowing into the plants. Thus, it is assumed that the treatment technology can also be applied to other mine sites and that these organisms play a crucial role in such treatment systems. 32 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab.

  4. Resistance to valproic acid as predictor of treatment resistance in genetic generalized epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Gesche, Joanna; Khanevski, Marina; Solberg, Carl; Beier, Christoph Patrick

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at defining clinical predictors of drug resistance in adults with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) who were treated with a broad spectrum of antiepileptic drugs. Of a cohort of 137 unselected adult GGE patients with long-term follow up, clinical and demographic data, putative prognostic factors (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, electroencephalography [EEG]), treatment response, and data indicative of social status were collected. Fifty-eight patients had seizures within the past year. Thirty-three patients met the definition of "drug-resistant epilepsy" according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition. Psychiatric comorbidities, age at first diagnosis, and absences were associated with worse seizure control, whereas focal changes in EEG remained without prognostic impact. Resistance to valproic acid was the most important prognostic factor for refractory seizures. Resistance to valproic acid had a specificity of 100% to identify patients with drug resistance and correlated strongly with bad social outcome and seizure burden. Conversely, 21.2% of all patients with refractory seizures according to the ILAE definition later became seizure free (mainly with valproic acid). Our data suggest that "drug resistant GGE" must not be declared unless patients were adequately treated with valproic acid, and advocate resistance to valproic acid as a new clinical biomarker for drug-resistant GGE. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  5. Effect of Acid Treatment of Plant Cuticles on Sorption of Selected Auxins 1

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Warren E.; Bukovac, Martin J.

    1987-01-01

    Sorption characteristics of 2-(1-naphthyl)acetic acid (NAA), 2-(1-naphthyl)acetamide (NAAm), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were determined for cuticles enzymically isolated from mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Sprinter) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit. Sorption equilibrium for NAA and 2,4-D by tomato cuticular membranes (CM) and dewaxed cuticular membranes (DCM) was achieved within 24 hours at 25°C. The average K (partition coefficient) values for NAA in tomato CM and DCM were 166 and 204, respectively, whereas the corresponding K values for 2,4-D were 292 and 383, respectively. Sorption equilibrium for 2,4-D and NAA in pepper cuticles was not achieved after 18 and 63 days, respectively. Sorption equilibrium for NAAm in tomato and pepper CM and DCM was attained within 48 hours. Acid pretreatment (2.0 n HCl, 10 minutes) had no effect on NAA, 2,4-D, or NAAm sorption by tomato CM and DCM, or on NAAm sorption by pepper CM and DCM. Acid pretreatment of pepper CM and DCM led to slightly lower KpH (apparent partition coefficient) values for both NAA and 2,4-D. More significantly, sorption equilibrium for NAA and 2,4-D in pepper CM and DCM was achieved within 24 hours after acid treatment. PMID:16665302

  6. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  7. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management

    SciTech Connect

    Danny M. McDonald; John A. Webb; Jeff Taylor

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by {approximately} 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is {approximately}2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, {approximately}4.5, {approximately}5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Danny M; Webb, John A; Taylor, Jeff

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is approximately 2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, approximately 4.5, approximately 5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack.

  9. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage. PMID:26740572

  10. Kinetics of browning and correlations between browning degree and pyrazine compounds in l-ascorbic acid/acidic amino acid model systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Nong; Zhou, Yong-Yan; Yang, Yi-Ni

    2017-04-15

    The kinetics of browning and the correlation between browning products (BPs) and pyrazine compounds were investigated by heating equimolar l-ascorbic acid (ASA)/acidic amino acids under weak alkaline conditions at 120-150°C for 10-120min. The formations of BPs and pyrazine compounds from the reaction were monitored by UV-vis and SPME-GC-FID, respectively. The formation of BPs in both ASA/l-glutamic acid and ASA/l-aspartic acid model reaction systems followed zero order reaction kinetics with activation energies (Ea) of 90.13 and 93.38kJ/mol, respectively. ASA/l-aspartic acid browned at a slightly higher rate than ASA/l-glutamic acid. The total concentration of pyrazine compounds was highly and positively correlated with that of BPs. Based on the observed kinetic data, the formation mechanisms of BPs and pyrazine compounds were proposed.

  11. Mobilization of Cr(VI) from chromite ore processing residue through acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Tinjum, James M; Benson, Craig H; Edil, Tuncer B

    2008-02-25

    Batch leaching studies on chromite ore processing residue (COPR) were performed using acids to investigate leaching of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), with respect to particle size, reaction time, and type of acid (HNO(3) and H(2)SO(4)). Aqueous Cr(VI) is maximized at approximately 0.04 mol Cr(VI) per kg of dry COPR at pH 7.6-8.1. Cr(VI) mobilized more slowly for larger particles, and the pH increased with time and increased more rapidly for smaller particles, suggesting that rate limitations occur in the solid phase. With H(2)SO(4), the pH stabilized at a higher value (8.8 for H(2)SO(4) vs. 8.0 for HNO(3)) and more rapidly (16 h vs. 30 h), and the differences in pH for different particle sizes were smaller. The acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of COPR is very large (8 mol HNO(3) per kg of dry COPR for a stable eluate pH of 7.5). Changes to the elemental and mineralogical composition and distribution in COPR particles after mixing with acid indicate that Cr(VI)-bearing solids dissolved. However, concentrations of Cr(VI) >2800 mg kg(-1) (>50% of the pre-treatment concentration) were still found after mixing with acid, regardless of the particle size, reaction time, or type of acid used. The residual Cr(VI) appears to be partially associated with poorly-ordered Fe and Al oxyhydroxides that precipitated in the interstitial areas of COPR particles. Remediation strategies that use HNO(3) or H(2)SO(4) to neutralize COPR or to maximize Cr(VI) in solution are likely to require extensive amounts of acid, may not mobilize all of the Cr(VI), and may require extended contact time, even under well-mixed conditions.

  12. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  13. Effects of acid pre-treatment on bio-hydrogen production and microbial communities during dark fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Joo; Song, Ji-Hyeon; Hwang, Sun-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Optimal conditions for acid pre-treatment were investigated for the enrichment of hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) in a mixed culture using three strong acids: HCl, HNO(3), and H2SO4 x HCl was selected as a suitable acid for the enrichment of HPB in the fermentation process. The volume of bio-hydrogen produced when the mixed culture was pre-treated using HCl at pH 2 was 3.2 times higher than that obtained without acid pre-treatment. Changes in the microbial community during acid pre-treatment were monitored using images obtained by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method and the Live/Dead cell viability test. The tests clearly indicated that the Clostridium species of cluster I were the predominant strains involved in bio-H(2) fermentation, and could be selectively enriched by HCl pre-treatment.

  14. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  19. Status of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.

    1987-01-01

    A technology development and commercial feasibility evaluation is presented for phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) applicable to electric utility operations. The correction of identified design deficiencies in the control card and water treatment subsystems is projected to be able to substantially increase average powerplant availability from the 63 percent achieved in recent field tests of a PAFC system. Current development work is proceeding under NASA research contracts at the output levels of a multimegawatt facility for electric utility use, a multikilowatt on-site integrated energy generation facility, and advanced electrocatalysts applicable to PAFCs.

  20. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p